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Unit

he present simple

Getting started
1 The text below is from an interview with Jodie Foster, a Hollywood actress and director.
Read the text and answer the questions.
a) In what ways is Jodie Foster's life not like a star's life? ............................................................. ..
b) Why does Jodie want to have an ordinary life? ........................................................................ .
" JOdie enjoys living a life around Los Angeles
that is as un-starlike as she can make it. She
l
refuses to have a personal assistant, does her
own food shopping and takes her own letters to
'
the post office. 'I have always lived like that,'
she says, 'and I always will. I don't want to become
someone who doesn't know how to do things. If I'm in
Calcutta and I need to get to Bombay and a flight gets
cancelled so I need to take the train, I want to know
how to do that.' She lives in a rented apartment in
Hollywood and says that, when she is not working, her
favourite thing is to do absolutely nothing!

2 Look at these present simple sentences from the text:


She refuses to have a personal assistant, does her own food shopping and takes her own
letters to the post office.
I don't want to become someone who doesn't know how to do things.
She lives in a rented apartment in Hollywood .,.
How much do you know about the present simple? Underline the correct choice, i) or ii), below:
a) The present simple is used to talk about things that are:
i) generally true
ii) happening now
b) It is used to say how often something happens, with words like:
i) for and since
ii) always, sometimes and never
c) It is made like this:
i) I / you / we / they take
she / he / it takes

ii) 1/ you / we / they takes


she / he / it take

d) Negatives and questions are made with:


i) do and does
ii) did

Looking at language
The present simple
Use

We use the present simple to talk about things and situations that are generally true:
Digital cameras cost a lot of money. They have very complex parts and they use a lot of
battery power.
She's 27 years old and she has a small flat.
The general truth can be:
a repeated action: She takes the train to work, but I usually drive.
a permanent situation: She lives in a small flat in London.
The present simple can also be used in informal stories. For example, describing a film scene
or telling a joke:
She walks into the room, and sees the bottle and two glasses on the table, so she knows ...
This man goes into a bar, and orders an orange juice and a packet of crisps .,.

Fill in the gaps in this text by another Hollywood actress with verbs in the present simple.
Life is pretty busy at the moment. I 1 ................ a 14-hour day, but I'm lucky because we're
filming in the Santa Monica mountains, 15 minutes from home. I'm usually up at 4 a.m.
My husband 2 ..
. up then, too - he 3 ......
.. to work before the phone starts
ringing - and, after a coffee, 14 ................ to Agoure to arrive at exactly 5.42. It's a wonderful
drive - I see mountain lions, coyotes and sometimes snakes. My day 5 ................ with hair and
make-up. Then it's straight into filming.
(from Radio Times, 9-15 November 1996)

Form

Positive statements

Negative statements

Wh- questions

I I you I we I they play

I do not (don't) play

Where do you play?

she I he I it plays

she does not (doesn't) play

Where does she play?

Yes I No questions

Positive short answers

Negative short answers

Do you play?

Yes, I do.

No, I don't.

Does she play?

Yes, she does.

No, she doesn't.

Spelling

Other spellings of the third person singular are:


in verbs which end in sh, ch, 55, x, an es is added: washes, watches, kisses, fixes. This is
pronounced lIzi.
in verbs which end in a consonant +y, the y is changed to an i and es is added: try - tries,

carry - carries.

UNIT

THE PRESENT SIMPLE

Other points
We can say how often something happens with adverbs of frequency like (nearly) always,
usually, (quite) often, sometimes, (almost) never:
She nearly always takes the train to work.
I don't often go shopping.
Note the present simple form of to be: I am, you / we / they are, she / he / it is.
Note the third person singular forms: have - has, do - does, go - goes.
We often use you + present simple to mean 'everyone':
You need two photos to get a passport.
We use the present simple question What do you do? to mean 'What's your job?'
See Unit 3 for a comparison of the present simple and the present continuous.

Getting it right

I> Exercise

1 Subjects and verbs

In the advertisements below, fill in the gaps with the correct pronoun from the box. The
form of the present simple verb (e.g. doesn't have or don't have) will help you.
he

it

you

she

they

Microwave-heated body/bed warmer


This special warmer gives you all the same warmth as a traditional
hot-water bottle but .... .it .... doesn't have the problem of dangerous hot water.
1

..... just put it in the microwave to heat up, and 2 .......... stays hot for

hours.
'3 ..... .. .. always use mine on cold nights. It's so easy to use!'

