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J.D.PARMAR NIHAR RAJ 24 t h & 25 t h August 2007 jagatkishore.d.parmar@in.abb.com nihar.raj@in.abb.com

J.D.PARMAR NIHAR RAJ 24 th & 25 th August 2007

NIHAR RAJ 24 t h & 25 t h August 2007 jagatkishore.d.parmar@in.abb.com nihar.raj@in.abb.com

Substation

Engineering

RAJ 24 t h & 25 t h August 2007 jagatkishore.d.parmar@in.abb.com nihar.raj@in.abb.com Substation Engineering

Substations

Content

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 2 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 2 -

Introduction

Various Switching Configuration

Interlocking & Protection philosophy

Basics of layout engineering

Substation design calculation

Equipment & accessories

Interface requirement of control, protection & SCADA

Statutory requirements & Safety in substation

 Interface requirement of control, protection & SCADA  Statutory requirements & Safety in substation

ABB Power Technologies

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BA PTPS

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Substations

Introduction
Introduction
ABB Power Technologies - 3 - BA PTPS © Substations Introduction

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Substations

Introduction

© Substations Introduction ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 4 -  What is Substation ?
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 4 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 4 -

What is Substation ?

Substation is an Electrical installation where power is controlled for transmission & distribution purpose.

Substations can be categorized as:

Power evacuation substation

Substation part of Transmission system

Substation part of Distribution system

 Power evacuation substation  Substation part of Transmission system  Substation part of Distribution system

ABB Power Technologies

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BA PTPS

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Substations

IntroductionIntroduction :: TheThe ElectricElectric UtilityUtility

: : The The Electric Electric Utility Utility Power Evacuation Substation Transmission Substation

Power Evacuation Substation Transmission Substation

Switching Substation

Distribution Substation

Utility Utility Power Evacuation Substation Transmission Substation Switching Substation Distribution Substation

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Substations

Introduction : Power Evacuation substation

© Substations Introduction : Power Evacuation substation ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 6 - 
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 6 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 6 -

Located adjacent to the Power Plant

Preferred voltage level

420 kV

245 kV

123,145 kV

72.5, 66 kV

Evacuation voltage level depends on

Quantum of power to be evacuated (size of power plant)

Distance of Transmission

Gird network voltage of surrounding transmission system

Normally built by

Utilities (e.g. NTPC, NHPC, Captive Power Plant by industries)

Independent Power Producer (IPP)

built by  Utilities (e.g. NTPC, NHPC, Captive Power Plant by industries)  Independent Power Producer

Substations

Introduction : Transmission substation

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 7 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 7 -

Location is decided based on Transmission Grid Network

Preferred voltage level

420kV

245kV

145kV

Transmission voltage depends on

Quantum of power to be received / transmitted

Length of transmission line

Normally built by

Utilities (e.g. Power Grid, State Electricity Boards)

 Length of transmission line  Normally built by  Utilities (e.g. Power Grid, State Electricity

Substations

Introduction : Distribution substation

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 8 -
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ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 8 -

Location is near the load

Preferred voltage level

245kV

145kV

72.5/36 kV

Station voltage level depends on

Demand of power

Utility norms of distribution

Normally built by

Utilities (e.g. State Electricity Broads)

Industries

 Utility norms of distribution  Normally built by  Utilities (e.g. State Electricity Broads) 

ABB Power Technologies

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BA PTPS

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Substations

Switching Configuration
Switching
Configuration
ABB Power Technologies - 9 - BA PTPS © Substations Switching Configuration

Substations

Switching Configuration

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 10 -
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ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 10 -

What is Busbar configuration ?

Busbar configuration or Bus switching scheme is the circuit adopted for substation based on following:

System reliability

Operational flexibility

Ease of maintenance

Limitation of fault level

Simplicity of protection system

Ease of extension

Avaibility of land

Cost

Limitation of fault level  Simplicity of protection system  Ease of extension  Avaibility of

ABB Power Technologies

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BA PTPS

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Single Bus Scheme

With Sectionaliser
With Sectionaliser
ABB Power Technologies - 11 - BA PTPS © Substations Switching Configuration : Single Bus Scheme

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Single Bus Scheme

Without Sectionaliser

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 12 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 12 -

With Sectionaliser

Configuration : Single Bus Scheme Without Sectionaliser ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 12 - With

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Substations

Switching Configuration: Single Bus Scheme

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 13 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 13 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 14 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration: Single Bus Scheme

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 14 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 14 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 15 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Bus Sectionalizer

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 15 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 15 - © S u b s t a t

Substations

Switching Configuration: Single Bus Scheme

a t i o n s Switching Configuration: Single Bus Scheme © ABB Power Technologies BA
© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 16 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 16 -

Application

Industrial stations with voltage level generally up to 145kV

Also used for 245kV station with 2/3 bays

Features

Simple system

Ease of Operation & maintenance

Single level bus layout

Easily expandable

Very simple Control & Protection philosophy

Large saving in space

No redundancy

 Easily expandable  Very simple Control & Protection philosophy  Large saving in space 

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 17 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration: Double Bus Scheme

- © Substations Switching Configuration: Double Bus Scheme Double Bus with two Main & without Transfer

Double Bus with two Main & without Transfer

Bus Scheme Double Bus with two Main & without Transfer Double Bus with one Main &

Double Bus with one Main & one Transfer

& without Transfer Double Bus with one Main & one Transfer Double Bus with one Main

Double Bus with one Main & one Main cum Transfer

& without Transfer Double Bus with one Main & one Transfer Double Bus with one Main

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Substations

Switching Configuration : One Main & Transfer

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 18 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 18 -

