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Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are

separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus. In
general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is often followed by cytokinesis, which
divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing
roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together
define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cyclethe division of the mother cell
into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.

The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one
set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase,
prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During mitosis, the
chromosomes, which have already duplicated, condense and attach to fibers that
pull one copy of each chromosome to opposite sides of the cell. The result is two
genetically identical daughter nuclei. The cell may then divide by cytokinesis to
produce two daughter cells. Producing three or more daughter cells instead of
normal two is a mitotic error called tripolar mitosis or multipolar mitosis (direct cell
triplication / multiplication). Other errors during mitosis can induce apoptosis
(programmed cell death) or cause mutations. Certain types of cancer can arise from
such mutations.

Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells and the process varies in different organisms.
For example, animals undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope
breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi undergo a "closed"
mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus.[6] Furthermore,
most animal cells undergo a shape change, known as mitotic cell rounding, to adopt
a near spherical morphology at the start of mitosis. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a
nucleus, divide by a different process called binary fission.

Errors can occur during mitosis, especially during early embryonic development in
humans. Mitotic errors can create aneuploid cells that have too few or too many of
one or more chromosomes, a condition associated with cancer. Early human
embryos, cancer cells, infected or intoxicated cells can also suffer from pathological
division into three or more daughter cells (tripolar or multipolar mitosis), resulting in
severe errors in their chromosomal complements.

In nondisjunction, sister chromatids fail to separate during anaphase. One daughter

cell receives both sister chromatids from the nondisjoining chromosome and the
other cell receives none. As a result, the former cell gets three copies of the
chromosome, a condition known as trisomy, and the latter will have only one copy,
a condition known as monosomy. On occasion, when cells experience
nondisjunction, they fail to complete cytokinesis and retain both nuclei in one cell,
resulting in binucleated cells.

Anaphase lag occurs when the movement of one chromatid is impeded during
anaphase.[50] This may be caused by a failure of the mitotic spindle to properly
attach to the chromosome. The lagging chromatid is excluded from both nuclei and
is lost. Therefore, one of the daughter cells will be monosomic for that chromosome.

Endoreduplication (or endoreplication) occurs when chromosomes duplicate but the

cell does not subsequently divide. This results in polyploid cells or, if the
chromosomes duplicates repeatedly, polytene chromosomes. Endoreduplication is
found in many species and appears to be a normal part of development.
Endomitosis is a variant of endoreduplication in which cells replicate their

chromosomes during S phase and enter, but prematurely terminate, mitosis.

Instead of being divided into two new daughter nuclei, the replicated chromosomes
are retained within the original nucleus. The cells then re-enter G1 and S phase and
replicate their chromosomes again. This may occur multiple times, increasing the
chromosome number with each round of replication and endomitosis. Plateletproducing megakaryocytes go through endomitosis during cell differentiation.

Autotrophic Nutrition

The term autotroph has been derived from two Greek wards-auto means self and
troph means nutrition. In this mode of nutrition, the organisms prepare their own
food from simple raw materials like water, carbon dioxide and mineral salts in the
presence of sunlight. Chlorophylls present in the chloroplast or green plants are the
site of food production. Accordingly all green plants are the examples of this
category. The process by which they synthesize food is known as photosynthesis.
Some nongreen becteria like sulphur bacteria can use energy which they derive
from some chemical reactions occurring in them. With this energy they manufacture
their food. This process is called chemosynthesis. Thus the autotrophs include both
the photosynthetic and che4mosynthetic organisms.

Heterotrophic Nutrition

The word heterotrophy has been derived from two Greek words-hetero means
different and troph refers to nutrition of food. The organisms which derive their food
from others are known as heterotrophic organisms. They depend for their food on
other organisms, hence they are called consumers. All animals, human beings and
non-green plans like fungi come under this category. They consume complex
organic food prepared by autotrophs or producers and break it into simple from to
derive nourishment. Thus the difference between heterotrophy and autotrophs is
basically in the mode of production of food. Due to lack of chlorophyll, heterotrophs
cannot synthesize their food while autotrophs can perform photosynthesis.

Heterotrophs may be parasitic, saprophytic and holozoic.