This electronic dictionary contains over


100,000 words.
4 .....
. just needs two small batteries to run for hours
and hours. Ordinary dictionaries are large, and for many
people 5 ........... are inconvenient to carry around, but
this electronic dictionary fits easily into your pocket or
bag, so 6 .......
can take it wherever you go.
'7 ........... never go anywhere without my electronic
dictionary. My colleagues often want to borrow it, and
my daughter uses it too - 8
checks her
homework with it.'

DIETING SUCCESS
Does your weight depress you?
Do you hate dieting?
Dr Dawes's video course can help. On
this new video Dr Dawes explains how
to eat healthily. In six easy steps,
9. . . . . . .. shows you how to change
your eating habits. 'I'm much slimmer
now, and 10 .
.. thank Dr Dawes
for that.'

Extension
Write a similar advertisement for something you have bought recently.
GETTING IT RIGHT

[> Exercise 2 Asking questions


Linda Magee, a television news reporter, was interviewed about her day. Use the
underlined sections of the article to write the interviewer's questions.
I get up around 7.00, some time before my husband, Alan. 1 He's a
photographer, so he can often choose the time of day that he wants to work. I
don't have breakfast, 2 because I eat a lot of snacks in the studio, but I get
breakfast for the kids before I leave the house. 3 They usually have fruit and
cereal or toast. 4 I generally walk or cycle to work unless the weather's bad, and
5 it takes about half an hour on foot and about ten minutes by bike. When I
arrive, 6 I discuss the day's main stories with the news editor over a cup of
coffee. We usually prepare the midday news after that, but sometimes new stories
come in and we have to start again. At 11.00 Sandy, 7 the hair and make-up
assistant, gets me ready for the camera. 8 lust before the broadcast I often feel
nervous, even after all these years! 9 The programme starts at exactly 12.00 and
10 lasts 20 minutes. Then it's back to the news editor to do the whole thing again
in time for the 4.00 broadcast.

Example: W~qU.imt;. d9 .W~~ Bt:t. ~p.? ...... .


1 ......................................................... .

2 ......................................................... .
3

7 ......................................................... .
8 .... .................................................. .

4 .......................................................... .

9 ........................................................ .

10

[> Exercise 3 Learning from learners


Look at this extract from a learner's letter to a penfriend. There are 11 mistakes in it.
Find them and correct them. The first one has been done for you.
Dear Akra,.",

aN)

Thank :J0Ll for- !::J0Llr- ver-:J inter-e.sti"3 letter-. I ver-!::J ple.a.se.d to be


".
:J0Llr- pe.nfr-iend. Are :J0Ll r-eall:J have a .swi,.",."i"3 pool in the Bar-den?
It 5OLlnd.. wond..er-fLl/. A.s :J0Ll know from

rn:J

adver-ti.se.rne.nt, I have 17

:Jear.s old. and.. carne. fr-om CartaBena in Chile. I've Bot two .si.ster-.s,
Haria and Fer-nanda, and.. the:J i.s both older- than rne.. H:J father Own
a .small paper- factor:J, bLlt "":J mother- d.on't work. We livi"3 in a
hOLl.se.jLl.st oLlt.side the cit:J. I e'2i0:Ji"3 pla:Ji"3 football and.. I am like
.science-fiction fil,.".s.

UNIT

THE PRESENT SIMPLE

[> Exercise 4 Written practice


Write a description of the world's largest shopping centre using the information below and
the verbs in the box in the order given.
West Edmonton Mall, Alberta, Canada
5.2 million square feet.
800 shops, 110 restaurants (25,000 meals
a day).
20,000 staff.
20 million visitors per year.

Visitors' spending: $16 million per day.


A 30-minute drive from the city centre.
26 cinemas but no theatre.
Open 08.00-24.00.

(adapted from an article by Michael Booth, The Independent on Sunday, 19 January 1997)

-e@f'

serve

employ

attract

spend

be

have

not have

open

close

Classwork
1 Work in groups of three or four. Learner 1 thinks of a job.
2 Learners 2, 3 and 4 ask him / her questions in the present simple to find out what the job is.
They can only ask ten questions. Learner 1 can only answer Yes, No or Sometimes.
Example:
Do you get up early?
Do you wear a uniform?
Does this job need a lot of qualifications?
Do you work inside?
Is the job very well-paid?
Are you a postman?

