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Optimum Design and Operation of Pumped


Water Distribution Systems
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Optimum Design and Operation of Pumped Water Distribution Systems


by
Laurie J Murphy, Graeme C Dandy and Angus R Simpson

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.


University of Adelaide
Adelaide
South Australia 5005
Phone: 61-8-303-5451
Fax: 61-8-303-4359
Email: asimpson@crackle.adelaide.edu.au

1994 Conference on Hydraulics in Civil Engineering


The Institution of Engineers, Australia
Brisbane, Australia
February 1994

Citation: Murphy, L.J., Dandy, G.C., and Simpson, A.R. (1994) "Optimum design and operation of
pumped water distribution systems." Proc., Conf. on Hydraulics in Civil Engineering, Institution of
Engineers, Australia, Brisbane, Australia, February.

Optimum Design and Operation of Pumped Water Distribution Systems


LAURENCE J MURPHY, GRAEME C DANDY and ANGUS R SIMPSON
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Adelaide

SUMMARY All communities need an adequate water supply. A water distribution pipe network,
water storage tanks and pumping station facilities are the usual features of a water supply system. The
selection of the layout, capacity and operation of these components of the distribution system
significantly affects the hydraulic and economic efficiency of the design. The genetic algorithm (GA)
technique is applied to the search for the optimal water distribution system design. The GA technique
simulates mechanisms of natural population genetics in an artificial evolutionary strategy. The genetic
algorithm optimisation model coupled with a steady state hydraulic simulation model generates and
evaluates trial pipe network designs in search of optimal designs just as nature may save, combine and
manipulate genetic information in the process of evolution. The genetic algorithm search is applied to a
case study which demonstrates its flexibility and the opportunity for significant cost savings offered by
this method.
1

INTRODUCTION

A supply of clean water is a basic need of all communities. The water needs of the
community may vary with fluctuations in population and industry activity. A growing
community must consider the provision of an upgraded water distribution system to meet
increased water needs under different demand patterns~ The costs of expansions to a water
distribution system may include substantial capital costs for components such as pipes, pump
stations and storage tanks and operating costs such as energy costs for pumping. An
optimisation procedure may be used to minimise these costs while satisfying the water demands
on the system.
The optimisation of a new or expanded gravity pipe network design involves the selection
of the combination of 'design variables' which satisfies some specified system performance
criteria such that total design cost is a minimum. A number of models have been developed to
identify the optimal set of pipe sizes for gravity pipe networks including: linear programming
(Morgan and Gouher 1985); non-linear programming (Dandy et al 1993); enumeration
algorithms (Gessler 1982); and genetic algorithms (Murphy et al 1993, Simpson et al 1994).
The genetic algorithm search coupled with a hydraulic simulation procedure is well suited to the
search for the minimum cost pipe combination for a gravity pipe network (Dandy et al 1993).
The design may be for a new pipe network or additions to an existing pipe network. It is
required to satisfy minimum pressure heads at the demand nodes in the system for various water
demand patterns.
The optimum design of pumped pipe networks is quite a deal more complicated than for
gravity systems. The set of design variables may include the material and diameter of new pipes;
the equivalent diameter of cleaned and lined or duplicated existing pipes; the location, size and
operation schedule for new or upgraded pump stations; and the location, size, shape and
elevation of new storage tanks. The pipe network design is required to meet performance criteria
such as minimum pressure heads at demand nodes for peak and emergency water demand
patterns. In addition, adequate pressure heads and acceptable tank water levels should be
maintained throughout the day and pump station flows should be within the operational limits of
the pumping facility. A limited number of researchers have tackled the optimisation of pumped
pipe networks. Some approaches to the pumped pipe network design problem are provided by
researchers who participated in the 'Battle of the Network Models' optimisation search (Walski et

aI1987). The design of expansions to the Anytown network from the 'Battle of the Network
Models' conference sessions is the case study problem investigated in this paper. Walski et al
recommended that the Anytown network serve as a benchmark problem for other optimisation
models. The genetic algorithm technique has been shown to be effective in a mixture of
applications (Goldberg 1989). In this paper. the genetic algorithm search is applied to the
complex solution space for a pumped pipe network optimisation problem.