Substations

Switching Configuration : One Main & Transfer

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 19 -
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ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 19 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 20 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : One Main & Transfer

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 20 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 20 - © S u b s t a t

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Main & Main cum transfer

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 21 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 21 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 22 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Main & Main cum transfer

Technologies BA PTPS - 22 - © S u b s t a t i o
Technologies BA PTPS - 22 - © S u b s t a t i o

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 23 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Main & Main cum transfer

Technologies BA PTPS - 23 - © S u b s t a t i o
Technologies BA PTPS - 23 - © S u b s t a t i o

Substations

Switching Configuration : Double Main

S u b s t a t i o n s Switching Configuration : Double Main
© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 24 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 24 -
S u b s t a t i o n s Switching Configuration : Double Main

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Switching Configuration : Double Main

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 25 -
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ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 25 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 26 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Double Main with bypass

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 26 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 26 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 27 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Double Main with bypass

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 27 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 27 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 28 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration:Application of Transfer Bus

Bus Coupler Bay
Bus Coupler Bay

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Substations

Switching Configuration : One Main & Transfer

i o n s Switching Configuration : One Main & Transfer ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 29 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 29 -

Application

Normally this is used for most industrial stations and some time small power evacuation system

Features

Simpler system

Better availability as additional bus is provided

Breaker can be taken out for maintenance where transfer bus feature is provided

as additional bus is provided  Breaker can be taken out for maintenance where transfer bus

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 30 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration: Three Bus Scheme

- © Substations Switching Configuration: Three Bus Scheme Transfer Main-2 Main-1 Three Bus with Main I

Transfer

Main-2

Main-1

Three Bus with Main I & II and separate Transfer Bus

Switching Configuration: Three Bus Scheme Transfer Main-2 Main-1 Three Bus with Main I & II and

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Substations

Switching Configuration: Three Bus Scheme

Transfer Main-2 Main-1 ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 31 -
Transfer
Main-2
Main-1
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 31 -

Substations

Switching Configuration : Three Bus

Main Bus#1

Main Bus#2

Transfer Bus

Configuration : Three Bus M a i n B u s # 1 Main Bus#2 Transfer
© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 32 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 32 -
Configuration : Three Bus M a i n B u s # 1 Main Bus#2 Transfer

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 33 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Three Bus

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 33 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 33 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 33 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 34 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Three Bus (Bus Coupler)

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 34 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 34 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 35 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration : Three Bus (Bus Transfer)

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 35 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 35 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 36 -

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Substations

Switching Configuration: Three Bus Scheme

- © Substations Switching Configuration: Three Bus Scheme  Application  Power evacuation station 

Application

Power evacuation station

Interconnecting substation for transmission lines

Heavy Industrial stations viz. Steel, Aluminium, Petro-chemicals

Features

Independent two buses sharing the feeder

Better load management

Better reliability

One transfer bay is in-built for redundancy of one bay

Complex Control & Protection system

reliability  One transfer bay is in-built for redundancy of one bay  Complex Control &

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 37 -

©

Substations

Switching Configuration: One & Half CB Scheme

Main-1 Main-2
Main-1
Main-2
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 37 - © Substations Switching Configuration: One & Half CB

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 38 -

©

Substations

Switching Configuration: One & Half CB Scheme

Main-1 Main-2
Main-1
Main-2
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 38 - © Substations Switching Configuration: One & Half CB

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 39 -

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Substations

Various Busbar Configuration : One & Half CB Scheme

Technologies BA PTPS - 39 - © S u b s t a t i o
Technologies BA PTPS - 39 - © S u b s t a t i o

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Substations

Switching Configuration: One & Half CB Scheme

Switching Configuration: One & Half CB Scheme ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 40 - 
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 40 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 40 -

Application

Mostly this configuration is adopted where high reliability is required

Power evacuation station for big power plant

Interconnecting transmission substations with 420/245kV level

Features

Very high reliability

Costly because of increase no. of Circuit Breaker

Complex Control & Protection philosophy

high reliability  Costly because of increase no. of Circuit Breaker  Complex Control & Protection

©

Substations

Switching Configuration : Application

s t a t i o n s Switching Configuration : Application ABB Power Technologies BA
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 41 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 41 -

Power Generating Stations

Double Bus Scheme

Three Bus scheme

Two main & one transfer

One & Half CB Scheme

Transmission Stations

Double Bus scheme

Main & Main cum transfer

Three Bus scheme

Two main & one transfer

One & Half CB Scheme

 Main & Main cum transfer  Three Bus scheme  Two main & one transfer

Substations

Switching Configuration : Application

s t a t i o n s Switching Configuration : Application  Distribution Stations 

Distribution Stations

Single Bus scheme

Single Bus with sectionalizer

Double Bus scheme

Main & transfer

Double Main & Transfer (Industrial customer)

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 42 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 42 -
 Main & transfer  Double Main & Transfer (Industrial customer) © ABB Power Technologies BA

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 43 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations
Engineering
Calculations
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 43 - © Substations Engineering Calculations

Substations

Engineering Calculations

S u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations © ABB Power
© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 44 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 44 -

Purpose of doing engineering calculation

To establish & validate design

To Optimize

To give complete error free solution to customer.

