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The Audi Technology Magazine

Issue 2/2012

The Audi Technology Magazine


2/2012

Record
Electric sports car withstands tough test
Page 16

Vision
New mobility for big cities
Page 24

Intelligence
Clever material mix for extremely light cars
Page 86

Energy
Milestone victory for hybrid technology
Page 136

Gold Winner

The Audi Technology Magazine


2/2012


Encounter Augmented Reality
Experience video footage with your iPhone,
iPad or Android smartphone.

The Audi Technology Magazine


2/2012

The Audi Technology Magazine


2/2012

Record

Record

Electric sports car withstands tough test


Page 16

Vision
Visio

Vision
Visio

New mobility for


fo big cities
Page 24
The Audi Technology Magazine
2/2012

New mobility for


fo big cities
Page 24
The Audi Technology Magazine
2/2012

Intelligence
Record

Record
Electric sports car withstands tough test
Page 16

Vision
Intelligence

Intelligence

Clever material mix for extremely light cars


Page 86

Energy

Start up the junaio app and


touch the scan button.

4
The Audi Technology
The Audi Technology
Magazine Magazine
2/2012
2/2012

Record
Record
Electric sports carElectric
withstands
sports
tough
car withstands
test
tough test
Page 16
Page 16

Vision
VisioVision
Visio
New mobility for
fo New
big cities
mobility for
fo big cities
Page 24
Page 24
The Audi Technology Magazine
The Audi Technology Magazine
2/2012
2/2012

Record

Intelligence
Intelligence

Record

Electric sports car withstands tough test Electric sports car withstands tough test
Page 16
Page 16

Vision
New mobility for big cities
Page 24

Clever material mix


Clever
for extremely
material mix
light
forcars
extremely light cars
Page 86
Page 86

Vision
New mobility for big cities
Page 24

IntelligenceIntelligence
Clever material mix for extremely light cars
Clever material mix for extremely light cars
Page 86
Page 86

Energy
Milestone victory for hybrid technology
Page 136

Energy
Milestone victory for hybrid technology
Page 136

Energy
Energy
Milestone victoryMilestone
for hybridvictory
technology
for hybrid technology
Page 136
Page 136

Scan the title page of the


Encounter magazine and select
the Encounter channel.

Clever material mix for extremely light cars


Page 86

Vision
New mobility for big cities
Page 24

Milestone victory for hybrid technology


Page 136

Intelligence

Electric sports car withstands tough test

Page 16
Clever
material mix for extremely light cars
Page 86

New mobility for big cities


Page 24

Download the junaio app


free-of-charge from the App Store
or Android Marketplace.

Electric sports car withstands tough test


Page 16

Scan this magazines images


tagged with the Audi Augmented
Reality logo.

Clever material mix for extremely light cars


Page 86

Energy
Milestone victory for hybrid technology
Page 136

Energy
Milestone victory for hybrid technology
Page 136

Energy
Milestone victory for hybrid technology
Page 136

Individual mobility is a fundamental expectation of


modern society, and it is without a doubt also one of the clear prerequisites for its ability to function. We at Audi are working intensively on the future of this mobility, on a resource-conserving, safe
and comfortable mobility and one that also looks beyond the
automobile. One example is the Audi Urban Future Award, which
sees participants developing individual visions for a variety of urban
regions around the world.
One thing is certain every future model from Audi will
be an emotional experience; driving an Audi is always a joy regardless of its drive technology. I was impressed recently by a day I
spent at the Nrburgring before its official world premiere, the
Audi R8 e-tron achieved a record time for a series-production vehicle with electric drive. For Audi, electromobility never means
sacrifice, but always emotion, sporting character and driving fun.
This is why it was also important to me that our e-tron vehicles be
given their own unique sound that doesnt simply fulfill a function,
but also offers a dynamic experience. The task was not easy, but the
outcome is impressive.

Driving fun also means not having to drive when its not
fun. Driving around a parking garage is one trip that many of us
would rather avoid. Our Parkhauspilot project will one day relieve
us of this task; your Audi will autonomously seek out its parking
spot, as just one example of the phenomenal growth in the intelligence of our models. Find out more in this issue.
I would also like to offer heartfelt congratulations to
the makers of the Audi Technology Magazine. Recent weeks have
seen Encounter win two highly respected awards. The magazine
received the red dot award: communication design 2012 for its
high design quality. It was also honored with the Best Corporate
Publishing Award 2012 in gold.
Now discover in this latest issue of our award-winning magazine a
few of the ideas with which we are heading into the future and on
which we are working with passion. Enjoy!
Yours truly,

Every future Audi model will also be an emotional


experience. Driving an Audi is always a joy, regardless
of its drive technology.

Michael Dick

Encounter Technology

Michael Dick, Member of the Board of Management of


AUDI AG, Technical Development.


At full power
Audi set a record on the Nrburgring Nordschleife with
the R8 e-tron. Professional driver Markus Winkelhock rode the electric sports car
around the track in 8:09.099 minutes.

40
minutes is all it takes for the R8 e-tron to
fast-charge at the electricity station.
Page 16


A view into the microcosm
Tiny particles with the aid of the scanning
electron microscope, Audi technicians can identify the tiniest problem
in a material.

500,000
times is the maximum magnification of the
scanning electron microscope.
Page 52


The lighter the better
The weight of the new A3 has been reduced by up to
80 kilograms through extensive lightweight design measures in all areas,
such as the chassis.

2.3
kilograms of weight are saved by each of
the front axles new swivel bearings.
Page 72


At the limit
The Audi TT evo plus technology showcase weighs less
than 1,000 kilograms. Behind this amazing figure are new materials like CFRP
and innovative jointing technologies.

163
kilograms is the weight of the Audi TT evo plus bodyshell,
43 kilograms less than the series version.
Page 86


A new dimension in sound
What is the sound of electric dynamism? Audi
has developed a characteristic acoustic profile for its R8 e-tron
high-performance sports car.

3
years is how long it took to develop the
sound for the Audi R8 e-tron.
Page 106

Mindset.







14

16
24
32
38
42
50
52
62


Mindset
It was the courage to innovate that put Audi at the top.
The company wants to expand its lead with a constant stream of new ideas
and with a clear approach.

Rock at the Ring


A Vision of DiverCity
The Sixth Element
Circuit Training
Bikes Peak
Design Cycle
Tiny Particles
Open Planning

Encounter Technology

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Encounter Technology


Record drive on the Nordschleife
8:09.099 min the Audi R8 e-tron achieved a
record time on the Nordschleife for series-production cars with electric
drive. At the wheel was racing driver Markus Winkelhock.

Rock at the

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Ring

Technical Data Audi R8 e-tron


Power

2 x 140 kW (190 hp)

Max. torque

2 x 410 Nm

Battery capacity / voltage

48.6 kWh / 389 V

0 100 km/h

4.6 s

Range

ca. 215 km

Vmax

200 km/h*

Length / width / height

4431 / 2029 / 1252 mm

Wheelbase

2650 mm

Curb weight

1,760 kg

*electronically limited

Join the R8 e-tron on its record drive!


www.encounter.audi.com

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Encounter Technology

Text
Johannes Kbler

Photos
Stefan Warter
and Alexander Herbold

The men of the Audi team still seem very


relaxed, despite the many cameras and despite the movie helicopter clattering around in the evening sky
above grandstand T 13. Michael Dick, Board Member for Technical
Development, has positioned himself at the crash barrier that divides the short pit lane from the track. Engineer Tobias Schneider
is once again checking data on his laptop, while his colleague KarlHeinz Meitinger is bent over in conversation with Markus Winkel
hock at the open door of the R8 e-tron.
The man with the white/orange/blue helmet, through
which only his eyes are visible, is the one around whom everything
is turning and, at the same time, the calm center of the storm.
Winkelhock is a high-speed professional. Five weeks previously, he
won the 24-hour race here at the Nrburgring in the Audi R8 LMS,
together with his team mates Marc Basseng, Christopher Haase
and Frank Stippler. It was the first overall victory for Audi at the
Eifel classic. Now Winkelhock has a new and unusual task to set
the world record for electrically powered series-production cars at
the Nordschleife.
Flashback its a cloudy day on the Thursday before the
record attempt. In the Audi workshop close to the Nordschleife are
three R8 e-trons. Development engineers have been driving them
since Monday as part of everyday testing. The electric sports car
has already hinted at its potential, with times of around 8:40 minutes and a whole package of high technology.
Each of the two large electric motors drives one rear
wheel via a fixed ratio with up to 140 kW (190 hp) and 410 Nm of
torque. The bodyshell is an innovative multi-material concept made
from carbon-fiber reinforced polymer and aluminum the highperformance sports car has a curb weight of 1,760 kilograms, not
much more than an R8 V10, despite the fact that the lithium-ion
battery with its capacity of 48.6 kWh accounts for 550 kilograms.
The energy management of the Audi R8 e-tron is highly
developed typical for the work carried out at Audi. In seriesproduction trim with the speed limiter set at 200 km/h, the electricity is enough for two laps, explains drive specialist Schneider.
This is a very good figure, because the Nordschleife is extremely
energy intensive. A car with a powerful internal combustion engine
can end up with an average consumption of 65 liters per 100 km.

The Nrburgring Nordschleife, the most beautiful and


most difficult track in the world: 20.832 kilometers long, 33 left
and 40 right-hand bends, gradients of up to 17 percent, an altitude
differential of 307 meters. Here, every single mistake takes you
right into the crash barrier, says Winkelhock. I always have respect for the Nordschleife. And I am really excited about what were
doing here. Ive never driven an electric car before.
Karl-Heinz Meitinger, Audi Specialist Team Leader for
Chassis, accompanies Winkelhock on his first rendezvous with the
R8 e-tron and explains its features. The electric motors work independently from one another. We generate torque vectoring by
regulating them as required. At the front, you have normal hydraulic brakes and electromechanical ones at the rear. But, in practice,
your braking at the rear axle is almost always with the electric motors you recuperate energy. The springs are made from glass-fiber
reinforced polymer, but they function exactly the same way as steel
springs. 58 percent of the vehicle weight is on the rear axle; the car
is very agile.
Markus Winkelhock and Tobias Schneider climb into the
R8 e-tron, and the sports car rolls silently out of the workshop. It
returns 20 minutes later with a happy driver at the wheel. Sure, it
might not drive like the R8 race car, but the torque it lays down
when pulling out of the slow corners is unbelievable, says Winkel
hock. I drove a little carefully first time out, because it was still
damp in a few places, and because its difficult to judge the speed
correctly when there is no engine sound. Im very impressed.
Driving, getting to know the car better, testing different software variants for the drive and braking management, sorting out minor complications the Audi team works its way through
an extensive program on this Thursday. No track in the world is bet
ter suited to this than the Nordschleife, with its fast and slow, inward and outward hanging bends, with its jumps and compressions
and with its level of grip, which is always full of new surprises.

Preparations the Audi R8 e-tron in the


workshop at the Nrburgring. Below driver
Markus Winkelhock.
1 Talking shop Michael Dick, Board
Member for Technical Development (left)
with Project Leader Ralf Schelchshorn.
2 Thermal management the heat pump
in the front of the R8 e-tron is a major efficiency factor.

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Im impressed! The torque the


e-tron lays down pulling out of the slow
bends is unbelievable.
Markus Winkelhock, Race Driver

In order to drive fast efficiently, it is important that the


recuperation* functions all the way into the heavy braking zone.
When Winkelhock lifts his foot from the drive pedal, the effect is
similar to the drag torque of a powerful gasoline engine. When
braking into the bends, the recuperation increases steadily until
reaching a peak of more than 200 Nm of braking torque energy
that flows back into the battery. The brake discs on the rear axle
remain almost cold for the entire lap. Markus knows from his endurance race cars how to drive quickly and efficiently at the same
time, comments Meitinger.
While the cars fill up with electricity at the rapidcharge station, which takes around 40 minutes, Tobias Schneider
and his colleague Alexander Kruse evaluate the drive data on the
laptop. Right away in the Hatzenbach, we were unable to maximize torque at the inside wheel because the tires were still cold.
And both rear wheels must have been in the air for a short time at
Flugplatz, says Kruse. Here, thats the Fuchsrhre, adds Schneider.
At a speed of 226 going downhill with his foot to the floor! And he
really flies up the hill after Karussell, from 100 to 180 in seven-anda-half seconds.
On the record attempt the following Tuesday, Winkel
hock will drive two laps in one go in a completely production-standard R8 e-tron the ultimate endurance test for the cars range.
There will then follow a single lap with a second car, which will be
taken to its dynamic limit with sports tires and the speed limiter
increased to 250 km/h. What time might we expect to see here?
Meitinger deliberates before answering: An eight-twenty could be
in there, close to our series-production R8. But, of course, when
you take the weather into account
The following Tuesday brings summer to the Hoch
eifel, much to everyones surprise. Shortly after sunrise, long before the start of everyday business, the Audi troupe is at the track,
which is already free from dew and mist. Markus Winkelhock lets
the R8 e-tron fly, completing a single lap in 8:09.099 minutes,
climbs out and smiles broadly: That was all very straightforward!
Okay, the tires were not completely warm and I didnt drive at 100
percent. You have to be a bit careful in the fast sections like the
Schwedenkreuz or the Pflanzgarten jump. But I was really able to
make up time.
The day is spent making final tweaks to the setup. That
evening, the team heads out once more, under the watchful eye
of Michael Dick, Board Member for Technical Development, Axel
Eiser Head of Engine Development and Karl-Heinz Hollerweger,
Head of Total Vehicle Development. A notary and an observer from
the Deutsche Motorsportbund (German Motorsport Association)
have appeared on grandstand T13. At 19:44 hours, Markus Winkel
hock starts the double lap. Almost silently, the R8 e-tron flies
across the start line a mildly disconcerting apparition in the world
of screaming engines throws itself into the tight left arc and disappears from sight.

