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CLASSIFICATIO

N
OF
BOILERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

RELATIVE POSITION OF WATER & HOT GASES


AXIS OF SHELL
FIRING POSITION EXTERNAL & INTERNAL
METHOD OF WATER CIRCULATION
STATIONARY & MOBILE
PACKAGE & SITE ERECTED
Type of fuel fired

Package Boiler
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Furnace tube.
Tubes (2nd pass).
Tubes (3rd pass).
Combustion chamber.
Front smoke box.
Rear outlet box.
Sight glass.
Safety valve.
Crown valve.
Feed check valve.
Level controls.
Manhole.
Spare.
Spare.
Feed pump.
Control panel.
Burner.
FD fan.
Fan inlet silencer.

Packaged Smoke Tube Boilers


Salient Features
Continuous supply of dry saturated steam
Generation of steam at constant pressure
Minimum site work: Lesser boiler house space
Skid mounted, requires only a flat foundation
Fast steaming
Fully automatic, capable of adjusting steam generation to
varying loads

Often left unattended for operations (wherever regulations


permit)

Highly efficient, efficiencies range from 84-85% (GCV) depending


on the fuel

Minimal operational costs

FROM & AT RATING


OF BOILER

WIDELY USED METHOD TO SPECIFY THE CAPACITY OF BOILER.

F & A RATING GIVES THE MASS OF WATER BOILER IS CAPABLE O


CONVERTING INTO STEAM IF THE FEED WATER IS AT 100 DEG.C AN
STEAM IS GENERATED AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

NET STEAM GENERATION @ OPT. PRESSURE


= (F X 540)/(Hf - Hs)

BASIC CONSTRUCTIONAL
PARTS OF THE BOILER

SHELL, FURNACE & COMBUSTION CHAMBER


BURNER & BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
MOUNTINGS & CONTROLS
ACCESSORIES
BOILER HOUSE EQUIPMENTS

SHELL, FURNACE &


COMBUSTION CHAMBER

The
furnace,
when
concentric with the Y-axis of the
boiler and not with the X-axis, is
notified as the CONCENTRIC
FURNACE.
Here the furnace is placed at
the lower hemisphere of the
boiler below the X axis and about
the Y axis.

ECCENTRIC
FURNACE
The furnace, when eccentric with
the Y axis and the X axis, is
notified as the ECCENTRIC
FURNACE. Here the furnace is
placed at the lower left hand side
of the boiler shell and is not
concentric with the X axis and Y
axis

Location of the furnace is at the


bottom most zone of boiler shell.
Water content between furnace top
and Normal Water Level (NWL) is
huge. This feature provides sinking
time more than stipulations. Furnace
being
subjected
to
very
high
temperature of flame, it is the most
sensitive part of boiler. It needs to be
always covered by water.

No chances of furnace failure

Furnace is located at one side


at a comparatively upper zone
in the shell. Lower water
content between furnace top &
NWL results in lower sinking
time.

Chances of failure of furnace


are more

NWL

NWL
FEED WATER
INLET FROM
PUMP

HEAT TRANSFER
DUE TO PROPER
ASSIMILATION OF
WATER
AGITATION
EFFECT AT
TUBE NEST

Water enters in boiler shell at two


ends of shell through sparge holes. It
gets evenly distributed about the
vertical axis of boiler as shown
resulting in proper mixing.

Furnace is located eccentric in


the shell. Non symmetric water
currents do not yield proper water
distribution / circulation.

Steam bubbles formed around the furnace break due to tube nest resulting in
agitation which helps heat transfer by convection.

Film of steam
formed due to
improper
movement of
water affecting
poor heat
transfer

Water circulation around furnace is


good resulting in quick replacement
of vacuum left by steam formation
resulting in effective heat transfer.

Water circulation around furnace


is not as good as that in
symmetric furnace design. Thus
chances of steam film formation
around furnace are much more.
This results in poor heat transfer.