To ensure safety

Of Persons

Of Animals

Of equipments

To ensure correct Power system operation

 To ensure safety  Of Persons  Of Animals  Of equipments  To ensure

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 45 -

©

Substations

Engineering Calculations

© S u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations  Reference
© S u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations  Reference
© S u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations  Reference
© S u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations  Reference
© S u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations  Reference

Reference Used by ABB for doing Calculations

IEC Standards

IEEE Standards

IS Standards

CBIP

International papers

by ABB for doing Calculations  IEC Standards  IEEE Standards  IS Standards  CBIP

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 46 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations

Different types of calculations done in switchyard engineering

1. Short Circuit Force Calculation for Flexible conductor

2. Short Circuit force calculations for Rigid conductor

3. Cantilever strength check for bus support insulators

4. Wind Pressure calculation

5. Temperature rise calculation for Flexible conductor

6. Temperature rise calculation for Rigid conductor

7. Earthing Calculation

8. Shielding Calculation

9. Sag Tension Calculation

10. Battery sizing calculation

conductor 7. Earthing Calculation 8. Shielding Calculation 9. Sag Tension Calculation 10. Battery sizing calculation

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 47 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations : EDF

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
Engineering Calculations : EDF ELECTRICAL CONNECTION FLEXIBLE TENSILE FORCE ( Ft) DROP FORCE ( Fs) PINCH
Engineering Calculations : EDF ELECTRICAL CONNECTION FLEXIBLE TENSILE FORCE ( Ft) DROP FORCE ( Fs) PINCH
Engineering Calculations : EDF ELECTRICAL CONNECTION FLEXIBLE TENSILE FORCE ( Ft) DROP FORCE ( Fs) PINCH
Engineering Calculations : EDF ELECTRICAL CONNECTION FLEXIBLE TENSILE FORCE ( Ft) DROP FORCE ( Fs) PINCH
FLEXIBLE TENSILE FORCE ( Ft) DROP FORCE ( Fs) PINCH FORCE ( Fpi)
FLEXIBLE
TENSILE FORCE ( Ft)
DROP FORCE ( Fs)
PINCH FORCE ( Fpi)
RIGID FORCE AT RIGID END (Fda) FORCE AT FLEXIBLE END (Fdb)
RIGID
FORCE AT RIGID END
(Fda)
FORCE AT FLEXIBLE END
(Fdb)
TENSILE FORCE ( Ft) DROP FORCE ( Fs) PINCH FORCE ( Fpi) RIGID FORCE AT RIGID

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Substations

Inputs for Calculation

Short Circuit Force for Flexible conductor

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 48 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 48 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 49 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations : EDF

u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations : EDF  PURPOSE

PURPOSE :-

TO FIND OUT THE MAXIMUM SHORT CIRCUIT

EQUIPMENT TERMINAL.

TO FIND OUT THE CANTELIVER STRENGTH OF THE BUS POST INSULATOR.

TO EVALUATE THE FORCES FOR DESIGN OF CIVIL AND STRUCTURE.

FORCE COMING ON THE

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH EDF DEPENDS:-

TYPE OF CONDUCTOR ( FLEXIBLE OR RIGID CONDUCTOR)

SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT.

FAULT CLEARANCE TIME.

SPAN LENGTH.

PHASE DISTANCE.

NUMBER OF CONDUCTOR PER PHASE.

STATIC TENSION.

 FAULT CLEARANCE TIME.  SPAN LENGTH.  PHASE DISTANCE.  NUMBER OF CONDUCTOR PER PHASE.

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Engineering Calculations : Earthing

s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations : Earthing ABB Power Technologies BA
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 50 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 50 -

PURPOSE :-

TO FIND OUT THE MAXIMUM STEP AND TOUCH POTENTIAL COMING IN A SUBSTATION.

TO ACHIEVE SAFE VALUES OF STEP AND TOUCH POTENTIAL WRT TO THE CALCULATED VALUES.

TO ACHIEVE SAFE VALUES OF GPR BY RESTRICTING THE REDUCING THE VALUE OF GROUND RESISTANCE.

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH EARTHING

DEPENDS:-

SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT.

FAULT CLEARANCE TIME.

SOIL RESISTIVITY.

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH EARTHING DEPENDS:-  SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT.  FAULT CLEARANCE TIME.  SOIL RESISTIVITY.

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Substations

Engineering Calculations : DSLP

u b s t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations : DSLP  PURPOSE

PURPOSE :-

TO PROTECT SUBSTATION FROM LIGHTNING STROKE BY PROBABLISTIC METHOD.

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH DSLP

DEPENDS:-

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 51 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 51 -

HEIGHT OF LIGHTNING MAST/SHIELD WIRE.

HEIGHT OF THE EQUIPMENT TO BE PROTECTED.

Technologies BA PTPS - 51 -  HEIGHT OF LIGHTNING MAST/SHIELD WIRE.  HEIGHT OF THE

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 52 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations : DSLP

Protective Zone by LM Typical DSLP Layout Shield wire Lightning Mast
Protective Zone
by LM
Typical DSLP Layout
Shield wire
Lightning Mast

What are the methods for D.S.L.P. design?

As per "High Voltage Engineering" by Razevig with help of LM

As per IS:2309 which is also using LM and spikes

As per electro-geometry method by using combination of LM and shield wire.

IS:2309 which is also using LM and spikes  As per electro-geometry method by using combination

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Substations

Inputs for Calculation

Shielding Calculation

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 53 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 53 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations : DSLP

Substation Engineering Calculation ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 54 -
Substation Engineering Calculation
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 54 -

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Substations

Engineering Calculations : Sag Tension

t a t i o n s Engineering Calculations : Sag Tension  PURPOSE :- 

PURPOSE :-

TO STRING THE CONDUCTOR AT MAIN BUS LEVEL AND JACK BUS LEVEL.

TO MAINTAIN NECESSARY ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES.

FOR PANTOGRAPH ISOLATORS TO ACHIEVE A PROPER CONTACT AREA BETWEEN THE HANGER AND THE PANTOGRAPH ARM.

