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Sep 28, 2015

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5 Aufrufe

Topic12-SeismicDesignofMasonryStructuresHandouts

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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STRUCTURES

Masonry Design

Context in the NEHRP Recommended Provisions

Masonry behavior

Reference standards

Seismic resisting systems

Component design

Quality assurance

Summary

Objectives of Module

Basics of masonry behavior

Basics of masonry specification

The MSJC code and specification and their relationship

Earthquake design of masonry structures and

components using the 2005 MSJC code and

specification

Example of masonry shear wall design

Provisions

Design seismic loads

Load combinations

Chap. 5

Loads on structures

Chap. 5

Chap. 6

Design resistances

Chap. 11

units of

concrete or

fired clay

...

... typical

typical

materials

materials in

in

reinforced

reinforced

masonry

masonry

grout

steel

reinforcing

bars

Design for Wall-type Structures

Starting point for design

Design of vertical strips in walls perpendicular to

lateral loads

Design of lintels

Simplified analysis for lateral loads

Design of diaphragms

Detailing

mortar

grout

Masonry Structures 1

Structures

Resisting Gravity Loads

No beams or columns

(Example of direction of

span)

axial loads (concentric

and eccentric) as

vertical strips

Vertical reinforcement of

#4 bars at corners and

jambs

Horizontal reinforcement

of two #4 bars in bond

beam at top of wall, and

over and under openings

(two #5 bars with span > 6

ft)

Resisting Lateral Forces

Walls parallel to lateral

forces act as shear walls

reactions from walls to

horizontal diaphragms and

act as diaphragm chords

concentric axial load as

vertical strips

Effect of Openings

Effective

width of strip

A

Strip A

Effective

width of strip

B

Effective

width of strip

C

Strip B

Strip C

Width B

Width C

forces resist combinations of axial load and out-ofplane moments, and transfer their reactions to

horizontal diaphragms

Width A

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Effect of Openings

Openings increase original design actions

on each strip by a factor equal to the ratio

of the effective width of the strip divided by

the actual width:

Effective Width B

Actions in Strip B = Original Actions

Actual Width B

Perpendicular Walls

Moments and axial forces due to

combinations of gravity and lateral

load

M=Pe

M=Pe/2

M wind

Masonry Structures 2

Perpendicular Walls

Pn

Moments, axial forces, and shears due

to combinations of gravity and lateral

loads

Moment-axial force

interaction diagram

(with the help of a

spreadsheet)

P

V

h

Mu, Pu

Mn

Moment-axial force

interaction diagram

(with the help of a

spreadsheet)

Sufficient lateral

capacity comes from

wall density.

Shearing resistance:

Pn

Vn = Vm + Vs

M

Vm = 4.0 1.75 u An fm' + 0.25 Pu

Vu dv

Mu, Pu

Mn

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Design of Lintels

Design of Lintels

Moments and shears due to

gravity loads:

(Example of

direction of span)

Mu =

enough depth so that shear

reinforcement is not

needed.

w l2

8

wl

Vu =

2

Flexural design:

Neutral axis

As

Mu

fy 0.9 d

As

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Masonry Structures 3

Rigid Diaphragms

Classical approach

Treat the lateral load as the

diaphragm is rigid or

flexible

Carry out an appropriate

analysis for shears

Rigid Diaphragms

8 ft

8 ft

40 ft

stiffness, which is

proportional to plan length

Neglect plan torsion

8 ft

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Vright

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

40 ft

( 40 + 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft total

( 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft V

=

( 40 + 8 + 8 + 8 ) ft total

Flexible Diaphragms

8 ft

8 ft

Vleft =

8 ft

Diaphragms

40 ft

superposition of a load

acting through the center of

rigidity and a torsional

moment about that center of

rigidity

5

Vtotal

8

3

Vtotal

8

Design of Masonry Structures 12 - 22

Flexible Diaphragms

40 ft

to tributary areas of the

diaphragm independent of

the relative stiffnesses of

the shear walls

half

half

8 ft

8 ft

40 ft

8 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Vright

1

Vtotal

2

1

= Vtotal

2

Vleft =

Masonry Structures 4

Diaphragm Design

cover (for plank diaphragms). Diaphragm moments

are resisted by diaphragm chords in bond beams.

