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14

14: Probability

Probability

1. [STPM ]

1

1

2

Events A and B are such that P(A) = and P(B) = and P[(A B 0 ) (A0 B)] = . Find P(A B) and

5

4

6

determine if events A and B are independent.

[5 marks]

[Answer :

29

]

120

2. [STPM ]

A factory producing electronic equipments obtains 40% of the electronic components from supplier A, 25% from

supplier B, and 35% from supplier C. The percentages of defective electronic components supplied by supplier

A, B and C are respectively 5%, 2% and 1%.

(a) Find the probability that an electronic component selected randomly from overall supply to the factory, is

defective.

[6 marks]

(b) Find the probability, from two electronic components selected randomly from the overall supply as received

by the factory,

i. at least one electronic component is defective.

ii. both the electronic components are defective and are supplied by supplier A.

[5 marks]

[4 marks]

3. [STPM ]

A factory producing bulbs uses three types of machines A, B and C which respectively contribute 25%, 35% and

40% of the bulbs produced by the factory. 5% of the bulbs produced by machine A, 4% by machine B, and 2%

by machine C are found to be defective. Find the probability that a randomly selected bulb, produced by the

factory is defective.

[5 marks]

[Answer : 0.0345]

4. [STPM ]

A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.6, and P(A B) = 0.85. Find P(A B), P(A B 0 ),

P(A0 B) and P(A0 B 0 ).

[6 marks]

[Answer : 0.25 , 0.25 , 0.35 , 0.75]

5. [STPM ]

As many as 35 out of 40 light bulbs in a box are in good conditions. Two light bulbs are randomly selected, one

after another, from the box. Find the probability that only one of the two bulbs selected is in good conditions

(a) if the first selected bulb is replaced in the box.

[2 marks]

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a)

7

35

; (b)

]

32

156

6. [STPM ]

The probability that Mimi taking tuition for Statistics is 0.3. If Mimi takes tuition, the probability that she will

pass the Statistics paper is 0.8. If Mimi does not take tuition, the probability that she will pass the Statistics

paper is 0.6.

(a) Find the probability that Mimi passes the Statistics paper.

[3 marks]

(b) Find the probability that Mimi takes tuition if she passes her Statistics paper.

[3 marks]

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

7. [STPM ]

One in a thousand foreign workers is known to have a certain disease. Result from a routine screening of a foreign

worker may be positive or negative. A positive result suggests that the worker has the disease, but the test is

not perfect. If a foreign worker has the disease, the probability of a negative result is 0.02. If a foreign worker

does not have the disease, the probability of a positive result is 0.01. If the result of a test on a foreign worker

is positive, find the probability that this worker has the disease. Comment on the answer you obtain. [6 marks]

[Answer : 0.0893]

8. [STPM ]

Among 100 students in a school, 40 like lemons, 62 like mangosteens, 56 like nutmegs, 18 like lemons and nutmegs,

15 like lemons and mangosteens, 10 like all the three fruits, and 11 do not like any of the three fruits. Find the

probability that

(a) a student chosen at random likes only lemons,

[3 marks]

(b) a student chosen at random likes mangosteens and nutmegs but does not like lemons.

[4 marks]

[Answer : (a)

17

; (b) 0.36]

100

2

1

4

, P(B) = , P[(A B 0 ) (A0 B)] = , find P(A B).

7

5

3

[3 marks]

9. [STPM ]

If A and B are two events with P(A) =

[Answer :

67

]

210

10. [STPM ]

A construction contractor orders sand, cement, and bricks from three different suppliers. The probabilities that

the sand, cement, and bricks are sent to the project site on or before the agreed date are 0.80, 0.90, and 0.95

respectively. Find the probability that

(a) all supplies delivered to the project site are not late,

[2 marks]

(b) at most one kind of supply delivered to the project site is late.

[3 marks]

11. [STPM ]

Three balls are selected at random from one blue ball, three red balls and six white balls. Find the probability

that all the three balls selected are of the same color.

[3 marks]

[Answer :

7

]

40

12. [STPM ]

In a university, 48% of the students are females and 17.5% of the students are taking business programs. 4.7%

of the university students are female students who study business programs. A student is selected randomly.

Events A and B are defined as follows:

A: A female student of the university is selected.

B: A student of the university, who studies the business program is selected.

(a) Determine whether A and B are mutually exclusive and whether A and B are independent.