Yes,
Yes,
No,
No,
No,
Yes,

I do.
I do.

it doesn't.
I don't.
it isn't.
I am.

CLASSWORK

Unit

Getting started
1 A truffle is a fungus found under the ground which is very good t

~he

t'

t~a .

Read
newspaper article about truffle-hunting dogs and answe
questions.
r

a) How are truffles found?


b) What is the problem for

truffl~ f;rIl1~rs'i'~'~h~';~;'~f'~he
a truffle

article? ......... .

TRUFFLERS DOGNAPPED
olice in southern France are
trying to find ten truffle-hunting
dogs, stolen from their owners in
the middle of the season for the
fungi. Police in Carpentras believe
the dogs, trained to dig up truffles
growing five centimetres below the
ground, have been kidnapped.

Farmers are getting around 150


a kilo for truffles this year. Herve
de Chire, mayor of the village of
Pernes-Ies-Fontaines, said: 'Training
the dogs takes years and the truffle
season is very short. Some of the
farmers are offering up to 650 for
the return of their dogs.'

2 Underline three examples of the present continuous (am / is / are + -ing) in the article.

Tick (.,I') the correct choices:


a) The underlined verbs in the article refer to:
i)

every year .....

ii) the year of the article


b) The present continuous is used to talk about actions and situations which are:
1)

true at the moment

ii) always true .....

Looking at language
The present continuous
Use

The present continuous is used to talk about:


1 Actions that are going on around or at the time of speaking:
Jane's having a bath at the moment.
2 Temporary situations. Compare:
He's working in Oxford just now. (but next year he will do something else)
present continuous - a temporary situation
He works for a company in Oxford. (he works there all the time)
present simple - a permanent situation
3 Changing situations, especially with verbs like get and become and with comparative
adjectives like more, worse, better:
He's getting fat, isn't he?
This city is becoming more and more dangerous.
4 Behaviour that happens more often than expected, with always, forever and constantly:
Why are you always shouting?
She's forever buying me presents.
Note that the auxiliary be comes before words like always and forever.
5 Future plans. See Unit 11.

Are these sentences examples of 1,2,3 or 4 above?


a) I'm sure the air quality is getting worse round here ..... .
b) I hope he's OK. He'!; constantly getting headaches ..
c) I'm staying with friends in New York at the moment, but I live in Washington ..... .
d) You can't see her I'm afraid. She'!; trying to get some rest. .
Statlve verbs

Some verbs are not usually used in the continuous. They are called stative verbs, and are:
verbs which describe thoughts, feelings and senses: think, know, believe, agree, remember,
forget, understand, like, love, hate, mind, prefer, want, see, hear, smell, taste. So we do not say:
l'Iit 1mB'.. iltg tile ttltS'!'; el7 or SHe iSlt't ttltlleJ'stt.tJuliltg ttlt,tHil'tg. We say: I know the answer. She
doesn't understand anything.
We use can with sense verbs. We do not say: 1'1" I1Bt HettJ'iltg JBtt. or I c4Blt't HettI; Btt.
We say: I can't hear you .
some other verbs which describe what things (and people) are, what they are like, and
what they possess: be, have, need, own, involve, depend on, seem, look, sound, smell, taste,
weigh. So we do not say: I ttl1t 8eiltg httltgJ'r or THis SBltf' is tttstiltg Itiee. We say: I am hungry.
This soup tastes nice.
But some of these stative verbs can be used in the continuous sense. Compare She'!; tasting
the soup (her action) and The soup tastes good (what the soup is like), and What are you
thinking about? (what are your thoughts?) and What do you think? (what is your opinion?).

LOOKING AT LANGUAGE

E:.II

Form

The present continuous is formed with the present tense of be and the -ing form of the verb.
Positive statements

Negative statements

Wh- questions

I am (I'm) playing

I'm not playing

Where are you playing?

you are (you're) playing

you're not playing /


you aren't playing

we are (we're) playing

we're not playing /


we aren't playing

they are (they're) playing

they're not playing /


they aren't playing

,~

she / he / it is (she's / he's /


it's) playing

he's not playing /


he isn't playing

Where is she playing?

Yes / No questions

Positive short answers

Negative short answers

Are they playing?

Yes, they are.

No, they aren't. / No, they're not.

Is he playing?

Yes, he is.

No, he isn't. / No, he's not.

