of
interest
for
incompressible
flow
are
the
fluid
viscosity,
t r2
r1
Page 1 of 56
is the annular
U.P.KUMAR CHATURVEDULA
Page 2 of 56
gap between the cylinders. Considering N as the speed of rotation of the cylinder in
rpm, one can write the expression of shear stress
, as given below;
2r2 N
dy
60 t
du
(7.1.1)
This shear stress induces viscous drag in the liquid that can be calculated by
measuring the toque through the mechanism provided in the inner cylinder.
2r2 N
T shear stressarearadius
2rh r
1
1
60 t
or,
15tT
2 r1 2 2r hN CN
Here, C is a constant quantity for a given viscometer.
(7.1.2)
Falling Sphere Viscometer: It consists of a long container of constant area filled with
a liquid whose viscosity has to be measured. Since the viscosity depends strongly with
the temperature, so this container is kept in a constant temperature bath as shown in
Fig. 7.1.2.
A perfectly smooth spherical ball is allowed to fall vertically through the liquid
by virtue of its own weight W . The ball will accelerate inside the liquid, until
the
net downward force is zero i.e. the submerged weight of the ball
FB
is equal to the
resisting force
FR
given by Stokes law. After this point, the ball will move at
steady velocity which is known as terminal velocity. The equation of motion may be
written as below;
FB FR
W
where,
wl and
ws
ws
D wl FR
(7.1.3)
are the specific weights of the liquid and the ball, respectively. If
the spherical ball has the diameter D that moves at constant fall velocity V in a fluid
having viscosity , then using Stokes law, one can write the expression for resisting
force FR .
FB 3VD
(7.1.4)
w
s
18V
where V
L
(7.1.5)
t
The constant fall velocity can be calculated by measuring the time t taken by the
ball to fall through a distance
L.
sphere viscometer is applicable for the Reynolds number below 0.1 so that wall will
not have any effect on the fall velocity.
Capillary Tube Viscometer: This type of viscometer is based on laminar flow through
a circular pipe. It has a circular tube attached horizontally to a vessel filled with a
liquid whose viscosity has to be measured. Suitable head
h
f
is provided to the
liquid so that it can flow freely through the capillary tube of certain length
into a
collection tank as shown in Fig. 7.1.3. The flow rate Q of the liquid having specific
weight
wl
can be measured through the volume flow rate in the tank. The Hagen
Poiseuille equation for laminar flow can be applied to calculate the viscosity of
the liquid.
4
wl hf d
128 QL
(7.1.6)
Saybolt and Redwood Viscometer: The main disadvantage of the capillary tube
viscometer is the errors that arise due to the variation in the head loss and other
parameters. However, the HagenPoiseuille formula can be still applied by designing
a efflux type viscometer that works on the principle of vertical gravity flow of a
viscous liquid through a capillary tube. The Saybolt viscometer has a vertical
cylindrical chamber filled with liquid whose viscosity is to be measured (Fig. 7.1.4a).
It is surrounded by a constant temperature bath and a capillary tube (length 12mm and
diameter 1.75mm) is attached vertically at the bottom of the chamber. For
measurement of viscosity, the stopper at the bottom of the tube is removed and time
for 60ml of liquid to flow is noted which is named as Saybolt seconds. So, Eq. (7.1.6)
can be used for the flow rate
seconds) for collection of 60ml of liquid in the measuring flask. For calculation
purpose of kinematic viscosity , the simplified expression is obtained as below;
1.8
0.002 t ; where, in Stokes and t in seconds
(7.1.6)
Fig. 7.1.4: Schematic diagram: (a) Saybolt viscometer; (b) Redwood viscometer.
Measurement of Pressure
The fluid pressure is usually measured with reference to standard atmosphere (i.e.
760mm of mercury/101.325 kPa). Any differential pressures are often expressed as
gauge/vacuum pressure. The pressure measuring devices mostly employed in fluid
systems are generally grouped under two categories; liquid manometers and
mechanical gauges.
The liquid manometers work on the principle of balancing the column of liquid
whose pressure is to be determined by same/another liquid column. Depending on the
application, magnitude of pressure and sensitivity requirement, the manometers can
be selected. The most commonly used liquid as manometric fluid are mercury, water,
alcohol and kerosenes etc. Most of the case, for gauge pressure measurements,
mercury is widely used as manometric fluid because it has nonevaporating quality
under normal conditions, sharp meniscus and stable density. For some pressure
differences and low level vacuum, water can be considered as working fluid in the
manometer. Manometers can be employed to measure pressures in the range of 0.4 Pa
to 200 kPa.