GENETIC ALGORITHMS

A genetic algorithm (GA) is a structured search method based on artificial evolution


(Holland 1975). GAs are a computer simulation of the evolution of living things. The process
of natural adaptation of living things to the surrounding conditions continuously provides nearoptimal solutions. Just as a chromosome of genetic information may describe the characteristics
of an individual. some piece of code is used to describe a trial solution to the pipe network design
problem. The piece of code occurs in some chosen format (typically a string of digits) which can
best describe the complete set of solutions to be explored by the GA. A coded string may be
mapped to a trial pipe network design by some decoding procedure. The string of artificial
genetic code is decoded to the associated set of design variables which may include:
proposed new pipes sizes
proposed modifications of existing pipes
proposed elevated tank sites
proposed expansions to existing pump stations
pump station operation for peak and emergency demands
pump station operation for average daily demands
The decoded trial network design undergoes a stringent evaluation procedure so that the
coded string may be accompanied by a corresponding measure of its worth called its fitness. In
nature. fitness may reflect an organism's compatibility with its surrounding conditions and
ultimately determine its survival. The fitness of coded strings controls the survival of the
artificial chromosome. The GA successively evaluates and regenerates popUlations of coded
strings which represent some distribution of trial pipe network designs in the solution space.
The starting population of coded strings is usually generated randomly.
The GA search uses operators which imitate mechanisms of population genetics and
natural rules of survival to create a new population of coded strings from an old population. The
traditional GA may consist of three simple operators called reproduction, crossover and
mutation. The reproduction operator is a survival-of-the-fittest selection process. The survival
of a living thing in nature depends on its strength and good fortune. In a similar fashion. the
selection of a coded string from the competing population depends on its fitness relative to fellow
strings and chance factors. The simplified genetic mechanisms of crossover and mutation
combine and manipulate the coded strings selected from the old population before they proceed to
the new popUlation. The crossover operator breaks two selected parent strings and exchanges
corresponding segments of code to produce two offspring strings. The mutation operator
randomly chooses and alters bits of code. Further details of the GA operators are given in
Murphy and Simpson (1992).

EVALUATION SCHEME

The proposed pipe network design is evaluated with respect to its economic and hydraulic
suitability so that the GA coded string may be assigned an appropriate value of fitness. The
number of new parallel pumping units to be installed in the existing source pump station is
specified by the coded string. The GA coding is flexible and may be modified to consider new
pumps of different sizes which may be available arranged in any serial or parallel combination.
The coded string specifies proposed pump operation for the peak demand patterns and an average

day pump operation schedule for the average daily water use pattern. The pump operation
schedule is specified such that the average day pump flow just exceeds the average day demand
and pumps operate close to the rated pump conditions (point of best pump efficiency).
A hydraulic simulation model is integrated with the GA optimisation model to assess the
hydraulic capability of proposed layout, sizing and operation of the pipe network. The computer
evaluation times should be kept to a minimum since the GA may evaluate something in the order
of 20,ODO to 50,ODO designs. A steady state hydraulic analysis (for instantaneous flow and
pressure distributions) is time consuming and only a limited number of hydraulic analyses may
be performed to evaluate each trial design. The number of steady state hydraulic analyses which
are needed to perform an accurate extended period hydraulic simulation (for fluctuating flow and
pressure distributions and tank water level variations for some period of time) of the average
daily demand pattern is unacceptable, particularly for a pumped network which includes a
number of small elevated tanks. Therefore, a selected number of steady state hydraulic analyses
are performed for the peak demand patterns and at about four representative times during the
average day. Elevated storage tanks primarily help to smooth peak daily water demands and also
store water for emergency demands. Performing about four steady state simulations on the pipe
network subject to average daily demands checks that the storages provided by the tanks are
being used effectively to moderate the peak daily demands. Checks are also made that the pump
stations have the capacity and head to recharge all tanks during periods of low daily demands.
The series of steady state simulations monitor power consumption and are used to predict power
usage for the average day and hence the present worth of pump operation energy costs over the
lifetime of the design. Lower off-peak electricity tariffs (if available) may be exploited by the
adjustment of the pump operation schedule.
The network may have existing elevated water storages, however these alone may be
inadequate for the forecast increased water demands. New elevated tanks may be located at some
nodes in the pipe network. A mass balancing procedure measures the amount of water 'stored'
in the network at any time of the day by the difference between the accumulated volume of water
pumped into the network according to the pump operation schedule and the accumulated volume
of water consumed at the demand nodes on an average day. Should the existing tanks have
inadequate storage capacity, then additional tanks are required at locations in the pipe network
specified in the GA coded string. The fractions of the additional storage needed at each tank site
may be given in the GA code. Operating tank water levels are known for the existing tanks and
are derived for the new tanks.
The elevated water tanks are assumed to be demand nodes during the sequence of average
daily demand patterns with the pump station being the only source. The water demands at these
new demand nodes are positive during periods where the pump flows exceed the network
demand flows and the tanks are filling and negative when the pump inflows are less than
network consumption and the tanks are contributing to the demands (usually periods of high
demand). The set of ideal positive and negative water demands for the tank sites is determined
by dividing the net system inflow or outflow amongst the tanks in a similar ratio to the
distribution of the total system storage amongst the tanks. The ideal positive and negative water
demands make the most effective use of all the elevated storages during the average daily cycle.
The pressure heads at the storage nodes calculated by the steady state hydraulic analysis indicates
a pattern of achievable water levels for the tanks. The achievable water levels for the existing
tanks must fall within the operating water levels specified for each tank. The set of achievable
water levels can be compared with a set of likely water levels predicted by a mass balancing
procedure given tank volume and height. For lthis study, the achievable water levels for tanks
draining should be less than the predicted water levels while the achievable water levels for tanks
ftlling should be greater than the predicted water levels for new and existing tanks. Some further
restrictions on tank water levels are likely to be placed on each of the potential tank sites for a real
pipe network.

