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Concept Generation

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Early Design Phase

Where most innovation potential lies


Where designer has most freedom
Where critical decisions are made
Creativity, lateral/unconventional
thinking, rule breaking, important

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Searching
Race against time.
Therefore;
Need to search quickly.
Identify shortcuts.
Balance analytical techniques with
Engineering Judgement.
Use Navigation tools.

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Typical Product Life-Cycle S-Curve


s?
e
l
mp
a
Ex

Value

Retirement
Maturity

Infancy/Growth

Steam Engines
Typewriters
Oil/gas lamps
Floppy discs
Passenger jet!

Birth
Conception

Time

Source; Darryl Mann http://function.creax.com/


Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Consequences of Late to
Market

Fuel burn 6% more than estimated


Redesign of HPC
Over 2 years late to market
Deselected for A318

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Audit/ approval
Legal obligation
Audit decision making
process
Challenge and
critique
Need to justify
decisions and
processes
Need to demonstrate
scope of search
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Navigation tools
In terrestrial navigation generally 2
dimensions and a single unit of
measure.

Design Space; many dimensions


(hyperspace) and many units of
measure.
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Navigation is a Major Issue


Detailed priorities unclear in
large organisation..
A380 weight/cost/reliability
trade-off examples

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Wider Issues
Design organisation under
increasing pressure to embrace
wider issues such as
Environmental issues
Aesthetics
Political issues (offset,
workshare)
Minority, disabled requirements
Psychological; safety perception
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

Search Space
Specification

Initial Concepts

Increasing
level of detail

Outline Schemes

Detail Design Geometry

Manufacturing Data
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

10

Search space
Even For a Simple
Product the Potential
Search Space is Vast
Assembly a

Part a

Parameter

Parameter

Design

Concept 1

Assembly b

Assembly c

Part b

Parameter

Parameter

Parameter

Parameter

Parameter

Concept 2

Parameter

Assembly d

Assembly a

Assembly b

Assembly c

Assembly d

Concept 3

Concept 4

Concept 5

Assembly a...n

Assembly a...n

Assembly a...n

Searching is Expensive

Part c

Part d

Part a...n

Part a...n

Part a...n

Part a...n

Part a...n

Part a...n

Part a...n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Parameter ..n

Design Methodologies
Ensure That a Search Takes
Place in a Rigorous and
Systematic Manner
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

11

Search Strategy
Depth First

Strengths/
Weaknesses?

Breadth
First
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

12

New Concept Examples

Radar; use of magnetron in domestic appliances (microwave oven)

Cyclone used in wood mills applied to vacuum cleaner (James


Dyson)

Failed industrial adhesive used in stationery yellow Post-it notes


(3M)

Tensator spring used in wind-up generator (Trevor Bayliss)

Semi-conductor laser used in data storage devices (CD/DVD)

High strength magnetic fields led MRI scanners (Oxford


Instruments)

Use of large prime numbers in data encryption

Use of platinum catalyst in gas powered hair curlers/ portable


soldering irons
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

13

PRODUCT/PROCESS TRENDING - S-Curves


VALUE = Benefits/(Costs + Penalties)
Examples; CRT -> Plasma monitors
Mechanical Typewriters -> Electric Typewriters-> Word Processors
Steam Engines-> Diesel Engines
Incandescent lamps -> LEDS
Records -> tapes -> CDs -> MP3

Innovation 3rd GEN..

Innovation 2nd GEN


1st GEN
Source; Darryl Mann
http://function.creax.com/

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

TIME

14

S-Curve Families
* Every single component in the system has its own
family of s-curves
* (Every components manufacturing process has its
own family of s-curves)
* At the lower hierarchy levels, the more likely it is
that the designer will design at the top right hand
end of the family

Source; Darryl Mann http://function.creax.com/


Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

15

S-Curve Families
Value

Automobile

Value

Suspension

Time

Time

Value

Value

Engine

Value

Piston
Time

Transmission

Time

Time

Value

Fuel
Injection

Value

Time

Valve
Timing
Time

Source; Darryl Mann


http://function.creax.com/

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

16

Effectiveness/quality of idea

Ideation; concept
classification
Outstanding

Good

Difficult

Easy

Degree of difficulty/risk/cost to implement


Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

17

Concept selection

Constraint filter

Cut-off point

Ranking tool
Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering
Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

18

Morph Charts
Fig 10: External flange concepts and favoured solutions

External
Flange
Valve

Form

"Duck" Valve
 Simple
 Leak prone

Circular
Symmetry

Fixed
 Low Parts
count
 Failure requires

Elongated
 Will sit in skin "fold"
 Less easy to
prototype

Easy to
Prototype
Bulky

Cushioned
Outer
Flange

Attachment

Membrane
Plate Valve

 Positive
 Poor Seating

 Simple
 Wear

 Takes up
"slack".
 Cleanability,
Manufacturability

Snap-Fit

Screw
Attach

 Simple
 Wear

 Positive
 Complex

Spool Valve

"T-Bar"
Drain
Attachment

Direct
 Parts count V
 Bulky Port

Use
Adaptor

Bayonet
Mount  Simple


Positive
Wear

 Wear

Deformable 'rubber'
& spring

Front
Connection
Clip
 Simpl
e

 Flexible
Extra Part

 Simple
 Single use

 Positive
 Dexterity

Retractable
Lugs  Positive
 Complex

Reed valve

Side
Connection

Ball Valve
Hinge clips

 Low profile
 Complexity

 Positive
 Dexterity

 Good Seating
 Cost

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

 Simple
 Leak prone

19

Morph Charts
Retention
Method

Fig : 11 Bladder retention concepts and favoured solutions

External

Torque
Deployed
Paddles
Subcutaneous
Flange

Skin
Adhesive
/Dressing

Internal
Stretched
Dome

 Positive
 Complex Portal
Tube, Torque req'd

Trapdoor
Mechanism
 Semi-Permanent
 Emergency removal.
Limited No of Reinsetions.

 Very Simple
 Need to Reapply Daily

 Simple
 Retention Force?
Insertion Complexity

Inflatable
Torus

 Positive
 Complex
Portal Tube

 Proven
 Limited
Life?

Snap
Hinge/Spring
Linkage

Body
Piercing
'Studs'

OverCentre
Cage

Memory
Alloys

 Simple to Use
 Retention Force?
Complex to Manufacture

Hinge
Petals

 Simple to deploy
 Complex.
Retention Force

 Positive
 Costly, Complex to
insert/ remove

 Semi-permanent
 Emergency removal,
infection prone, semiinvasive, aesthetics

Tendon
Methods

 Simple to deploy
 Possible low
retention force

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

 Positive
 Costly, Complex

20

Summary; concept
generation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Identify critical issues (conflicts) first.


Generate ideas
Assess /classify /develop ideas
Filter, rank select
Develop selected concept/idea(s)

Module SESA2007/SESM2008 ; Engineering


Design
James Scanlan; School of Engineering Sciences

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