Spelling

In one-syllable verbs which end in a vowel and a consonant (e,g. stop, run), the consonant
is doubled in the -ing form: stopping, running.
In verbs which end in e (e.g. take, lose), the e is lost in the -ing form: taking, losing. But
verbs which end in double e (e.g. see, agree), keep both es: seeing, agreeing.

Other points

We use at the moment with the present continuous to show that something is going on at
the time of speaking and is temporary:
He's doing his homework at the moment.
We use still to show that something is continuing and is temporary:
I'm still living with my parents, but I want to get my own flat.

II:m

UNIT

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Getting it right
I> Exercise 1 Learning from learners
Look at this learner's text. Match the teacher's ticks (,() and corrections 1-10 to rules a)-f)
below.

#! I(()./f(e I~ ttiitr (Wi /;" ttpl"eM. #! fwrr/~ I~ t~/1t lir

lives b)

QI( at"tIKel(t I(eat" th-e eel(tl"e pi tepa~ Mr/ tk, all

./

.....

1 fov-e th-e el'tff e.r.ee;t IKe. Tk,2 at"e th-liril1t th-at

2 think .....

e/t/e.r at"e e.r.e/tiirj, bat:3 /;" I(Pt ~eel1t lith- th-e~'/

:3 don't agree .....

4 ()./f(,freler-N1t 1aletel" tPII(.f PI" ",/flap. 1I1f!I~

4 prefer .....

ja.ft th-/~ IKPl(th- /5 IPl"i Ipl" a .fIKafftl"av-eIOjf?l(e!/ /

5 'm working .....

6 IQI(t tp!P tl"a",eltirj lir EfI.I"t7jJe I(e.r.t IKPI(th- bat7 /;"

6 ./ .....

l(eerit1 t tp eat"1( .fPIKe IKPI(e! /t'r-d.

7 need .....

[3 /;"

th-liril1t pi rIolirj

a epfI.I".fe Ih-el( / ePIKe baeifpIK EfI.I"t7jJe - IK! E"!t~h9

J:!:i1. bette!" .f(J IK~be / aM .ftaaf abl"(Jar/I(ed tiitre.

nat~ 1I'et"! e.r.;el(.f/~,

of a(JfI.I".fe. Pe!"h-.f th-at10 ~

[3 ./ .....

9 is getting .....

10 depends .....

riel'el(ritirj PI( h-PI IKaeh- / eQl( eat"1( - Ql(r/IK! ;at"el(t;r/


a) Use the present continuous to talk about changing situations.
e) Use the pfeseat simple to taU, aeol:lt a pefmaaeat sitl:latioa.

c) Use the present simple with a 'thought' or 'feeling' verb.


d) Use the present simple with verbs describing what things are, what they are like and
what they possess.
e) Use the present continuous for a temporary situation.
f) Use the present continuous for a temporary thought.

GETTING IT RIGHT

C> Exercise

2 Choosing the correct tense

In the conversation between two friends below, put the verbs in brackets ( ) into the present
simple or present continuous.
A: I hear you w~..t!J.QrkinB (work) in a pub at the moment. What's it like?
B: It i;,. (be) fine, although it's very hard work. I'm always tired, hut I 1 .......................... (not
mind).
A: Is the money good?
B: No, not really, but I 2 .......................... (like) the hours. You know I don't like working
early in the morning.
A: Oh yes, 13 .......................... (remember) now. You never used to get up before 11.00.
B: Well, I'm not like that now, but I certainly don't like getting up before 9.00. Anyway, tell me
... (do) now?

about you. What 4 ........................... you................

A: 15 .......................... (be) still a student. 16 ........................... (study) German at university.


Actually, I 7 .......................... (work) quite hard at the moment because my exams are next
week. 18 .......................... (want) to be a teacher when I finish at university.
B: Oh well, good luck in your exams. I must go - I 9 ........................... (start) work at 12.00
on Mondays, and I 10 ........................... (not want) to be late. I 11 ........................... (not

have) my car any more, so I 12 .......................... (cycle) everywhere at the moment.

t> Exercise 3

Writing about developments

Change the text below so that it is true about developments in your country. Use verbs in
the present continuous and underline the word in italics that you want. Use the verbs in the
box if you want to. You can use the verbs more than once.
fttlftge

earn

fall

get

go up / down

increase

leave

rise

In my country, many things .w~..~ht;l.IJ.BinB . The population 1 .......................... , and the


number of unemployed people 2 ........................... . Young people 3 ......................... ..
home earlier / later, and 4 .......................... married earlier / later than before. People

... more / less money these days, while the cost of living 6 ........................... .