The stopwatch at the crash barrier is running, the seconds mount, each accompanied by a soft click. Waiting and hoping,
theres not much else left to do. Even Michael Dick, who is also
timing the lap on his own watch, cant hide his nerves: I would
actually prefer to be sitting in the car myself. This not knowing until
he comes back from the long section is pretty tough.
Finally the screeching of tires under pressure, a droning rattle as the car drives over the curbs and then the red phantom
shoots across the finish line. The clock stops at 8:30.873 minutes.
In the following lap, Winkelhock is even faster with 8:26.096 minutes, equating to an average speed of 147.95 km/h. Less than 17
minutes for two consecutive laps, reckons Project Leader Ralf
Schelchshorn. Thats a time that wont be broken anytime soon!
Winkelhock rolls with the R8 e-tron in front of the
grandstand and steps out to the applause of the team, has a quick
high-five with Dick and Schlechshorn, then switches to the sister
car for the fast single lap. More tension and crossed fingers until
the car returns after 8:13.490 minutes, around four seconds
slower than the amazing fastest time from that morning. The tires
took too long to get up to temperature after the start, reports
Winkelhock. Thats where I lost the time , oh well.
Four seconds up or down that doesnt make a difference anymore. Celebration and hugs all round, beaming faces, the
R8 e-tron is treated to a champagne shower. Michael Dick has the
final word after the record has been set: Performance and efficien
cy are a great pairing with us. Our R8 is a showcase project, a dynam
ic laboratory in which we are working on the technologies for the
electromobility of the future. Today, we used it to set a milestone.

Dynamo Markus Winkelhock in


the Karussel, one of the slowest sections
of the Nordschleife.
3 Measurements the temperatures
of tires and brakes discs play
an important role.
4 Starting procedure final data check in
the pit lane right before the start.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

Audi R8 e-tron on its record lap


Nordschleife
From section to section:
Markus Winkelhocks record lap on the
Nrburgring Nordschleife.

Bergwerk
102.6 km/h
96 kW
4,914 rpm

Legend: Section
Vmax
Power
Revs

Kesselchen
220.9 km/h
262 kW
10,575 rpm

Metzgesfeld
165.4 km/h
280 kW
7,924 rpm

Carraciola-Karussell
79.8 km/h
61 kW
3,822 rpm

Fuchsrhre
226.2 km/h
280 kW
10,852 rpm

Galgenkopf
140.3 km/h
48 kW
6,734 rpm

Hatzenbach
70.7 km/h
91 kW
3,436 rpm

Quiddelbacher Hhe
126.8 km/h
263 kW
6,122 rpm

5 20.832 km of full concentration


the Nordschleife has 73 bends and gradients
of up to 17 percent.
6 The Brnnchen section the difficult
double-right holds cult status among Nordschleife fans.
7 The waiting isnt easy Michael Dick
times the lap on his own watch.
8 Winners Schelchshorn hugs Winkelhock
after the record drive.

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Schwalbenschwanz
95.6 km/h
20 kW
4,569 rpm

Dttinger Hhe
250.7 km/h
233 kW
12,013 rpm

Hohe Acht
106.5 km/h
48 kW
5,147 rpm

Brnnchen
100.6 km/h
79 kW
4,827 rpm

Pflanzgarten
205.1 km/h
258 kW
9,826 rpm

Aremberg
97.7 km/h
30 kW
4,684 rpm

Schwedenkreuz
245.9 km/h
200 kW
11,780 rpm

It was all very straightforward.


I was surprised myself by how much I was
able to get out of it.
Markus Winkelhock, Race Driver

Klostertal
158.9 km/h
22 kW
7,615 rpm

A Vision of
DiverCity
The best way to predict the future is to shape it yourself.
Six international firms of architects compete for the Audi Urban
Future Award, Germanys most highly endowed architecture
prize, and put their own metropolitan region under the microscope.

Watch the AUFA video!


www.encounter.audi.com

Ingolstadt

Boswash
BosWash

Istanbul

Tokyo
Tokio

Pearl River Delta


Mumbai

Text
Eva Backes

Photos
Architects

Certainty
By 2050, the number of people living
in cities will be almost as high as
the population of the whole world today.

2050
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So Paulo

Seeing into the future has fascinated human beings for time immemorial. Whether
its simply a matter of reading the tealeaves or serious science,
getting to grips with what is yet to come has a certain attraction where is this journey headed? And what is moving the world
of tomorrow?
One thing is certain in the year 2050, the number
of people living in cities will be almost as high as the population
of the whole world today. This presents an enormous challenge.
What trends will define our everyday lives? How will we be mobile in future?
The best way to predict the future is to shape it yourself, which is why, in 2010, Audi established the Audi Urban
Future Initiative a think tank for tomorrows mobility. Audi is
working together with town planners and architects to explore
the future. The Insight Team with nine Audi experts ensures
the transfer of the results into the company. At regular meetings,
this internal company think tank discusses a diverse range of

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issues: In 20 or 30 years will we still be driving and refueling our


cars ourselves? Will the city of the future still need intersections
and traffic lights?
In order to be successful as a global brand, Audi must
take local needs into consideration. No two major cities are the
same. Tailor-made concepts are the order of the day; every city
needs its individual user manual for the future. Think glocal
is therefore also the approach taken by the Audi Urban Future
Award 2012. Six international firms of architects compete for
Germanys most highly endowed architecture prize and put
their own metropolitan region under the microscope Boston/
Washington, Istanbul, Mumbai, the Pearl River Delta, So Paulo
and Tokyo. The search is on for visions that are locally anchored
but globally relevant. This is about the transition to a new and
sustainable mobility like in the Pearl River Delta, where 80
million Chinese people will soon be living, or Istanbul, the melting pot between Europe and Asia.
The architects presented their first ideas in Ingolstadt in mid-May. The most innovative and forward-thinking
concept will be presented with the Audi Urban Future Award in
October in Istanbul. It will be turned into a city dossier that will
provide Audi with inspiration for specific research projects.
On the following pages, you will meet the participants in the Audi Urban Future Award and learn what kind of relevance their work has for Audi.

So Paulo
So Paulo is the most populous city
in the southern hemisphere.
The average commute from home to
work takes 2.5 hours every day.

Mumbai
The population density in Mumbai is around
28,000 people per square kilometer,
more than seven times greater than Berlin.

1 km = 28,000

2.5 h

Urban Think
Tank
So Paulo,
Brazil

Outline
Founders:
Alfred Brillembourg and Hubert
Klumpner
Teaching positions:
Since 2007, Brillembourg and
Klumpner have been teaching in New
York at the Graduate School of
Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University, where
they established the Sustainable
Living Urban Model Laboratory
(S.L.U.M. Lab). They have been professors of architecture and urban
development at the ETH Zrich since
2010.
Company profile:
Interdisciplinary office working
in the glocal context, building
bridges between industrialized nations and third world countries.

Questions


What does the word mobility mean to you?
Mobility is an intrinsic human desire, reflected in the first steps of a child. This
desire for displacement is a natural state of being. The term is also loaded
with conflicting agendas defined by personal and collective modes of transport.
Specific attributes of mobility that shape our ideas include; the surface, navigation, collective mobility, scales and function of mobility, potentials of
congestion, potentials of the city and the contradictions of contemporary urban
mobility. Often the need for mobility is inflicted by an incapability of urban
populations to reorganize alternative forms of living. Consequently, commuting becomes a lifestyle that consumes much of our time.

How will So Paulo be mobile in future?
Traveling must become either part of a new multilayered society where mobility, work, recreation, eating and sleeping become part of us or we will have
to change the city around us. Mobility must become multifaceted and capable
of embracing the "culture of congestion" and rapidly changing environments
and scenarios. Future travel will breed new urban conditions emerging from
enhanced transitions between scales of mobility these are currently in a
state of tension. Future mobility infrastructures will play a key role in shaping
heterogeneous modes of living and in shared social dialogue.

CRIT
Mumbai, India

Encounter Technology

Founders:
Rupali Gupte and Prasad Shetty
Teaching positions:
Rupali Gupte is an architect, author
and town planner and teaches at
KRIVA University in Mumbai; Prasad
Shetty is an architect and urban
researcher.
Company profile:
CRIT is examining closely the current
situation in Mumbai and shedding
light on the changing urban environment.

Learning for Audi

Densely populated cities like So Paulo need a mobility mix this is also apparent from the ideas emerging from Urban Think Tank. As a premium manufacturer, we want to offer the customer suitable solutions that connect urban
mobility with positive experiences.

Nadine Endress works in the Brand and Customer Strategy function on
the issue of mobility services.

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Outline

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Questions

What motivates you to take part in the 2012 award?
The link between urban research and urban interventions, specifically how
different forms of maps and projections can help rethink interventions within
todays urban realm is one of the primary interests of CRIT. We see the Audi
Urban Future Award 2012 as being consistent with this interest. It has provided
us with an opportunity to develop our ideas on contemporary cities as well
as to test them in an international forum, which brings together a range of different urban experiences. We also believe that it is industry that forces academic interest in the non-western world and we want to support initiatives in
this direction.

Learning fr Audi

With CRIT, we have gained a better understanding of the logic of the city of
Mumbai. There is a demand for new forms of mobility that are particularly
efficient in their use of space as a resource and also guarantee transport from
A to B in the chaos of a densely populated urban environment.

Lisa Fting works in Communication, Culture and Trends where she
is responsible for the Audi Urban Future Initiative.

Pearl River Delta


Around 80 million people will soon
be living in the Pearl River Delta, around
80 percent of them migrants.
The region is seeking a new identity.

Tokyo
Tokyo has 7.5 million commuters
every day, yet the subway
rarely ever suffers from delays.

7.5 M

80%

NODE
Architecture &
Urbanism
Pearl River Delta,
China

Outline
Founder:
Doreen Heng Liu
Teaching position:
Urban Planner Liu is a professor at
the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Company profile:
NODE is dedicated to the complexity of town planning, nature,
landscape, tradition and culture.

Question

How will you get from A to B in Hong Kong in 2050?
This is a difficult question, the answer to which relies mainly on the desire of the
human being and the technology available. I think a diversity of choices for
traveling are necessary, such as seamless connections via public/private transportation or cyber-net, depending on the mood and desire of the traveler, and
the speed of connection we want from moment to moment. The future is
all about diversity of needs, and diversity of possibilities to meet those needs
within a moment or within the maximum desired timeframe.

Junya Ishigami
+ Associates
Tokyo, Japan

Learning for Audi

Teaching position:
Ishigami has been a professor at
Tohoku University since 2010.

Questions

Why are you participating in the 2012 award?
I think that the time has come when we must find a new concept for the city.
I think the current vision of the city is beginning to fail to meet the environmental and social needs of modern society, what people have now or what they
are looking for. I thought the Audi Urban Future Award was a good opportunity to investigate this.

What does mobility mean for you?
I am interested in a free transportation system that is independent of infrastructure, or an invention beyond the infrastructure we currently have. I think it is
better to reconsider current transportation on many various levels. I think that
mobility is an inherent condition of our freedom; something that we have
within ourselves.

Learning for Audi

Ishigamis visions show us how important it is to think beyond pre-conceived


notions of space and infrastructure. Only then is it possible to develop specific
regional solutions for tomorrows mobility.

Dominik Stampfl works on sustainable mobility within the Strategic
Corporate Planning function.

