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The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or
The art and technique of using words effectively to communicate information or ideas.
Acceptable communication differs from company to company, but many aspects are
Two types of communication Verbal and NON-Verbal
'Verbal' means 'spoken'. So, verbal communication is the messages you send with words. Nonverbal communication is the messages you send with your body. Some people call it your body
language. For example:
Facial expressions - smiling, frowning, raising eyebrows, eye contact
Gestures - waving your hand, pointing your finger, crossing your arms
Posture - the way you stand or sit.
A number of researchers claim the total impact of our communication breaks down as:
7% verbal the words we use
38% vocal the volume, pitch, rhythm, tone of our words
55% body movements our facial expressions, positioning, gesturing
Note: Effective communication occurs when your verbal and non-verbal communication skills
send the same message.

Downward, or enabling, communication that moves instructions and other directive

information down or through a hierarchy

Upward, or compliance, communication that provides feedback to the people who

originate downward communication

Lateral, or coordinating, communication that moves between peers to maintain or
improve operational efficiency
The Grapevine (gossip), which fills in gaps in official communication and provides
answers to unaddressed questions.


All of us have at some time used each of these styles of communicating. Generally we tend to
have a dominant style. This is a summary of the behaviors associated with each of the four
communication styles. Not all characteristics of any one stereotype are present in any one
persons communication. They can be present to differing degrees.


do not assert themselves

try to dominate others

allow others to deliberately or

inadvertently infringe on their

use humiliation to control others

criticize, blame, or attack others

can be very impulsive

have low frustration-tolerance

speak in a loud, demanding and

overbearing voice

act threateningly and rudely

do not listen well

interrupt frequently

Use you statements (eg you are


May have an overbearing posture.

fail to express their feelings,

needs or opinions

tend to speak softly or


Exhibit poor eye contact and

slumped body posture.


state needs and wants clearly,

appropriately and respectfully

express feelings clearly,

appropriately and respectfully

use I statements (eg I feel

frustrated when you turn up late)

communicate respect for others

listen without interrupting

have good eye contact


mutter to themselves rather than

confront the person or issue

have difficulty acknowledging

their anger

speak in a calm and clear tone of


use facial expressions that don't

match how they feel; i.e. smiling
when angry

deny there is a problem

have a relaxed body posture

feel connected to others

appear co-operative while

purposely doing things to annoy
and disrupt.

Stand up for their rights.


An organizational structure chart is a diagram that represents an organization, identifying its
employees and departments and their relationships to each other. Some organization shows office
arrangements and lines of authority and responsibility.
Once the chart has been drawn up, check for the following:

Consistency: include all names and/or job titles.

Clarity: distinguish job titles from departments or sub-teams clearly.
Completeness: do not forget the organizations members, volunteers, and part-time staff.
Update: as and when necessary, and decide who should be responsible for doing this.
Place: think about where to place the chart (eg as a poster in reception).

There are two types of Office Communication, 1st is Internal and 2nd is External.
Internal OC: Within the office, staff members communicate with one another through meetings
or conversations, by sending memos, by giving and receiving telephone messages and through
office cooperation (people working together as a team).
External OC: People outside the organization communicate with the office in three main ways:
They visit the office.
They telephone the office.
They write a letter (or send an email) to the office.