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A Legal Brief continued

As a municipal defense attorney, I am delighted with


this opinion. After all, the 9th Circuit dictates law where I
practice and a pro-employer bent is welcome. I do find the
courts rationale persuasive, and I would have probably
made the same arguments had I been the defense attorney
in the case. Nevertheless, on a purely conceptual level, I
cannot help but feel that there is something not quite right
about kicking someone out of court on the basis that due
to fortuitous and undeserved circumstances, the employer
gets a chance to correct the disparate impact of a completed selection stage, after it has gone through the whole
process and made its hire selections. This seems akin to
looking at the bottom line of who is actually hired where
there is no disparate impact, rather than at a particular step
in the process where there is. In fact, I am not so sure that
the 9th Circuit didnt do just that in this case.
It seems that had the court followed Teal literally, any
single step in the selection process that had acted as a barrier to continuation in that process would be enough to

make the prima facie requirement. In fact, I would argue


that the two rounds should be seen as two separate hiring
processes altogether the first one to fill four vacancies
and the second one to fill one for San Francisco, without
regard to how the position happened to become available.
Ultimately, had the plaintiffs been given their day in
court and the case tried, it is not likely that they would
have prevailed the opinion provides information that
indicates that the screening criteria was job-related and
gender neutral, and that the screening process would have
withstood the challenge. AC N
______________________________________
The author is Supervising Trial Attorney at the Oakland
City Attorneys Office in Oakland, California. Her practice consists of municipal litigation defense, with emphasis
in Labor and Employment. She was a presenter at the 2001
Annual IPMAAC Conference and is a first-time contributor to this Newsletter.

Technical Affairs
By Mike Aamodt, Associate Editor
This months column answers a readers question about O*NET, followed by a piece of HR Humor.

Question
I understand that O*NET has replaced the DOT. Is
there actually much difference between the two?

Answer
The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is a
national job analysis system created by the federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
(DOT), which had been in use since the 1930s. O*NET is
a major advancement in understanding the nature of work,
in large part because its developers understood that jobs
can be viewed at four levels: economic, organization, job,
and individual. As a result, O*NET has incorporated the
types of information obtained in such job analysis techniques as the Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS), Job
Components Inventory (JCI), and the Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ). A comparison of the information
obtained in O*NET and the information obtained in selected job analysis methods is shown in Table 1.
O*NET includes information about the occupation
(generalized work activities, work context, organizational
context) and the worker characteristics (ability, work style,
occupational values and interests, knowledge, skills, education) needed for success in the occupation. The O*NET
also includes information about such economic factors as
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labor demand, labor supply, salaries, and occupational


trends. This information can be used by employers to
select new employees and by applicants who are searching
for careers that match their skills, interests, and economic
needs.
Because the O*NET database is not scheduled for completion until 2004 (it will be updated annually), it is difficult to evaluate its effectiveness. However, it does look to
be a big improvement over the DOT. I have been especially impressed with the efforts of the developers in using
the strengths and theory of other job analysis methods.
An excellent article on the O*NET was recently published in Personnel Psychology (N. G. Peterson et al.,
2001). Updated information on the O*NET can be viewed
at www.doleta.gov/programs/onet/ and at www.onetcenter.org.
References
Peterson, N. G., Mumford, M. D., Borman, W. C., Jeanneret, P. R.,
Fleishman, E. A., Levin, K. Y., Campion, M. A., Mayfield, M. S.,
Morgeson, F. P., Pearlman, K., Gowing, M. K., Lancaster, A. R.,
Silver, M. B., & Dye, D. M, (2001). Understanding work using the
Occupational Information Network (O*NET): Implications for
practice and research. Personnel Psychology, 54(2), 451-492.

