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2.

Literature Review

There are various studies about using flashcards but most of them are using flashcards to
help in vocabulary. There are certain similarities between using flashcards in vocabulary
and conjunction, one of them would be the approaches of how to utilize the flashcards
itself.
2.6.1

Flashcards in vocabulary
They are certain researcher who conduct a research on vocabulary, for example the
research by Elsa Yusrika Sitompul in 2013, Teaching Vocabulary Using Flashcards and
Word List who said that The study was conducted to investigate the effect of using
flashcards or word list on fifty graders vocabulary mastery and to discover the students
responses toward both strategies in learning English vocabulary. Page 52. Based on this
extract, we can see that the use of flashcards is associated with vocabulary learning as a
whole. Flashcards were also used as a tool to test the mastery level of vocabulary among
the students.
Flashcards can be used in many ways; one of them would be as teaching strategy because
flashcards can be a tool to introduce new words for the students. The method for this
study is qualitative study because the researcher wanted to identify to the extent of using
the flashcards in helping the students in vocabulary. Data were taken by a tryout test on
other students to tests its reliability. Then the pretest and posttest were given to the set of
students. The data then were analyzed using the SPSS software. The SPSS software
determined the overall results for this research. Based on the software, flashcards helps to

boosts the students mastery level in vocabulary based on the pretest and posttest results.
The researcher also conducted an interview and the results were, the students dont like
vocab learning but they do like the flashcards.
2.6.1

Flashcards using the technology


The world is now a modern world, and the education should be at par with the world
development. Teaching tools can be both online and also traditional, online materials
such as blogs, games will certainly gain the students interest in learning because the
younger generations would love doing something online. Nakata 2008 mention as cited in
Marina Dodigovic research Vocabulary Learning with Electronic Flashcards: Teacher
Design vs. Student Design in 2013, unlike traditional cards, electronic word cards
require the learner to type in the word during retrieval, thus combining the advantage of
writing with that of ready-made cards. They can also manage the learning process,
utilizing what is known about the transition from short-term into long-term memory.
Based on this theory, Nakata believes that using technology in flashcards will help the
transition between the short term memories to long term memory. This is really important
to ensure the students will memories everything that they do in class especially in
vocabulary and grammar to write well in their examinations.
This research were conducted in Qatar on the university students and it involved three
stages; 1) learning vocabulary without cards, 2) learning vocabulary with teacherdesigned cards and 3) learning vocabulary with self-designed cards. These stages
determined which stage of learning would benefit the students the most in vocabulary
learning. In this research, the use of flashcards managed to help the students vocabulary

learning. This finding is similar to the finding of the previous research because flashcards
and vocabulary seems to be connected with each other. The rational for Marinas research
would was that drilling exercises to help to increase the knowledge of vocabulary among
students. She used the word list from the vocabulary level test in her research. The result
showed that the students obtained the lowest score when the use their own design and a
higher results when they used the teacher designed flashcard. These two researchers
suggest that the use of flashcards in teaching vocabulary is able to help students with
their conjunctions. This is understandable as conjunction is also a part of vocabulary.
2.6.2

Flashcards versus word list


Another research about flashcards is The Impact of Two Instructional Techniques on EFL
Learners Vocabulary Knowledge: Flash Cards versus Word Lists by Sasan Baleghizadeh
and Shahid Beheshtii (2011). This research was conducted to test the effectiveness of
teaching vocabulary using two instructional methods which were flashcards and word
list. This research was conducted in the Khatam Junior High School in Iran. Word list and
flashcards were used as teaching aid in this research and the researchers want to identify
which one is more suitable in language learning. The result for this research shows that
there are no significant differences in the mean score between the word list and
flashcards. However, the researchers mention that First, new words can easily be
practiced extensively with flash cards. Learners can separate cards into several categories
based on their difficulty level. It helps them review difficult words more frequently than
easy ones. Second, working with flash cards increases vocabulary retrieval. Since
learners are presented with an L2 word and its definition on the other side of the card,
they can easily practice new words and recall their meanings in as much as the words

