Sie sind auf Seite 1von 43

Stability and power sharing in microgrids

J. Schiffer1 , R. Ortega2 , J. Raisch1,3 , T. Sezi4


Joint work with A. Astolfi and T. Seel
1 Control
2

Systems Group, TU Berlin

Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes,


SUPELEC

3 Systems and Control Theory Group,


Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems
4 Siemens

AG, Smart Grid Division, Energy Automation


HYCON2 Workshop, ECC 2014
Strasbourg, June, 24 2014

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Outline

Motivation

Microgrids: concept and modeling

Problem statement

Asymptotic stability and power sharing in droop-controlled


microgrids

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

2 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Renewables change power system structure


Generation
Transmission and distribution
SG
..
.

High voltage (HV)


transmission system

SG
DG

synchronous
generator
distributed
generation unit

SG
Consumption
Medium voltage (MV)
distribution system

Large loads

Low voltage (LV)


distribution system

Small loads

3 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Renewables change power system structure


Generation
Transmission and distribution
SG
..
.

High voltage (HV)


transmission system

SG
DG

synchronous
generator
distributed
generation unit

SG
Consumption
DG
..
.

Medium voltage (MV)


distribution system

Large loads

Low voltage (LV)


distribution system

Small loads

DG
DG
..
.
DG

3 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Need change in power system operation


Increasing amount of renewable DG units highly affects in-feed
structure of existing power systems
Most renewable DG units interfaced to network via AC inverters
Physical characteristics of inverters largely differ from
characteristics of SGs
Different control and operation strategies are needed

Source: siemens.com

4 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

The microgrid concept


Main electrical network

PCC
Transformer

PV

PV

Load

4
Load

8
Load

PV

PV

11

Load

Load
7
10

PV

PV

Storage

Load

FC
Load

5
Storage

Wind

PV

FC

Load
SG

6
Load

PV

FC
Load

5 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Modeling of microgrids
Main network components
DG units interfaced to network via inverters or SGs
Loads
Power lines and transformers
Standard modeling assumptions
Loads can be modeled by impedances
Line dynamics can be neglected
Work with Kron-reduced network
DG unit connected at each node in reduced network

Main focus: inverter-based microgrids

6 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Main operation modes of inverters in microgrids


1

Grid-feeding mode
Inverter provides prespecified amount of active and reactive
power to grid

Grid-forming mode
Inverter is operated as AC voltage source with controllable
frequency and amplitude
Grid-forming units are essential components in power systems
Tasks
To provide a synchronous frequency
To provide a certain voltage level at all buses in the network
To provide a stable operating point

Focus on inverters in grid-forming mode

7 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Basic functionality of DC-AC voltage inverters


vAC,2

vAC,1

vDC

t
L

vDC

vAC,1

C1

C2

vAC,2

Power
electronics

Inverter

8 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Inverter operated in grid-forming mode

vDC
2

Rf 1

Lf

vDC
vDC
2

v Ia

Rg

Lg v
Ga

v Ib

vG b

vIc

vGc

Cf
Rf 2

9 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Inverter operated in grid-forming mode

vDC
2

Rf 1

Lf

vDC

Digital signal processor


(DSP)

vDC
2

v Ia

Rg

Lg v
Ga

v Ib

vG b

vIc

vGc

Cf
Rf 2
Modulator

Current controller

iI

iref
Voltage controller

vI

vref
9 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Grid-forming inverter as controllable voltage source


Model assumptions:
Inverter is operated in grid-forming mode
Its inner current and voltage controllers track references ideally
If inverter connects intermittent DG unit (e.g., a PV plant) to
network, it is equipped with some sort of fast-reacting storage
(e.g., a flywheel or a battery)

vref

Inverter
with LC
filter and
inner
control
loops

vIa
vI

vIc

Rg

Lg

vGa
vG

vGc

10 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Grid-forming inverter as controllable voltage source


Model assumptions:
Inverter is operated in grid-forming mode
Its inner current and voltage controllers track references ideally
If inverter connects intermittent DG unit (e.g., a PV plant) to
network, it is equipped with some sort of fast-reacting storage
(e.g., a flywheel or a battery)

vref

Inverter
with LC
filter and
inner
control
loops

vIa
vI

vIc

Rg

Lg

vGa
vG

vGc

10 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Model of a single grid-forming inverter


Inverter dynamics
i =

ui ,

P P im = Pim + Pi ,
i

Vi = uiV ,
m = Q m + Q
P Q
i
i
i
i

Inverter output =
b symmetric three-phase voltage

yi = vI

abci

ui
uiV

control inputs

Pi
Qi

active power
reactive power

Pim

measured
active power
measured
reactive power

Qim

sin(i )