People have a desire for self-determination, especially in mega-cities like


Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Individual mobility available round-the-clock is one
answer to that, and thus the desire of many people, especially in urban areas.
But there is no such thing as the definitive city, and therefore no definitive
solution for individual mobility. Our challenge is to filter the right solutions for
Audi out of the many possible candidates we can learn this from the regions
covered by this years Audi Urban Future Award.

Klaus Verweyen is Head of Product Strategy, Innovation and Feature
Planning.

Encounter Technology

Founder:
Junya Ishigami

Company profile:
The office is focused on poetic and
visionary architecture. Ishigami functions on the boundaries between
urban planning, architecture and art.

China is our most important market and we have production facilities there,
too. We want to work with Node to achieve a better understanding of the identity and structure of society. We need this knowledge in order to support the
transition to sustainable mobility and to play a worthwhile role in its creation.

Felix Schwabe is responsible for innovation management within the
Advanced Technology function of Audi Production.

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Outline

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Istanbul
Istanbuls population has multiplied
by a factor of ten since 1950.
The average age in Turkey is 28.
In the EU it is 42.

Boston/Washington
BosWash is the 750km band of
cities along the Atlantic coast of America
that stretches from Boston to
Washington D.C. One third of the USAs
GDP is generated here.

28 years

Superpool
Istanbul, Turkey

Outline
Founders:
Selva Grdoan and Gregers Tang
Thomsen
Office Profile:
Interdisciplinary office working primarily in a local context to build a
bridge between the technology and
construction industries.
Research focus:
Mapping projects that analyze the
social, economic and demographic
structures of the city of Istanbul.

750 km

Questions

Tell us your first ideas!
What strikes visitors the most when encountering Istanbul is its seemingly
boundless energy; every corner of the city is bustling with life. The more time
you spend in Istanbul, the more you start wondering where all this energy
is channeled. It is not always evident. Our concept will attempt to tap into this
wealth of dynamism and steer it into meaningful and much needed discussions about the city. Over the next few months, we will initiate a series of interventions in the digital realm, as well as a speculative project proposal, creating an umbrella of initiatives."

What inspiration have you taken from your visit to Audi?
Most impressive was the just-in-time delivery of components to the assembly
line. Contrary to our expectations, each car on the assembly line was different
from the one before and after it. The technology that makes it possible to
plan at such an incredible scale of options and precision is exciting. It points to
how critical digital infrastructures can be for large organisms, like cities.

Hweler + Yoon
Architecture
Boston/
Washington,
USA

Learning for Audi

Particularly in the context of Audi connect, I am utterly convinced that we,


as a premium manufacturer, will make our contribution to sustainable mobility.
The paradigm shift that autonomous driving will someday bring with it is
gelling in a highly pragmatic way for instance, a completely networked car
that communicates with other road users and the environment no longer
needs traffic signals and road signs.

Christian Labonte is responsible for the Design Fundamentals and
Future Developments function.

Encounter Technology

Founders:
J. Meejin Yoon and Eric Hweler
Teaching positions:
Yoon is a professor at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology,
Hweler teaches at Harvard.
Company profile:
Multidisciplinary office working
at the boundaries between
architecture, technology and urban
planning.

The car is one of the most important forms of transport in Istanbul. The challenge is to optimize traffic flow in the burgeoning mega-city. Working together with Superpool, we are seeking different approaches to an intelligent
infrastructure.

Attila Wendt works in Technical Development for the Chassis department.

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Outline

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Questions

How far have you come with your concept for the 2012 award?
Right now we're in the process of constructing narratives around the futures
we'd like to design, in order to see the effects of our thinking on the urban
environment. For instance, if we were to imagine some future mobility technology, it's helpful for us to imagine how that influences the ordinary aspects
of everyday life, like getting to work, buying groceries or having goods
shipped to your home. To tell stories that imbed new technologies in these
everyday events allows us to imagine architecture and infrastructure working differently and doing different things than we've come to accept over time.

Learning for Audi

Society is changing and, as a premium manufacturer, we have the chance, but


also the responsibility, to reshape things. We are learning from Hweler +
Yoon how much potential there is in the Boston/Washington region for new
infrastructure projects. Concrete ideas such as the development of smart
streets present Audi with excellent opportunities to participate in shaping
the region.

Anne Maier works in the Product Strategy department dealing with
future customer needs and their relevance for products.

The Sixth
Element

Carbon
12.0107[8]
[He] 2s 2p


Lightweight design cooperation between Audi and Voith
Carbon is the sixth element on the periodic table and the
basis for extremely high-performance materials. At Audi, CFRP and other fiber
reinforced materials are important factors in ultra-lightweight design. The
cooperation with Voith plays an important role in the strategy for the future.

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Text
Johannes Kbler

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Dr. Lutz-Eike Elend, Head of the Audi Lightweight


Design Center*, Claus Haverkamp, Head of Bodyshell
Concepts and Lightweight Design Technologies at the Audi Lightweight Design
Center and Dr. Lars Herbeck, CEO of Voith Composites GmbH discuss their
cooperation in fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP)*.
Audi and Voith are conducting joint research and
development in the field of fiber-reinforced polymers.
How did this partnership come into being?
Dr. Elend: We decided about three years ago to seek an external
partner with whom we wanted to address the new task. We looked around first
in the aviation industry, but recognized very quickly that, although there is a
great deal of know-how in the sector, there was only limited willingness to
rethink the manufacturing structures. Voith, on the other hand, is a strong
equipment manufacturer that approaches the issue of fiber-reinforced polymers in a very open and forward-looking manner. We are convinced that it is
the right partner for the industrialization of the process.
Dr. Herbeck: Our group has gathered experience with CFRP* in its
core business activities over many years across a number of different areas,
such as rollers for paper machines, nose sections for trains and ship propellers.
When we looked at the expansion of our activities with the target of pushing
forward the development of industrial manufacturing processes for composite solutions* we, too, spoke with many different companies. AUDI AG,
the leading innovator in lightweight design, fitted perfectly with our own
ideas. We were impressed by the systematic approach with which Audi back
then established a new vehicle concept using aluminum.
Haverkamp: Our view is that we always want to work with the
best. The names of Audi and Voith have such a good reputation that the bigname producers of fibers and resins approach us of their own volition and offer
to cooperate with us on future projects.

1 Abstract graphic CAD representation


of the parts cut from the CFRP mat
using the cutter.
2 Complex the cut-out parts are
later crafted by hand into a CFRP spare
wheel well.
1

By the year 2020, I can envisage fiber


components in the mid-size class or even
in certain areas of the compact class.

Dr. Lutz-Eike Elend
3 Audi expert Dr. Lutz-Eike Elend,
Head of the Audi Lightweight Design Center.
4 Voith specialist Dr. Lars Herbeck,
CEO of Voith Composites GmbH.

At what point in the process does the practical work begin?


Dr. Elend: We are starting at the moment with the fiber mats that
we buy from an external supplier. Audi and Voith are not chemical companies;
we are not interested in manufacturing the fibers ourselves and thus committing ourselves to one specific material. What we want to do first is master
the production of the components and gain knowledge on which materials, semi-processed parts and production processes are suitable for possible high-volume applications. Furthermore, we would like in future not
to buy the fibers and semi-processed parts the webbing and mats off-theshelf, but instead to tailor them to our specific needs.
What fibers other than carbon fibers are still of interest
to you?
Haverkamp: Basalt fibers are relatively easy to work with and you
can use them to make parts with thermal insulation properties. We could
achieve the integration of a new function and dispense with, for instance,
protective panels. Natural fibers are becoming increasingly interesting
because of CO considerations. And glass fiber is obviously an attractive and
relatively cost-effective material for many areas of application.

The technical facilities of Voith and Audi are


complementary. We can take different
routes and thus develop the best solution.

Dr. Lars Herbeck

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

What is the current status of your cooperation?


Dr. Herbeck: Our joint teams are working on a whole series of projects. The FRP pilot line that we commissioned a few months ago in Garching
near Munich complements Audis technical center in Neckarsulm in a very
targeted manner, because it uses other technologies in areas such as cutting
equipment and the RTM press*. We can follow different paths and thus
develop the best solution.

Have you already found the definitive route for the


production of FRP components?
Dr. Elend: The process of choice is always dependent upon the
functional characteristics of the components, the volumes and the cost.
When it comes to the volumes we are addressing currently and over the next
few years, we prefer the RTM process, where we are seeking to reach a process interval of less than three minutes. However, when you think beyond
that to more than 100,000 vehicles per year, you have to consider other
technologies like hot pressing.

5 Pre-cut blank Voith Composites is


running an FRP pilot line in Garching, which
also incorporates a CAD cutter.
6 Detail of the RTM press the mixing head
handles the dosing of the resin and the
curing agent at a pressure of around 140 bar.
5

To what extent is lightweight design a matter of cost?


Dr. Elend: Models like the R8 and the A8 are our technology showcases, where we stretch the boundaries somewhat farther. When it comes to
the high-volume models, economical factors obviously play a more important
role. But by the year 2020, I can certainly envisage fiber components in the
mid-size class or even in certain areas of the compact class. We are making
the entire materials portfolio accessible; we are combining all materials into
our multi-material spaceframe in order to create a feasible overall concept.
In parallel, we are also establishing extensive expertise in the field of joining
technology.
Dr. Herbeck: The major cost factor is the fibers themselves. In
CFRP, they account for 80 to 90 percent of the material cost, which is why we
are working together on new, more cost-efficient semi-processed material
supplies. If we successfully manage to manufacture the parts cost effectively
and quickly, then CFRP and other FRP materials will have a great future. With
higher volumes, we can then work on building a real mass-production system.
Would fiber-reinforced polymers also makes sense in
areas other than the bodyshell?
Dr. Elend: Yes, the R8 e-tron for example has a battery casing and
crash structure made from CFRP. On the R18 Le Mans race cars, the transmission casing is made from the same material. The fascinating thing about
the new fiber materials is functional integration like a fuel tank that is integrated as a load-bearing element into the floor structure. Our e-tron models
in particular call for a fundamentally new approach to the layout of the
bodyshell architecture, which offers all sorts of possibilities.
Haverkamp: On top of that we also have the chassis and drive as
possible areas of application. We already have fiber-reinforced con rods and
we could just as well envisage propshafts and drive shafts made from FRP
materials. We are examining the entire vehicle and talking with our colleagues
in the various specialist areas.

7 Audi specialist Claus Haverkamp,


Head of Bodyshell Concepts and
Lightweight Design Technologies at the
Audi Lightweight Design Center.
8 Cutting equipment CAD-controlled,
high-frequency spindles cut the
component to its final shape. They rotate
at around 21,000 rpm.

What is the plan for your cooperation going forward?


Dr. Elend: It is set up as a long-term cooperation and will also
become an important project for the entire group, in which other brands can
participate. We are happy to take on the lead role, as always in lightweight
design.
Dr. Herbeck: The strength of our partnership is that we face all
challenges together, in an open and trusting way. The cooperation of two companies with the image and the innovative power of Audi and Voith is a great
asset, and one that we want to continue using.

Our view is that we always want


to work with the best.

Claus Haverkamp

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

50%


Audi balanced mobility
Nature leads by example every single day life is an endless cycle.
Audi has converted this fundamental wisdom into highly developed technology the Audi
balanced mobility initiative. Its aim is to achieve CO-neutral mobility. But what
does that really mean? And how is it even possible to make the CO cycle neutral? Facts,
figures and sketches on the topic of a mysterious chemical bond.

Circuit
Training

A long-haul flight to Thailand


equates to 50 percent of the
average CO produced per person
in Germany every year.