The liquid manometers become bulky for handling higher pressure
measurements. In such cases, mechanical gauges are normally employed. These
gauges employ elastic elements which can deflect due to pressure acting on it. The
deflection obtained by action of pressure is mechanically magnified and made to
operate a pointer moving in a graduated dial. Some of these mechanical devices are
deadweight pressure gauges, bourdon tube pressure gauge, elastic diaphragm
pressure gauges, pirani and McLeod gauges (vacuum measurement) etc.
Measurement of Temperature
Temperature is a thermodynamic property of a fluid which is measured as a change
with respect to another temperaturedependent property. In practical aspects, the
temperature is gauged by its effect on quantities such as volume, pressure, electrical
resistance and radiant energy. The temperature sensing devices working on these
techniques are classified in the following categories;

Resistance temperature
Among all the devices, the electrical temperature sensors are mostly used
particularly when automatic/remote recording is desired. Radiant sensors are used for
noncontact temperature sensing, either in high temperature applications (combustors)
or for infrared sensing at low temperatures. These are optical devices and can be
adapted to wholefield temperature measurements known as thermal imaging. The
most familiar type of temperature sensing device is the thermometer that appears in
laboratories and households because of its ease in use and low cost. Some of the
important and commonly used temperature devices are discussed here.
Resistance Thermometers and Thermistors: Traditionally, the resistance elements
sensitive to temperatures are made out of metals which are good conductors of
electricity (e.g. nickel, platinum, copper and silver). The operating ranges for this
class of devices fall between 250C to 1000C. They are commonly referred as
resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and provide a linear temperatureresistance
relation.
R1c T T0
R0
(7.1.7)
1
T
where,
1
T0
(7.1.7)
t is a constant for a given thermistor. The practical operating ranges for the
Thermocouples: When two dissimilar metals are joined together to form a junction,
then an electromotive force exists between the junctions and the connecting wires that
forms the circuit. It leads to a current flow in the circuit due to the potential difference
of voltage that comes from two different sources: from contact of two dissimilar
metals at the junction temperature and from the temperature gradients along the
conductors in the circuit. The first one is known as Peltier effect which is due to the
temperature difference between the junctions. The voltage difference due to
temperature gradients along the conductors in the circuit is known as Thomson effect.
In most of the cases, the Thomson emf is quite small relative to Peltier emf and with
proper selection of conductor materials, the Thomson emf can be neglected. With this
principle, a thermocouple is prepared between two conductors of different materials
resulting two junctions p and q as shown in Fig. 7.1.6. If the junction temperatures
T1 and T2
are equal, then the emfs will balance and no current will flow. When
there is temperature difference between the junctions, then there will be net emf and a
current will flow in the circuit. When the thermocouple is used to measure a unknown
temperature, then temperature of one of the junction is known and termed as
reference junction and by measuring the net emf in the circuit, the unknown
temperature can be measured. The thermocouple circuits also follow certain laws in
addition to Seebeck effect;
T1 and
T2
and emf of
e2
are at temperatures T2 and T3 , then the same thermocouple will develop an emf
e1 e2
Type
Positive
Conductor
Sensitivity
Operating
Temperature Range
Chromel
Negative
Conducto
r
Alumel
41 V/C
200C to 1350C
Chromel
Constantan
68 V/C
250C to 900C
Iron
Constantan
55 V/C
40C to 750C
Chromium
Nickel
39 V/C
up to 1200C
Platinum
10 V/C
up to 1800C
Platinum
10 V/C
up to 1600C
Platinum
10 V/C
up to 1600C
Copper
Platinum /
6% Rhodium
Platinum /
13% Rhodium
Platinum /
10% Rhodium
Constantan
43 V/C
200C to 350C
Tungsten5% rhenium
Nickel18% Molybdenum
Tungsten26% rhenium
Nickel6% Cobalt
30 V/C
0C to 2320C
30 V/C
Up to 1400C
Module 7 : Lecture 2
MEASUREMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS
(Incompressible Flow Part II)
Measurement of Flow Rate and Velocity
A major requirement in application areas of fluid mechanics is the determination of
flow rates and with respect to incompressible flows, they are called as flow metering.