5 ..

Our capital city 7 .

.............. '" bigger / smaller, the number of people with cars

8 ........................... and traffic problems 9 ......................... better / worse. Overall, I think life
in my country 10 ........................... better / worse for most people.

UNIT

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I> Exercise

4 Extending headlines

Headlines for newspaper articles often use the present simple, but the articles sometimes
use the present continuous to describe activities that are still going on. Rewrite these
headlines as full sentences to start the articles.
Example: CHESTER POLICE LOOK FOR STOLEN DINOSAUR EGG

Museum offers big reward for return of egg


P9.1.i!=.~. ir.. (h~.~t~r. .w!!. .l.QQkin&j..fqr. .q. ;>JQiflJ..~in9.~q.W. fEB..Th~..Ml;I.S,t;(.lIJ.!. .L? .qff~rinB .q..i?iB .............. .
(~.4-!W~. .fqr. .(h!!. .fi:.t.wn. qUht;. fEB............................................. ........................................ .

1 US scientists examine Mars rocks and try to find signs of life

2 GRANDMOTHER STILL WORKS IN SUPERMARKET AT 75 BUT THINKS OF RETIRING

Man who lives in tree house tries to set new one-year record

New York man builds own rocket and plans to reach moon

5 Tokyo woman celebrates 120th birthday and looks forward to 121 st

Classwork
1 Write three sentences about yourself 'at the moment', using the present continuous. One
sentence should be untrue.
Example:
I'm preparing for an exam at the moment.

Ask questions to find out what your partner wrote, and answer your partner's questions.
Example:
A: What are you doing at the moment?
B: I'm preparing for an exam.

Which of your partner's answers is untrue, do you think?

CLASSWORK

Explanations
Present simple

Present
continuous

Facts which are always true


The present simple is used to describe permanent facts, for example in
science and geographical descriptions.
The light from the Sun takes 8 mins 20 sees to reach the Earth.
The River Po flows into the Adriatic Sea.
The present simple is also used for situations that are generally true.
/ work in an office and live in a flat in the suburbs.

Habitual actions
The present simple is used to describe habits and routines. A frequency
adverb is often used.
I usually take the bus to work.

Summary of events
The present simple can be used to make a summary of the events in a
narrative, for example in a film or book. It can also be used for a table of
historical events.
In Chapter 1, Susan meets David, and agrees to go to the school dance with
him.
In 1789 the Trench Revolution begins.

Actions which are in progress now


The present continuous is used to describe actions which are temporary and
not yet finished.
I'm doing the washing-up.
The action may be happening right now, or around now.
I'm reading one of the Harry Potter books at the moment.

Habits during a temporary situation


The present continuous can describe a habit that happens over a short period
of time. A time expression is necessary.
At the moment we're sending all the mail by courier, because the Post Office is
on strike.

- A repeated temporary action


The present continuous can describe a single action that is repeated. A time
expression is necessary.
Whenever I see Tom he's smoking.
You're making the same mistake again!
In examples like this we are often exaggerating or complaining. This is
particularly true when we use always.
You're always borrowing money from me!
20

GRAMMAR 4

Problems with
simple and
continuous

PRESENT T I M E

Some verbs are not normally used in the continuous form, because they
describe activities which already extend in time. These are called 'state'
verbs.
be, believe, cost, depend, have, hear, know, matter, smell, suppose, taste, think,
understand

Some of these verbs can be used in continuous forms with a change of


meaning.
Tim is being rather difficult at the moment.
(behave)
I'm having breakfast.
(eat)
I'm tasting the soup, to check if it needs more salt. (sample)
I'm
thinking
of
buying
a
new
car.
(consider)

In many situations we can use either a simple or continuous form. The


simple form is for a permanent situation or general habit, the continuous
form is for a temporary situation.
/ live in London.
(it's my permanent home)
I'm living in London.
(just for a year - my home is in Athens)
Do you sleep a lot?
(Is it your habit?)
Are you sleeping enough? (What is happening at the moment?)

21

CATE L A N G U A G E P R A C T I C E

Underline the most suitable verb f o r m in each sentence.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
2

What sort of work do you do/are you doing?