40 ft

L/2

8 ft

5/8V

1/2V

8 ft

V

40 ft

8 ft

3/8V

1/2V

M = w L2 / 8

V=wL/2

8 ft

8 ft

w

Masonry Behavior

Details

Wall-diaphragm connections

Design of lintels for out-of-plane loads between wall-

nonhomogeneous, and nonlinear.

diaphragm connections

Connections between walls and foundation

Nonlinearity in compression is handled using an

equivalent rectangular stress block as in reinforced

concrete design.

A starting point for masonry behavior is to visualize

it as very similar to reinforced concrete. Masonry

capacity is expressed in terms of a specified

compressive strength, fm, which is analogous to fc.

for Prism Under Compression

f unit

f mortar

Prism

Mortar

Strain

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Basic terms

Units

Mortar

Grout

Accessory materials

Masonry unit

f prism

Connectors

Flashing

Sealants

Typical details

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Masonry Structures 5

Basic Terms

Head

joints

Bed

joints

Running bond

Stack bond

Masonry Units

Specified by ASTM C 62 or C 216

Usually solid, with small core holes

for manufacturing purposes

If cores occupy 25% of net area,

units can be considered 100% solid

Masonry Mortar

Masonry Mortar

Three cementitious systems

Portland cement lime mortar

Masonry cement mortar

Mortar cement mortar

Masonry Mortar

by type (M a S o N w O r K):

Going from Type K to Type M, mortar has an

increasing volume proportion of portland cement. It

sets up faster and has higher compressive and tensile

bond strengths.

As the volume proportion of portland cement

increases, mortar is less able to deform when

hardened.

Types N and S are specified for modern masonry

construction.

Specified by ASTM C 90

Minimum specified compressive

strength (net area) of 1900 psi

(average)

Net area is about 55% of gross area

Nominal versus specified versus

actual dimensions

Type I and Type II designations no

longer exist

Flemish bond

Masonry Units

proportion or by property.

verified only by verifying proportions. For example:

Type S PCL mortar has volume proportions of 1 part

cement to about 0.5 parts hydrated masons lime to

about 4.5 parts masons sand.

Type N masonry cement mortar (single-bag) has one

part Type N masonry cement and 3 parts masons

sand.

Masonry Structures 6

Masonry Mortar

Masonry Mortar

Under ASTM C270, mortar can be specified

by proportion or by property:

Proportion specification is simpler -- verify

in the field that volume proportions meet

proportion limits.

Property specification is more complex: (1)

establish the proportions necessary to

produce a mortar that, tested at laboratory

flow, will meet the required compressive

strength, air content, and retentivity (ability

to retain water) requirements and (2) verify

in the field that volume proportions meet

proportion limits.

Grout

Grout

Grout for unit masonry is specified by ASTM C 476

Two kinds of grout:

Fine grout (cement, sand, water)

Coarse grout (cement, sand, pea gravel, water)

but does not require any. Lime is usually not used in

plant batched grout.

Unless the

property specification is used, no mortar testing is

necessary.

The proportion of water is not specified. It is determined

by the mason to achieve good productivity and

workmanship.

Masonry units absorb water from the mortar decreasing

its water-cement ratio and increasing its compressive

strength. Mortar need not have high compressive

strength.

Grout

by proportion or by compressive strength:

Proportion specification is simpler. It

requires only that volume proportions of

ingredients be verified.

Specification by compressive strength is

more complex. It requires compression

testing of grout in a permeable mold (ASTM

C 1019).

Grout

verified only by verifying proportions. For example:

Fine grout has volume proportions of 1 part cement to

about 3 parts masons sand.