1.33 T
Vegetarians save 1.33 tones
of CO per year compared with
meat eaters.

Text
Hanna van der Velden

Illustrations
Barbara Stehle

What is CO?
We exhale it. We use it to extinguish fires. It puts the
head on beer and the bubbles in champagne. CO is almost everywhere. The
abbreviation stands for carbon dioxide, a molecule made up of one carbon
and two oxygen atoms. The invisible and odorless gas plays an important role
in the metabolism of all living things. Without CO, life on earth as we know
it would be impossible. However, carbon dioxide is also one of the components contributing to the greenhouse effect. Too much of it in the atmosphere
and temperatures start to increase. In the worst case scenario, it could result
in climate change.
The major cause of the rise in CO is we human beings. Every German contributes to the greenhouse effect with ten tonnes of CO per year.
Energy consumption for heating and electricity production is the largest factor; up to 40 percent of global CO emissions are attributable to that. Airplanes are also major producers of CO. Just one long-haul flight to Thailand
equates to around 50 percent of the total amount of CO produced per person in Germany every year. But food also has an important role to play. Vegetarians, for instance, save 1.33 tones of CO per year compared with meat
eaters. The transport sector is responsible for around 20 percent of global
CO emissions.
Within the automotive industry, Audi is striving to play the leading role in environmentally friendly mobility. The major goal is overall COneutral mobility over short, medium and long distances.
Audi lives and breathes environmental responsibility
Audi balanced mobility stands for the vision of overall COneutral
mobility. The first major step along the way is the Audi e-gas project. Four
wind turbines will begin producing renewable energy for Audi in late summer 2013. Alongside this, electricity is also being generated by the likes of
biogas facilities. Excess energy is converted into methane and can then be
stored within the natural gas network. The project is enormously forward
looking, because this environmentally friendly energy can be used to generate no less than three forms of drive energy electricity for e-tron models,
hydrogen for fuel-cell vehicles and e-gas for the new TCNG cars*.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

neutral

CO in circulation
The engine of the Audi A3 TCNG will burn Audi e-gas in future
thus releasing only the same amount of CO as was previously used to produce it.

1
Apple tree
Carbon dioxide is everywhere, including in the air. Plants extract it
and use it for growth. Thus, it might
end up in the form of sugar in an
apple that we eat, before the core is
then later processed by a biogas
facility.
2
Biogas facility
Waste, slurry and, for instance, an
apple core are poured into a large vat
maintained at a tropical 35 degrees
Celsius. The heat-hungry bacteria
gorge themselves on the pile of waste
and all organic material is processed.
The output from the simmering
garbage soup includes carbon dioxide.
3
Amine gas scrubbing
The resulting carbon dioxide is,
however, contaminated by other
gas particles, which means running it through the CO wash facility. Instead of a 30-minute quick
cycle with spin, the washing process here takes just a few seconds.
The CO is sprayed with a solvent
that separates the clean particles
from the dirty ones.
4
Offshore wind turbine
At around the same time, we are
100 meters above the sea bed. Beneath us, the waves of the North
Sea beat against the wind turbine.
The weather is stormy. The tips of the
blades rotate through the air at
up to 250 km/h. The offshore wind
turbines in the North Sea use wind
energy to generate clean electricity
for Audi, which is fed into the public electricity grid. The Audi e-tron
models can be recharged directly by
this electricity. Just one minute of
work by a single wind turbine is
enough to power an A1 e-tron for 300
kilometers. Sometimes more electricity is produced than is required. A
proportion of it is then directed
from the grid directly into a methanization plant a kind of CO sauna.

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35

1.500
A3 TCNG
5
Methanization plant
First, electrolysis is used to split
water (HO) into oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H). Afterward, the CO
particles scrubbed in the wash facility are brought together with the
hydrogen (H) in the CO sauna.
With the help of a catalyst, the molecules reform at a temperature of
350 degrees Celsius to create methane (CH), i.e. Audi e-gas.

A1 e-tron
1 min = 300 km

15.000 km

6
e-gas-storage
The public gas grid offers a capacity
of 217 TerawattHours, making it
the largest existing energy storage
facility in Germany. If there is plenty
of wind from the sea, the excess
electricity can be converted into e-gas
and stored in the public gas grid.
If desired, the energy can be fed into
a car via the gas grid at any time.
7
Audi A3 TCNG
Audi e-gas can be filled directly
as fuel. With the production volumes
from the first installation, 1,500
Audi A3 TCNG vehicles can drive for
15,000 kilometers per year.

A3 TCNG

217

eGas

8
The engine of the A3 TCNG
Audi e-gas is burned in the engine
of the A3 TCNG with the aid of oxygen.
The energy generated drives the
car. The CO from the exhaust is released back into the atmosphere,
where it is once again processed by
an apple tree. Thus, Audi is only
borrowing available CO and temporarily converting it into e-gas. When
burned in the engine, the amount of
CO released into the atmosphere
is exactly the same as that previously
used to produce the e-gas.

217 TerawattHours of capacity is


offered by the public gas grid,
making it the largest existing energy
storage facility in Germany.

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350

Full of tricks the Audi e-bike


Wrthersee is set up for stunts.

Bikes
Peak

Audi e-bike Wrthersee
This magnificent piece of hi-tech defies categorization
It is more than a bicycle and more than a pedelec. DTM driver Miguel Molina
takes the power two-wheeler of tomorrow for a spin today.

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e-tron the Audi e-bike Wrthersee


sets a new record in the world of e-bikes with
its power-to-weight ratio.

2.3 kW

Balanced Wheelie the electronic


wheelie mode provides the rider with
help at the back wheel.
Power Wheelie less experienced
riders who want to do a wheelie can
even set the desired angle.

Text
Regina Brand

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

The blacktop is still wet from the overnight rain. This morning,
heavy clouds are hanging between the green mountains around
the race track in Spielberg, Austria. Preparations are fully underway for the DTM race
scheduled to run in two days time on the Red Bull Ring. In the midst of all this hustle
and bustle, the Audi e-bike Wrthersee is being unpacked. Miguel Molina, Audi driver in
the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM) is already on the track and takes advantage
of the opportunity. He grabs a hold of the futuristic two-wheeler, catapults the front
wheel in the air, hops around for a moment on the rear wheel, balances for a few seconds
and starts to grin. A wheelie is childs play with this bike. Wheres the applause? he calls
to his fellow race drivers.
The high-end sports machine has some extraordinary functions that facilitate an array of tricks and stunts. The wheelie mode makes riding on the rear wheel a
piece of cake. During a wheelie, in-built sensors analyze the position of the e-bike and
the drivers weight in relation to gravitational force. Within just a few milliseconds, a
control unit then regulates the power drawn from the electric motor. As if by magic, the
e-bike holds the riders balance. Forward or backward movements can be evened out
by the electric motor. This control unit is an existing series-production part from the
electronic stability system in the Audi A6. We modified it specially. In order to incorporate

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Full power with a top speed of 80 km/h,


the Audi e-bike smashes all standard e-bike categories.

80 km/h

Audi e-bike
Technical data

Audi e-bike Wrthersee

Motor power

2.3 kW peak output

Power-to-weight ratio

9 kg per kW

Torque at the rear wheel

250 Nm

Top speed in Pedelec mode

up to 80 km/h (motor assistance)

Range
Battery only

50 km,
depending on weight of rider

With pedal assistance


70 km,
depending on weight of rider

Overall weight

21 kg (including battery)

The lithium-ion battery is integrated into the frame. At a rating of 48 V it has a capacity
of 530 Wh. At a 230 V outlet, the approximately 5-kilogram battery is fully charged
in two and a half hours. For long trail tours, it can be easily removed by hand and replaced
with a fresh battery.

Extreme lightweight design


the CFRP frame weighs just 1,600 grams.

it into our e-bike, we had to reduce the size of the sensors, explains Heinz Hollerweger,
Head of Development, Total Vehicle at Audi. This wheelie function gives us a USP that
has never been seen on a two-wheeler before. Molina is impressed by the technology
and its ease of use. Im a total wheelie fan. Ive never had this much fun with a bicycle
before, laughs the 23 year-old race driver as he lifts the front wheel into the air again.
Then he leans his weight forward and disappears into the distance.
Be it a race course, steep mountain or rocky path the Audi e-bike Wrthersee is at home everywhere and a dream-come-true for trail bikers. With its lightweight
frame structure and low center of gravity, it is very compact and exceptionally agile,
even in extreme situations. The ultra-light CFRP frame* weighs just 1,600 grams. The
linkage that supports the rear wheel is also made from carbon-fiber and weighs just
2,600 grams (without damper). In line with Audis ultra-lightweight design principle,
every single component is designed to be incredibly lean. Material reinforcement is
used only where absolutely necessary. At an overall weight of just 21 kilograms and
a power-to-weight ratio of 9 kilograms per kilowatt, the Audi e-bike Wrthersee is a
record breaker. As a sports bike, it breaks out of every possible category it cant be
classed as either a pedelec or a bicycle. We have created a new vehicle class with the
Audi e-bike Wrthersee. Its a two-wheel technology concept designed for tricks and
stunts. Thanks to its height-adjustable seat and low seating position, its suitable for
all kinds of acrobatics, explains Hollerweger.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

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Secure before setting off, the lock has to be


deactivated by smartphone.

Audi e-bike

five operating modes

Wheelie

For less experienced riders there is the Power Wheelie mode with adjustable wheelie angle. With Balanced Wheelie the electronic control system
counterbalances the movement of the rider via the electric motor.

Pure

In Pure mode, the drive comes from the rider alone.



In the Pedelec operating mode, the electric motor provides assistance;
a top speed of up to 80 km/h is possible and a range of 50 to 70 km.

In the eGrip mode, the Audi e-bike Wrthersee is powered by battery alone,
with a top speed of up to 50 km/h. The rider controls the drive via a twist
grip and can configure the power as desired via the on-board computer.

If the rider wants to pedal at a constant power level, he selects the Training
mode. In a head wind or on a gradient, the motor then compensates for
the added force required in order to maintain the same power output while
training.

Pedelec

eGrip

Training mode

Networked the wheelie angle can


also be set via smartphone.

Meanwhile, Miguel Molina doesnt pass up the opportunity to take full


advantage of the 2.3 kW peak power output on the winding race track. Using the onboard computer touchscreen integrated into the frame, he selects the pedelec mode
and starts pedaling hard. He shoots along the race track, returning a short time later.
Its a whole new experience to ride at that kind of speed on an e-bike. The on-board
computer display showed 80 km/h. With up to 250 Nm of torque at the rear wheel, the
Audi e-bike Wrthersee reaches high speed very quickly indeed. Its hydraulic ninespeed gearing delivers an incredibly fast shift action. At full tilt, Molina can depend on
the hydraulic disc brakes and the air suspension on the front fork (130 millimeters spring
travel). Those wanting to line up fancy tricks while riding can adjust the seat height
smoothly and easily by pressing a button on the handlebars.
To enable the DTM driver to share his e-bike adventures with his friends, his
smartphone is connected via WLAN* with the on-board computer using an antenna in
the front-wheel brake line. Outlandish trick sequences can be recorded by a small helmet
camera and immediately uploaded as a video to the Internet via smartphone using a
special app. Every successfully completed trick is then rewarded with success points.
As his score increases, Miguel Molina would receive awards and his level of difficulty
would rise. Via an overall ranking in the Internet, a rider can, if he wishes, measure his
performance against other trail bikers. Their locations appear as Facebook status posts
on the display of the Audi e-bike Wrthersee. My friends wont believe their eyes when
they see the videos, grins Molina. He is delighted with his outing on two wheels: Its
really daring me to go for a ride off-road, he calls, seeking out the nearest grassy hill
in the center of the Red Bull Ring. He comes face-to-face with a gigantic bull. The stainless
steel sculpture is the race track mascot and its rare for an uninvited visitor to venture
into his territory. The colossus gazes at Molina from a height of 17 meters. He doesnt
scare me not on this bike, laughs Molina.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

Intelligent one of the five operating modes


can be selected via smartphone or directly
via the on-board computer touchscreen. The
display shows speed, distance covered, battery
charge status, energy consumption and the
current gradient.

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Design Cycle
Audi e-bike Wrthersee
Its not just the innovation that makes the e-bike
a true Audi, but the design, too.

Design and Technology


the Audi genes are in every detail.

Text
Regina Brand

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Clear form distinct identity


and an authentic character are decisive
factors for Wolfgang Egger.

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With this showbike, we are demonstrating the very limits of technical possibility,
explains Heinz Hollerweger, Head of Total Vehicle Development
at Audi. Be it styling, lightweight design, networking or electromobility the Audi e-bike Wrthersee is forward-looking in every
respect. As a prototype, it brings together our core competences
of design, ultra, connect and e-tron.
An ambitious cyclist, Heinz Hollerweger was the source
of the idea and the main initiator in the development of the Audi
e-bike Wrthersee. We had had the idea for a long time. Then, at
the end of 2011, we got the green light. I invited all the development engineers that are into cycling to a kick-off meeting. Many of
us are total bike freaks and know the scene extremely well. To optimize the functions of the e-bike, we were in constant contact with
professional trail bikers during the development, says Hollerweger.
The Audi e-bike Wrthersee was created in a process
involving a highly flexible working organization. Developing the
idea for an e-bike brought employees together from all areas,
with interdisciplinary networking playing a crucial role. Through
the enormous enthusiasm for the task in hand, we were able to
bring together our expertise extremely quickly. Everyone pulled
together. Only this way was it possible to create time and space
for this unusual project, recalls Hollerweger. The project was realized in the space of just four months. I was very proud when we
presented our e-bike in May.