1. Parasitic:

The term has been derived from two Greek works: Para means feeding and sites
means grains. Parasitic organisms are those which live on or inside other living
organisms to derive their food. Such a mode of nutrition is known as parasitic
nutrition. A parasite derives its food (nutrition) from the host in different ways the
mode of feeding depends upon its habit, habitat, and modifications. An

ectoparasite, which lives on the outer surface of the host, may have certain devices
to obtain blood from the host. A mosquito gets a blood meal by inserting its mouth
parts into the skin, but a leech has rasping jaws which lacerate the skin of cattle
and man. The blood which oozes out is sucked by the leech. A hook-work living in
the intestine of man sucks the digested food of the host through its mouth. But a
tapeworm which lives in the intestine of man does not even have a mouth of its
own. Neither does it have an alimentary canal. A tape-worm thus obtains nutrition
through its body surface. An intracellular parasite such as Plasmadium lives on the
protoplasm of the cell it has invaded, viruses, fungi and some non-green plants
have parasitic mode of nutrition.

In plants, the fungus puccinia is a parasite on wheat and barberry plants; Cuscuta or
dodder plant (amar bel) is a parasite on many plants and obtains food from them.
Parasites often lack well-developed organ systems but their body parts are modified
for attachment to the host or for sucking food from the hosts body.

2. Saprophytic:

The word saprophyte has been derived from the Greek words sapro meaning rotten
and phyto meaning plants. Saprophytic organisms derive their food from
decomposing dead organisms. The complex organic compounds become simpler in
dead organisms when the decomposition sets in. they feed on substances which
were once part of living organisms such as stored food, wood, leather and rotten
plant products. The common examples of saprophtyes are fungi (moulds,
mushrooms, yeasts) and many bacteria. Saprophytes secrete enzymes which are
released on he substrate (i.e., the place on which they grow). These enzymes digest
and break down the complex food material like starch into simpler ones. The soluble
end product like sugar is then absorbed back by the saprophyte. This is called
extracellular digestion. The saprophytic mode of nutrition can best be shown by the
common bread mould, Rhizopus mucor (pin mould), Neurospora (pink bread mould),
Morchella (sponge fungus) and Agaricus (mushrrom) also represent similar mode3
of nutrition

3. Holozoic

The word holozoic has been derived from Greek words: holos means whole and zoon
means animal. Holozoic nutrition involves ingestion of complex organic substances.

The food of most animals contains large organic substances. In this mode, small or
large particles of food are consumed through an opening called mouth (Ingestion).
Then these are hydrolyzed into simpler and soluble forms (digestion). Simplified
products are absorbed into the body and the undigested product is removed from
the body (Egestion).
4. Photosynthesis

Plants are autotrophs; the only nutrients they require are carbon dioxide from the
air, and water and minerals from the soil. Specifically, plants are photoautotrophs,
organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize lipids, proteins, and
other organic substances. Photosynthesis also occurs in algae, including certain
protists, and in some prokaryotes

Balanced diet
A balanced diet is one that gives your body the nutrition it needs to function
properly. In order to get truly balanced nutrition, you should obtain the majority of
your daily calories from fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.

Factors that affect the daily energy requirements

Physical Activity

Work out longer or harder than normal and youll naturally burn more calories. A
185-pound bicyclist, for example, burns 378 more calories in a half-hour if he covers
10 miles instead of his normal six to seven, yet men tend not to increase caloric
intake commensurately, creating an energy deficit. Women, however, consume
nearly the same number of calories they expend after engaging in high-intensity
exercise. Nutritionists occasionally encounter both male and female clients for
whom physical activity increases appetite. Depending upon intensity and duration,
you experience after-burn -- the burning of calories at an increased rate -- for 15
minutes to 48 hours after exercise. After 80 minutes of high-intensity bicycling, for
example, you burn an additional 130 calories; 80 minutes of low-intensity cycling
burns about one-third of that.