= Vi sin(i 2
3 )
sin(i + 2
3 )

time constant
of meas. filter

MIMO (multiple-input-multiple-output) system


11 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

The dq0-transformation
Let : R0 T
dq0-transformation Tdq0 : T R3 ,

r
Tdq0 () :=

cos()
2
sin()

3
2
2

cos( 32 )
sin( 23 )
2
2

cos( + 32 )
sin(+ 23 )

2
2

dq0-transformation applied to symmetric three-phase signal

sin()
xa

xabc = xb = A sin( 2
3 )
2
xc
sin( + 3 )

xdq0

r
xd
sin( )
3

= xq = Tdq0 ()xabc =
A cos( )
2
x0
0

x0 = 0 for all t 0
12 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

The dq0-transformation
Let : R0 T
dq0-transformation Tdq0 : T R3 ,

r
Tdq0 () :=

cos()
2
sin()

3
2
2

cos( 32 )
sin( 23 )
2
2

cos( + 32 )
sin(+ 23 )

2
2

dq0-transformation applied to symmetric three-phase signal

sin()
xa

xabc = xb = A sin( 2
3 )
2
xc
sin( + 3 )

xdq0

r
xd
sin( )
3

= xq = Tdq0 ()xabc =
A cos( )
2
x0
0

x0 = 0 for all t 0
12 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Model of a grid-forming inverter in dq-coordinates


Inverter dynamics in new coordinates
i = i com = ui com ,
P P im = Pim + Pi ,
i

Vi = uiV ,
m = Q m + Q
P Q
i
i
i
i

Inverter output in new coordinates


"
ydq = Vi
i

Z
i := i = 0i +
Z
=
0

com d,

sin(i )
cos(i )


i com d = 0i +

Z
0


i com d T,

com R (e.g. synchronous frequency)


13 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Power flow equations


Active power flow at i -th node
Pi (1 , . . . , n , V1 , . . . , Vn ) = Gii Vi2

(Gik cos(ik ) |Bik | sin(ik )) Vi Vk

k Ni

Reactive power flow at i -th node


Qi (1 , . . . , n , V1 , . . . , Vn ) = |Bii |Vi2

(Gik sin(ik ) + |Bik | cos(ik )) Vi Vk

k Ni

neighbors of node i
conductance between nodes i and k Ni

Ni N [0, n] N
Gik R>0
+P
Gii = G
ii
kN Gik

susceptance between nodes i and k Ni

Bik R<0
ii | + P
|Bii | = |B
k N |Bik |

14 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Example network
{ 2 , V2 }

{ 5 , V5 }

2
P12 , Q12

{ 1 , V1 }

P45 , Q45

P21 , Q21

P32 , Q32

P23 , Q23

{ 3 , V3 }
P71 , Q71

{ 4 , V4 }

P54 , Q54

3
P64 , Q64

P17 , Q17

P46 , Q46

P36 , Q36

{ 8 , V8 }

P47 , Q47
P74 , Q74

P78 , Q78
P87 , Q87

P63 , Q63

6
{ 6 , V6 }

{ 7 , V7 }

inverters in grid-forming mode represented by i , i = 1, . . . , 8


15 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Power sharing in microgrids


Definition (Power sharing)
Consider an AC electrical network, e.g. an AC microgrid
Denote its set of nodes by N = [1, n] N
Choose positive real constants i , k , i and k
Proportional active, respectively reactive, power sharing between
units at nodes i N and k N , if
Pis
Ps
= k,
i
k

respectively

Qis
Qs
= k
i
k

Power sharing...
allows to prespecify utilization of units
avoids high circulating currents in network
16 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Power sharing is an agreement problem

NN
U = diag(1/i ),

i N

D = diag(1/i ),

i N

Control objective
lim UPN (, V ) = 1|N| ,

lim DQN (, V ) = 1|N| ,

R>0 ,

R>0

17 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Motivation for droop control of inverters


1

Droop control is widely used control solution in SG-based power


systems to address problems of frequency stability and active
power sharing

Adapt droop control to inverters


Make inverters mimick behavior of SGs with respect to frequency

and active power


2

How to couple actuactor signals ( and V ) with powers (P and Q )


to achieve power sharing?