[3 marks]

[2 marks]

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

13. [STPM ]

A factory has 36 male workers and 64 female workers, with 10 male workers earning less than RM1000.00 a

month and 17 female workers earning at least RM1000.00 a month. At the end of the year, workers earning less

than RM1000.00 are given a bonus of RM1000.00 whereas the others receive a months salary.

(a) If two workers are randomly chosen, find the probability that exactly one worker receives a bonus of one

months salary.

[3 marks]

(b) If a male worker and a female worker are randomly chosen, find the probability that exactly one worker

receives a bonus of one months salary.

[3 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.495 ; (b) 0.604]

14. [STPM ]

The following table, based on a survey, shows the numbers of male and female viewers who prefer either documentary or drama programmes on television.

Male

Female

Documentary

96

45

Drama

24

85

A television viewer involved in the survey is selected at random. A is the event that a female viewer is selected,

and B is the event that a viewer prefers documentary programmes.

(a) Find P(A B) and P(A B).

[4 marks]

(b) Determine whether A and B are independent and whether A and B are mutually exclusive.

[3 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.180 , 0.904 ; (b) Not mutually exclusive. Not independent.]

15. [STPM ]

Three companies X, Y , and Z offer taxi services in a town. The percentages of residents in the town using the

taxi services from companies X, Y and Z are 40%, 50%, and 10% respectively. The probabilities of taxis from

companies X, Y , and Z being late are 0.09, 0.06, and 0.20 respectively. A taxi is booked at random. Find the

probability that

(a) the taxi is from company X and is not late,

[4 marks]

[6 marks]

16. [STPM ]

Two transistors are chosen at random from a batch of transistors containing ninety good and ten defective ones.

(a) Find the probability that at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective.

[3 marks]

(b) If at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective, find the probability that both transistors are

defective.

[4 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.191 ; (b) 0.0476]

17. [STPM ]

According to a survey conducted in a company on job satisfaction, salary and pension benefits are two important

issues. It is found that 74% of the employees are of the opinion that salary is important whereas 65% think that

pension benefits are important. Among those who think that pension benefits are important, 60% think that

salary is also important. Determine the percentage of employees who are of the opinion that salary and pension

benefits are important.

[3 marks]

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

[Answer : 36%]

18. [STPM ]

The letters in the word BANANA are to be rearranged. A word can be considered formed without being

meaningful. The events R, S and T are defined as follows.

R: The word starts and ends with an A.

S: All the Ns in the word are kept together.

T : All the As in the word are kept together.

(a) Find P(R), P(S) and P(T ).

[5 marks]

[5 marks]

[Answer : (a)

1 13

2

1 1 1

, , ; (b)

,

,0, ]

5 3 5

10 30

5

19. [STPM ]

A four-digit number, in the range 0000 to 9999 inclusive, is formed. Find the probability that

(a) the number begins or ends with 0,

[3 marks]

[3 marks]

20. [STPM ]

Two archers A and B take turns to shot, with archer A taking the first shot. The probabilities of A and B

1

1

hitting the bulls eye in each shot are and respectively. Show that the probability of archer A hitting the

6

5

1

bull-eye first is .

[4 marks]

2

21. [STPM ]

1

The probability that it rains in a certain area is . The probability that an accident occurs at a particular corner

5

1

1

of a road in that area is

if it rains and

if it does not rain. Find the probability that it rains if an accident

20

50

occurs at the corner.

[4 marks]

[Answer :

5

]

13

22. [STPM ]

A teacher, 3 male students and 2 female students line up for a photograph.

(a) Find the number of different arrangements if the teacher stands at the end of the line.

[2 marks]

(b) Find the number of different arrangements if all the male students stand together.

[2 marks]

23. [STPM ]

The amounts of purchase and the modes of payment of 300 customers of a supermarket are shown in the following

table.

Amount of

purchase

Less than RM50

RM50 or more

Mode of payment

Cash Credit card

50

25

75

150

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

(a) Find the probability that the payment is made by cash.

[1 marks]

(b) Find the probability that the amount of purchase is less than RM50 and the payment is made by cash.

[1 marks]

(c) If the amount of purchase is at least RM50, find the probability that the payment is made by cash. [1 marks]

(d) Find the probability that the amount of purchase is less than RM50 given that the payment is made by

cash.

[1 marks]

(e) State, with a reason, whether the events the amount of purchase is less than RM50 and the payment is

made by cash are mutually exclusive.