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It wasnt just engineers that were involved in the


e-bikes intensive development phase; Audis designers had their
hands full, too. The e-bike Wrthersee is one example of how
thinking and working at Audi also takes major departures from
conventional routes. It was styled in the Concept Design Studio
Munich. Every detail bears the Audi genes. This is especially important when we develop a product outside of automotive design, states Wolfgang Egger, Head of Audi Design. The structure
of the carbon fibers, the layout of the components, the lighting
all elements reflect the clear Audi design language. The homogeneous LED light strips in particular make the Audi e-bike immediately recognizable as an Audi product. With its futuristic design, it is far more than a regular bicycle.
The choice of materials shows how closely design
and ultra-lightweight expertise are linked with one another. Strict
functionality and extreme sporting character were the fundamental principles of the styling. All design elements are systematically derived from their technical function, says Egger. Our
motorsport expertise was an important source of inspiration for
the design of the e-bike. We benefited particularly from the
experience in working with carbon, because the materials used
in the e-bike, too, have to be able to withstand extremely high
loads. The 26-inch carbon wheels feature an all-new Audi ultra
blade design with broad, flat spokes optimized for the distribu
tion of forces.

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Tiny Particles
A look into the microcosm of an Audi
through the eyes of a
scanning electron microscope.

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Manipulated
moon landscape

Chrome (Audi A3)


2 m
EHT: 20.00 kV
Detector: SE2

The circular structure looks like a honeycomb, maybe even a crater the image from the scanning electron
microscope lets the imagination run wild. It may be hard to believe, but this material is actually chromeplated polymer. What is special about it is that the circular opening has been put here intentionally by a
special chemical process. Dr. Bertram Reinhold from Materials Technology, Hardness/Corrosion explains:
We drop acid onto the surface of the chrome-plated polymer. This eats through the various layers to the
carrier material, the plastic. Using the images from the scanning electron microscope, the specialists can
then determine whether the chrome layers meet Audis strict criteria. This image, for instance, shows
that the remaining surface structure is chrome, while the bottom of the honeycomb is plastic and the side
walls are nickel. Layering of this kind protects from environmental influences and ensures durable quality over the lifecycle of the car, explains Reinhold.

Landscape of
mountains and valleys

Polymer (Audi Q5)


20 m
EHT: 20.00 kV
Detector: SE2

Date: 1 June 2012

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The jagged edges look like mountain peaks, the craters in between like valleys. What looks like a landscape beneath the scanning electron microscope is actually a polymer material. The jagged surface has
been created intentionally. Plastic has to be as matte as possible, and we achieve this through the
rough microstructure of the surface, states Helmut Donaubauer from Materials Technology, Interior. In
order to create this, the surface of the associated injection molding tool is textured using acid. When
the plastic is molded, it takes on the texturing of the tool. The outcome is that the surface of the plastic
appears matte, almost like a textile. That is the manufacturing standard for our plastic components,
says Donaubauer. The matte, almost fabric-like plastic is a sign of our quality. It is used for applications
such as interior trim. The polymer in the image shows the cover panel for the D-pillar in the Audi Q5.

A microcosm
of delicate fibers

Alcantara (Audi R8 GT)


20 m
EHT: 20.00 kV
Detector: BSD

Date: 1 June 2012

56

The fibers layered above and below one another seem almost without structure. Innumerable and
entangled, they dominate the image on the scanning electron microscope. It is precisely this effect that
makes the material pictured to special, so pleasant and soft to the touch Alcantara. The fibers that
make up Alcantara are so thin that they cannot be used individually, explains Jrgen Frank from the
Materials Technology, Interior department. Thats why they are bundled together into strands that can
then be processed together. A complex and time-intensive procedure with an extremely attractive
outcome: Alcantara is a premium textile that is breathable and hard-wearing. Moreover, the fibers take on
virtually all colors. The quality of the material suits our premium standards, says Frank. And through
the various color variants, it offers a vast array of options in designing the interior of a car.

Open pores
a sign of quality

Leather (Audi A7)


20 m
EHT: 20.00 kV
Detector: SE2

Date: 16 May 2012

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Date: 16 May 2012

58

The finest of ridges and crevices cover the entire surface. The material looks uneven and restless on the
image from the scanning electron microscope. The appearance, however, compared with what people
actually feel with their fingers, is highly deceptive, because, what looks here to be positively porous, is actually soft and smooth to the touch. Were talking about leather. The restless landscape shown by the
images is, in fact, a sign of quality when it comes to leather. The indentations that you can see on the
scanning electron microscope images are hair pores, explains Jrg Bernhardt-Moggl from Materials Technology, Interior. The more pores evident in a specimen, the more natural and breathable the leather.
In Audis in-house lab, Bernhardt-Moggl and his co-workers test the leather specimens for durability. Not
until they have passed 45 different tests are these leathers approved for use. This is how Audi guarantees durable quality that you can see and feel.

Text
Annika Jochheim

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Pine cones, moonscapes, mussel beds


magnifications of up to 500,000 times
unlock a microcosm that is incomprehensible to human senses.
Even surfaces that seem completely smooth to the eye and fingertips take on strange forms at this magnification and seem somehow restless, even bizarre. Its a world utterly unto itself a microcosm open to exploration by those who choose to look closely.
The door to this world is opened by the Scanning
Electron Microscope (SEM)*. As its name would suggest, it uses
electrons to create an image by grouping them extremely finely
into a beam. This focused electron beam scans the respective specimen in a pre-determined pattern. The interactions of the electrons with the object that occur during this scanning process are
used to generate a visual representation of the specimen. These
images may be black and white, but they have a very high depth
of field and are razor sharp.
Audi makes good use of this function. In quality assurance, pinpoint accuracy is necessary when examining the tiniest
surfaces. The SEM images enable us to undertake exactly this kind
of detailed analysis, explains Martin Poese, Head of Department,
Materials Technology, Engines/Transmissions/Oil.
While scanning electron microscopes can achieve a
maximum magnification of 500,000 times, Audis quality inspectors usually work with a factor of only 20,000. Poese explains:
That kind of magnification is equivalent to relating the size of a
business card with that of a stadium. This is usually sufficient for
most of our analysis.
The investigations carried out by Poese and his team
generally concern vehicle components that an Audi owner never
sees. We analyze cracks, wear spots and surfaces on every imaginable vehicle part. And we use the images produced by the
scanning electron microscope to do that, explains Michael Held,
a member of Poeses team. Sometimes they are tiny parts like
valve springs or screws; sometimes they are larger elements
of the bodyshell structure that have to be cut into smaller specimens prior to examination. The respective specimen is then
placed in a vacuum inside the scanning electron microscope.
We are interested inthe Why explains Poese. If a valve spring
is broken, for instance, we take a close look at the fracture, which
provides us with information on the cause of the damage.

Its like detective work. Every day, Poese and his team
search for the proverbial needle in a haystack: We examine the
entire fracture surface for the tiniest, telltale signs, explains
Poese. Once you have a bit of experience, you usually find what
youre looking for quite quickly. Held continues: Many fracture
surfaces have distinctive structures that indicate the origin of
the fracture. For the quality inspectors this is an important clue
because, when examined under the scanning electron microscope, this point provides information on the nature of the fracture. From its form and markings, we can identify whether this
was,for instance, a fatigue failure or a forced rupture, says Held.
But sometimes, the images also show us the inclusion of foreign
material during the production of the part. An inclusion of just
a few thousandths of a millimeter is sometimes all it takes to
trigger a fracture.
Striving for the highest possible quality leads quite
literally into microscopic detail even the type of the foreign material that has been included can be analyzed by Poese and his
co-workers. The so-called x-ray fluorescence analysis* of the scanning electron microscope helps in this process. When scanning
the specimen, the interaction of the electrons with the object
generates x-rays. And because different chemical elements generate different types of x-rays, we are able to identify them.
To do this, the team uses a measurement system attached to the SEM that presents the spectrum of the x-rays measured as a diagram. It shows the distribution and intensity of
the respective elements and provides intelligence on the composition of the material. An oxygen peak, for example, indicates
to us the inclusion of slag and suggests a manufacturing failure
during the steel melting process, states Poese.
It is findings such as these that make the use of the
scanning electron microscope absolutely crucial at Audi. By processing this kind of information from development, through production to customer service Audi ensures the consistent quality
of vehicle components. For Poese and his co-workers, the microcosmic world of vehicle components bears messages that are
visible only to the trained eye. But when non-experts look at the
images produced by a scanning electron microscope, they see
a fascinating array of landscapes.

The fracture surface of the valve


spring shows that it is a fatigue
fracture resulting from a foreign
material inclusion.
1 Expert quality assurance specialists use the
periodic table to identify the elements that appear
in the x-ray fluorescence analysis.

The damage to the spheroidal


graphite cast iron material is
a forced fracture.

2 Precise Martin Poese aligns the sample


mount in the scanning electron microscope for
damage analysis.
3 Functional up to eight samples can be fixed onto
the rotating mount.
4 Experienced Martin Poese evaluates the SEM
images from a CFRP component* at the computer.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

Open Planning
Text
Klaus Thomas Edelmann

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Creativity as a resource
At its Munich think tank, Audi Design believes in openness
in the design of its space, as well as the thinking of its people. And it is
for this reason that Audi reorganized the studio together with Swiss furniture
maker Vitra.

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

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Right in the center of Munich is Audi Designs think tank its Con
cept Design Studio. It delivers important inspiration for vehicle
development and product design. To create new free spaces for working as a team and to
encourage maximum creativity from the designers, the studio was recently redesigned
together with Swiss furniture maker Vitra. And this is where Wolfgang Egger, Head of Audi
Design and Eckart Maise, Chief Design Officer for Vitra come together to discuss the future
of office and car, creativity as a resource and the exchange of ideas that exists at the beginning of every avant-garde.
What does design mean for your work?
How do you inspire creativity?
Maise: Human creativity is an infinite resource. When the environment is right,
good ideas generate themselves. You have to allow creativity to run free and you have to
try to clear away any unnecessary restrictions to the creative process. Designers have to be
able to communicate with one another without barriers. And it is precisely these fundamental principles that we have applied to the creation of the Audi Design Studio in Munich.
In my role as Design Manager, Im dealing with the same issue the release and control
of creative processes.
Egger: The creativity of a human being enables something new to be made out
of every situation, which is why I am happy that we are here talking and exchanging views.
When it comes to automobiles and architecture, and interior design too, the ideas of experimentation are very similar. In the 20s, Bauhaus showed how you can bring together
diverse competencies and technologies. An avant-garde was created from creative dialogue.
Maise: Whats important is not to limit your thinking,
Egger: to break out of your own discipline
Maise: find new perspectives and a more expansive view of things.

Wolfgang Egger, born 1963,


is Head of Audi Group Design. He
is responsible for the Audi and
Lamborghini brands. Before taking
over leadership of Audi Design,
he was Chief Designer for Alfa Romeo,
Seat and Lancia.
Eckart Maise, born 1965, is Chief
Design Officer at Vitra, a Swiss
furniture manufacturer dedicated
to the development of healthy,
intelligent, inspiring and enduring
solutions for the office, home
and public spaces.

Is it possible to learn from design how to manage creativity?


Egger: This is a skill that is completely instinctive for children, because children
create many variations in a single moment. Through our education or our profession, we
often lose faith in our own creative capabilities, because we are constantly searching for
the one, right solution. But creativity is in every single one of us; we designers are simply
lucky enough to be allowed to exercise it
Maise: but you also have to have a little faith in yourself. In order to produce
design from creativity, you have to be able to express an idea and to communicate it to as
many people as possible. As a designer, you want to make the world more exciting and
interesting.
What is the role played by the Audi Concept Design Studio in Munich?
Egger: Its a think tank. Here at the Munich Concept Design Studio, we can es
cape from the industrial world and really get to grips with different issues. Every product
that is created here stands for an approach to life that is closely connected to the Audi
brand. The studio is located in Schwabing, an area of Munich with strong artistic roots. It
is a creative environment you see directly how people live and express themselves with
fashion and lifestyle. In Design in Ingolstadt, we are consciously more heavily oriented
toward Technical Development. The focus there is on intermeshing technical innovation
and design with one another as closely as possible.

Human creativity is an infinite resource. When the environment is right, good ideas generate themselves. You have
to allow creativity to run free and you have to try to clear
away any unnecessary restrictions to the creative process.

Eckart Maise

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Independent Through modern


technology, it is possible to work anywhere, says Eckart Maise.

Think tank in the Concept Design


Studio Munich, ideas are created for
a diverse range of products.

