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UNITS, PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND VECTORS

1.1.

1.2.

IDENTIFY: Convert units from mi to km and from km to ft.


SET UP: 1 in. 2.54 cm , 1 km = 1000 m , 12 in. 1 ft , 1 mi = 5280 ft .
1 km
5280 ft 12 in. 2.54 cm
1.61 km
E
XECUTE
:
(a)
1.00
mi
(1.00
mi)

1
m

2
3

1 mi 1 ft
10
cm
10
m
1in.

3
2
3
10 m 10 cm 1
1

3.28 10 ft
ft

in.
( ) 1.00 km (1.00 km)

1 km
1m
2.54 cm
12 in.

EVALUATE: A mile is a greater distance than a kilometer. There are 5280 ft in a mile but only 3280 ft in a km.
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IDENTIFY: Convert volume units from L to in. .
3
SET
1 L 1000 cm . 1 in. 2.54 cm
U P:
3
3
3
1000 cm
1
28.9 in. .
E
: XECUTE

in.

0.473
L

1L
2.54 cm

EVALUATE: 1 in.3 is greater than 1 cm3 , so the volume in in.3 is a smaller number than the volume in cm3 ,
3

1.3.

which is 473 cm .
IDENTIFY: We know the speed of light in mls. t d l v . Convert 1.00 ft to m and t from s to ns.
SET UP:
EXECUTE
:

IDENTIFY: Convert the units from g to kg and from cm to m .


SET UP: 1 kg 1000 g . 1 m 1000 cm .
11.3
4 kg
1
3 1.13 10
g

100

cm
kg
:EXECUTE

cm3 1000 g 1 m

EVALUATE:

1.5.

In 1.00 s light travels 3.00 10 m 3.00 10 km 1.86 10 mi .

EVALUATE:
1.4.

The speed of light is v 3.00 10 mls . 1 ft 0.3048 m . 1 s 10 ns .


9
0.3048 m 1.02 10 s 1.02 ns
t 3.00 108
mls

m3
3

The ratio that converts cm to m is cubed, because we need to convert cm to m .


3

IDENTIFY: Convert volume units from in. to L.


3
SET
1 L 1000 cm . 1 in. 2.54 cm .
U P:
EXECUTE:
EVALUATE:

327 in. 2.54 cm in. 1 L 1000 cm 5.36 L


3

The volume is 5360 cm . 1 cm is less than 1 in. , so the volume in cm is a larger number than the
3

1.6.

volume in in. .
2
2
IDENTIFY: Convert ft to m and then to hectares.
4
2
SET
1.00 hectare 1.00 10 m . 1 ft 0.3048 m .
U P:
43,600 ft2 0.3048 m 2 1.00 hectare
EXECUTE: The area is (12.0 acres)


2 4.86 hectares .
4
1.00
10
m

1
acre
1.00

ft

EVALUATE:
1.7.

Since 1 ft 0.3048 m , 1 ft (0.3048) m .

IDENTIFY: Convert seconds to years.


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SET
1 billion seconds 110 s . 1 day 24 h . 1 h 3600 s .
U P:

1.00
billion seconds 1.00 10 s
1 day 1
1
h
31.7 y .
y
:EXECUTE


3600 s 24 h 365 days
11

12

Chapter 1

EVALUATE: The conversion 1 y 3.156 10


s

1.8.

1.9.

assumes 1 y 365.24 d , which is the average for one extra day

every four years, in leap years. The problem says instead to assume a 365-day year.
IDENTIFY: Apply the given conversion factors.
SET UP: 1 furlong 0.1250 mi and 1 fortnight 14 days. 1 day 24 h.
0.125 mi 1 fortnight 1 day
EXECUTE: 180,000 furlongs fortnight
67 milh

1 furlong
24 h
14 days

EVALUATE: A furlong is less than a mile and a fortnight is many hours, so the speed limit in mph is a much
smaller number.
IDENTIFY: Convert mileslgallon to kmlL.
SET UP: 1 mi 1.609 km . 1 gallon 3.788 L.
1.609 km 1 gallon
EXECUTE: (a) 55.0 mileslgallon (55.0 mileslgallon)

23.4 kmlL .
1 mi
3.788 L

1500 km
64.1
L
1.4
tanks
.
( ) The volume of gas required is
64.1 L .
23.4 kmlL
45 Lltank

EVALUATE: 1 milgal 0.425 kmlL . A km is very roughly half a mile and there are roughly 4 liters in a gallon,
2
so 1 milgal
kmlL , which is roughly our result.
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1.10. IDENTIFY: Convert units.
SET UP: Use the unit conversions given in the problem. Also, 100 cm 1 m and 1000 g 1 kg .
mi
E
1hXECUTE: (a) 60
5280 ft
ft
88


3600s
1mi
s
h

1
m
m
ft 30.48 cm

2
( ) 32 2
100 cm 9.8
s
1ft
s


3
g
100
cm


1 kg
3 kg
( ) 1.0
10 3


3
cm
1
1000 g
m
m

1.11.

EVALUATE: The relations 60 milh 88 ftls and 1 glcm 10 kglm are exact. The relation 32 ftls 9.8 mls is
accurate to only two significant figures.
IDENTIFY: We know the density and mass; thus we can find the volume using the relation
density masslvolume m lV . The radius is then found from the volume equation for a sphere and the result for
the volume.
3
SET UP: Density 19.5 glcm3 and m
60.0 kg. For a sphere V 4 r .
V
critical
3
ldensity
m
60.0 kg 1000 g
3
EXECUTE:
3080 cm .

critical

19.5 glcm3
1.0 kg
3
3V
3080 cm3 9.0 cm .
r 3 4 3
4

EVALUATE: The density is very large, so the 130 pound sphere is small in size.
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1.12. IDENTIFY: Use your calculator to display 10 . Compare that number to the number of seconds in a year.
SET UP: 1 yr 365.24 days, 1 day 24 h, and 1 h 3600 s.
24 h
3600 s 3.15567...10
7
7

(365.24 daysl1 yr)


s ; 107 s 3.14159...10
s
1 day
1h

The approximate expression is accurate to two significant figures.


EVALUATE: The close agreement is a numerical accident.
1.13. IDENTIFY: The percent error is the error divided by the quantity.
SET UP: The distance from Berlin to Paris is given to the nearest 10 km.

10 m
1.110 3%.
EXECUTE: (a)
3
890 10
m
EXECUTE:

( ) Since the distance was given as 890 km, the total distance should be 890,000 meters. We know the total
distance to only three significant figures.
EVALUATE: In this case a very small percentage error has disastrous consequences.
1.14. IDENTIFY: When numbers are multiplied or divided, the number of significant figures in the result can be no
greater than in the factor with the fewest significant figures. When we add or subtract numbers it is the location of
the decimal that matters.