Based on the operating principle, pressure drop, capacity, versatility, accuracy, cost,
size and level of sophistication the range varies widely For example, a crude way of
measuring flow rate of water through a household tap is through the collection of
water in a bucket and noting the corresponding time. On the other hand, a
sophisticated instrument may involve flow rate measurement through the propagation
of sound in a flowing fluid or electromotive forces when the fluid passes through a
magnetic fluid. Some of the commonly used devices are as follows;

Thermal Anemometers
Scattering devices
2 pt ps
(7.2.1)
2
where, V is the average flow velocity and is the fluid density. If measurement is
t
made in such a way that the velocity of the flow is not disturbed, then the measured
pressure indicates the static pressure ps . On the other hand, if the measurement
is made such that the flow velocity of the stream is brought to rest isentropically,
then
pd which
is the
and pt .
A Pitot probe is a simple tube with a pressure tap at the stagnation point where
the flow comes to rest and thus the pressure measured at this point is the stagnation
pressure (Fig. 7.2.2a). The Pitotstatic probe consists of a slender doubletube
aligned with the flow and connected to a differential pressure measuring device such
as manometer (Fig. 7.2.2b). The inner tube is fully open to the flow at the nose and
thus measures the stagnation pressure (point 1) while the outer tube is sealed at the
nose, but has the holes on the circumference of the outer wall for measuring the static
pressure (point 2). Neglecting frictional effects in Fig. 7.2.2(c), Bernoullis equation
can be applied for the point 1 and 2 to obtain the average flow velocity as given by
Eq. (7.2.1). This equation is also known as Pitot formula. The volume flow rate can
be obtained by multiplying the crosssectional area to this velocity.
The Pitotstatic probe is a simple, inexpensive and highly reliable device because
it has no moving parts. Moreover, this device can be used for velocity/flow rate
measurements for liquids as well as gases. Referring to Eq. (7.2.1), the dynamic
pressure (i.e. difference between stagnation and static pressure) is proportional to the
density of the fluid and square of the flow velocity. When this device is used for
gases, it is expected that velocity is relatively high to create a noticeable dynamic
pressure because gases have low densities.
Fig. 7.2.2: (a) Pitot probe; (b) Pitotstatic probe; (c) Measuring flow velocities with a Pitotstatic probe.
and diameter d
A1
and diameter
equation can be applied between a location before the constriction (point 1) and at
the constriction site (point 2).
Mass
balance : A V A
V
1
2
2
Bernoulli equation : p
1
V1
g 2g
d 2
V
A2
V
V
2
2
D
A1
2
p2
V
2
g 2g
(7.2.2)
Combining both the equations and solving for V2 one can obtain the expression for
velocity and flow rate
where, p1 ,
V1
and p2 ,
V2
respectively and
2 p1 p2
; 14
V A2V2
4
d
(7.2.3)
d
D
flow rate through a pipe can be determined by constricting the flow and measuring the
decrease in pressure due to increase in velocity at the constriction site. The devices
based on this principle is known as obstruction flow meters and widely used to
measure flow rates for gases and liquids. Depending on nature of constriction, the
obstruction flow meters are classified as orifice, nozzles and venturimeter as shown in
Fig. 7.2.4.
Fig. 7.2.4: Classification of obstruction flow meters: (a) orifice; (b) nozzle; (c) venturimeter.
The orifice meter (Fig. 7.2.4a) has the simplest design and it occupies
minimal space. It consists of a plate with a hole in the middle and this hole may be
sharpedged/beveled/rounded. The sudden change in the flow area causes a venacontracta (minimum area) and thus leading to significant head loss or swirl. In the
flow through nozzles (Fig. 7.2.4b), the plate is replaced by a nozzle and the flow
becomes streamlined. As a result, the venacontracta is practically eliminated that
leads to very small head losses. The most accurate measurement device in the flow
meter category is the venturimeter (Fig. 7.2.4c). Its gradual contraction and
expansion prevents flow separation and swirling which minimizes the head losses.
However, it suffers irreversible losses due to the friction at the wall which is only
about 10%.
The velocity expression in the Eq. (7.2.3) is obtained by assuming no loss and
thus it is the maximum velocity that occurs at the constriction site. In reality, the
velocity will be less than this value because of inevitable frictional losses. Also, the
fluid stream will continue to contract past the obstruction and the venacontracta is
less than the flow area of the obstruction. By incorporating these two factors, a
correction factor is introduced in the obstruction flow meters, which is measured
experimentally. The volume flow rate is then expressed by a parameter called as
discharge coefficient Cd .