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH SAG TENSION

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 55 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 55 -

DEPENDS:-

STATIC TENSION

SPAN OF CONDUCTOR, TYPE & NUMBER OF CONDUCTOR.

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE.

WIND PRESSURE.

WEIGHT OF STRING HARDWARE, INSULATOR STRING, SPACERS.

 MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE.  WIND PRESSURE.  WEIGHT OF STRING HARDWARE, INSULATOR STRING, SPACERS.

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Substations

Inputs for Calculation

 Sag Tension Calculation ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 56 -
Sag Tension Calculation
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 56 -

Substations

Engineering Calculations : Wind Pressure

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 57 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 57 -

PURPOSE :-

TO EVALUATE THE WIND PRESSURE AT VARIOUS LEVELS.

WIND PRESSURE FORMS INPUT FOR STRUCTURE AND CIVIL DESIGN.

WIND PRESSURE CALCULATION IS ALSO USED FOR DETERMINING CANTELIVER STRENGTH OF ALL INSULATORS (ALONG WITH EDF FORCES)

STANDARDS USED ARE IS:802 AND IS:875

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH WIND PRESSURE CAL DEPENDS:-

WIND ZONE IN WHICH A SUBSTATION IS SITUATED.

TOPOGRAPHY NEAR THE SUBSTATION.

LOCATION OF CLIFF, VALLEY OR MOUNTAIN NEAR A SUBSTATION.

SUBSTATION IS SITUATED.  TOPOGRAPHY NEAR THE SUBSTATION.  LOCATION OF CLIFF, VALLEY OR MOUNTAIN NEAR

Substations

Engineering Calculations : Temperature Rise

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 58 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 58 -

PURPOSE :-

To determine thermal sizing of conductors ( Flexible Conductor / AL.Tube)

FACTORS/INPUTS ON WHICH TEMPERATURE RISE CAL DEPENDS:-

Continuous current.

Short Circuit Current.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN.

RADIATION LOSS.

CONVECTION HEAT LOSS.

FAULT DURATION TIME.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE.

 SOLAR HEAT GAIN.  RADIATION LOSS.  CONVECTION HEAT LOSS.  FAULT DURATION TIME. 

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Substations

Inputs for Calculation

 Temperature rise calculation for Flexible Conductor ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 59 -
Temperature rise calculation for Flexible Conductor
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 59 -

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Substations

Inputs for Calculation

Temperature rise calculation for Rigid Conductor

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 60 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 60 -

Substations

Engineering Calculations : Temperature Rise

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 61 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 61 -

PERMISSIBLE VALUES OF OPERATING TEMPERATURE :-

Maximum allowed temperature rise under normal condition.

ACSR Conductor = 75deg C (As per CBIP Manual)

Al. Tube

= 85 deg C ( BS:159)

Maximum allowed temperature under short circuit condition.

ACSR Conductor = 650 deg C ( As per CBIP paper)

Al tube

= 200 deg C ( As per IEEE:605)

short circuit condition.  ACSR Conductor = 650 deg C ( As per CBIP paper) 

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 62 -

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Substations

Layout Engineering
Layout
Engineering
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 62 - © Substations Layout Engineering

Substations

Layout Engineering

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 63 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 63 -

What is Substation Layout ?

Substation Layout is the conception which transforms to reality through engineering, execution & commissioning.

Layout Engineering

is the basic document to be sent to Customer / Consultants for approval

forms the basis of entire project scope

forms basis for engineering estimates

form input for civil & structure design

basic document for statutory approval

for engineering estimates  form input for civil & structure design  basic document for statutory

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Substations

Layout Engineering : Plan View

TYPICAL SUBSTATION PLAN LAYOUT Incoming Line Single Bay Outgoing Bus Bar Transformer Bay ABB Power
TYPICAL SUBSTATION PLAN LAYOUT
Incoming
Line
Single
Bay
Outgoing
Bus
Bar
Transformer
Bay
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 64 -

Substations

Layout Engineering

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 66 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 66 -

Following details form the input for layout engineering:

Bay & Busbar configuration

Bay width & depth, Height of busbar, Distance to fence, Building and total dimensions.

Statutory clearances (Phase to Phase, Phase to Earth, Sectional clearance)

Lightning Mast, Gantries (Column & Beam), String Insulators, Busbar, Equipment etc.

Position of various drive box, junction box, Marshalling box.

Maintenance aspect for Transformer, Reactor, CB.

Illumination requirement.

Calculations like EDF ( deciding max safe span length& location of BPI) , DSLP (locating LM).

requirement.  Calculations like EDF ( deciding max safe span length& location of BPI) , DSLP

Substations

Layout Engineering

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 67 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 67 -

Bay Width will depend on ….

Phase to Phase & Phase to Earth clearances

Sectional Clearances

Tower width

Swing of conductor

Bird clearances

Cable trench routing

Maintainability of equipment

Tandem Isolator arrangement

Distances in between equipment will depend on

Phase to Phase & Phase to Earth clearances

Sectional Clearances

Position of switch cubicle, junction box, drive box etc.