Coarse grout has volume proportions of 1 part cement

to about 3 parts masons sand and about 2 parts pea

gravel.

The slump should be 8 to 11 in.

decreasing its water-cement ratio and

increasing its compressive strength. Highslump grout will still be strong enough.

Masonry Structures 7

Accessory Materials

Horizontally oriented expansion joint under

shelf angle:

Weepholes

Flashing

Shelf angle

Sealant gap

~ 3 / 8 in.

Negatives, public comment)

Technical

Industry

ASTM

Organizations

Groups

(Material

NEHRP

MSJC

MSJC

Specifications)

develops

Code

provisions

MSJC

model codes

Specification

ICC

reference those

(QA,

Other Model

(International

provisions

materials,

Codes

Building Code)

execution)

(NFPA)

local authorities

adopt those model

codes

Building Code

(legal standing)

(contract between society and the designer)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Specification... ?

MSJC

Specification

ACI

(ACI 530-05)

(ACI 530.1-05)

2005 MSJC

Code and

Specification

ASCE

(ASCE 5-05)

(ASCE 6-05)

(part of a civil

contract between

owner and

contractor)

TMS

(TMS 402-05)

(TMS 602-05)

Ch. 2,

Allowable

Stress

Design

Ch. 3,

Strength

Design

Masonry Standards

Joint Committee

2.2, URM

2.3, RM

Ch. 4,

Prestressed

Masonry

Ch. 5,

Empirical

Design

3.1, General SD

3.2, URM

3.3, RM

Specification

Ch. 6,

Veneer

Ch. 7,

Glass

Block

6.1, General

6.2, Anchored

6.3, Adhered

App.A,

AAC

Role of fm

Concrete:

Code:

Design provisions are given in Chapters 1-7 and

Appendix A

Sections 1.2.4 and 1.14 require a QA program in

accordance with the specification

Section 1.4 invokes the specification by reference.

Specification:

Comply with required level of quality assurance

Comply with specified products and execution

Compliance is verified by compression tests on

cylinders cast in the field and cured under ideal

conditions

Masonry

Designer states assumed value of fm

Compliance is verified by unit strength method or

by prism test method

Masonry Structures 8

(Specification Tables 1, 2)

Unit strength method (Spec 1.4 B 2):

Compressive strengths from unit manufacturer

ASTM C 270 mortar

Grout meeting ASTM C 476 or 2,000 psi

Pro -- can permit optimization of materials

Con -- require testing, qualified testing lab, and

procedures in case of non-complying results

Unit compressive strength 4150 psi

Type N mortar

Prism strength can be taken as 1500 psi

Unit compressive strength 1900 psi

Type S mortar

Prism strength can be taken as 1500 psi

(Spec Tables 1, 2)

Execution

Products -- Specification Article 2:

Specifier specifies units, mortar and grout that will

satisfy unit strength method

Inspection

Preparation

Installation of masonry, reinforcement, grout,

prestressing tendons

mortar, grout, or prisms

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Chord modulus of elasticity, shear modulus, thermal

concrete, and AAC masonry

Moisture expansion coefficient for clay masonry

Shrinkage coefficients for concrete masonry

Masonry Structures 9

Use minimum (critical) area for computing member

stresses or capacities

Capacity is governed by the weakest section; for

example, the bed joints of face-shell bedded hollow

masonry

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, Contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Radius of gyration and member slenderness are better

represented by the average section; for example, the

net area of units of face-shell bedded masonry

Reinforcing bars must be embedded in grout; joint

reinforcement can be embedded in mortar

Placement of reinforcement

Protection for reinforcement

Standard hooks

Applies to all masonry except

Glass unit masonry

Veneers

structures in earthquakes

Improves ductility of masonry members

Improves connectivity of masonry members

Masonry Structures 10

Define a structures Seismic Design Category (SDC)

according to ASCE 7-02

SDC depends on seismic risk (geographic location),

importance, underlying soil

SDC determines

Required types of shear walls (prescriptive

reinforcement)