Heat release rate in furnace can


be higher resulting in compact
boiler.

Heat release rate are required


to be kept lower resulting in
bulkier boiler.

NWL
NWL
FREE BOARD
DISTANCE

Higher free board distance helps


to improve quality of steam &
reduce water carryover

Lower
free
board
distance
resulting into poor steam quality
& chances of water carryover
along with steam are more.

Cylindrical plain furnaces ensures Due to corrugations in the furnace air


streamlined air pattern which flow
is
highly
fluctuating
and
gives steady flame geometry.
changing.
This
causes
flame
impingement and inefficient heat
transfer.
Plain furnace will avoid
accumulation of water sediments
resulting into effective heat
transfer.
Easy for cleaning from both
water & smoke side.

Chances of accumulation of water


sediments
between
the
corrugations
will
result
into
ineffective heat transfer and may
result into failure of furnace
Difficult for cleaning

BURNER
TYPES OF BURNERS
1) BASED ON MODE OF ATOMISATION
THE

PRESSURE JET
THE
HEART
ROTARYOF
CUP
BOILER!!!!!
2) TYPE
OF MODULATION

HIGH / LOW

3 STAGE MODULATION

STEPLESS MODULATION
3) BASED ON FUEL FIRED

GAS FIRED

OIL FIRED

DUAL FIRED
4)BASED ON CONSTRUCTION

MONOBLOCK

DUAL BLOCK

..

Essential Features of a Good


Burner

High combustion efficiency

Part load performance

Easy change over of fuels in case of dual fuel firing

Ease of mounting

Robust and compact design

Noiseless operation

Easy accessibility to all parts for inspection and maintenance

Reliable components for continuos service

Easy adjustment of air / fuel ratio

Suitability of components for specific fuel characteristics

Low power consumption and preheating of air

Provision for various safety interlocks

ON- OFF
BURNER

3 STAGE
BURNER

STEPLESS
MODULATION
BURNER

CONTROLS
a.

Oil temperature indicator

1 no.

b.
c.
d.

Pressure switch
Photo resistant cell
Temperature controller

2/3 nos.
1 no.
1 no.

e.

Sequence controller

1 no.

f.
g.
h.

Modulating mechanism
Low oil pressure switch
Level controller

1 no.
1 no.
2 nos.

Local cum panel mounted to indicate oil


temperature
For firing positions of burner
Flame failure and audio visual alarm
To control oil temperatures in burner
heater before nozzle with audio visual
alarm and burner trip
To control sequence of firing, pre
purging etc.
Stepped / Three stage modulation
To trip burner with audio visual alarm
To regulate feed water pump operation
and trip burner in case of very low level
with audio visual alarm.

SAFETY
INTERLOCKS
Unsafe condition
Instrument
Action
High water level
Level controller No. 1
Feed water pump trip.
Low water level
Level controller No. 1
Alarm & Burner Shut down
Extra low water level Level Controller No. 2 (Overriding
Alarm & lock-out
controller)
Flame failure
Photocell
Alarm & burner trip
Boiler high pressure
Safety valves
Lift & discharge

BASIC
CALCULATIONS
FUEL CONSUMPTION
Fc = {(Boiler Capacity F & A 100 Deg.C) * 540}/(NCV * Eff-NCV)
OR
Fc = {(Steam Generated) * (Hs Hfw)}/(NCV * Eff-NCV)
Hs Enthalpy of Steam at Rated Pressure
Hfw Enthalpy of Feed Water
Hw Enthalpy of Water at Saturated Pressure
DF Dryness Fraction

Fc = {(SG*DF*(Hs Hfw))+(SG*(1-DF)* (Hw Hfw)}/(NCV * Eff-NCV)


Calculation of Chimney Height (H)
H = 14 * (Q)^0.3
Q Total Sulphur in Flue Gases
Q = 2*(Sulphur in Fuel)*(Fuel Consumption)