Maintainability of equipment

 Sectional Clearances  Position of switch cubicle, junction box, drive box etc.  Maintainability of

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Substations

Layout Engineering

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 68 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 68 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 69 -

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Substations

Layout Engineering

Standard bay width & clearances

System

Phase to Phase Distance

Phase to Earth Distance

Bay width

Sectional

Voltage

Clearance

kV

mm

mm

mm

mm

66

2000

2000

8000

3000

132

2700

2500

9400

3500

132

3000

3000

12000

3500

(Standard)

220

4500

4000

17000

4500

(standard)

220

4500

4500

18000

4500

(Industry)

220 (IPP)

5000

4000

18000

4500

400

7000

6500

27000

6000

18000 4500 (Industry) 220 (IPP) 5000 4000 18000 4500 400 7000 6500 27000 6000

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 70 -

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Substations

Layout Engineering

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 70 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies

- 71 -

BA PTPS

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories
Equipment &
Accessories
ABB Power Technologies - 71 - BA PTPS © Substations Equipment & Accessories

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 72 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

Substation Main Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure
Substation
Main
Main
Engineered
Auxiliary
Auxiliary
Equipment
Equipment
items
Equipment
System
Civil
Structure
Substation Main Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure

Substations

Equipment & Accessories Main Equipment

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 73 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 73 -

Circuit Breaker

Instrument Transformer (CT/CVT)

Surge Arrester

Isolator

Transformer & Reactor

Bus Support Insulator

Line Traps

Control & Protection system

Power Line Carrier Communication system

Bus Support Insulator  Line Traps  Control & Protection system  Power Line Carrier Communication

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 74 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

 420kV, 50kA type ELF SP 6-2  245kV, 40kA type ELF SP 4-1 
 420kV, 50kA type ELF SP 6-2
 245kV, 40kA type ELF SP 4-1
 245 kV, 40 kA type LTB E1
 145kV, 40kA type LTBD1
 72.5kV, 31.5kA type ED
245 kV LTB E1 Breaker 72.5 kV EDI Breaker
245 kV LTB E1 Breaker
72.5 kV EDI Breaker

72.5 kV EDF Breaker

245 kV ELF SP Breaker

420 kV ELF SP Breaker

31.5kA type ED 245 kV LTB E1 Breaker 72.5 kV EDI Breaker 72.5 kV EDF Breaker

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 75 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

BA PTPS - 75 - © Substations Equipment & Accessories  Single pole vacuum circuit breakers

Single pole vacuum circuit breakers and interrupters with magnetic actuators for 25kV AC railway traction applications

Outdoor circuit Spring

live

tank

vacuum

&

SF6

breakers

and

3.3kV

magnetic

to 40.5kV actuator

mechanism (12/15kV)

Outdoor circuit Spring live tank vacuum & SF6 breakers and 3.3kV magnetic to 40.5kV actuator mechanism

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 76 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

BA PTPS - 76 - © Substations Equipment & Accessories PRODUCT RANGE Dead Tank Current Transformers
BA PTPS - 76 - © Substations Equipment & Accessories PRODUCT RANGE Dead Tank Current Transformers
BA PTPS - 76 - © Substations Equipment & Accessories PRODUCT RANGE Dead Tank Current Transformers

PRODUCT

RANGE

Dead Tank Current Transformers Capacitor Voltage Transformers Coupling Capacitors Grading Capacitors

66-420 kV 72.5-420 kV 72.5-420 kV Up to 280 kV

Capacitor Voltage Transformers Coupling Capacitors Grading Capacitors 66-420 kV 72.5-420 kV 72.5-420 kV Up to 280

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 78 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 78 -

Types of Isolator

Center Break

Double Break

Vertical Break-knee type

Voltage

Op. Mech.

Current

STC

Earth Switch

Orientation

11kV - 800kV

Motor / Manual

100-3150A

40kA

1, 2, Independent

Series / Parallel / Tandem

 Earth Switch  Orientation 11kV - 800kV Motor / Manual 100-3150A 40kA 1, 2, Independent

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 79 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 79 -

Power transformers / Converter Transformer/ Traction Transformer

Used of conversion of energy from one voltage to another voltage level

Costliest equipment in substation

Single phase & three phase installation

For major substations tertiary being loaded for feeding auxiliary power to substation

Oil & paper as insulating material prevails

Use of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) material

FEM based tools for design analysis

material prevails  Use of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) material  FEM based tools for design

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 80 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 80 -

Bus Support Insulators are used for supporting the busbars

Important selection parameters

Voltage level

Canteliver strength

Creepage distance

Top & Bottom PCD

Compressive strength

Torsional strength

Canteliver strength  Creepage distance  Top & Bottom PCD  Compressive strength  Torsional strength

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 81 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS
- 81 -

Line traps are used for Power system communication

It blocks high frequency carrier signals

Important selection parameters

Voltage level

mH rating

Continuous current rating

Short Circuit current rating

Type of mounting

Pedestal

Suspension

 Continuous current rating  Short Circuit current rating  Type of mounting  Pedestal 

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 82 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 82 -

Control & Protection System

Used for controlling flow of power

Advent of 61850 based relays

Mounting of panels in outdoor AC Kiosk

New trend started by PGCIL

First Kiosk drawing conceptualised by ABB DESIGN

of panels in outdoor AC Kiosk  New trend started by PGCIL  First Kiosk drawing

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 83 -

©

Substations

Substation Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure
Substation
Main
Engineered
Auxiliary
Auxiliary
Equipment
items
Equipment
System
Civil
Structure
- © Substations Substation Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure

Substations

Equipment & Accessories Engineered Items

Busbar Materials

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 84 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 84 -

Strung bus conductor (ACSR)

Rigid bus conductor (AL Tube)

Clamps & Connectors

String Insulator & Hardware

Earthing Materials

Main earthing materials (Rod or Flat)

Earth Pits

Cables & accessories

LT Power & Control cable

HT Power Cable

Cable terminations, gland, lugs, ties, marker etc.