V A0CdV2
A0Cd
The value of
Cd
2 p1 p2
14
A0 d
4
(7.2.4)
C of
d
2.1
Orifice
:
d
Nozzles : Cd 0.9975
(7.2.5)
Re0.5
6.53
0.5
Re0.5
For high Reynolds number flows Re 30000, the value of
Cd
High accuracy, good pressure recovery and resistance to abrasion are the
primary advantages of the venturi. The space requirement and cost of the
venturi meter is comparatively higher than that of orifice and flow nozzle.
The orifice is inexpensive and may often be installed between existing pipe
flanges. However, its pressure recovery is poor and it is especially susceptible
to inaccuracies resulting from wear and abrasion. It may also be damaged by
pressure transients because of its lower physical strength.
The nozzle possesses the advantages of the venturi, except that it has lower
pressure recovery and it has the added advantage of shorter physical strength.
It is inexpensive compared with the venturimeter but relatively difficult to
install properly.
Module 7 : Lecture 3
MEASUREMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS
(Incompressible Flow Part III)
VariableArea Flow Meter
In the obstruction flow meters, the flow is allowed to pass through a reduced crosssectional area
A0
p1 p2
is measured
by using any differential pressure measuring device. The expression for volume flow
rate
V is given by,
V A0Cd
2 p1 p2
14
A0
4
d
(7.3.1)
Fd is
buoyancy force
thus it is in equilibrium for a given flow rate. The degree of tapering of the tube
can be made such that the vertical rise changes linearly with the flow rate and a
suitable scale outside the tube is fixed so that the flow rate can be determined by
matching the position of float.
At equilibrium state, the force balance on bob can be written by the following
expression;
Fd Fb Wb
(7.3.2)
By definition, all these forces terms can be expressed in the following form;
u 2
F C
A
d
where,
Vb
F
2
;
b
V g;
W
f
V
g
(7.3.3)
b b
is the total volume of the bob, Ab is the frontal area of the bob, um is the
mean flow velocity in the annular space between the bob and tube, CD is the drag
coefficient, g is the acceleration due to gravity, f and
float density, respectively. Both Eqs (7.3.2 &7.3.3) can be combined to obtain the
expression for
um
um C A b b 1
D
b f
and
V Aum
;
A
4
V .
(7.3.4)
D ay
2
d
Here, A is the annular area, D f is the diameter of the tube at inlet, d is the
maximum bob diameter, y is the vertical distance from the entrance and a is the
constant indicating the tube taper. Since the drag coefficient depends on the Reynolds
number and fluid viscosity, special bob may be used to have constant drag coefficient.
It is also possible to decide appropriate geometrical dimensions so that a linear
relation is obtained for the expression given by the Eq. (7.3.4).
mC1 y
C1 is a constant for
rotameter.
(7.3.5)
Since the response of rotameter is linear, its resolution is same for both higher and
lower flow rates. The accuracy for these types of devices is typically 5%. However,
rotameters have certain drawbacks such as vertical installation and inability for
measurements of opaque fluids because the float may not be visible.
Thermal Anemometers
The thermal anemometers are often used in research applications to study rapidly
varying flow conditions. When, a heated object is placed in a flowing fluid, it tends to
lose heat to the fluid. The rate, at which the heat is lost, is proportional to the flow
velocity. If the object is heated to a known power and placed in the flowing fluid, then
heat will be lost to the fluid. Eventually, the object will reach to a temperature which
is decided by the rate of cooling. However, if the temperature of the object is to be
maintained constant, then the input power needs to be changed which is proportional
to the fluid velocity. So, the heating power becomes a measure of velocity. The
concept of using thermal effects to measure the flow velocity was introduced in late
1950s. The thermal anemometers have extremely small sensors and are useful to
measure instantaneous velocity at any point in the flow without disturbing the flow
appreciably (Fig. 7.3.2).
Fig. 7.3.3: A hotwire/hot film thermal anemometer with its support system:
(a) hotwire; (b) hotfilm.
Fig. 7.3.4: (a) Schematic representation of anemometer measurement; (b) Anemometer feedback controlled circuit.
Both hotwire and hotfilm probes are operated using a feedback controlled
bridge (Fig. 7.3.4) that controls the input power to the probe to maintain constant
temperature when there is a change in fluid velocity. The higher is the flow velocity,
the more will be heat transfer from the sensor and more voltage/power will be
required for the sensor. When the sensor is maintained at constant temperature, the
thermal energy remains constant. So, the electrical heating
equal to the rate of heat loss through convection
qC and
qE of
the sensor is
is often governed by
Kings law.
0.5
qC a bV
2
q i R
E
ref
(7.3.6)
1T T
w
ref
, T
ref
coefficient of resistance,
is the
are the wire temperature, free stream fluid temperature and reference
E A BV
;
E .