Assessment Council News

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February 2002

Technical Affairs continued


Table 1

Comparison of O*NET with Other Job Analysis Methods

____________________________________________________________________________________________
F-JAS = Fleishman Job Analysis Survey
TTA = Threshold Traits Analysis
JCI = Job Components Inventory
JAI = Job Adaptability Inventory
PPRF = Personality-Related Position Requirements Form
PAQ = Positional Analysis Questionnaire
JEI = Job Elements Inventory

Job Analysis Method


________________________________________________________
O*Net F-JAS TTA
_____ _____ _____

ABILITY
Cognitive Abilities
Verbal abilities
Oral comprehension
Written comprehension
Oral expression
Written expression
Idea generation and reasoning abilities
Fluency of ideas
Originality
Problem sensitivity
Reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning
Information ordering
Category flexibility
Planning
Decision making
Combining information
Quantitative abilities
Mathematical reasoning
Number facility
Use of length, distance, size, weight
Memory
Perceptual abilities
Speed of closure
Flexibility of closure
Perceptual speed
Spatial abilities
Spatial orientation
Visualization
Attentiveness
Selective attention/concentration
Time sharing
Psychomotor Abilities
Fine manipulative abilities
Arm-hand steadiness
Manual dexterity
Finger dexterity

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JCI
_____








JAI
_____

PPRF
_____

PAQ
_____

JSP
_____

















































































































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February 2002

Technical Affairs continued


O*Net F-JAS TTA
_____ _____ _____
Control movement abilities
Control precision
Multilimb coordination
Response orientation
Rate control
Reaction time and speed ability
Reaction time
Wrist-finger speed
Speed of limb movement
Physical Abilities
Physical strength
Static strength
Explosive strength
Dynamic strength
Trunk strength
Endurance/Stamina
Flexibility, balance, coordination
Extent flexibility
Dynamic flexibility
Gross body coordination
Gross body equilibrium
Sensory Abilities
Visual abilities
Near vision
Far vision
Visual color discrimination
Night vision
Peripheral vision
Depth perception
Glare sensitivity
Sense of color
Auditory and speech abilities
Hearing sensitivity
Auditory attention
Sound localization
Sound recognition
Sound localization
Speech recognition
Speech clarity
Other senses
Sense of taste
Sense of smell
Sense of touch
Sense of body movement
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JCI
_____

JAI
_____

PAQ
_____

JSP
_____








































PPRF
_____





























Assessment Council News





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February 2002

Technical Affairs continued


F-JAS = Fleishman Job Analysis Survey
TTA = Threshold Traits Analysis
JCI = Job Components Inventory
JAI = Job Adaptability Inventory
PPRF = Personality-Related Position Requirements Form
PAQ = Positional Analysis Questionnaire
JEI = Job Elements Inventory

Job Analysis Method


________________________________________________________
O*Net F-JAS TTA
JCI
JAI
PPRF PAQ
JSP
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

WORK STYLES
Achievement orientation
Achievement/effort

Persistence

Initiative

Social influence
Energy

Leadership orientation

Interpersonal orientation
Cooperative

Concern for others

Social orientation

Tolerance
Friendliness
Sense of humor
Interest in negotiation
Adjustment

Self-control

Stress tolerance

Adaptability/flexibility

Adaptability to change
Adaptability to repetition
Adaptability to pressure
Adaptability to isolation
Adaptability to discomfort
Adaptability to hazards/emergencies
Interpersonal adaptability
Cultural adaptability
Problem solving adaptability
Resilience
Conscientiousness

Dependability

Attention to detail
Integrity

Personal appearance
Work ethic
Independence

Practical intelligence

Innovative

Analytical























































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Assessment Council News

February 2002

Technical Affairs continued


Job Analysis Method
________________________________________________________
O*Net F-JAS TTA
JCI
JAI
PPRF PAQ
JSP
_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
SKILLS
Basic content skills
Active listening
Reading comprehension
Writing
Speaking
Mathematics
Science
Basic processing skills
Active learning
Learning strategies
Monitoring
Critical thinking
Problem-solving skills
Problem identification
Information gathering
Information organization
Synthesis/reorganization
Idea generation
Idea evaluation
Implementation planning
Solution appraisal
Resistance to premature judgment
Planning
Social skills
Social perceptiveness
Coordination
Persuasion
Negotiation
Instructing
Advising
Supervising
Service orientation
Oral fact finding (interviewing)
Oral defense
Public speaking
Entertaining
Sales interest












































































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Assessment Council News

February 2002

Technical Affairs continued


F-JAS = Fleishman Job Analysis Survey
TTA = Threshold Traits Analysis
JCI = Job Components Inventory
JAI = Job Adaptability Inventory
PPRF = Personality-Related Position Requirements Form
PAQ = Positional Analysis Questionnaire
JEI = Job Elements Inventory