Cable supporting materials

Control cable  HT Power Cable  Cable terminations, gland, lugs, ties, marker etc.  Cable

©

Substations

Component & Accessories

Types of Busbar  Rigid bus comprising of AL tube  Strung bus comprising of
Types of Busbar
 Rigid bus comprising of AL tube
 Strung bus comprising of A C S R / A A A
conductor
Types of Support
 Bus post insulator for rigid bus
 String Insulator for strung bus
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 85 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories ABB Power
S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories ABB Power
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 86 -
& Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 - Expansion type terminal Connector Tee -
& Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 - Expansion type terminal Connector Tee -
& Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 - Expansion type terminal Connector Tee -

Expansion type terminal Connector

Tee - Connector

Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 - Expansion type terminal Connector Tee - Connector
Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 - Expansion type terminal Connector Tee - Connector

Terminal Connector

Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 86 - Expansion type terminal Connector Tee - Connector

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories Bus Support
S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories Bus Support
S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories Bus Support
S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories Bus Support

Bus Support Insulator Clamp

Tee – Connector

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 87 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 87 -
Equipment & Accessories Bus Support Insulator Clamp Tee – Connector ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS -

PG Clamp

Equipment & Accessories Bus Support Insulator Clamp Tee – Connector ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories ABB Power
S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories ABB Power
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 88 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 88 -
& Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 88 - Hardware Material Double Tension String Hardware

Hardware Material

Double Tension String Hardware

Tension Clamp & Arcing Horn

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 88 - Hardware Material Double Tension String Hardware Tension Clamp

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

S u b s t a t i o n s Equipment & Accessories ABB Power
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 89 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 89 -
& Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 89 - Drop Clamp & Through Clamp Single
& Accessories ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 89 - Drop Clamp & Through Clamp Single

Drop Clamp & Through Clamp

Single Suspension String Hardware (Drop type & Through type)

BA PTPS - 89 - Drop Clamp & Through Clamp Single Suspension String Hardware (Drop type

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 90 -

©

Substations

Substation Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure
Substation
Main
Engineered
Auxiliary
Auxiliary
Equipment
items
Equipment
System
Civil
Structure
- © Substations Substation Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure

ABB Power Technologies

- 91 -

BA PTPS

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories Auxiliary Equipment

Substations Equipment & Accessories Auxiliary Equipment  LTAC Switchgear Panel  DC Distribution Board 

LTAC Switchgear Panel

DC Distribution Board

Battery & Batter Charger

DC Distribution Board

Auxiliary LT Transformer

Lighting Transformer

Main Lighting distribution transformer

Emergency lighting distribution transformer

Diesel Generator

UPS

Main Lighting distribution transformer  Emergency lighting distribution transformer  Diesel Generator  UPS

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 92 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : LT AC Distribution

11KV FROM S.E.B. 33KV FORM TERTIARY OF 315MVA TARNSFORMER 250KVA DG 630KVA AUX. 415V AC
11KV FROM
S.E.B.
33KV FORM TERTIARY OF
315MVA TARNSFORMER
250KVA DG
630KVA AUX.
415V AC
AUXILIARY
SYSTEM
1000KVA AUX.
SET
TRAFO.
TRAFO.
415V MAIN SWDB-1A
FIRE
100KVA
FIGHTING
LIGHTING
TRAFO.
SYSTEM
415V ACDB-2A
VENTILATIO
EMERGENCY
LIGHTING
N DB-5A
LIGHTING DB-
DB-3A
4A
220V
50V BATTERY
Typical AC System SLD
BATTERY
CHARGER
CHARGER
EMERGENCY LIGHTING N DB-5A LIGHTING DB- DB-3A 4A 220V 50V BATTERY Typical AC System SLD BATTERY

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : AC & DC Board

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 93 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 93 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 94 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : DC System

94 - © Substations Equipment & Accessories : DC System DC Auxiliary System  Auxiliary system

DC Auxiliary System

Auxiliary system which provides reliable DC source for control & protection circuit of substation equipment. DC system backed up by Battery ensures higher level of security over AC auxiliary system

Typical DC Load in substation

Protection & interlocks

Switchgear control

Remote control & Indication

Annunciation system

Control & instrumentation

Power line carrier ( PLCC )

Emergency DC Lighting

Electric clocks

Communication systems

Data acquisition & logging system

)  Emergency DC Lighting  Electric clocks  Communication systems  Data acquisition & logging

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 95 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : DC System

Tubular Battery

Plante Battery

• Battery is simple construction

• 40% better performance

• Life is 10 years.

• Longer Life (20 years)

• Most Economical

Almost 2.5-3 times Costlier than Tubular battery

Maintenance Free

Ni-Cd Battery

Does not require any topping up of water

• Longer life span (25 years)

• More stable & reliable performance

Less hazardous and no special room required

• Less hazardous and corrosion free

• Cost is 4 times of tubular battery

• Needs control environment at 27 0 C

• Cost is 2 times of Tubular battery

is 4 times of tubular battery • Needs control environment at 27 0 C • Cost

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 96 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : DC System

96 - © Substations Equipment & Accessories : DC System Inputs for Battery Sizing  Instantaneous

Inputs for Battery Sizing

Instantaneous or Momentary Load

Circuit Breaker Trip / Close, Protective Relays

Continuous Load

Annunciation system, DC supervision, Indication Lamps, Auxiliary Relays, Semaphores

Emergency Loads

Emergency lighting

system, DC supervision, Indication Lamps, Auxiliary Relays, Semaphores  Emergency Loads  Emergency lighting

ABB Power Technologies

BA PTPS - 97 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : DC System

                   

BATTERY LOADING

DIAGRAM

 

BATTERY SIZING

                     

Maximum allowable battery voltage(V) =

254

     

200

     

Minimum allowable battery voltage(V) =

199

             

Float voltage (minimum)(V) =

 

2

     

175

   

0-1min.