Energy Density

Barbara Rolls, Ph.D. and co-author of Volumetrics, cites a trio of studies and one
survey establishing that you generally eat the same amount of food by weight each
day, even though your daily caloric intake can change considerably. The change
occurs because some foods, like tomatoes, strawberries, skim milk and vegetable
soup, have relatively few calories for their weight, or low-energy density. Others, like
bacon, chocolate chip cookies, peanut butter and potato chips, have relatively little
weight for their calories, or high-energy density. Rolls explains that by eating more
of the former foods and fewer of the latter you can feel full and satisfied on fewer
calories. She notes a Penn State study in which female subjects told to eat as much
as they want during a series of typical meals consumed about 400 fewer calories on
days the meals contained more low-energy-density foods.


While drinking water with your meal will not cause you to consume fewer calories,
you affect your daily caloric count with the other beverages you drink -- or dont
drink. A review of 30 studies published in the American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition, for instance, found a correlation between drinking sugar-sweetened
beverages -- soda, coffee, iced tea, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, etc. -and consuming more calories than needed. Research performed at Purdue
University and published in the International Journal of Obesity in 2000
determined a reason for this besides the sugar in the drinks. After consuming an
excess of solid carbohydrates, subjects naturally reduced caloric consumption later,
something they did not do when the excess of carbohydrates came in liquid form.
Because liquid carbs don't "register" in your body, the Harvard School of Public
Health suggests reducing or eliminating consumption of sugar-sweetened
beverages to help control your weight.

Other Considerations

Research presented at a 2012 American Heart Association conference found that

subjects who slept two-thirds of their typical amount during an eight-day study ate
about 550 more calories a day during that time. A 2012 study published in the
American Journal of Physiology revealed subjects limited to four hours of sleep a
night over five days ate more carbohydrates and fat, felt hungrier and recorded a
decrease in metabolic rate compared to when they slept nine hours a night. While
eating more than three meals a day has been determined to have only a minimal
effect on decreasing the amount you eat, eating fewer than three meals a day
increases caloric intake. Portion size also affects how much you eat. Research
published in the Journal of Health Psychology determined that women given 600gram meal portions consumed nearly 90 more calories than those given 350-gram
meal portions -- despite being informed and educated that excessive portion size
leads to overeating.

Malnutrition is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right
amount of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy
tissues and organ function.
Effects of defiency in proteins, vitamins and minerals on health
If the foods you eat provide you with too few amino acids, especially essential
amino acids, your body breaks down protein-rich tissues your muscles, for
example to access them. Therefore, the initial effect of low protein intake can be
muscle wasting accompanied by increasing weakness. You may also experience a
greater number of infections because your immune system cant produce enough
antibodies or other immune molecules. You might become increasingly irritable and
develop a skin rash and changes to your hair texture. Extreme protein deficiency
can result in shock and eventual death.
Humans must consume vitamins periodically but with differing schedules, to avoid
deficiency. The human body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A,
D, and B12 are stored in significant amounts in the human body, mainly in the liver,
[ and an adult human's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months
and B12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition.
However, vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide) is not stored in the human body in
significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks. For vitamin C, the
first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation
in humans have varied widely, from a month to more than six months, depending
on previous dietary history that determined body stores.
Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary
deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food.
A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits
the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to a "lifestyle factor", such as smoking,
excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the
absorption or use of the vitamin. People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to
develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency. In contrast, restrictive diets have the
potential to cause prolonged vitamin deficits, which may result in often painful and
potentially deadly diseases.
Well-known human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi), niacin
(pellagra), vitamin C (scurvy), and vitamin D (rickets). In much of the developed
world, such deficiencies are rare; this is due to (1) an adequate supply of food and

(2) the addition of vitamins and minerals to common foods, often called fortification.
In addition to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases, some evidence has also
suggested links between vitamin deficiency and a number of different disorders.


Overnutrition is defined as the overconsumption of nutrients and food to the point

at which health is adversely affected.(3) Overnutrition can develop into obesity,
which increases the risk of serious health conditions, including cardiovascular
disease, hypertension, cancer, and type-2 diabetes.