Prescriptive reinforcement for other masonry elements

Permitted design approaches for LFRS (lateral forceresisting system)

Seismic Design Category A:

Drift limit = 0.007

Minimum design connection force for wall-to roof

and wall-to-floor connections

Lateral force resisting system cannot be designed

empirically

Walls for SDC C

roof connectors

@ 48 in. max oc

roof

diaphragm

16 in. of top of parapet

Top of Parapet

#4 bars around

openings

24 in. or 40 db

past opening

#4 bar (min) @

diaphragms

continuous through

control joint

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of all

control joints

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of

corners &

ends of walls

control joint

#4 bars @ 10 ft oc

Seismic design requirements are keyed to ASCE 702 Seismic Design Categories (from A up to F).

higher category are added to requirements in the

previous category.

Seismic Design Category C:

All walls must be considered shear walls unless

isolated

Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for reinforcement and connections

(ordinary reinforced, intermediate reinforced, or special

reinforced)

Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for horizontal or vertical reinforcement

Seismic Design Category D:

Masonry that is part of the lateral force-resisting

system must be reinforced so that v + h 0.002, and

v and h 0.0007

Type N mortar and masonry cement mortars are

prohibited in the lateral force-resisting system

Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for reinforcement and connections

(special reinforced)

Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive

requirements for horizontal and vertical

reinforcement

reinforcement @ 16 in. oc

Masonry Structures 11

Shear Walls

roof connectors

@ 48 in. max oc

roof

diaphragm

16 in. of top of parapet

Top of Parapet

#4 bars around

openings

24 in. or 40 db

past opening

#4 bar (min) @

diaphragms

continuous through

control joint

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of all

control joints

#4 bar (min)

within 8 in. of

corners &

ends of walls

control joint

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

SW Type

Minimum Reinforcement

SDC

Empirically

Designed

none

Ordinary Plain

none

A, B

Detailed Plain

of openings, within 8 in. of movement joints, maximum

spacing 10 ft; horizontal reinforcement W1.7 @ 16 in. or

#4 in bond beams @ 10 ft

A, B

Ordinary

Reinforced

same as above

A, B, C

Intermediate

Reinforced

A, B, C

Special

Reinforced

= 0.002

any

Requires a quality assurance program in accordance

with the MSJC Specification:

Three levels of quality assurance (A, B, C)

Compliance with specified fm

Increasing levels of quality assurance require

increasingly strict requirements for inspection, and for

compliance with specified products and execution

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Minimum requirements for inspection, tests, and

submittals:

Empirically designed masonry, veneers, or glass unit

masonry

Table 1.14.1.2 for essential facilities

Other masonry

Table 1.14.1.3 for essential facilities

Masonry Structures 12

Chapter 1

1.1 1.6 Scope, contract

documents and

calculations, special

systems, reference

standards, notation,

definitions

1.7 Loading

1.8 Material properties

1.9 Section properties

1.10 Deflections

1.12 Corbels

1.13 Details of reinforcement

1.14 Seismic design

requirements

1.15 Quality assurance program

1.16 Construction

Chapter 3, Strength Design (SD)

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

-factors

Anchor bolts

Chapter 3, Strength Design

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Embedded conduits, pipes, and sleeves:

Consider effect of openings in design

Masonry alone resists loads

frames, and other construction:

Show type, size, and location of connectors on

drawings

Strength Design

Factored design actions must not exceed nominal

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

1.16, Construction

analogous to safety factor of allowable-stress design,

and should be comparable to that safety factor.

for SD

From governing building code

From ASCE 7-02

Masonry Structures 13

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Design strength must exceed required strength

Extra caution against brittle shear failure:

Design shear strength shall exceed the shear

corresponding to the development of 1.25 times the

nominal flexural strength

Nominal shear strength need not exceed 2.5 times

required shear strength

Factors for SD

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Action

Reinforced Masonry

Unreinforced

Masonry

Combinations of

flexure and axial

load

0.90

0.60

Shear

0.80

0.80

Anchorage and

splices of

Reinforcement

0.80

---

Bearing

0.60

0.60

Factors for SD

Capacity of Anchor Strength-reduction

Bolts as Governed

Factor

by

Steel yield and

fracture

0.90

Masonry breakout

0.50

Pullout of bent-bar

anchors

0.65

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Masonry Structures 14

Chapter 3

Requirements

Drift limits from ASCE 7-02

Deflections of unreinforced masonry (URM) based on

uncracked sections

cracked sections

Shear breakout

Yield of anchor in shear

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Chapter 3

Tensile breakout

Yield of anchor in tension

Tensile pullout (bent-bar anchor bolts only)

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

factors

Deformation requirements

Anchor bolts

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Bearing strength

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Reinforced masonry

Unreinforced masonry

interaction

Strength of Masonry

For concrete masonry, 1,500 psi fm 4,000 psi

For clay masonry, 1,500 psi fm 6,000 psi

of Grout

For concrete masonry, fm fg 5,000 psi

For clay masonry, fg 6,000 psi

Masonry Structures 15

Chapter 3

In-plane and out-of-plane bending

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Chapter 3

Fundamental basis

Loading combinations

Design strength

Deformation requirements

factors

Anchor bolts

Compressive strength

Modulus of rupture

Strength of reinforcement

Unreinforced masonry

Reinforced masonry

Table 3.1.8.2.1

Lower values for masonry cement and airentrained portland cement-lime mortar

Higher values for grouted masonry

For grouted stack-bond masonry, fr = 250 psi

parallel to bed joints for continuous horizontal

grout section

Reinforcement

fy 60 ksi

Actual yield strength shall not exceed 1.3 times

the specified value

ignored unless the reinforcement is tied in

compliance with Code 2.1.6.5

Masonry in flexural tension is cracked

Reinforcing steel is needed to resist tension

Similar to strength design of reinforced concrete

Masonry Structures 16

3.3.2 Design assumptions

3.3.3 Reinforcement requirements and details, including

maximum steel percentage

3.3.4 Design of piers, beams and columns:

Nominal axial and flexural strength

Nominal shear strength

3.3.6 Design of walls for in-plane loads

Continuity between reinforcement and grout

Equilibrium

mu = 0.0035 for clay masonry, 0.0025 for concrete

masonry

Elasto-plastic stress-strain curve for reinforcement

Tensile strength of masonry is neglected

Equivalent rectangular compressive stress block in

Flexural

Assumptions

Axial

Load

Requirements and Details

s y

P=C-T

M = Fi yi ( yi from plastic centroid )

0.0025 concrete

Welded and lap splices must develop 1.25 fy

0.80 fm

1 = 0.80

fy

Axial

load

Reinforcement

Locate neutral axis based on

extreme-fiber strains

s = y

and Columns

Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load

is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2

(interaction diagram)

Reinforcement

fy

Splices:

mu = 0.0035 clay

Reinforcement

Standard hooks and development length:

Pn

Pure compression

Balance point

mu = 0.0035 clay

0.0025 concrete

0.80 fm

1 = 0.80

Mn

Pure flexure

Masonry Structures 17

and Columns

Slenderness is addressed by multiplying axial

capacity by slenderness-dependent modification

factors

h 2

1

140r

for

h

99

r

for

h

> 99

r

70r

h

Vn = Vm + Vs

Vn shall not exceed:

M / V dv 0.25

Vn 6 An fm

M / V dv 1.0

Vn 4 An fm

Linear interpolation between these extremes

Objective is to avoid crushing of diagonal strut

Code 3.3.4.2, Requirements for Beams

Vm and Vs are given by:

M u

V m = 4 .0 1 .7 5

An

V u d v

Mu

1 .0

Vu d v

f m' + 0 . 2 5 P u

A

V s = 0 .5 v fy d v

s

( 3 2 1)

Pu 0.05 An fm

Mn 1.3 Mcr

Lateral bracing spaced at most 32 times beam

width

(3 2 2 )

Pu 0.3 An fm

Nominal thickness between 6 and 16 in.