All in the head one thing is clear


to Egger, The best ideas are created
in the head.

Tool with a pencil and straight


edge, ideas are transferred from head
to paper.

3
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How is the office, as such, changing?


Maise: Before, it was a kind of employee workbench; today, it is once again a
social place, where co-workers can enter into dialogue. It is a place for teamwork and
communication. Tom Allen from MIT established that 80 percent of innovative and groundbreaking ideas are generated through personal communication. Based on this, Vitra has
developed a concept called Citizen Office, which turns the modern office into a knowledge marketplace and can also be used simultaneously as a social meeting point. Modern
technology dispenses with the need for a prescribed location where everybody does the
same thing at the same time. Work can be done anywhere, in the office, in the car, at the
airport. Thus, todays office becomes more of a business club with different zones and
uses. You can experience that here in the Audi Concept Design Studio, too.
How do you set up a design studio like the one here in Munich?
Maise: The important thing is that the people using the space are involved in
the process. We have run several workshops with Audi. As with design, you have to know
for whom it is you are creating and how work is done there. How often are people working
there individually and how often in pairs or more? Then you have to add into the equation
that a design studio is a specific place.
Egger: Exactly! In a design studio, it is about maximizing creativity, and creativity is based on dialogue between designers. Design happens by sitting together, provoking
ideas and discussing them. And the best way to do that is just like we are sitting here a
discussion in the middle of the working environment. Its not about getting up early in the
morning, sketching and then being able to show a finished object in the evening. We prefer to apply studio thinking. It dates back to the Renaissance. Back then, artists and architects recognized that it made sense to group people around the object of their work. It
was important to us that we completely avoid isolated meeting situations. Discussions
can take place right in among the designers workstations. We no longer need a separate
meeting room.
Maise: There are and this also fits in with our job here at Audi ever-growing
spaces in which a variety of different jobs overlap. We are working more and more with
daylight. Its not just about architectural but also organizational transparency. The caves
into which we are constantly withdrawing are no longer necessary. The dimensions of these
spaces present new challenges when it comes to furnishing them, because this is no longer
a space for work alone concentration is a major issue. How do you divide the space without losing the overall impression of openness? We are confronted with this issue all the
time now.
Egger: This dialogue also relates to the dialogue between cultures. Alongside
Ingolstadt and Munich, we also have the opportunity for dialogue with Italdesign in Turin,
Lamborghini in SantAgata, the Volkswagen Design Center in Potsdam and the Design
Center California in Santa Monica. And our Audi Design Team of more than 200 incorporates 16 different nationalities. I see it as my job to give these diverse teams, which come
together on specific issues and then go their own ways, the space to exchange ideas be
it digitally or in the classic way with a face-to-face meeting.

In a design studio, it is about maximizing creativity, and


creativity is based on dialogue between designers.
Design also happens by sitting together, provoking ideas
and discussing them.

Wolfgang Egger

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Concept Design Studio Munich


Concept design needs freedom
this is how Wolfgang Egger defines
the task of the external creative
studio in Munich. The Concept Design
Studio Munich is the think tank of
Audi Design. Imaginative individuals
from many disciplines work together here on the creative input
for the future of the brands design.
The Munich facility has a long tradition for Audi Design the studio
in Schwabing was set up 25 years ago.
From day one, Munich established
itself as a place where designers
could think way into the future, work
on new vehicle concepts and generate unexpected inspiration for the
Audi brand.
The studio in Munich is a location for
seeking new ideas and a place for
open dialogue. Discussions with creative people from other disciplines
or with students taking part in projects within the global network of art
schools are a constant source of
inspiration for the designers. Plus,
the Concept Design Studio Munich
is also closely networked with Audis
other design studios.

In the thick of it meetings


take place within the office space.
Separate conference rooms are
no place for creativity. Wolfgang
Egger and Eckart Maise agree
wholeheartedly on this.

Togetherness the best ideas


result from dialogue.

Transparency looking onto the


street outside through the
large mirrored windows is a source
of inspiration.

* see glossary, pp. 168169

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What is the greatest challenge facing automotive


design in future?
Egger: Dealing with new drive technologies means an enormous amount of
change for design, too. Many technical givens disappear and are being redefined. Imagine
the engine compartment is no longer required, or the center tunnel in the interior loses
its technical significance. This gives us designers a whole new set of parameters. Despite
all of this change, however, what remains is the emotion that is expressed through a design. The task for us designers is to carry automotive emotion into the future, because our
fundamental aesthetic understanding remains unchanged. This is also the challenge that
we designers will face in future from society. Life is changing, the environment is changing,
cities are growing and new forms of mobility are emerging. This influences our emotional
needs and thus the design of the future.

Is the upheaval in the furniture industry and at Vitra


less dramatic?
Maise: The world is changing constantly and that obviously has an impact on
the world of working and living. The changes in the field of work are enormous. Plus, a
certain degree of hybridization between living and working is increasingly playing a role.
The domestic is progressively pushing its way into the office environment. We spoke about
the fact that exactly this desire existed when we began redesigning Audis design studio.
The important thing with these projects is to find the right balance between productivity
and wellbeing.
Can classics still be created under todays conditions?
Maise: Even the Eames chair wasnt born a classic. Very good design is, of course,
part of it, but function and other aspects contribute to us adopting it as part of our culture.
There are a lot of examples among cars, too. Classics can be born anytime if the quality is
right and innovation is present.
Egger: Of course classics are still being created today in the automotive industry, too. Take our R8 for example. It certainly has the potential in ten, twenty and thirty
years still to be highly attractive and emotional.

Are there areas of commonality between Audi Design and Vitra;


direct opportunities for cooperation on issues like car seats?
Maise: I believe there are a great many points of contact and overlap when it
comes to emotionality, materials, aesthetics, attention to detail, craftsmanship. Thats
quite a lot, isnt it?
Egger: Exactly! And whats particularly important is the dialogue between our
two design disciplines. The result of our cooperation wont manifest itself in the concrete
form of a car seat. We dont simply want to transfer things one-to-one. But the dialogue
between creative individuals in a variety of disciplines like with Bauhaus can lead to a

new avant-garde.

10

Life is changing, the environment is changing, cities are


growing and new forms of mobility are emerging.
This influences our emotional needs and thus the design
of the future.

Wolfgang Egger

Tailor-made suit product design


made-to-measure by Audi.

Childhood dream We designers


are lucky enough to be allowed
to exercise creativity, explains Egger.

10

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Accuracy the right light sharpens


the perception of forms and lines.

Skills.









72 Aerobatics
82 Magazine
86 Non Plus ultra
92 Shift Work
94 Autonomous Movement
100 Net Gains
106 AC/DC
112 Current Affairs
118 In Two-Four Time
120 Magazine


Skills
Audis great strengths include the skill of every single one of its employees.
It lays the foundation for perfection and innovation.

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Weight reduction on the Audi A3
Depending on the engine version, the new A3
weighs up to 80 kilograms less than its predecessor.
Audi is putting enormous effort into ultra-lightweight design
in series production.

Aero-

batics

Fenders
Like the hood, the fenders are made from aluminum.
This saves 1.1 kilograms per part, equating to 50 percent. The hood
is 7.0 kilograms lighter.

1.1
kg
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Front axle swivel bearings
For A3 variants starting at 110 kW (150 hp), the swivel
bearings are made from aluminum. They weigh in at 2.4 kilograms each.
With a combined weight reduction of 4.6 kilograms, they balance
out the additional weight of the larger brakes.

2.4
kg

11.6 kg

18-inch wheels
The large wheels for the A3 are made using
flow-forming technology. The rim base is rolled out over a cylinder
under high pressure and at a high temperature.

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Text
Johannes Kbler

Initiatives responsible for the peace and quiet on board


the new Audi A3 include wheel arches made from acoustically insulating fleece material, making them 0.5 kilograms lighter. The
molded part that lies between the interior floor and the carpeting
weighs just 3.9 kilograms.
A major weight factor in the new A3 is the engines. The
1.8 TFSI that drives the three-door with 132 kW (180 hp) and 250
Nm weighs just a little more than 140 kilograms; the thin-wall
technology used to cast the crankcase saves 2.4 kilograms. In the
new 2.0 TDI, mounting the balance shafts inside the engine block
reduces weight by 3.0 kilograms, while modified mufflers in the
exhaust line contribute a further 2.0 kilograms. The exhaust system has shed weight across all engine versions.
For the new 1.4 TFSI with 90 kW (122 hp), the needle
stops at just 107 kilograms 21 kilograms less than its predecessor.
At 18 instead of 33 kilograms, the new aluminum crankcase has
made the greatest contribution to this diet. A host of details such
as the aluminum pistons, slimline valves, hollow-bored conrod
bearing journals, weight-optimized crankshaft and compact intercooler round off the overall package.
Engineers also made substantial weight savings on the
chassis of the new Audi A3. The front axle subframe, which also sup
ports the engine and transmission, is cast in a single piece from alu
minum as a result it weighs just 8.6 kilograms, 1.5 kilograms less
than its three-piece predecessor. On the 1.8 TFSI and the 2.0 TDI,
the front axle swivel bearings are also made from aluminum. With
a combined weight of 4.8 kilograms, they come it at around just half
the weight of the cast steel components on the preceding model.
The optional 18-inch alloy wheels are no heavier than
the 17-inch wheels and are made using sophisticated flow-forming
technology. The rim base is rolled out over a cylinder under high
pressure and at a high temperature; this hardens the material, enabling lower wall thickness. The new 18-inch wheels are tougher
than on the previous model, yet weigh just 11.6 kilograms each.

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch


Front axle subframe
The large component that supports both the engine
and the front axle is cast in a single piece. Compared with the previous
model, this saves 1.5 kilograms.
For many years, vehicle weight in the automotive industry went in only one direction
up. Audi, however, has succeeded in breaking through the weight
spiral, with the first A8 and the current A6 and TT models. The new
A3 continues on this course. In its base engine version with the 1.4
TFSI, it weighs 80 kilograms less than its predecessor well under
1.2 tonnes.
This achievement is remarkable on the one hand because of the compact vehicle format and, on the other, because the
new A3 exceeds its predecessor in all criteria it is sportier, safer
and even better equipped. Many of its design principles and individual components are based on the groups new modular transverse platform (MQB)*, which offers a great deal of technical and
financial freedom for ultra-lightweight design.
The ultra-lightweight design principle is not an obligation for engineers, but rather a state of mind. Audi engineers always
consider the vehicle as a whole, making every gram count in every
area. Many interior trim elements, for instance, are now fastened
with plastic expansion rivets; each one saves 4 grams of weight
compared with the steel screws used in the previous model.
A new configuration for the control units now makes a
series of wiring lines superfluous and reduces weight by 1.5 kilograms as a result. The air conditioning system has shed 4.0 kilograms because the fan motor now requires fewer coils. The housing
for the passenger airbag is made from plastic and the frame of the
MMI monitor from magnesium both components have dropped
a combined weight of 0.6 kilograms. The new seats are 4.0 kilograms lighter than the previous ones; in the rear bench frame, plastic inlays take the place of steel wire.

8.6
kg

The materials in the body-in-white


of the new Audi A3

Intelligent material mix the bodyshell


of the new A3 is made from a mix of different
materials and semi-finished parts.

1 Hood, fenders and rear transverse beam


in sheet aluminum
2 Crash management system in
aluminum profile
3 Longitudinal beams, lower transverse
beams, sills and C-pillars in modern
high-strength steel

4 A-pillars, B-pillar bases, floorpan


and trunk floor made from high-strength
steel

3
5
4

5 Key areas of the occupant cell made


from form-hardened steel

6 Side panel frames, door panels and tailgate made from deep-drawn steel

3
4
2

3
1

6
1

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* see glossary, pp. 168169


Crash management system
The crash management system at the front of the
vehicle that distributes forces in the event of an impact is made entirely
from extruded aluminum profile, making it 1.4 kilograms lighter.