Until recently, overnutrition had been viewed as a problem that only affected
developed nations. However, overnutrition is a growing problem worldwide. The
World Health Organization (WHO) describes the current problem: In the poorest
countries, even though infectious diseases and undernutrition dominate their
current disease burden, the major risk factors for chronic diseases are spreading.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in developing countries, and
even in low-income groups in richer countries.(4) Problems of overnutrition are
increasing even in countries where hunger is prevalent. In 2002, the WHO reported
that the levels of overweight and obese women in the Eastern Mediterranean region
and North Africa exceed those in the United States, while levels of overweight and
obese women in Eastern Europe and Latin America are similar to those in the United
States. Furthermore, obesity is now becoming a marker of poverty in a growing
number of nations, including Brazil and Mexico
Effect of excessive intake of :

Carbohydrates turn into glucose, which your body burns immediately or converts to
glycogen to be stored in the muscles and liver for between meals. If you eat more
calories from carbs or other sources than your body can use, the cells store the
excess as fat.


When you consume more protein than your body needs, the excess protein is used
to provide your body with energy or turned into fat. You can't store extra amino
acids or protein for later use, so if you consume too many calories in an effort to
increase your protein intake you will gain weight. Dehydration.

Taking a vitamin or supplement as directed on the package label is considered to be
safe, but not following directions can lead to problems."Excesses of all nutrients,
from water, to iron, to water-soluble B vitamins, can potentially cause toxicities,"
says Norman Hord, PhD, MPH, RD, associate professor in the department of Food
Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. People who take vitamins
and minerals in amounts above the established upper limits of the Dietary
Reference Intakes (DRIs) may harm tissues where the vitamin is stored in their
body, Hord explains. Thats why you shouldnt take more than the recommended
amount.Vitamins and other nutrients play essential roles in maintaining good
health, but they need to be consumed in the proper amounts. Vitamins are
classified into two types: water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins. They are
divided into these groups according to how they are dissolved and stored in your
body. Fat-soluble vitamins reside in your body's fatty tissue and liver and are used
as needed by your body. By contrast, water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and
generally are not stored in your body.
When taken into the body in high doses, minerals can produce toxic effects. High
levels of iodine in the bloodstream can interfere with hormone functioning. Too
much sodium can cause confusion, seizures, coma and even death. Selenium is a
mineral that is toxic in just small doses. Symptoms include black fingernails and the
smell of garlic on your breath and skin. Boron can be toxic in quantities of more
than 100 mg causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, rash, shock and coma.
Phosphorus toxicity prevents the absorption of calcium and magnesium in the body.
When ingested in amounts more than 1 g daily, phosphorus can cause diarrhea or
lead to calcification of organs and soft tissues.

A diet
One of the most important improvements you can make to your diet is to limit
saturated fats and entirely cut out trans fats. Both types of fat raise your LDL, or
bad cholesterol level, which can increase your risk for heart attack and stroke.
Trans fat also lowers your levels of HDL or good cholesterol, which can put you at
increased cardiovascular risk. Luckily, there are many ways to control how much
saturated and trans fats you take in and replace them with foods that lower your
Avoid foods containing high levels of saturated fats or trans fatssuch as potato
chips and packaged cookies. These foods can increase your cholesterol levels much
more significantly than cholesterol-containing foods such as eggs.
Limit solid fat. Reduce the amount of solid fats like butter, margarine, or shortening
you add to food when cooking or serving. Instead of cooking with butter, for
example, use olive oil or flavor your dishes with herbs or lemon juice. You can also
limit solid fat by trimming fat off your meat or choosing leaner, healthier proteins.
Substitute. Swap out high-fat foods for their lower-fat counterparts. Choose 1% or
skimmed milk instead of whole milk, soft margarine for butter, and lean meats like
chicken and fish in place of ribs or ground meat. When cooking, use liquid oils like
canola, olive, safflower, or sunflower, and substitute two egg whites for one whole
egg in a recipe. These substitutions can save you an entire days worth of saturated
Be label-savvy. Check food labels on any prepared foods. Many meals and snacks
even those labeled "reduced fat" or "low cholesterol" may be made with oils
containing trans fats. One clue that a food has some trans fat is the phrase
"partially hydrogenated." And look for hidden fat; refried beans may contain lard, or
breakfast cereals may have significant amounts of fat (as well as lots of heart-risky
sugar). Change your habits. The best way to avoid saturated or trans fats is to
change your lifestyle practices. Instead of chips, snack on fruit, vegetables, or
unsalted nuts. At restaurants, ask that sauces or dressings be put on the sideor
left off altogether.
Make smart choices. Choose foods rich in unsaturated fats, fiber, and protein. Fruits,
vegetables, fish, beans, nuts, and seeds are all great cholesterol regulators. The
best foods for lowering cholesterol are oatmeal, fish, walnuts (and other nuts), olive
oil, and foods fortified with sterols or stanolssubstances found in plants that help
block the absorption of cholesterolsuch as corn, beans, peanut butter, almonds,
oranges, apples, and avocados.