[2 marks]

(f) State, with a reason, whether the events the amount of purchase is less than RM50 and the payment is

made by cash are independent.

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.417 ; (b)

1

1

; (c) ; (d) 0.4]

6

3

24. [STPM ]

There are eight parking bays in a row at a taxi stand. If one blue taxi, two red taxis and five yellow taxis are

parked there, find the probability that two red taxis are parked next to each other.

[3 marks]

[Assume that a taxi may be parked at any of the parking bays.]

[Answer :

1

]

4

25. [STPM ]

Two events A and B are such that P (A) =

3

1

1

, P (B) = and P (A|B) = .

8

4

6

(a) Show that the events A and B are neither independent nor mutually exclusive.

[2 marks]

(b) Find the probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs.

[3 marks]

(c) Find the probability that either one of the events A and B occurs.

[4 marks]

[Answer : (b)

7

13

; (c)

]

12

24

26. [STPM ]

A study on 100 visitors to a book fair shows that 60 visitors have seen the advertisement about the fair. Out of

40 visitors who make purchases, 30 have seen the advertisement. Find the probability that a visitor who has not

seen the advertisement makes a purchase.

[4 marks]

[Answer : 0.25]

27. [STPM ]

There are 12 towels, two of which are red. If five towels are chosen at random, find the probability that at least

one is red.

[4 marks]

[Answer :

15

]

22

28. [STPM ]

In a basket of mangoes and papayas, 70% of mangoes and 60% of papayas are ripe. If 40% of the fruits in the

basket are mangoes,

(a) find the percentage of the fruits which are ripe,

[3 marks]

(b) find the percentage of the ripe fruits which are mangoes.

[4 marks]

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

[Answer : (a) 64% ; (b) 43.75%]

29. [STPM ]

Eight persons are invited to be seated in the front row of eight seats to watch a concert. If two of them have to

sit next to each other, find the number of different ways in which this can be done.

[3 marks]

[Answer : 10080]

30. [STPM ]

A student applies for two scholarships S and T to further study. The probability that he is offered scholarship S

is 0.4. If he is offered scholarship S, the probability of him being offered scholarship T is 0.2. If he is not offered

scholarship S, the probability of him being offered scholarship T is 0.7.

(a) Find the probability that he is offered both scholarships.

[2 marks]

[5 marks]

(c) State, with a reason, whether the events he is offered scholarship S and he is offered scholarship T are

mutually exclusive.

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.08 ; (b) 0.74 ; (c) Not mutually exclusive]

31. [STPM ]

There are 20 doctors and 15 engineers attending a conference. The number of women doctors and that of women

engineers are 12 and 5 respectively. Four participants from this group are selected randomly to chair some

sessions of panel discussion.

(a) Find the probability that three doctors are selected.

[2 marks]

(b) Given that two women are selected, find the probability that both of them are doctors.

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a)

33

855

; (b)

]

2618

68

32. [STPM ]

A survey was carried out among mothers in Town A and Town B on the issue whether pupils should be allowed

to bring handphones to school. The data obtained are shown in the table below.

Town A

Town B

Agree

100

20

Neutral

50

60

Disagree

50

120

(a) Find the probability that a mother agrees if she is from Town A.

[2 marks]

i. the events Town B and disagree are independent,

ii. the events Town A and disagree are mutually exclusive.

[4 marks]

[1 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.5 ; (b) (i) not independent , (b) not mutually exclusive]

33. [STPM ]

The probability that it rains in a day is 0.25, and the probability that a student carries an umbrella is 0.6. The

probability that it rains or the student does not carry an umbrella is 0.5. If it rains on a particular day, find the

probability that the student does not carry an umbrella.

[4 marks]

[Answer : 0.6]

34. [STPM ]

A company has 400 employees of whom 240 are females. There are 57 female employees with degree qualifications

and 85 male employees with non-degree qualifications.

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

(a) Find the probability that a randomly chosen employee has a degree qualification.

[1 marks]

(b) Find the probability that a randomly chosen employee has a degree qualification given that the employee

is a female.

[2 marks]

(c) Determine whether the events an employee has a degree qualification and an employee is a female are

independent.

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.33 ; (b) 0.2375]

35. [STPM ]

Mr. Tan works five days a week and he takes either a bus, a commuter or a taxi to his office. The probability

that he takes a taxi is 0.20 and the probability that he takes a commuter is 0.50. The probabilities that he will

arrive late at his office if he takes a bus, a commuter, or a taxi are 0.30, 0.10 and 0.15 respectively.