Pose MIMO control design problem as set of decoupled SISO

control design problems


Analyze couplings in power flow equations over a power line

18 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Power flows over a power line


Assumptions
Dominantly inductive power line with admittance Yik C between
nodes i and k
Small phase angle differences, i.e. i k 0
Approximations
Yik = Gik + jBik jBik ,

sin(ik ) ik ,

cos(ik ) 1

Active and reactive power flows simplify to


Pik = Bik Vi Vk ik ,
Qik = Bik Vi2 + Bik Vi Vk = Bik Vi (Vi Vk )

19 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Standard droop control for inverters


kP R>0
i

Frequency droop control


ui = d kP (Pim Pid )
i

Voltage droop control


uiV = Vid kQ (Qim Qid )

d R>0
Pid R
Pim R
kQ R>0
i

Vid R>0
Further details: see, e.g., Chandorkar et al.
(1993)

Qid R
Qim R

frequency droop
gain
desired (nominal)
frequency
active power
setpoint
active power
measurement
voltage droop
gain
desired (nominal)
voltage amplitude
reactive power
setpoint
reactive power
measurement
20 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Droop control - schematic representation

kP

Pid

R
i

Vi

kQ

Qid
Qim
Pim

Inverter
with LC
filter and
inner
control
loops

vIa Rg
vI

vIc

Lg v
Ga
vG

vGc

Vid

Low-pass
filter

Power
calculation

21 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Closed-loop droop-controlled microgrid


i = d kP (Pim Pid ) com ,
i

= col(i ) Rn

+ Pi ,

= col(i ) Rn

Vi = Vid kQ (Qim Qid ),

V = col(Vi ) Rn

P P im
i

Pim

m = Q m + Q
P Q
i
i
i
i

change of variables
+
vector notation

= 1n com ,
T = + 1n d KP (P P d ),

V d = col(Vid ) Rn
T = diag(P ) Rnn
i

KP = diag(kP ) Rnn
i

KQ = diag(kQ ) Rnn
i

P = col(Pi ) Rn
Q = col(Qi ) Rn
P d = col(Pid ) Rn
Q d = col(Qid ) Rn

T V = V + V d KQ (Q Q d )
22 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Closed-loop droop-controlled microgrid


i = d kP (Pim Pid ) com ,
i

= col(i ) Rn

+ Pi ,

= col(i ) Rn

Vi = Vid kQ (Qim Qid ),

V = col(Vi ) Rn

P P im
i

Pim

m = Q m + Q
P Q
i
i
i
i

change of variables
+
vector notation

= 1n com ,
T = + 1n d KP (P P d ),

V d = col(Vid ) Rn
T = diag(P ) Rnn
i

KP = diag(kP ) Rnn
i

KQ = diag(kQ ) Rnn
i

P = col(Pi ) Rn
Q = col(Qi ) Rn
P d = col(Pid ) Rn
Q d = col(Qid ) Rn

T V = V + V d KQ (Q Q d )
22 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Problem statement

Derive conditions for asymptotic stability of generic


droop-controlled microgrids

Investigate if droop control is suitable to achieve control objective


of power sharing

23 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Stability analysis

Coordinate transformation
Follow interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based
control (IDA-PBC) approach (Ortega et al. (2002))
Represent microgrid dynamics in port-Hamiltonian form
Can easily identify energy function

24 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Port-Hamiltonian systems

x = (J(x) R(x)) H + g(x)u,


y = g T (x)H,

x X Rn ,

u Rm ,

y Rm

J(x) Rnn , J(x) = J(x)T (interconnection matrix)


R(x) 0 Rnn for all x X (damping matrix)
H : X R (Hamiltonian)
 T
H = H
x

Power balance equation


H
|{z}

stored power

= H T R(x)H
|
{z
}
dissipated power

uT y
|{z}

uT y

supplied power

25 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Assumptions

Lossless admittances, i.e. Gik = 0, i N , k N


Power balance feasibility
There exist constants s , s R and V s Rn>0 , where
n
o
s

| < , i N , k Ni ,
:= Tn |ik
2

such that
1n s 1n d + KP [P( s , V s ) P d ] = 0n ,
V s V d + KQ [Q( s , V s ) Q d ] = 0n

26 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Synchronized motion

Synchronized motion of microgrid starting in ( s , 1n s , V s )


(

(t) = mod2

+ 1n

!)

com

( )d

(t) = 1n s ,
V (t) = V s

Aim: derive conditions, under which synchronized motion is


attractive

27 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Power flows depend on angle differences ik

Pi (1 , . . . , n , V1 , . . . , Vn ) =

|Bik | sin(ik )Vi Vk ,

kNi

Qi (1 , . . . , n , V1 , . . . , Vn ) = |Bii |Vi2

|Bik | cos(ik )Vi Vk

kNi

Flow of system can be described in reduced angle coordinates


Transform convergence problem into classical stability problem

28 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

A condition for local asymptotic stability

Proposition
Fix Pi , kPi , d and Pid
If Vid , kQi and Qid are chosen such that
D + T W > L1 W > 0
x s is locally asymptotically stable