Nominal plan length between 3 and 6 times the

g 0.0025

g 0.04, and also meet Code 3.3.3.5

Lateral ties in accordance with Code 2.1.6.5

Solid-grouted

Least cross-section dimension 8 in.

Nominal depth not greater than 3 times the nominal

nominal thickness

length

width

Masonry Structures 18

Out-of-plane Loads

Capacity under combinations of flexure and axial load

is based on the assumptions of Code 3.3.2

(interaction diagram)

Pn

Out-of-plane Loads

Maximum reinforcement by Code 3.3.3.5

Procedures for computing out-of-plane moments

Pure compression

on axial load)

Nominal shear strength by Code 3.3.4.1.2

Balance point

Mn

Pure flexure

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

In-plane Loads

In-plane Loads

Vertical reinforcement not less than one-half the

(interaction diagram)

horizontal reinforcement

Pn

Pure compression

Balance point

Mn

Pure flexure

Maximum Reinforcement

MSJC

Specification

MSJC Code

provide confined boundary elements in hinging regions

(this is another way of preventing toe crushing)

Part 1

General

Part 2

Products

Part 3

Execution

1.6 Quality

assurance

2.12.1-Mortar

2.22.2-Grout

2.3 Masonry Units

2.4 Reinforcement

2.5 Accessories

2.6 Mixing

2.72.7-Fabrication

3.13.1-Inspection

3.23.2-Preparation

3.3 Masonry erection

3.4 Reinforcement

3.5 Grout placement

3.6 Prestressing

3.7 Field quality control

3.83.8-Cleaning

to be developed

Masonry Structures 19

Masonry Shear Walls

in- and out-of-plane loading.

Given practical thickness for wall, design flexural

reinforcement as governed by out-of-plane loading.

Design flexural reinforcement as governed by inplane loading and revise design as necessary.

Check shear capacity using capacity design if

required.

Check detailing.

unit dimensions:

8- by 8- by 16-in. nominal dimensions

Specified thickness = 7-5/8 in.

One curtain of bars, placed in center of grouted

cells

design permitted

Flexural Capacity

Computer programs

Spreadsheets

Tables

Flexural Capacity

Axial Capacity

design prohibited

M/V

Axial Capacity

block from crushing:

Walls must be below balance

point.

Maximum steel percentage

decreases as axial load

increases, so that design above

balance point is impossible.

MOMENTS

force interaction diagram

Reinforcement

SHEARS

Governed by In-plane Loading

Proportion flexural reinforcement to resist out-ofplane wind or earthquake forces

and shears for in-plane

loading depend on actions

transferred to shear walls by

horizontal diaphragms at

each floor level.

Factored design moments

and shears for out-of-plane

loading depend on wind or

earthquake forces acting

between floor levels

Governed by Out-of-plane Loading

and Shears

moments is less than or equal to that required for

in-plane moments, no adjustment is necessary.

Use the larger amount.

If flexural reinforcement required for out-of-plane

moments exceeds that required for in-plane

moments, consider making the wall thicker so that

in-plane flexural capacity does not have to be

increased. Excess in-plane capacity increases

shear demand.

Masonry Structures 20

shear overstrength:

Compute factored design shears based on factored

design actions.