(7.3.7)
Moreover, simultaneous
measurement of
velocity
components
(three
Module 7 : Lecture 4
MEASUREMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS
(Incompressible Flow Part IV)
Miscellaneous Measuring Devices
The preceding section covers the common types of flow meters such as obstruction
devices and rotameter. There are few additional devices that are used for specific
applications and these devices can be made such that outputs that vary linearly with
flow rate. Some of the special classes of these devices are briefly discussed here.
Electromagnetic flow meters
When a conductor is moved in a magnetic field, an electromotive force is developed
due to magnetic induction. The voltage induced across the conductor EMF while
moving right angles to the magnetic field is proportional to the velocity of the
conductor. This principle is known as Faradays law and stated by the following
equation;
EMF BLV
8
10
(7.4.1)
where, B is the magnetic flux density (gauss), L is the length of the conductor (cm)
and V is the velocity of the conductor (cm/s). If the conductor is replaced by a
conducting fluid, then V may be replaced by flow velocity.
f
V ;
f is the pulse frequency.
K
(7.4.2)
This particular device indicates the flow accurately within 0.5% over wide range of
flow rates.
St
l and
impinging the
obstruction.
St
fs
l
V
(7.4.3)
A vortex flow meter works on the above principle is shown in Fig. 7.4.2. It
consists of a bluff body placed in the flow that serves as vortex generator and a
detector placed at certain distance downstream on the inner surface of casing records
the shedding frequency. A piezoelectric sensor mounted inside the vortex shedder
detects the vortices and subsequently amplified to indicate either instantaneous flow
rate or total flow over selected time interval. With prior knowledge of calibration
constant St and characteristic length dimension of the bluff body, the average flow
velocity can be obtained. The vortex flow meters operate reliably between the
4
the direction of the flow as well as in the opposite direction. The travel time for each
direction can be measured accurately and the difference t can be estimated. The
average flow velocity V can be determined from the following relation;
V K l t
K is a constant
(7.4.4)
The frequency shift flow meter (Fig. 7.4.3b) is normally known as Dopplereffect ultrasonic flow meter that measures average velocity along the sonic path. The
piezoelectric transducers placed outside the surface of the flow transmits sound
waves through the flowing fluid that reflects from the inner wall of the surface. By
capturing the reflected signals, the change in frequency is measured which is
proportional to the flow velocity.
Fig. 7.4.3: Basic principle of an ultrasonic flow meter: (a) Transit time flow meter; (b) Frequency shift flow
meter.
p2 p1 .
d4pp d 4p
128L
(7.4.5)
128 L
Red is
umd
d 4V
4 d 2
(7.4.6)
Combining the Eqs (7.4.5 & 7.4.6), the design selection of
flow meter can be set for certain range of pressure drop and flow Reynolds number.
128 Re L
2
p p1 p2
4d
3
(7.4.7)
In contrast to obstruction flow devices, the volume flow has a linear relation with
pressure drop for a laminar flow meter. It allows the operation of this device for wide
range of flow rates for a given pressure differential, within an uncertainties of 4%.
However, being small in sizes, the laminar tube elements are subjected to clogging
when used with dirty fluids.
Fig. 7.4.4: (a) Basic principle of a laminar flow meter; (b) A laminar flow element.
u of
the gas. The two sensors are connected to a Wheatstone bridge circuit for which
the output voltage is proportional to the mass velocity. This circuit can be
specially designed so that linearly varying output can be obtained from the circuit.
The experiment is normally performed with nitrogen and a calibration factor is
obtained for subsequent use of other gases.
It is to be noted that the mass velocity of the gas is measured at the point of
immersion. For the flow system with varying velocities, several measurements are
necessary to obtain an integrated mass flow across the channel. Velocities of the gases
in the range of 0.025m/s to 30m/s can be measured with this device within an
uncertainty level of 2%.
Scattering Devices
All the measurement techniques discussed earlier, determine the velocity by
disturbing the flow. In some cases, the disturbance is very less (such as ultrasonic
flow meter and thermal anemometers) while in other cases (orifice, pitot probe etc.),
sufficient care to insert the measuring device to minimize the disturbances. So they
are classified as intrusive based measurements. The modern instrumentation method
used optical technique to measure the flow velocity at any desired location without
disturbing the flow. So they are called as nonintrusive based measurement and works
on the principle of scattering light and sound waves in a moving fluid. By measuring
the frequency difference between scattered and unscattered wave, particle/flow speed
can be found. The Doppler frequency shift f is responsible for this change in the
speed and is illustrated in Fig. 7.4.6.