3.8
kg

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The largest single component on any car is the body


shell, which offers particular potential for weight saving. In accor
dance with the principle of the right material in the right place for
optimum function, a steel cell was created for the new A3 using a
multi-material construction. The outcome is 25 kilograms lighter
than for the preceding model. At its core are form-hardened steels;
prior to being formed, they are heated to almost 1,000 degrees
Celsius in a continuous furnace and then quenched to around 200
degrees immediately afterward in a water-cooled press tool. This
temperature drop creates an extremely stiff iron-carbon structure
form-hardened steels can handle low wall thicknesses, and the
associated parts weigh 18 kilograms less than conventional components.
Form-hardened steels are used in the transition from
the front section to the occupant cell, in the A-pillars, B-pillars, roof
arches, center tunnel, sills and floorpan. Altogether, they constitute 26 percent of the occupant cell. A tailored rolled blank forms
the transition from the floor to the rear section; its eleven segments
are rolled to five different thicknesses.
High-strength and ultra-high-strength steel grades are
used in many other bodyshell areas, such as the floor of the occupant cell. At the front of the vehicle, the hood and fenders are made
from aluminum making the hood 7.0 kilograms lighter and saving
1.1 kilograms on each of the fenders, equating to around 50 percent. An aluminum profile behind the front skirt serves as a crash
management system. It weighs 3.8 kilograms and saves 1.4 kilograms. The massive weight reduction at the front end of the car
also delivers a finely balanced distribution of axle load. The result
is the well-balanced, sporty handling that is such a feature of the
new A3.

In the press shop and bodyshell shop, the forming of


the aluminum components and their connection with the steel parts
present particularly tough challenges. The same applies to the form-
hardened components, which are coated with an anti-corrosive layer
made from an aluminum-silicon alloy. Audi benefits here from its
expertise in ultra-lightweight design progressive jointing techniques have been tested for years in models like the TT. The body
shell of the new A3 features a wide array of jointing technologies,
including adhesive bonding, clinching and punch riveting.
The joint between the side wall and the roof of the Audi
A3, which are both made from steel, is created by a plasmatronsoldered* seam, with the permitted tolerance reduced to just a few
tenths of a millimeter. The finished seam is polished with brushes
to create a zero joint that is virtually invisible. In contrast to the
previous model, the doors and window frames are pressed in a single
piece, which also saves weight.
ultra-lightweight design has been a core competence at
Audi for many years. The brand wants to continue expanding the
global leadership that it already possesses in this field. In future,
every new Audi model will be lighter than its predecessor. The new
A3 is showing the way.

Audi A3 1.4 TFSI:


Comparison with the previous model

Engine and chassis

Saving

1.4 TFSI with integrated exhaust manifold

21.0 kg

Modified muffler

2.0 kg

Front axle swivel bearing in aluminum

4.6 kg

Front axle subframe in aluminum

1.5 kg

Bodyshell Saving
Form-hardened steels in the occupant cell

18.0 kg

Further initiatives in the occupant cell

7.0 kg

Aluminum hood

7.0 kg

Front fenders in aluminum

2.2 kg

Crash management system in aluminum

1.4 kg

Interior Saving
Wheel arches in fleece material

0.5 kg

Seats

4.0 kg

Air conditioning

4.0 kg

Control units and wiring

1.5 kg

Center armrest mount

1.2 kg

plus further measures

80 kg

How the photos were created


Flight hours the lightweight parts from the
Audi A3 were not magically placed in the summer
skies above Ingolstadt by image editing software. They actually flew through the air with the
help of a trusty photographers assistant.


Light work
With a base weight of less than 1.2 tonnes,
the A3 sets new milestones in Audi ultra-lightweight design.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

Magazine

Escape the flood

Windshield wipers that also serve as mobile


weather stations are the focus of the RainCars project
at Hanover University. Scientists are seeking to pin down
the threat of floods caused by heavy rainfall faster and
with greater precision. In so doing, car windshield wipers are serving as precipitation indicators. Alongside
wipe frequency, which indicates the amount of rain, the
researchers are investigating whether optical sensors
can also be used. A field trial with ten taxis in Hanover
is scheduled to start soon. The data gathered will then
be compared with measurements from stationary rain
sensors and rainfall radar.

Only those prepared to look beyond their horizons


can evaluate and build on their own progress. Technology
news from around the world.

For further information go to:


www.uni-hannover.de

Never change another tire! The adaptive


tires from research group HTWK Leipzig will automatically adapt to suit the prevailing weather and road con
ditions. The idea is that the grooves of the tread change
in accordance with the driving situation.
The aim of the scientists is to optimize wear,
noise generation, fuel consumption and safety, which
is why they are currently in the process of integrating a
regulating device into the tires that autonomously controls the form-changing components in line with requirements. It enables the grooves in the tires profile
to be moved individually and adapted to suit the driving
conditions. The researchers are currently working with
elastic materials and piezo-ceramic actuators, as well
as with memory compounds and smart materials.

Image provided by: Fraunhofer COMEDD

At eye level

For further information go to:


www.fraunhofer.de

Intelligent data goggles the micro-display


made up of OLEDs and photo-detectors recognizes
the line of sight.

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Image provided by: Picture Services

One blink is all it takes and the desired information appears on the OLED data goggles*. The user
can access information from both the real and virtual
worlds.
At the heart of the new technology is a bidirectional micro-display. It is both a screen and a camera and consists of photo-detectors and organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs) interwoven within a fixed struc
ture. This means it is capable not only of reproducing
images, but also of recording them. As a result, it can be
controlled completely using the eyes. The micro-display
precisely identifies the direction in which the user is
looking and passes this onto the respective interactive
application. By focusing on a virtual key, the user can,
for instance, select what should appear in his line of
sight.
The combination of camera and display
makes the goggles compact and convenient. Researchers
at Fraunhofer COMEDD (Center for Organic Materials
and Electronic Devices Dresden) can even envisage integrating the technology into a conventional pair of
sunglasses.

For further information go to:


www.htwk-leipzig.de
Mobile measuring station sensors in windshield wipers
measure precipitation.

OLED

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Image provided by: HTWK Leipzig

By wind and weather

Adjustment while driving the grooves of a tire tread are


able to move.

Encounter Technology

* see glossary, pp. 168169

Awards for Encounter

10

Recent weeks have seen Encounter the


Audi technology magazine honored with two highly
respected awards. The magazine received the red dot
award: communication design for its high design quality. And with Gold in the Best Corporate Publishing Award
2012, Encounter was commended by the jury as a perfect image vehicle presenting new ideas and technologies from around the world.
For further information go to:
www.encounter.audi.com

Reckoning the ten-millimeter cubes can duplicate themselves.

From beneath the ground

2x

Image provided by: M. Scott Brauer

The road as a source of energy American


researchers are working on a variety of concepts derived
from this vision. One idea is Solar Roadways that generate renewable energy from sunlight and could even
use this electricity to extend the range of electric cars.
An initial prototype of a module of this road
covering has already been completed. It measures three
meters square and consists of an extremely hard glass
surface. Inside are solar cells, LEDs for street lighting
and the incorporation of traffic signs, a heating system
and microprocessors. The development engineers intend to realize a prototype of a parking space this fall.

For further information go to:


www.solarroadways.com

Image provided by: Solar Roadways

A further project, which also uses the road


for transmitting energy, is being pursued by a research
team at Stanford University. Electric energy will be trans
mitted wirelessly to electric cars using magnetic resonance even while driving. The researchers want to em
bed into the road two copper coils that vibrate at the
same frequency. One of them will be connected to an
energy source and generate a magnetic field that causes
the second coil to vibrate. This allows the electrical energy to be transferred from the sender to the receiver.
In a computer simulation, the system can
already transmit 10 kilowatts over a distance of two
meters. A field trial will see a large number of coils built
into the asphalt. The receiver coils would be positioned
beneath the car and could continually charge the battery while driving.

For further information go to:


www.stanford.edu

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Energy transport by road the Solar Roadways modules


produce electricity.

solar
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Building with sand

A tiny pile of sand that recognizes the form


of an object and shapes itself into a duplicate? Sounds
a lot like science fiction, but initial research steps have
been taken here, too. Scientists at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT)* have tested the associated technology with cubes. The ten-millimeter blocks
are fitted with a microprocessor and have special magnets attached to their walls. They can use these to dock
with each other, exchange messages and carry out simple reckoning functions.
The intention is to transfer this technology
to sand. The individual grains will recognize their neighbors and where one is missing, thus enabling them to
analyze the shape of an object. As a final step, the grains
of sand could then shape themselves autonomously to
duplicate an object.
For further information go to:
www.web.mit.edu

* see glossary, pp. 168169


Audi TT evo plus
With its TT evo plus technology study, Audi is driving
ultra-lightweight design to the very limits of possibility. The bodyshell is
made from CFRP, aluminum and magnesium, the coupe weighs less
than 1,000 kilograms.

Non

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Plus

ultra

Text
Johannes Kbler

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

1 New technology a layer of polymer


creates a strong bond between the adhesive
fasteners and the CFRP material.
2 Engineering innovation the rear
section of the luggage compartment floor
has a wave-shaped profile.
3 ultra-light the roof of the Audi TT
evo plus is made from carbon-fiber reinforced
polymer.
4 New production technology the B-pillars
on the technology showcase are built around
a foam core in the style of a DTM race car.

If you want to run a successful sprint, you


need a good starting position and this
is certainly the case with the Audis TT evo plus. Even as a seriesproduction car, the compact coupe is already exceptionally light
thanks to its many aluminum components. In 2.0 TFSI guise, it
has a curb weight of just 1,280 kilograms. And with our new
technology showcase, its less than 1,000 kilograms, says Peter
Fromm, Head of Vehicle Body Development at AUDI AG. The
TT evo plus is our new spearhead in ultra-lightweight design.
Audi leads the competitive field in lightweight design.
1994 saw the debut of the first A8 with its aluminum bodyshell
made using the revolutionary ASF (Audi Space Frame)*, since when
the brand has continued to extend its lead. The latest major step is
the Multi-Material Space Frame, which combines a diverse range
of different materials in line with the classic Audi mantra the right
material in the right place for optimum function.

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43
kilograms is the weight saved just in the bodyshell of the
TT evo plus compared with the series version.

The TT evo plus technology showcase, of which just


two have been built in the Audi Lightweight Design Center*
and the Pre-Production Center (VSC in German) in Neckarsulm,
takes this principle to its extreme through extensive work on
all sub-assemblies and an enormous team effort on the part
of all involved. From the bodyshell alone, which weighs just
206 kilograms in the series-production version, we have managedto take out a further 43 kilograms, enthuses development engineer Thomas Milde. We have replaced most of the
steel components at the rear with aluminum and opted for CFRP*
in many areas.
The roof, B-pillars, center tunnel and rear floorpan
are made from CFRP, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer. CFRP components like the tailgate, front fenders, doors and front end module bring further weight savings of 38 kilograms. The CFRP components used in the interior door and side panels, for example,
or the instrument cover panel add up to savings of more than
13 kilograms.
The TT evo plus is so exciting for us because we are
using it to test ultra-lightweight technologies that we want to
put into series production in the near future, explains Heinz
Hollerweger, Head of Total Vehicle Development for AUDI AG. The
back end of the CFRP luggage compartment floor has a wave
structure the so-called OLAS waves (oscillating laminated
absorbing structures) absorb a high proportion of energy in
the event of a collision. Many cables and cover panels are attached
using adhesive fasteners; a polymer layer forms a strong bond
with the CFRP when it is heated for a few seconds. Technical adhesives and rivets form the connection between the CFRP and aluminum parts.

The B-pillars in the TT evo plus are a particularly innovative variant of CFRP production technology. Along the lines of
the race cars from the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM),
they are built up as hollow structures around a foam core. Their
average wall thickness is just 1.3 millimeters. The hinge mounts
for the tailgate, the corner reinforcement for the center tunnel
and the upper floorpan are all made from semi-finished magnesium parts in a variety of forms such as sheet metal and castings. The ultra-lightweight metal saves up to a further 15 percent
in weight compared with aluminum.
And what benefit does all this effort bring? Project
Leader Ralph Schnemann outlines the expected vital statistics
for the technology showcase compared with those of the seriesproduction car: The TT evo plus consumes around 20 percent
less per 100 kilometers in the NEDC and accelerates from zero to
100 km/h in less than six seconds both results of the ultra-lightweight design and the increased power yielded by the engine. We
have made it 25 percent lighter in areas like the block, crankshaft,
flywheel, fasteners and ancillary units. And the exhaust system is
made from ultra-lightweight titanium, which saves 14 kilograms.
Schnemann is already looking forward to the day
when he can drive the TT evo plus on the test track for the first time.
The handling will be incredibly sporty. In the suspension, we are
using aluminum, mono-tube dampers and new springs made from
glass-fiber reinforced polymer that we will shortly be putting
into series production. On the front axle, we are using a lightweight braking system with aluminum fixed calipers. The antiroll bar is made from CFRP and, together with the brakes, saves
us 13 kilograms. And the forged 18-inch wheels with their special ultra design weigh just 6.4 kilograms each.

89

* see glossary, pp. 168169

Encounter Technology

13
kilograms of weight are saved by CFRP
parts in the interior.