Vn = Vm + Vs

Vm depends on (Mu / Vudv) ratio

Vs = (0.5) Av fy (note efficiency factor)

Inelastic structures:

Compute design shears based on flexural capacity

factored design loads

WALL

SHEARS

WALL

MOMENTS

corresponding to nominal

flexural capacity

A v fy

corresponding to

probable flexural capacity

M/V

45 o

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Vm (1)

(Mu / Vudv) need not be taken greater than 1.0

M

Vm = 4.0 1.75 u

Vu dv

Vm (2)

Vm / h Lw fm

10

8

6

'

An fm + 0.25Pu

P / Lwh = 0 psi

4

2.25

2

0

0.5

from reinforcement (Vs)

Upper limit on Vm depends on (Mu / Vu dv) ratio

Vn / h Lw fm 10

8

6

6.0

4.0

1.5

1.0

Mu / Vu dv

Check Detailing

Cover

Placement of flexural and shear reinforcement

Boundary elements not required:

Ductility demand is low

Maximum flexural reinforcement is closely

controlled

2

0

0.25 0.5

1.0

1.5

Mu / Vu dv

Masonry Structures 21

Detailing (1)

Cover:

Automatically satisfied by putting reinforcement in

grouted cells

diagram for low axial load

Minimum flexural reinforcement and spacing

dictated by Seismic Design Category

Flexural reinforcement placed in single curtain.

Typical reinforcement would be at least #4 bars @

48 in.

Place horizontal reinforcement in single curtain.

Typical reinforcement would be at least #4 bars @

48 in.

Add more flexural reinforcement if required, usually

uniformly distributed.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Axial capacity

Flexural capacity

Flexural

capacity

Mn

Axial

capacity

Pn

s y

Lw

Reinforcement

fy

centroid of compressive

stress block

0.9Lw

0.9Lw

Mn 0.9 As fy

+ Pn

2

2

Mu

Pu

0.41 As fy Lw + 0.45

Lw

shear wall shown below. Use fm = 1500 psi.

Vu = 80 kips

per floor

Pu = 100 kips

80 kips

12 ft

960 kip-ft

160 kips

12 ft

20 ft

2,880 kip-ft

Mu diagram

Vu diagram

for As

Mu

P

0.41 As fy Lw + 0.45 u Lw

100 kips

0.41 As 60 ksi 240 in. + 0.45

240 in.

0.90

0.9

38,400 5,900 As + 12,000

As 4.47 in.2

Refine flexural reinforcement using spreadsheetbased interaction diagram -- use #5 bars @ 16 in.

Strength Interaction Diagram by Spreadsheet

Concrete Masonry Shear Wall

f'm=1500 psi, 20 ft long, 7.63 in. thick, #5 bars @ 16 in.

1800

1600

1400

1200

Pn, kips

Check in-plane flexure using initial estimate.

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Mn, ft-kips

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

Masonry Structures 22

Compute required shear reinforcement, including capacity

design:

1.25 Mn

Vu = 160 kips

Mu

Mu

2,880 kip ft

=

= 1.13

Vu d 160 kips 20 0.8 ft

Vm = 2.25 fm' h Lw + 0.25P

Vm = 2.25 1500 7.63 in. 240 in. + 0.25 100 kips

Vm = 159.6 kips + 25.0 kips = 184.6 kips

1

1.25 3427 kip ft 0.9

Vu = 160 kips

2880 kip ft

V

V

160

1.65

kips

Vnrequired = u = u =

= 2.07 Vu 2.5 Vu

0.8

0.8

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

design:

required

s

Vsrequired

Avrequired

V

160 1.65

u Vm =

184.6 = 145.4 kips

0.8

d

= 2 Av fy

s

Vsrequired s

145.4 kips 16 in.

=

=

= 0.202 in.2

0.8 240 in. 60 ksi

d fy

Use #4 bars @ 16 in. horizontally

Hook #4 horizontal bars around end #5 vertical bars

7.63 in.

240 in.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

BSSC = www.bssconline.org

TMS = www.masonrysociety.org

ACI = www.aci-int.org

ASCE / SEI = www.seinstitute.org

MSJC = www.masonrystandards.org

Acknowledgements

This material on masonry was prepared by Prof.

Richard E. Klingner, University of Texas at Austin.

Klingner for a US Army short course.

Klingner for The Masonry Society and is used with

their permission.

Masonry Structures 23

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