2V
f
cos
sin
2
(7.4.8)
and are the angles shown in Fig. 7.4.6. The important aspect of the
and V .
If
can obtain the particle speed. Since, the particle moves with the flow, so the particle
speed is equal to flow speed. Since, the laser light and ultrasonic waves have
relatively high frequencies, they are normally used for measuring flow velocity
because the Doppler shift will be only a small fraction compared to original
frequency. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
are the optical techniques that work on the principle of Doppler shift.
a dimension of 0.1mm diameter and 0.5mm long. Finally, the frequency information
of scattered and unscattered laser light collected through receiving lens and photodetector, is converted to voltage signal. Subsequently, flow velocity V is calculated.
Fig. 7.4.8: Interference of laser beams: (a) Formation of fringes; (b) Fringe lines and wavelengths.
When the waves of two beams interfere in the measurement volume, it creates
bright fringes when they are in phase and dark fringes when they are out of phase.
The bright and dark fringes form lines parallel to the midplane between two incident
laser beams as shown in Fig. 7.4.8(a). The spacing between fringe lines s can be
viewed as wavelength of fringes as shown in Fig. 7.4.8(b).
f
V
s
2V sin
2
(7.4.9)
It is the fundamental LDV equation that shows the flow velocity proportional to the
frequency.
t ,
through the laser light and the new positions are recorded. Using the information of
both the images, the particle displacement s is determined and subsequently the
magnitude
of velocity
s
A variety of laser sources such as argon, copper vapour and NdYAG can be used
with PIV system, depending on the requirements for pulse duration, power and time
between the pulses. Silicon carbide, titanium dioxide and polystyrene latex particles
are few categories of seed particles that are used depending on the type of fluid
(liquid/gas). In addition to velocity measurement, the PIV is capable of measuring
other flow properties such as vorticity and strain rates. The measurements can be
extended to supersonic flows, explosions, flame propagation and unsteady flows. The
accuracy, flexibility and versatility are the few distinct advantages of a PIV system.
Module 7 : Lecture 5
MEASUREMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS
(Compressible Flow Part I)
Introduction
The compressible flows are normally characterized as variable density flows. Pressure
gradient, variable area, heat exchange and friction are few mechanisms that can
change the density during a flow. But the conditions will vary for liquids and gases.
For instance, the pressure gradient causes predominant change in the velocity keeping
density as constant for liquids. In the other hand, the change in pressure can cause
substantial velocity and density change for gases. When the density variation is less
the 5%, the gases are still in the incompressible limit and the measurement techniques
discussed earlier can be extended to the gases as well. However, if the density
variation is substantial (more than 5%), then the measurement methods are different.
The incompressible limit fails when the Mach number M
1.3 and the flow remains subsonic till M 1 . If the Mach number of the flow is
progressively increased, then one may reach the supersonic M 1and hypersonic
M
5
Measurement of Temperature
In general, the static temperature along with the pressure determines the
thermodynamic state of fluid at any instant. With compressible flow field, the
temperature and velocity of the flow is normally very high. In order to get the static
temperature, the measuring device must travel at the fluid velocity without disturbing
the flow which is quite unrealistic. So, the indirect determination of static temperature
measurement is done by using thermocouples by exposing directly into the flow or
mounting them on the wall surface. At any case, the flow disturbance due to
obstruction of temperature sensing device should be minimized.
Fig. 7.5.1: Schematic diagram of temperature measurement for compressible flows: (a) thermocouple located at the wall
surface; (b) temperature probe facing the flow.
wall surface is insulated, then the temperature measured at the wall is called as
adiabatic wall temperature Taw . Another method is to design a probe which is
inserted into the flow by minimizing the obstruction (Fig. 7.5.1b). It consists of a
diffuser which decelerates the velocity to a low value so that the fluid reaches the
stagnation state at the thermocouple location. If sufficient care is made for suitable
design of the probe, then it represents a thermodynamic state where the gas comes to
rest isentropically (i.e. no heat exchange between the probe and surroundings). Then,
the probe indicates the stagnation temperature T0 given by the following isentropic
expression;
V 2
T T
0
where,
cp
(7.5.1)
2c p
effects is taken into account in the calculation of gas temperature. Since, the Prandtl
number for the gases is less, the heat conduction from the probe surface dominates
and the probe generally feels the temperature less than the stagnation temperature
T0 .