The costs such as pipe costs, pump capital costs, energy costs and tank costs are summed
together to equal the total estimated design cost. Pipe costs are calculated for the lengths of new pipe,
pipes laid parallel to existing pipes as duplications and existing pipes cleaned and lined. Pipe costs may
be a function of the length of pipe to be installed or rehabilitated and may be influenced by accessibility
and the condition of existing pipes. Pump costs are usually a function of the pumping capacity to be
supplied. Tank costs may be a function of the elevation and the volume of storage. Land acquisition
costs may need to be included for storage tank and pump station sites.

Residential
Area

[74]

'-

40

[36]

Residential
Area

Source Pump
Station

Clearwell, Water Treatment Plant

Figure 1 The Any town Network (Walski et al 1987)


Energy costs may be estimated by the average day pump operation schedule. The fitness of the
coded string is some function of the pipe network design costs and penalty costs for a given design.
Poor designs which do not meet the specified system performance criteria for the network are allocated
penalty costs. The peak and emergency demand flows must be supplied to demand nodes with some
minimum allowable pressures. An infeasible pipe network design is one which does not maintain
pressure heads at the demand nodes within allowable limits or which cannot provide some specified tank

water level trajectory and the infeasible design incurs a penalty cost which is a function of the distance
from feasibility. Other constraints may be applied such as allowable limits for pipe velocities and the GA
has the flexibility to incorporate the violation of any additional constraints as penalty costs. A feasible
pipe network design will have zero penalty costs.

4 THE ANYTOWN NETWORK


The 'Battle of the Network Models' study (Walski et al 1987) introduced the Anytown pipe
network which required upgrading to meet increasing community water demands. The Anytown pipe
network was the water distribution system for a hypothetical small town with constraints and design
complications typical of a real water distribution network. The proposed new design could introduce
new pipes, pumps and tanks or add to or modify existing pump stations and pipes. The 'Battle of the
Network Models' problem was intended to help bring closer the optimisation models of researchers and
the design procedures of the experienced practising engineer.

Table 1 Pump characteristics for each pump at the source pump station of the
Any town network
Discharge
(gpm)
0
2000
4000*
6000
8000