 

Float voltage (maximum)(V) =

 

2.28

           
Float voltage (maximum)(V) =   2.28             1-179min.

1-179min.

Minimum allowable cell voltage(V) =

 

1.80

     

150

     

No. of cells = min.allowable battery voltage/end of discharge cell voltage = 199/1.8=

110.56

       

179-180min.

 
               

125

     

No of cells selected =

 

111

     

LOAD IN AMPS

       
               

100

       

Minimum Battery voltage at end of discharge= 111*1.8V

199.8

               

Maximum Battery voltage = 111*2.28V=

253.08

     

75

       

Nominal battery Voltage = 111*2.0V=

 

222

               
               

50

       
   

Electrolyte temperature =

19 Deg. Celsius

     

25

         
 

Sr. No.

System/Loads

 

0-1min.

1-179min.

179-180min.

0

     
                   

TIME

   
 

1

Sub Total for 400kV Swgr. System (sheet 4 of 13)

61.995

1.995

1.995

 

0-1min.

1-179min.

 

179-180min.

 

2

Sub Total for 33kV swgr system (sheet 6 of 13)

6.205

0.295

1.205

       
 

3

Sub Total for 415V main system (sheet 8 of 13)

8.102

1.157

1.157

       
 

4

Sub total for 415V valve cooling (sheet 11 of 13)

5.041

2.586

2.586

       
 

5

Sub total for 415V DG swgr (sheet 11 of 13)

1.511

0.193

0.193

       
 

6

Sub total for 415V fire fighting system (sheet 11 of 13)

0.155

0.155

0.155

   

LOAD CYCLE :

 
 

7

Sub total for 415V water system (sheet 11 of 13)

0.123

0.123

0.123

   

PERIOD

LOAD (AMP.)

 

8

Sub total for 415V AC/vent. system (sheet 11 of 13)

2.743

0.107

0.107

   
 

9

                 

0-1min.

 

120.114

 

10

Em. Lighting Load (sheet 13 of 13)

 

18.182

18.182

18.182

   

1-179min.

 

39.532

 

11

Sub Total for MACH2 system (sheet 12 of 13)

14.545

14.545

14.545

   

179-180min.

 

40.441

 

12

Sub Total for Key interlock system(sheet 12 of 13)

             
 

13

Sub total for emergency swgr (sheet 9 of 13)

1.511

0.193

0.193

       
   

Total (=1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13) =

120.114

39.532

40.441

       
    Total (=1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13) = 120.114 39.532 40.441        

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 98 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : DC System

Period

Load (Amperes)

Change in load (Amperes)

Duration of Period (minutes)

Time to End of Section (minutes)

K

Required section size

Factor

                 

(Curve)

Pos. Value

Neg. Value

                   

(IF CA>0,

(IF CA<0,

(CA)

(K)

POS=CA*K)

NEG=CA*K)

Section 1 - First period only - If A2 is greater than A1, go to section 2

             

1

A1=

120.11

A1-0=

120.11

M1=

 

1 T=M1=

1

1.100

132.125

0.000

             

SEC 1 Sub-Total =

   

132.125

0.000

             

SEC 1 Total =

   

132.125

 

Section 2 - First two periods only - If A3 is greater than A2, go to section 3

             
             

SEC 2 Sub-Total =

   

0.000

0.000

             

SEC 2 Total =

   

0.000

 

Section 3 - First three periods only - If A4 is greater than A3, go to section 4

             

1 A1=

 

120.11

A1-0=

120.11

M1=

 

1 T=M1+M2+M3=

180

4.100

492.466

0.000

2 A2=

 

39.53

A2-A1=

-80.58

M2=

178

T=M2+M3=

179

4.100

0.000

-330.385

3 A3=

 

40.44

A3-A2=

0.91

M3=

1

T=M3=

1

1.100

1.000

0.000

             

SEC 3 Sub-Total =

   

493.466

-330.385

             

SEC 3 Total =

   

163.080

 

A)

Max. Uncorrected Section size (Maximum of Sec1 Total, Sec2 Total, Sec3 Total)

163.08

       

B)

Temperature Correction Factor :

     

1.070

       

C)

Adding temperature correction compensation :

     

174.50

       

D)

Adding 25% ageing compensation (per DCD) :

     

218.12

       

E)

With 10% design margin

       

239.93

AH

     
 

Standard battery rating selected = 300AH

               
  Standard battery rating selected = 3 0 0 A H          

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 99 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : DC System

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 99 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 99 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 99 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 100 -

©

Substations

Substation Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure
Substation
Main
Engineered
Auxiliary
Auxiliary
Equipment
items
Equipment
System
Civil
Structure
- © Substations Substation Main Engineered Auxiliary Auxiliary Equipment items Equipment System Civil Structure

Substations

Equipment & Accessories Auxiliary System

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 101 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 101 -

Illumination system

Indoor (Control Room, FFPH, Kiosk)

Outdoor

Fire fighting system

HVWS system

Nitrogen injection

Air conditioning system

FFPH, Kiosk)  Outdoor  Fire fighting system  HVWS system  Nitrogen injection  Air

Substations

Equipment & Accessories

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 102 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 102 -

Fire Fighting System

Fire fighting

Fire Water Storage Tank

Fire Water Pumping System

Hydrant System

High Velocity Water Spray System

Portable Fire Extinguishers

CO2 Gas Extinguishers

Fire detection

Thermal Heat Detectors

Ionization Smoke Detectors

Photoelectric Smoke Detectors

Response Indicators

Manual Call Points

Hooters

Fire Alarm Panel

 Photoelectric Smoke Detectors  Response Indicators  Manual Call Points  Hooters  Fire Alarm