(a) Find the probability that Mr. Tan will arrive late at his office on any given day.

[3 marks]

(b) Mr. Tan arrives late at his office on a given day. Determine the mode of transport that he is likely to take.

Give a reason for your answer.

[4 marks]

(c) Determine the probability that in a given week, Mr. Tan arrives late at his office on alternate days.[4 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.17 ; (c) 0.0199]

36. [STPM ]

The number of shirts by colour and size in a batch of 100 is shown in the table below.

Blue

White

Small

11

22

Medium

20

24

Large

9

14

Two shirts are selected at random, without replacement. Calculate the probability that

(a) both shirts are of the same colour,

[3 marks]

[3 marks]

[Answer : (a)

92

17

; (b)

]

33

225

37. [STPM ]

There are eight male and four female architects in a consultant company. Three architects are randomly chosen

to be posted to Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur and Miri. Find the probability that

(a) three male architects are posted to the three cities,

[2 marks]

(b) one male architect is posted to Kuala Lumpur, one female architect is posted to Johor Bahru and one female

architect is posted to Miri.

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a)

14

4

; (b)

]

55

55

38. [STPM ]

An opinion poll on a certain political party is conducted on 1000 voters, of whom 600 are males. It is found that

250 voters are in favour of the party. It is also found that 450 male voters are not in favour of the party.

(a) Construct a two-way classification table based on the above information.

[2 marks]

(b) Find the probability that a randomly chosen voter is in favour of the party if the voter is a female.[1 marks]

(c) Find the probability that a randomly chosen voter is a male or not in favour of the party.

kkleemaths.com

[2 marks]

14: Probability

(d) Determine whether the events a voter is a male and a voter is in favour of the party are independent.

[3 marks]

39. [STPM ]

There are nine boxes, three of which contain oranges and the rest apples. Three girls and six boys randomly

select a box each. Find the probability that

(a) the girls select more boxes which contain oranges than the boys,

[3 marks]

[3 marks]

[Answer : (a)

19

5

; (b)

]

84

21

40. [STPM ]

There are three male and two female workers who will be assigned to four different tasks. Each worker has an

equal chance of being assigned to any task and may perform at most one task.

(a) Determine the number of different ways the workers can be assigned to the tasks, with two of the tasks

allocated to the female workers.

[2 marks]

(b) Find the probability that the female workers are assigned to two of the tasks.

[2 marks]

3

]

5

41. [STPM ]

At a cineplex 70% of the moviegoers buy popcorn at the snack counter. Of those who buy popcorn, 80% of them

buy drinks. Among those moviegoers who do not buy popcorn, 10% of them buy drinks.

(a) Find the probability that a moviegoer buys a drink.

[4 marks]

(b) Find the probability that a moviegoer does not buy popcorn if he buys a drink.

[2 marks]

42. [STPM ]

The events A and B are such that P(A) 6= 0 and P(B) 6= 0.

(a) Show that P(A0 |B) = 1P(A|B).

0

[2 marks]

[3 marks]

43. [STPM ]

Two companies X and Y operate call-taxi services in a town. The percentages of residents in the town using the

taxi services from companies X and Y are 40% and 60% respectively. The probabilities of taxis from companies

X and Y being late are 0.02 and 0.01 respectively. A taxi is booked at random. Find the probability that

(a) the taxi is late and it is from company X,

[2 marks]

[3 marks]

44. [STPM ]

In a woman single badminton match, the first player who wins two out of three sets wins the match. The

probability of a particular player winning a set is 0.7 if she has won the previous set. The probability of the

player winning a set is 0.4 if she has lost the previous set.

kkleemaths.com

14: Probability

(a) Find the probability that the player wins the match given that she has lost the first set.

[2 marks]

(b) If the probability that the player wins the match is 0.64, find the probability that she wins the first set.

[6 marks]

2

]

3

45. [STPM ]

It is known that of the customers buying laptops, 75% buy an antivirus software, 40% buy additional memory

card and 30% buy both.

(a) Find the probability that a randomly selected customer does not buy any of those items

[3 marks]

(b) Find the probability that a randomly selected customer buys an antivirus software given that an additional

memory card is bought.

[2 marks]

(c) Determine whether the event an additional memory card is bought is independent of the event an

antivirus software is bought.

[2 marks]

[Answer : (a) 0.15 ; (b) 0.75 ; (c) Yes]

kkleemaths.com