Pump head
(ft)
300
292
270
230
181

Efficiency (%)
(wire-to-water)
0
50
65
55
40

* Rated discharge
The town in Figure 1 can be separated into an old central city area (southeast of pipe [28]), some
industry around node 160, the surrounding residential areas and a proposed industrial park to be located
north of town. The water is supplied from a river and is drawn from a clearwell at a water treatment
plant at node 10 and pumped into the system. The source pump station has three identical pumps
connected in parallel. The pump characteristics for each of the pumps are provided in Table 1. The
water level at the clearwell is maintained at 10 ft. The US customary units have been used in this study.
The existing pipes and proposed new pipes in the Anytown network are numbered from [2] through to
[82]. The older and more difficult pipes to access in the central city area are the thick solid lines in
Figure 1. The new pipes in the proposed industrial park and the proposed new pipe [54] are represented
by the dashed lines. The thin solid lines are the existing pipes in the surrounding residential area. The
physical properties which characterise the pipes such as length, diameter and roughness are tabulated in
Table 2. The Hazen-Williams roughness coefficients are projected C values for the year 2005.
The source nodes and demand nodes are numbered from 10 through to 170 in the Anytown
network in Figure 1. The elevations of the demand nodes reproduced in Table 3 are determined from
network topography. The town has two existing water tanks at nodes 6S and 165 both with 250,000
gallons of elevated storage at opposing sides of town. The elevation of the bottom of both tanks is 215 ft
and the tanks are full at 255 ft. The tanks should be operated between water levels of 225 ft and 250 ft.
The minimum water level of 225 ft is not the very bottom of the tank since some storage is retained as an
emergency water supply. The shape of the tanks is assumed to be cylindrical. Pipes [78] and [80] are
riser pipes to the elevated tanks.
The average daily demand flows for 1985 and predicted average daily demand flows at the nodes
determined by forecasted consumer water needs for the year 2005 are given in Table 3. The system is
subject to the following peak and emergency demand patterns and the water must be supplied with
adequate pressure head:
(1) instantaneous peak flow

(2) fIre flow of 2,500 gpm at node 90


(3) fIre flows of 1,500 gpm at nodes 55,75 and 115
(4) fIre flows of 1,000 gpm at nodes 120 and 160
Table 2 The pipes of the Any town network
Pipe

Length
(ft)

ExisUng
Diameter
(in)

Hazen-

Williams
roughness

[2]
[4]
[6J
[8]
[10]

[12]
[14J
[16]
[18]
[20]
[22]
[24]
[26]
[28]
[30]
[32]
[34]
[36]
[38]
[40]
[42]
[44]
[46]
[48]

[50]
[52]
[54]
[56]
[58]
[60]
[62]
[64]

[66]
[68]
[70]
[72]
[74]
[76]
[78]
[80]
[82]

12000
12000
12000
9000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
9000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
9000
6000
6000
6000
6000
12000
12000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
100
100
100

16 (city)
12 (residential)
12 (city)
12 (residential)
l2 (city)
10 (city)
12 (city)
10 (CIty)
12 (CIty)
10 (city)
10 (city)
10 (city)
12 (city)
10 (city)
10 (residential)
10 (residential)
10 (residential)
10 (residential)
10 (residentI&1)
10 (residential)
8 (residential)
8 (resIdential)
8 (resIdential)
8 (city)
10 (residential)
8 (residential)
New
8 (residential)
10 (residential)
8 (residential)
8 (residential)
8 (residential)
8 (residential)
New
New
New
New
New
12 (riser)
12 (riser)

30 (pump main)

70
120
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
120
70
120
120
130
120
120
120
120
120
120
130
130
130
130
130
120
120
130

The instantaneous peak flows are 1.8 times the average day flows (Table 3) and the minimum
allowable pressure head at all nodes is 40 psi. The fIre flows should be met while supplying peak: day
flows at other nodes (1.3 times average day flows) and pressures of at least 20 psi should be provided at
the nodes. The peak and emergency demands need to be satisfIed while the water distribution system is
restricted with tanks at their low operating level and with a pump out of operation. The duration of fIre
flows is 2 hours.
An approximate variation in water use for an average day is given in Table 4. There are no
check valves or pressure reducing valves in the system at present. The cost per unit length for pipe
material and laying of new pipes and duplicating existing pipes and costs per unit length for cleaning and
lining existing pipes is given in Table 5. Pipe costs are higher in the old central city area since
excavation is more difficult than in the surrounding areas. A pipe which has been cleaned and lined has
an Hazen-Williams coefficient of C=125 and the new pipes have a C=130.

Table 3 The nodes of the Anytown network


Node

10
20
30
40
50
55
60
65
70
75
HO
90
100
110
115
120
130
140
JS()_

160
165
170

Average
daily water
use in 1985
(gpm)
Clearwell
500
200
200
200

500
Tank
500
500
1000

SOU
500
200
200
200
200
800
Tank
200

Expected
average daily
water use in
2005 (gpm)
Clearwell
500
200
200
600
600
500
Tank
500
600
500
1000
500
500
600
400
400
400
400
1000
Tank
400

Elevation
(ft)

10
20
50
50
50
80
50
215
50
80

SO
SO
SO
SO
80
120
120
80
120
120
215
120

Pump capital costs are based on rated discharge (QR) and head (HR) of the new pump unit. The
cost C, for new pump stations is estimated by
(1)

The capital cost for the upgrade of the existing pump station is estimated by
C = 350 ~O.7 HR o.4

(2)

Pump station operating costs are based on a unit energy cost of $0. 12/kWh throughout the day. An
interest rate of 12% and an amortisation period of 20 years are considered. Tank costs are a function of
volume as shown in Table 6.