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : P & I Diagram

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 103 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 103 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 104 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Fire Fighting Building

Power Technologies BA PTPS - 104 - © S u b s t a t i
Power Technologies BA PTPS - 104 - © S u b s t a t i

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Fire Fighting Building

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 105 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 105 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Hydrant System

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 106 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 106 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : HVWS System

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 107 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 107 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 108 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : HVWS System

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 108 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 108 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 108 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 109 -

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : N2 Injection

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 109 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 109 - © S u b s t a t

Substations

Equipment & Accessories: Air Conditioning System

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 110 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 110 -

Separate AC System for Control room / Other areas

Ventilation System – Other Areas, Valve Hall

AC System – 100% Standby

AC - Chilled Water System / Split Units

Ventilation with Humidity Control

Hall  AC System – 100% Standby  AC - Chilled Water System / Split Units

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Illumination System

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 111 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 111 -

Lighting system for substation are considered as:

Normal AC to cater lighting requirement during normal operating condition

Emergency lighting on failure of normal AC lighting source

DC emergency for illuminating strategic locations

Lighting from DG system for bigger substations

Outdoor Lighting

Building Lighting

Fire fighting building

Control room building

Kiosk Lighting

Street Lighting

 Building Lighting  Fire fighting building  Control room building  Kiosk Lighting  Street

©

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Illumination System

Illumination level required for substation is….

Lighting shall provide enough light depending on nature of work to be carried out. Operational lighting as per IS:3646 part-III.

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 112 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 112 -
on nature of work to be carried out. Operational lighting as per IS:3646 part-III. ABB Power

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Illumination System

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 113 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 113 -

Outdoor Illumination System

High Pressure Sodium Vapour (HPSV) luminaries with various combination of rating with high beam & narrow beam used to achieve desired illumination

Ratings usually considered

2X400W HPSV, 1X400W HPSV for switchyard and outdoor equipment

2X250W HPSV, 1X250W HPSV for switchyard and outdoor equipment

1X150W HPSV for street lighting

High Pressure Mercury Vapour / Halogen luminaries are also taken if they specifically required by customer

lighting  High Pressure Mercury Vapour / Halogen luminaries are also taken if they specifically required

Substations

Equipment & Accessories : Illumination System

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 114 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 114 -

Indoor Illumination System

Indoor illumination is achieved by various types of luminaries according to the requirement and utility of various rooms.

Room with CP/RP, office, conference room with air conditioning and false ceiling are provided with recessed mounted 2X36W fluorescent lamp with mirror optic reflector.

For LT room, DG, Store etc. where no false ceiling or AC provided, industrial type 2x36W fluorescent lamp is used.

For cable cellar bulk head or industrial type 2x36W fluorescent lamp is used as per specification.

Battery room is provided with corrosion proof industrial type 2X36W fluorescent lamp.

For DC emergency bulk head incandescent lamps are used.

with corrosion proof industrial type 2X36W fluorescent lamp.  For DC emergency bulk head incandescent lamps

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 115 -

©

Substations

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 115 - © Substations Interlocking & Protection Philosophy

Interlocking & Protection Philosophy

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 115 - © Substations Interlocking & Protection Philosophy

Substations

Fundamental Concepts

S u b s t a t i o n s Fundamental Concepts © ABB Power
© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 116 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 116 -

CIRCUIT BREAKER

Normally kept interlock free

European practice is to prevent opening or closing of circuit breaker when isolator is in intermediate position

CB is operated only when isolator is fully open or close

Isolator

Isolator is allowed to operate (open offload) when associate

Circuit breaker is open

Earth switch is closed

Isolator permitted to operate for bus transfer when voltage on both the sides are same

 Earth switch is closed  Isolator permitted to operate for bus transfer when voltage on

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 117 -

©

Substations

Fundamental Concepts

- © S u b s t a t i o n s Fundamental Concepts 

EARTH SWITCH

Earth switch is allowed to operate when adjacent isolators are open

Earth switch is used to earth the trap charges

Nowadays, customer ask for same short circuit rating of main blade & earth blade

used to earth the trap charges  Nowadays, customer ask for same short circuit rating of

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 118 -

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Substations

Interlocking : Single Bus scheme

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 118 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 118 - © S u b s t a t

Substations

Interlocking : Double Bus scheme

© ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 119 -
©
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 119 -

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 120 -

©

Substations

Interlocking : Three Bus scheme

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 120 - © S u b s t a t

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 121 -

©

Substations

Interlocking : One & Half Breaker Scheme

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 121 - © S u b s t a t
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 121 - © S u b s t a t

©

Substations

Protection Philosophy

© Substations Protection Philosophy ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 122 -  Introduction to Protection
ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 122 -
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 122 -

Introduction to Protection

General protection requirements applicable to

Transmission/distribution substations

Distribution plants/ MV switchgear

Brief on various type of protection

Application guide

substations  Distribution plants/ MV switchgear  Brief on various type of protection  Application guide

©

Substations

Protection Philosophy

Electric Power Systems

Generation

Protection Philosophy Electric Power Systems Generation Transmission Distribution Consumption M G Generation

Transmission

Philosophy Electric Power Systems Generation Transmission Distribution Consumption M G Generation Transmission

Distribution

Electric Power Systems Generation Transmission Distribution Consumption M G Generation Transmission Distribution

Consumption

Systems Generation Transmission Distribution Consumption M G Generation Transmission Distribution Load ABB
M G Generation Transmission Distribution Load ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 123 -
M
G
Generation
Transmission
Distribution
Load
ABB Power Technologies
BA PTPS - 123 -

©

Substations

Protection Philosophy

ABB Power Technologies BA PTPS - 124 -