Ways to reduce the risk of :

1. Blood Pressure Diet - Eat less salt
Too much salt raises your blood pressure, so it is important to eat as little as
possible. In fact, some people with high blood pressure may be able to avoid blood
pressure medicines by cutting down on salt.
Most of the salt you eat is not what you add to your food, but is in prepared foods
like bread, breakfast cereals and ready meals.
Dont add salt to food when cooking or at the table. When shopping for food, check
the labels and choose low-salt options when you can.
2.Diabetes mellitus
Control Your Weight
Excess weight is the single most important cause of type 2 diabetes. Being
overweight increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes seven fold. Being
obese makes you 20 to 40 times more likely to develop diabetes than someone with
a healthy weight. (8)
Losing weight can help if your weight is above the healthy-weight range. Losing 7 to
10 percent of your current weight can cut your chances of developing type 2
diabetes in half.
Get Movingand Turn Off the Television
Inactivity promotes type 2 diabetes. (16) Working your muscles more often and
making them work harder improves their ability to use insulin and absorb glucose.
This puts less stress on your insulin-making cells.
Long bouts of hot, sweaty exercise arent necessary to reap this benefit. Findings
from the Nurses Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study suggest
that walking briskly for a half hour every day reduces the risk of developing type 2
diabetes by 30 percent. (18, 19) More recently, The Black Womens Health Study
reported similar diabetes-prevention benefits for brisk walking of more than 5 hours
per week. (20) This amount of exercise has a variety of other benefits as well. And
even greater cardiovascular and other advantages can be attained by more, and
more intense, exercise.
Television-watching appears to be an especially-detrimental form of inactivity: Every
two hours you spend watching TV instead of pursuing something more active
increases the chances of developing diabetes by 20 percent; it also increases the
risk of heart disease (15 percent) and early death (13 percent). (17) The more
television people watch, the more likely they are to be overweight or obese, and

this seems to explain part of the TV viewing-diabetes link. The unhealthy diet
patterns associated with TV watching may also explain some of this relationship.
Tune Up Your Diet
Four dietary changes can have a big impact on the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Increase your calcium intake. Both calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone
health. You can make sure that you're getting the daily recommended doses of each
by taking a daily calcium supplement adults require about 1,000 mg of calcium
per day and by getting 15 minutes of sunlight (since vitamin D is made naturally
in the body during sunlight exposure). Vitamin D supplements of 400 IU can also
help with calcium absorption.
Engage in weight-bearing exercise. The importance of weight-bearing exercise in
osteoporosis prevention cant be overstated. We recommend beginning early, says
Kaye. Regularly engaging in weight-bearing exercises, like running, walking,
strength training, aerobics, jumping rope, and yoga anything that requires your
bones to support your weight will help strengthen the integrity of your bones.
Revamp your diet. Calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium are important, but you also
need to have the energy and ability to remain active. Kaye says this means that for
some women, a low-calorie diet may be needed to control obesity so they can be
active and engaged. A diet high in salt or caffeine may also contribute to bone loss.
Talk to your doctor or a dietitian if you are not sure about the overall quality of your
Maintain a healthy body weight. Your bones have the best shot at long-term health
if you are neither over- nor underweight.
Toss the soda. Carbonated beverages have been shown to contribute to bone loss.
This may be because the carbonation affects calcium levels in bones, or it may be
because if you are drinking soda or sparkling water, you are not drinking a more
nutritious beverage such as milk or fortified orange juice, which can help build
stronger bones.
Stop smoking. There is an association between smoking and an increased risk of

Methods used to improve the quality and quantity of food production through the
Direct seeding for rice