I can't talk now. I cook/I'm cooking the dinner.
What shall we have? Do you like/Are you liking fish?
Can I borrow this typewriter? Or do you use/are you using it?
What do the people here do/are the people here doing in the evenings?
Follow that bus. Then you turn/are turning left.
A lot of people think that the Sun goes/is going around the Earth.
Excuse me, do you read/are you reading your newspaper? Could I borrow it?
Do you wait/Are you waiting for the bus to Newcastle?
Andy builds/is building his own house in the country.

Put each verb in brackets into either the present simple or the present continuous,

a) There's nobody here, and the door's locked. What (we do) ..do we do... now!
b) What (you look)

at? (I wear)

c) I (look after)

the wrong clothes?

Jack's dog this weekend. (you want)

to take it for a walk?


d) Who (drive)

the Mercedes that's parked outside?

e) I (still have)

a pain in my leg but it (get)

f) Who (Sue dance)

better.

with? That's not her brother, is it?

g) Harry always (look)

untidy! He (wear)

h) I (write)

dirty jeans.

in reply to your advertisement in the Daily News.

i) That plant I bought (not grow)

very much. And I (water)

it every day.
j) Which hotel (you stay)
3

in when you (come)

Decide whether the verb form in italics refers to present or future time.

a) Where are you staying on Saturday night? ...future.....


b) George retires at the end of next year
c) What

are

we

doing

when

the

guests

arrive?

d) I'm trying really hard to understand this book


e) Wait for me here until I get back
f) Sue is leaving in the morning
g) I'm waiting for the bus
h) I'm off now and I'm taking the car
i) They're showing a Woody Allen film on Channel 4 tonight
j) I'm going for a walk this evening

22

here

GRAMMAR 4

PRESENT T I M E

Write each verb in the -ing f o r m , then complete the spelling rules below.

a) If a word ends in vowel + consonant + -e (write)


b) If a word ends in vowel + consonant (swim)
c) Words which end in -y (try, annoy)

Rewrite each sentence. Use a verb from the box to replace the words in italics.

be

cost

feel

have

see

smell

taste

have

think of

have

a) This flower has a wonderful perfume.

the flower smells wonderful.


b) I think you are behaving in a very silly way.
c) She is expecting a baby in the summer.
d) Nancy is considering moving to Scotland.
e) Don't go in. They are holding a meeting.
f) I am meeting Janet this evening actually.
g) Good clothes are becoming more and more expensive.
h) I am trying the soup to see if it needs more salt.
i) Helen is taking a bath at the moment.
j) I think that you would be happier in another job.

23

FIRST C E R T I F I C A T E L A N G U A G E P R A C T I C E

Put each verb in brackets into either the present simple or the present
continuous.

Dear Aunt Jean,

I (1) ...am just writing. (just write) how to tell you how much I
(2)

(appreciate) the money you sent me, and to tell you

how I (3)
(4)

(get on) in my first term at university Actually I


(really enjoy) myself! I (5)

(study)

quite hard as well, but at the moment I (6)


time just making friends. I (7)

(spend) a lot of
(still stay) with my friend

Sue, and I (8)

(look for) somewhere of my own to live. Only

a few of the first-year students (9)


and I (10)

(live) in college here,

(seem) to be spending a lot of time travelling

backwards and forwards. I (11)

(go) to lectures every

morning, and most afternoons I (12)


In fact I (13)

(study) in the library.

(write) this letter instead of an essay on

Hamletl I (14)

(think) I'll buy some new clothes with the

money you sent. Everything (15)

(cost) a lot here, and I

(16)

(save) to buy a winter coat. It

(17)

(get) really cold here in the evenings. I now

(18)

(know) some other students and generally speaking

we (19)
(20)

(have) quite a good time socially! I


(also learn) to drive. See you soon.

Katherine

Key p o i n t s

1
2

3
4
5
6

The present simple describes facts and habitual actions. The present continuous
describes actions which are still in progress at the time of speaking.
Many verbs which describe states rather than momentary events can only be
used in the simple form. Many verbs describing mental activities (understand,
know) are of this kind.
Some verbs have both state and event meanings, but the meanings are not the
same.
When describing a photograph, we usually describe the scene as if it is
happening now, and use the present continuous.
Present tense forms are also used to refer to future time. See Grammar 3.
Where some languages use present tenses, English uses the present perfect. See
Grammar 2.
I've lived in Milan all my life.