Technical skills
Operations analysis
Technology design
Equipment selection
Installation
Programming
Testing
Operation monitoring
Operations and control
Product inspection
Equipment maintenance
Troubleshooting
Repairing
Electrical/electronic
Mechanical
Tools
Map reading
Drafting
Reading plans
Driving
Typing
Shorthand
Filing
Spelling
Grammar
Computer programming
Craft knowledge
Craft skill
Systems skills
Visioning
Systems perception
Identification of downstream
consequences
Identification of key causes
Judgment and evaluation
Systems evaluation
Resource management skills
Time management
Financial resource management
Material resource management
Personnel resource management

Job Analysis Method


________________________________________________________
O*Net

F-JAS TTA

JCI

JAI

PPRF

PAQ

JSP

_____

_____


_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____














































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Assessment Council News

February 2002

Technical Affairs continued

HR HUMOR
A rural police department was conducting a structured interview for the position of patrol officer when Gomer Pyle
walked in. The interview panel first asked, What is one and one? to which Gomer replied, 11. Though that was
not what the panel was looking for, they concluded that his answer had some merit and awarded him three of the five
points.
The interviewers next asked, What two days of the week start with the letter T? Gomer replied, Today and
tomorrow. Again, it was not the top answer but they had to admit he was right and awarded Gomer another three
points.
For the final question, the panel asked, Who killed Abraham Lincoln? Gomer thought for a minute, and then
replied, Im not real sure. Because Gomer was the only candidate, the interviewers told him to go home and think
about it.
On his way home, Gomer stopped at the barbershop to speak with his friends. How did it go? they asked. To
which Gomer replied, It must have gone well. It was my first day on the job and Im already working on a murder
case! AC N

IPMAAC Across the Nation


News of the Councils
Bay Area Applied Psychologists (BAAP)
On Monday, February 4, 2002, Shelley Zedeck will present Predicting Lawyering Success: How and Why? at
Kaiser Permanente in Oakland, California. This discussion
will focus on the use of the LSAT and the undergraduate
grade point average to admit students to law schools. The
BAAP sponsors a speaker once a quarter who delivers a
presentation to its members. The location varies, but the
format involves networking from 6 to 7 p.m., followed by
the speakers presentation at 7. BAAP speakers are typically leaders in the field and deliver interactive presentations with plenty of group discussion. Check the website at
www.baaponline.org for the most current information on
upcoming events, speakers, and topics.
Chicago Industrial/Organizational
Psychologists (CI/OP)
The January 18, 2002 meeting focused on Career
Opportunities in I/O Psychology. Upcoming meetings will
be on March 1 and April 5 (topics TBA). The Annual
Dinner Meeting will be held on June 6, 2002. CI/OP generally has Friday afternoon sessions from 1 to 5 p.m. featuring several speakers addressing a topic. Visit their website at www.iit.edu/~ciop/.

Metropolitan New York Association for Applied


Psychology (METRO)
Harold Goldstein presented g: Is That Your Final
Answer? at the January 16, 2002 meeting. Upcoming
meetings include February 13, where Jim Smither will present Effectiveness of Executive Coaching; and March
12, where Elizabeth Kolmstetter and Paul Squires will present National Skills Standard Board Project. Visit
METROs website at www.metroapppsych.com for additional information.
Mid-Atlantic Personnel Assessment Consortium
(MAPAC)
The Winter 2002 MAPAC Meeting took place in
Baltimore on January 30 through February 1 and included
the following presentations: Sheila Schultz, Ph.D. presented Development and Validation of a Competency
Model; Robert Ployhard, Ph.D. presented Development
and Construct Validity of a Measure of Adaptability;
Sigrid Gustafson, Ph.D. presented A Conditional
Reasoning Instrument to Identify Aberrant SelfPromoters; James Outtz, Ph.D. presented Development
and Validation of a Firefighter Selection Battery; James
Sharf, Ph.D. presented Minimum Qualifications
Necessary for Successful Performance; Nicholas
Vasilopoulos, Ph.D. and Jeffrey Cucina presented Factors
Impacting Responses to Items on Self Report Measures;
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Assessment Council News

February 2002