L > 0,

T > 0,

D = diag

Vid + kQ Qid
i
kQ (Vis )2
i

!
>0

29 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Physical interpretation of stability condition

D + T W > L1 W > 0
L=
b network coupling strengths between and P
T =
b network coupling strengths between V and Q

But P = P(, V ) 6= P() and Q = Q(, V ) 6= Q(V )


W=
b cross-coupling strength

Stability condition:
couplings represented by L and T have to dominate over
cross-couplings contained in W

30 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

A condition for active power sharing

Lemma (Proportional active power sharing)


Assume microgrid possesses synchronized motion
Then all generation units share active power proportionally in
steady-state if
kP i = kP k
i

and

kP Pid = kP Pkd ,
i

i N,

k N

Stability condition + parameter selection criterion


limt UP(, V ) = 1|N| ,

U = diag(1/i ),

i N,

31 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Reactive power sharing

Voltage droop control does, in general, not guarantee desired


reactive power sharing
Several other or modified (heuristic) decentralized voltage control

strategies proposed in literature


(Zhong (2013), Li et al. (2009), Sao et al. (2005), Simpson-Porco
et al. (2014),...)
But: no general conditions or formal guarantees for reactive
power sharing are given

32 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Distributed voltage control (DVC)


Alternative: consensus-based distributed voltage control (DVC)
uiV = Vid ki

ei =

Z
0

ei ( )d,


X  Qm
Qm
i
k
i
k

kCi

More on reactive power sharing?


visit our talk A Consensus-Based Distributed Voltage Control
for Reactive Power Sharing in Microgrids,
Thursday, June, 26, 10.0010.20, Session Th A9 Power
Systems

33 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

CIGRE MV benchmark model


Main electrical network
110/20 kV
PCC
1
2

8
5a

5b

5c

11
5

10a

10b
10

10c

9a

9b
9

9c

Photovoltaic plant (PV)

Storage

Fuel cell (FC)

Wind power plant

Inverter
=
Load
34 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Simulation example
102

V [pu]

f [Hz]

1.03
5
0
5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

1.02
1.01
1
0.99
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

0.4
0.1

Q [pu]

P [pu]

0.3
0.2
0.1

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

0
0.4

Q/S N [-]

P/S N [-]

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
00

0.3
0.2
0.1

0.5

1.5

2.5

t [s]

3.5

4.5

t [s]
35 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Conclusions and outlook

Microgrids are a promising concept in networks with large


amount of DG
Condition for local asymptotic stability in lossless
droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids
Selection criterion for parameters of frequency droop control that
ensures desired active power sharing in steady-state
Proposed distributed voltage control (DVC), which solves open
problem of reactive power sharing

36 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Outlook and related work


Analysis of lossy networks with variable frequencies and voltages
Analysis of microgrids with frequency droop control and
distributed voltage control (DVC)
Control schemes for highly ohmic networks
Secondary frequency control (Simpson-Porco et al. (2013),
Burger
et al. (2014), Andreasson et al. (2012), Bidram et al.

(2013), Shafiee et al. (2014))

Optimal operation control (Dorfler


et al. (2014), Bolognani et al.
(2013), Hans et al.(2014))
Alternative inverter control schemes (Torres et al. (2014), Dhople
et al. (2014))

37 / 38

Motivation

Microgrids

Problem statement

Stability and power sharing

Simulation example

Conclusions and outlook

Publications
and Sezi,
Schiffer, Johannes and Ortega, Romeo and Astolfi, Alessandro and Raisch, Jorg
Tevfik
Conditions for Stability of Droop-Controlled Inverter-Based Microgrids,
Automatica, 2014
and Sezi,
Schiffer, Johannes and Ortega, Romeo and Astolfi, Alessandro and Raisch, Jorg
Tevfik
Stability of Synchronized Motions of Inverter-Based Microgrids Under Droop Control,
To appear at 19th IFAC World Congress, Cape Town, South Africa
and Sezi, Tevfik,
Schiffer, Johannes and Seel, Thomas and Raisch, Jorg
Voltage Stability and Reactive Power Sharing in Inverter-Based Microgrids with
Consensus-Based Distributed Voltage Control
Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 2014
and Sezi, Tevfik,
Schiffer, Johannes and Seel, Thomas and Raisch, Jorg
A Consensus-Based Distributed Voltage Control for Reactive Power Sharing in Microgrids
13th ECC, Strasbourg, France, 2014
and Sezi, Tevfik
Schiffer, Johannes and Goldin, Darina and Raisch, Jorg
Synchronization of Droop-Controlled Microgrids with Distributed Rotational and Electronic
Generation,
IEEE 52nd CDC, Florence, Italy, 2013

38 / 38