Table 4 Water use pattern throughout the day for the Any town network
Demand
period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Time of
day
12 midnight-3am
3am-6am
6am-9am
9am-12 noon
12am-3pm
3pm-6pm
6pm-9pm
9pm-12 midnight

Average day
demand factor
0.7
0.6
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9

Table 5 Pipe costs for the expansions to the Any town network
Pipe
diameter
(in)
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
30

Pipe costs ($/ft)


Duplicating exisnng
Clean and line
existing pipes
New
pipes
pipe
L'ity Residenttal L'ity Residential
12.8 26.2
14.2
17.0
12.0
17.8 27.8
19.8
17.0
12.0
12.0
22.5 34.1
25.1
17.0
29.2 41.4
32.4
17.0
13.0
36.2 50.2
40.2
18.2
14.2
48.5
43.6 58.5
19.8
15.5
51.5 66.2
57.2
21.6
17.1
23.5
60.1 76.8
66.8
20.2
77.0 109.2
85.5
105.5 142.5
116.1
-

Table 6 Tank costs for the expansions to the Any town network
Tank volume
(gal)
50,000
100,000
250,000
500,000
1,000,000

Cost
($)
115,000
145,000
325,000
425,000
600,000

GENETIC ALGORITHM DESIGN

The genetic algorithm optimisation technique was applied to the design of additions to the
Anytown pipe network (Walski et al1987). The GA search identified a number of alternative designs.
A design engineer using a GA search as a preliminary design tool could evaluate alternative designs
generated by the GA based on other non-quantifiable objectives specific to the system such as possible
future expansions and demands. A low cost design determined by the GA technique for the Anytown
network expansions for $11.335 million is presented in Figure 2 and the design costs are summarised in
Table 7. The design costs are approximated by the coded string evaluation scheme during the GA
search.

Table 7 Summary of design costs


Cost
description
Pipes
Pump capital
Tanks
Energy

Total

Apprmomated
($million)
4.506
0.0
0.606
6.075
11.187

Measured
($million)
4.506
0.0
0.857
5.972
11.335

For the Anytown case study, it is assumed that the source pump station which already exists with
three identical parallel pumping units may be upgraded by any number of additional parallel pumps with
identical characteristics. The GA chooses not to upgrade the existing source pump station. The GA
coding scheme may be modified to consider additional pumping units of different sizes which may be
available.
Walski et al (1987) believed 500,000 gallons of elevated storage is low for the size of the town
with a predicted total daily consumption of 14,112,000 gallons for the year 2005. The GA design
situates a new 750,000 gallon elevated tank adjacent to node 140 and another new 300,000 gallon
elevated tank adjacent to node 70. It was assumed for the hypothetical Anytown network, that a new
tank may be located adjacent to any demand node in the pipe network, however the number of these
potential elevated water tank sites may be limited for a real pipe network. The operating and emergency
components of the volumes of the tanks and recommended tank operating water levels are given in
Table 8.

Table 8 New and existing tank dimensions


Elevated
storage
tank

Tank capacity (gal)


Volume

65
165
175
185

250,000
250,000
750,000
300,000

Effective
storage
156,250
156,250
350,000
150,000

Emergency
storage
62,500
62,500
400,000
150,000

Operating water
levels (ft)
Low

High

225.0
225.0
220.0
238.0

250.0
250.0
240.0
248.0

The design must satisfy the peak and emergency demands with only 2 pumps operating and
tanks at the low operating water levels. The performance of the GA design under the demand patterns is
summarised in Table 9. The emergency storage volumes for the new tanks were approximated by
considering fire demands and corresponding tank outflows for a duration of 2 hours. Tank 175 has
400,000 gallons of emergency storage to meet the fire flows in the proposed new industrial park. Tank
185 has additional emergency storage to meet the fire flow at node 90 since the existing emergency
storage at tank 65 cannot supply the emergency demands for 2 hours. The pressure heads at the

10

demand nodes are sufficient since they are all greater than 40 psi for the peak instantaneous flow pattern
and greater than 20 psi for the fIre flow patterns.