appear on two different sides of the card. Third, learning words through lists causes list
effect. (page 7). The differences between these two methods of teaching were the effect
on the learner short and long terms memories.
According to Seal (1991), as cited in MEXTESOL Journal, Volume 35, Number 2, 2011,
there are two types of vocabulary activities: planned and unplanned. In unplanned
vocabulary teaching activities, learners ask for the meaning of words and teachers try to
make the meaning clear by using different strategies such as body language, antonyms,
synonyms, pictures, etc. The goal of the teacher is to try to make the meaning clear for
the students. Then the teacher asks questions regarding the problematic words in order to
make sure that the learners have understood their meaning. (Page 2). This extract is
considered as a baseline to determine which words that the student having problem with
and this is the starting point of the research. In any research, this is the best way to
identify the student problem and the way to deal with the problem. In this research, the
researcher only used the observation method to identify which problem that needs to deal
with in school. Flashcards would help the students to better understand the use of word
lists. Because flashcards have both the L2 and L1 on it and it is easier for the students in
the Khatam Junior High school to comprehend.
The use of flashcards to assist learning is not only suitable in the secondary education but
it is also suitable for tertiary education which is in the university. The research conducted
by Maryam Eslahcar Komachali and Mohammadreza Khodareza (2012) that studied the
effectiveness of flashcards learning among the universities in Iran. The research topic is
The Effect of Using Vocabulary Flash Card on Iranian Pre-University Students
Vocabulary Knowledge. The aim of the research was to increase the students vocabulary

knowledge through the use of seven -step vocabulary flash cards (VFC) as a model to
boost vocabulary learning.
A person's vocabulary is the set of words they are familiar with in a language. A
vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental
tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Language teaching specialists
generally agree that vocabulary is one of the most important aspects for foreign
language learners to acquire since it is critical in conveying the meaning of a message.
Maryam Eslahcar Komachali and Mohammadreza Khodareza (2012 page 137)
This extract shows that second language learner need to have a fundamental idea of the
word and vocabulary since they are young to ensure that they are able to develop their
capabilities in language learning. Using flashcards can help to boost the short term
memory through the vocabulary exercises. According to this research, flashcards are very
useful for drilling new letters, words and syllable. Flash cards can bear vocabulary,
historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be learned via a question and
answer format. Flash cards are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way
of spaced repetition. In the present research, the researcher includes the conjunction
because it uses the same principle.
2.6.3

Animated Cartoon
There had been a certain arguments between the scholars to determine the most suitable
method to teach vocabulary. One of them is using animated cartoon. This issue was
discussed in the research conducted by Mohammad Reza Khodashenas, Somayeh
Kishani Farahani, and Zahra Alishahi (2014) in the research Flash Cards Versus

Animated Cartoons: A Comparative Study in Vocabulary Teaching and Learning. The


researchers view on flashcards would be based on this A flashcard or flash card is a set
of cards bearing information, as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in
classroom drills or in private study. On one side there is a picture and on other side the
written form of that picture is available. All the pictures are colorful and understandable.
Magic English series are English animated cartoons created by Walt Disney Company.
(page 293)
Animated cartoon and flashcard can be used as a tool to teach vocabulary to the younger
student. Both are equally effective but the preparation of the animated cartoon need to be
more specific compared to the flashcards. Some teachers would rather choose the
flashcards rather than the animated cartoon due to this factor. According to Danan (2004)
in a study of Flash Cards Versus Animated Cartoons: A Comparative Study in
Vocabulary Teaching and learning, reported that many language teachers were against
their use as audio visual materials. This might be because they feared that cartoons might
distract learners attention, especially that of lower-level learners, from the actual spoken
language to written text and created a sense of laziness on the part of students.