At the same time, if the probe is properly insulated and there is no heat
exchange through conduction by stem and radiation, then the probe temperature will
be the adiabatic wall temperature Taw . This deviation in the probe reading and
R .
Taw
1R
T0
1 1R
T0 T
T
(7.5.2)
T0
relation. When the Prandtl number is unity, the adiabatic wall temperature becomes
equal to stagnation temperature. The adiabatic recovery factor expressed in Eq. (1)
applies to the case when the Prandtl number is not unity. In most cases, it is always
less than 1 and is related to adiabatic recovery factor as given below;
Laminar compressible boundary layer: R Pr
12
0.72 for
air
0.9 for
air
13
(7.5.3)
(7.5.4)
In a particular flow field, if the temperature probe is designed such that heat loss from
the sensor is negligible, then the value of K is equal to R as it is the measure of
transport phenomena in the boundary layer and it gets altered by the shape of the
instrument. The various temperature discussed above in a compressible flow is shown
in Fig. 7.5.2.
When the measurement is performed for supersonic flow stream, a detached
shock is formed at a certain distance in front of the probe (Fig. 7.5.3). Since the flow
across a shock is adiabatic, the stagnation temperatures remain the same before and
after the shock. So, the temperature measurement remains unaffected.
Fig. 7.5.3: Detached shock ahead of the measuring temperature probe in a supersonic flow.
Module 7 : Lecture 6
MEASUREMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS
(Compressible Flow Part II)
Measurement of Pressure
Many pressure measuring devices used for incompressible flows can be equally
applicable for compressible flows if they are feasible for measurements in gases. They
may be grouped into manometers and pressure transducers depending on the ranges of
pressure and degree of precision. Utype liquid manometer, dialtype pressure gauge
(Bourdon tube), electrical/mechanical/optical types of pressure transducers are few
popular pressure measuring devices.
With respect to compressible flow field, the measurement concept of both
static and stagnation pressure (Fig. 7.6.1) are equally important. Both the pressures
along with the temperature can be used for calculating local flow velocity, Mach
number and density of the flowing stream. When the measurement is made in such a
way that the velocity of the flow is not disturbed, then the measured pressure indicates
the static pressure. On the other hand, if the flow is brought to rest isentropically, then
the pressure obtained, becomes the stagnation pressure.
Fig. 7.6.2: Static pressure measurements in compressible flows: (a) wall pressure tapping; (b) static pressure probe.
isentropically to rest through the passage. The reading in the probe gives the
stagnation pressure at the location where the nose of the probe is oriented. This device
was first used by Henery Pitot for measurement of pressure and hence named as Pitot
tube. At low Reynolds number flow, the deceleration may not be isentropic and
inaccuracy in the measurements can arise.
dp V
gz
constant
VdV gdz
0
Now, replace the integral of Eq. (7.6.1) with the isentropic relation for gases;
dp
2
p c c d
(7.6.1)
(7.6.2)
is the
elevation difference, is the specific heat ratio and c is a constant. Combine Eq.
(7.6.1 & 7.6.2) and simplify to obtain the Bernoulli equation for onedimensional
frictionless isentropic flow for compressible fluid.
gz
constant
(7.6.3)
Apply Eq. (7.6.3) along a stream line at the location of stagnation point and any
desired location to obtain the flow velocity.
p0V 2
2
V 2 p0 p
(7.6.4)
The subscripts, 0 and refers to stagnation and free stream conditions, respectively.
Had the flow been incompressible, the density term in Eq. (7.6.1) becomes constant
quantity and the stagnation and static pressure difference is expressed as follows:
p0 p
2 p0
p
(7.6.5)
a similar way as shown in Fig. 7.6.4. Subsequently, the isentropic relation is used to
determine the flow Mach number.
p0
1 1
p
2
(7.6.6)
pof
p02
p
1 2
M
2 2 1
1 M 1
1
1
(7.6.7)
The RayleighPitot formula with air as free stream is presented graphically in Fig.
7.6.6. The dynamic pressure
M 2
2
(7.6.8)
Thus, the Mach number calculation through static and stagnation measurements gives
complete information of a supersonic flow field.
Fig. 7.6.5: Detached shock ahead of the measuring pressure probe in a supersonic flow.
Fig. 7.6.6: Mach number determination from Pitot tube measurement in a supersonic flow.
Sonic Nozzle: It is an obstruction device often used to measure high flow rates for
gases. When the flow rate is sufficiently high, the pressure differential is
also
expected to be large. Under this condition, a sonic flow condition is achieved at the
minimum flow area and the flow is said to be choked. Such a device is known as sonic
nozzle. In this case, the flow rate takes the maximum value for a given inlet condition.