Table 9 Peak and emergency demand patterns


Criucal pressure
(psi)
Minimum Criucal
pressure
node
(1) peak: mst. flow
40.11
150
(2) fIre at node 9U
4l.36
15U
(3) fire 55, 75, 115
25.88
55
(4) fIre 120, 160
42.71
170
Demand
Pattern

Source flows
Pump
station
10,219
9,913
9,953
9,949

Tank

(gpm)
Tank

Tank

65

165

175

185

1,090
842
487
353

1,723
451
377
341

3,101
1,759
3,272
1,540

1,507
975
811
736

Dup.12"
($O.l94m)

- --

Tank

40

Dup.14"

~ ($0.241m)
~

175

New 20"

($0.006m)

:::
..:::-.......
...-::.
...........

:-:-:-:-:.:-:-:-:-:.:-:
-_ ...... .......... ..
---_ ...... _--- ..

.,
/

New Tank
750,000 gal
($0.5125m)

170

Dup.16"
($0.291m)

Figure 2 Proposed expansions for the Any town network

11

The GA design operates 3 parallel pumps between 6am and midday and 2 parallel pumps for the
rest of the day for the average daily demands. An extended period simulation was performed to simulate
daily pump operation and hence accurately measure energy costs for the average day in 20 years time.
The present worth of energy costs for the design life is estimated to be $5.971 million. Tank water level
trajectories for the elevated tanks for the average day are plotted in Figure 3.

260

.-. 250

;::

- - . - - Tank 65

'-'

...

.....

230

.lIC

cCIS

E-o

- 0 - - Tank 165

"",.

......:........'.

,.'

210

6pm

'

--+-- Tank 175

..
".,

220 + _ _ <.......

.". ,

",'

<. _ _ +

12 midnight

6am
Time or day

12 noon

----<>- Tank 185

'----------'

6pm

Figure 3 Tank water level trajectory


6

CONCLUSIONS

This paper describes the use of the genetic algorithm technique for identifying the optimum
design and operation of pumped water distribution systems. The technique was applied to the Anytown
network considered in the 'Battle of the Network Models' study (Walski et al 1987). The genetic
algorithm identified a number of alternative near-optimal designs for the Anytown network expansions.
The GA design presented in this paper for $11.335 million compares favourably with the designs
presented in the 'Battle of the Network Models' study which varied in cost from $12.3 million to $13.8
million (Walski et al 1987). However, it is difficult to compare the designs due to differing
interpretations of the problem and the reliability requirements. Walski et al observed that tank sizing and
location and pump operation significantly affect pipe sizing. The GA optimisation technique in this paper
designs the new pipe network, selects a pump operation schedule and locates and sizes new tanks
simultaneously.

REFERENCES

Dandy, G.C., Simpson, A.R., and Murphy, L.J. (1993). "A Review of Pipe Network Optimisation
Techniques." Proc., WATERCOMP '93, Melbourne, Australia, March-April, 373-383
Gessler, J. (1982). "Optimisation of Pipe Networks." Proc., International Symposium on Urban
Hydrology, Hydraulics and Sediment Control, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY., 165-171
Goldberg, D.E. (1989). Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc., 412pp

12

Holland, J.H. (1975). Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. University of Michigan Press, Ann
Arbor.
Morgan, D.R., and Goulter, I.C. (1985). "Optimal Urban Water Distribution Design." Water Resources

Research, 21(5), 642-652


Murphy, L.J., and Simpson, A.R. (1992). "Pipe Optimisation using Genetic Algorithms" Research

Report No. R93, Dept. Civil Engineering, University of Adelaide, June, 95pp
Murphy, L.J., Simpson, A.R., and Dandy, G.C. (1993). "Design of a Pipe Network using Genetic
Algorithms." Water, August, 40-42
Simpson, A.R., Dandy, G.C., and Murphy, L.J. (1994). "Genetic Algorithms Compared to Other
Techniques for Pipe Optimisation." J. Water Resources Planning and Management Division, ASCE (to
be published July 1994)
Walski, T.M., Brill, E.D., Gessler, J., Goulter, I.C., Jeppson, R.M., Lansey, K., Han-Lin Lee,
Liebman, J.C., Mays, L., Morgan, D.R., and Ormsbee, L. (1987). "Battle of the Network Models:
Epilogue." J. Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 113(2), 191-203

Disk M40 (Angus Simpson): File BrisbaneGAFeb94 10 Nov 93

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