If this inlet refers to a reservoir pressure
p0 ,
said
A ,
p can
be
obtained from isentropic relation,
p
p0
(7.6.9)
This relation is known as critical pressure ratio for a choked nozzle. The choked mass
flow rate can be obtained by the following expression,
p0 A T
0
1
1
2
R 1
(7.6.10)
Module 7 : Lecture 7
MEASUREMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS
(Compressible Flow Part III)
Density Variation Techniques
The density of a flow can be calculated by measuring/determining the pressure and/or
temperature. In the case of liquids, the density decreases slightly with temperature and
moderately with pressure. All the gases at high temperatures and low pressures are in
good agreement with the perfect gas law. So, for liquids, one can neglect the
temperature effect and an empirical relation may be written for pressure
density
p and
while perfect gas equation can be stated ideal gases as given below;
Liquids:
m
B 1
B
pa
a
p
(7.7.1)
Gases: p
RT
where, p and are the standard atmospheric value, B and m are the dimensionless
a
a
parameters. For example, water can be approximately fitted to Eq. (7.7.1) with
B 3000 and m 7 . Since the liquids are generally treated incompressible, the
density variation is neglected. But, for compressible flows, the variation in density
can be considered as an important tool to investigate the flow patterns during the
experiments. The general principle for flow visualization for incompressible flow is to
render the fluid elements visible either by observing the motion of suitable foreign
materials added to the fluid. The other way is to use optical pattern resulting from
variation in optical properties of the fluid such as refractive index. This technique is
applicable for studying the flow pattern in compressible flows. In highspeed flows,
the density changes are adequate to make these phenomena sufficient for optical
observation.
Light passing through a gaseous stream with density gradient gets deflected in
the same manner as it does through a prism.
The refractive index in the medium of the flow field and the velocity of light
through the flow field are functions of the fluid density in the flow field. Since the
refractive index for most of the gases is close to unity, the relationship between the
refractive index
n and
is
obtained
constant
or, n 1K c
(7.7.2)
Here, the subscripts 1 and 2 denote two different conditions of the medium and the
constant
K c
applicable for most of the gases except for very dense gases. Since, the fluid density
varies with location and time, the refractive index also follows the similar variation.
Let us consider a light ray passing through a compressible flow system
enclosed in a glass walls (Fig. 7.7.1). If the region inside the wall is same as outside,
then the light ray will follow a straight path and strike at a point S1 on the screen. If
the medium inside the glass wall has different density, the refractive index will
change and the light ray will get deflected through an angle d, striking at some
other point S at a distance dz from S . Also, there will be a time difference dt
2
1
due to the deflection of light ray, thereby covering more distance. Now, there are
three measurable quantities
d,
dz and dt
due
medium enclosed by glass wall and the medium outside. The operating principle
of optical instruments is based on these measured quantities. Depending on the
arrangements of the basic systems and optics used for observation of density
variation, it is possible to
get the indication of variation in density, density gradient (first derivative of density)
and change in density gradient (second derivative of density) as shown in Figs
7.7.2(ac). In a typical flow field, an interferometer is useful in getting the density
change directly by measuring dt , the Schlieren apparatus is useful in studying the
density gradient from the information of d and the shadowgraph gives in indication
of change in density gradient by measuring dz .
Schlieren Apparatus: Consider two parallel beam of light passing through a test
section at same initial condition (Fig. 7.7.3). The test section is divided into two parts
T1 and
T2
and a lens with focal length f is placed at a distance l from the test
section. A knife edge is kept at the focal point so that it can be moved up/down, thus
creating an obstruction to the light ray. A screen is placed at some appropriate
location such that the light rays passing through the test section can illuminate the
screen bright/dark depending on the position of the knife edge. It is also possible to
S1
and
the image of T2 . If two regions of the test section of the fluid are same, then the
images will also be the same. When the density of the gas in T2 change by keeping T1
as the same, the light rays passing through T2 will be show dark/bright image S2 in
the screen depending on the decrease/increase in the density of the medium. In other
words, if a disturbance is introduced in the test section, the light will be refracted so
that the image is displaced by a distance dz . Thus, the illumination on the screen is
proportional to dz which becomes the measure of density gradient of the flow. For
most of the gases, the refractive index is close to unity and the deflection is small.
Using electromagnetic theory, Schlieren equation is used to obtain the deflection
angle z in the zdirection.
n
z
dx
3 rs
2 z
dx, where
(7.7.3)