Experience the construction of the


TT evo plus on video!
www.encounter.audi.com

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The weight of less than


1,000 kilograms is a statement
of which we are proud.

Peter Fromm

At the front of the show car is technology that will


feature in the next TT its large engines will come from the groups
modular transverse platform (MQB)*. The engine is tilted toward the rear, the front axle with the steering moves seven centimeters forward. Schnemann: We have removed a lot of weight
from either end of the car and put it in the middle to make the TT
evo plus even more agile. The starter battery, for instance, is inside
the car in front of the rear axle and features lithium-ion technology. It is much smaller than a lead-acid battery and weighs just
over four kilograms.
The TT evo plus is a dynamic car. But it demands absolutely no sacrifice from the driver, aside from the missing rear
bench, where we have fitted a transverse tube for added stiffness and a dividing net, says Jochen Uhl, Vehicle Body Controller
and Coordinator for Concept and Special Vehicles at the VSC in
Neckarsulm. Uhls team takes the bodyshell and transforms it into
the finished car a visually understated coupe clad in innocent
white with an interior finished entirely in fine Audi style. The
deep gloss of visible CFRP contrasts with black Alcantara upholstery; the backs of the lightweight racing bucket seats are
also made from CFRP. Equipment includes air conditioning and
power windows.
The technology puzzle that the VSC team is putting
together consists of several thousand pieces, from large components like engine and transmission, to the smallest screws
and plugs. Putting it together calls for precision and expertise.
How do you make the new engine control unit from the MQB
communicate flawlessly with the electronics from the current TT?
Are the clip points for the new side panels correctly positioned?
Does the weight of the rear axle precisely match the specification
down to the last gram?

Around 500 man hours of work go into the assembly,


reckons Uhl, in our showcase discipline of bodyshell manufacturing, its a further 800 hours. And the materials also come at
a cost; the price of bodyshell tooling quickly adds up. A few panels
were beaten out by hand using negative forms and a great deal
of skill that our colleagues in the VSC have perfected to a tee.
When the TT evo plus is finished, it will be worth every
cent. Peter Fromm, Head of Vehicle Body Development for AUDI
AG sums up the importance of the technology showcase in two
sentences: The weight of less than 1,000 kilograms is a statement of which we are proud, because it offers impressive proof of
Audis leading role in lightweight design. For us, the ultra-lightweight design principle means repeatedly going to the boundaries
of what is possible, so that each time our strong team can push
them a little farther.

91

* see glossary, pp. 168169

Encounter Technology

5 The interior the specialists at the Pre-Production


Center in Neckarsulm complete the TT evo plus.
6 The driver door power windows and speakers are
included in the technology study

Shift Work


Seven-speed S tronic
In its new version, the Audi R8 is even faster
especially at shifting gear. The new seven-speed
S tronic shifts with virtually no interruption in drive.

Text
Johannes Kbler

Illustration
Steven Pope

In the field of power transmission, too, Audi


is permanently driving progress. The sevenspeed S tronic, developed from the ground up, is ready and waiting
for the redeveloped R8; it is optional equipment with the V8 and
standard with the V10. Its ratios are closely spaced for sporty performance, with a long top gear that keeps the revs low and improves fuel consumption. The dual-clutch transmission reduces
consumption by up to 0.9 liters per 100 km and shortens the standard sprint by three tenths of a second with lightning-fast shift
speeds. The new R8 V10 plus shoots from zero to 100 km/h in 3.5
seconds and has a top speed of 317 km/h.
The new seven-speed S tronic transmits the engines
power along three shafts, a dual drive shaft and two secondary
shafts a layout that facilitates an extremely compact construction. Two multi-plate clutches positioned one behind the other
operate the two standalone partial gearboxes. Clutch K1 sends the
torque via a solid shaft to gears 1, 3, 5 and 7. Rotating around the
solid shaft is a hollow shaft. It is connected to clutch K2 and operates gears 2, 4 and 6, as well as reverse gear.
The two partial gearboxes are permanently active, but
only one is connected to the engine. When the driver is accelerating
in third gear, for instance, fourth gear is already engaged in the
second partial gearbox. Gearshift occurs by switching the clutches
K1 opens, K2 closes. It all happens so quickly and smoothly that
it is barely noticeable, taking just a few hundredths of a second and
with virtually no interruption in drive.
The driver can change gear himself using the gear stick
or steering wheel paddles for a distinctly sporty driving style. Al
ternatively, there is also a fully automatic level available with programs D and S. On start up, Launch Control is available at the touch
of a button to manage clutch actuation at the optimum engine
speed transmitting engine power to the road with perfectly controlled tire slip. And the driver of the R8 experiences the dynamism
of his high-performance sports car in its most instantaneous form.

1
2
7

3.5
The Audi R8 V10 with S tronic
takes just 3.5 seconds to shoot from
zero to 100 km/h.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Clutch 1
Clutch 2
Input shaft
Secondary shaft 1
Mechatronics
Differential
Output shaft to the front axle
connected to secondary shaft 2


Automatic valet parking
Simply leave the car at the entrance to the parking
garage and the car takes care of the rest by itself. At a car park in
Ingolstadt, Audi is already testing this tantalizing vision with the
help of complex electronics.

Autonomous Movement

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Encounter Technology

Parking space
search navigation

1 Planned in future, parking garages


could inform cars of available spaces on arrival
via UMTS*.

2 Started the driver will be able to bring


his car to the entrance area, get out and issue
the park command via his smartphone or
car key at the touch of a button.
3 Located using a secure WLAN connection,
the central control unit in the parking
garage makes contact with the car and sends
a route map.

Project Manager Stefan Stmper stops the


Audi A7 Sportback in front of the parking
garage. He touches a button on his smartphone
and the car takes care of the rest.

Text
Thomas Tacke

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Slowly, the Audi A7 Sportback makes its way


up the entrance ramp of the new north car
park in Ingolstadt. Once more around the bend, then the car rolls
onto the second parking level, past an empty space and stops. Re
verse gear, some tidy steering and it slips into the space in two or
three moves. The car is perfectly positioned. An everyday scene? An
expert at the wheel? Neither. There is, in fact, nobody at the wheel.
The Audi maneuvered itself into the parking space entirely on its
own. The technicians refer to this as piloted parking*, while laypeople are fascinated simply by the sight of the A7 steered purely
by electronics.
Cars that move without any input from their driver
what sounds like science-fiction is gradually becoming reality at
Audi. New technologies for piloted parking are currently under de
velopment, with one of the most sophisticated being Project Park
hauspilot. Not everyone is at ease in a parking garage. In any case,
it takes a lot of time to find a parking spot, maneuver the car into it
and then collect it later. With our project, we are helping the driver
with this task, says Stefan Stmper, Project Manager with the Audi
Electronics Venture (AEV)*, an internal Audi think tank. Parkhaus
pilot is among the innovation activities underway as part of Audi
connect, networked mobility. Within this program, cars are being
given more and more intelligence in order to make the daily task of
driving more convenient. Current projects include traffic situations
in which the driver would prefer not to steer himself and perhaps

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soon may no longer have to. Stmper and his team have been carrying out research for some time into highly complex technologies.
Practical tests are currently underway in the parking garage at the
railroad station in Ingolstadt North. The team has installed several computers at a small table on the first floor and is deeply engrossed in detailed discussions on sensor sensitivity, program loops
and network connections, while the Audi A7 Sportback at the entrance barrier below awaits its instructions. In future, the driver
will be able to drive his car to the entrance, step out and deliver the
parking command via his smartphone or car key, explains Stmper.
Then several systems take over. In the parking garage,
a central control unit is installed that regulates the parking procedure. Via a secure WLAN connection* it makes contact with the Audi
at the entrance and retrieves its key data such as the model, and
thus its dimensions, or services requested by the customer, like
wireless charging in the case of an electric vehicle.
During its driverless drive, the car is able to determine
its position thanks to its standard sensors and a map transmitted
by the parking garage. Simultaneously, the car park monitors the
process with the aid of high-precision LIDAR laser sensors. With
this localization, we always know exactly where the car is located
within the parking garage, explains Stmper a critical prerequisite in ensuring the smooth running of the system. This is followed
by route planning. The computer calculates the location of the
next suitable parking space and sends a schematic route map to
the vehicle. We are working here to a thousand times greater accuracy than a navigation system. The route has to be calculated very
precisely, stresses the development engineer.

* see glossary, pp. 168169

All-in-all, this procedure produces a veritable


flood of data. The challenge is primarily in the interaction of all the necessary sensor and control
modules to create an overall concept.

Stefan Stmper

Navigation
and parking

4 Controlled the digital guidance directs


the car via its electromechanical steering to
the parking space.

5 Steered an evolution of the seriesproduction Park Assist takes over the parking
itself.
6 Parked with the aid of complex electronics,
the car then drives itself into the space
and turns itself off.

In the parking garage at Ingolstadt North


station, the team from the Audi Electronics
Venture is carrying out meticulous testing.
Laser sensors monitor the cars movements.

While the Audi A7 Sportback, steered by the electronics, travels its first few meters, the development engineers continue to study the data flow. The digital route guidance controls the
vehicles electromechanical steering. It rolls along the planned
route at a speed of between five and ten kilometers per hour through
the Ingolstadt parking garage. An intelligent computer algorithm
pulls together all the data to create a complete image of the surroundings and compares this with the route map. If, while driving
or parking, an obstacle or other collision threat arises, the Audi
comes to an immediate halt. The same applies should radio contact
to the central computer be broken. Safety is priority number one in
Project Parkhauspilot.
When the Audi A7 approaches a parking space, an evolution of the series-production Park Assist takes over the parking
maneuver. As if guided by invisible forces, the car drives into the
empty parking space and automatically turns itself off. When the
driver wants to retrieve his car, he simply informs the car park computer via smartphone to send the car to the exit unless he has
already booked a specific pick-up time. His Audi rolls autonomously
to the exit and the driver can step in as normal. The parking fee is
booked automatically.

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All-in-all, this procedure produces a veritable flood


of data. The challenge is primarily in the interaction of all the necessary sensor and control modules to create an overall concept,
says Stmper. Due to the enormous challenges it presents, this
technology is undergoing intensive testing in order to understand
a vast range of scenarios. Several times during the tests, the AEV
team resets the sensors, modifies parameters on the computers
and checks the data connection between the parking garage and
the vehicle.
We have already achieved significant success, but are
still at an early stage and several years away from development for
series production, says Bernhard Mller-Beler, AEV Coordinator
for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. This is due, on the one hand,
to the technology with all of its variables and, on the other, to the
infrastructure. Widespread implementation and the associated
equipment of parking garages obviously call for a regulatory framework, too. A number of automakers are working together with the
authorities to achieve this. The issue of liability also needs to be
clarified. But Stefan Stmper is convinced: This project has enormous potential!

Follow the Audi development


engineers on video!
www.encounter.audi.com


Fully networked
The car is going online. Audi is networking
it with its owner, the Internet, the infrastructure and, ultimately,
with other vehicles. The Audi IT is a major part of that.

myAudi via audi.com/myaudi,


the driver can configure some functions
of Audi connect from home.

Net Gains
Audi Traffic Information online
delivers a precise image of congestion
along the route. It uses information
from hundreds of thousands of cell phones.

Audi music stream access to internet


radio and your own music library
from your iPhone. Controlled via MMI
Navigation plus.

Fuel stop lists the least expensive


fuel stations at the destination,
at a preferred point or close to the
current location.

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With Audi connect, we are creating added


value for our customers, because they dont have
to abandon their digital lives while driving.

Dr. Peter Steiner

Text
Stefan Kotschenreuther

Photos
AUDI AG

1 New in the A3 the Touchwheel, a combination of rotary/push control and


Touchpad. It recognizes handwriting and
thus simplifies the inputting of text.

2 Ultra-flat the high-resolution LED


display is just eleven millimeters thick,
but incredibly easy to read.
1

Twitter social media adapted for


the car. Incoming tweets are read out,
while drivers can compile their own
tweets using pre-prepared text blocks.

Imagine a day in the very near future. You


step into your Audi in the morning and check
your appointments on the way to work using the in-car display. A
friendly voice reads out an incoming e-mail then a series of current
news items. You still have some time because you are stuck in rushhour traffic. The on-board computer recognizes this and automatically treats you to your favorite music, keeping the morning mayhem at bay for a few more minutes. As you approach your office, it
informs you of an available parking spot and provides directions.
You drop off your car and embark on your working day in a relaxed
frame of mind
What might initially sound very futuristic is already almost reality at Audi. The car will soon no longer be simply bringing
us from A to B, but functioning instead as a personal assistant,
says Florian Kirschner, who works in the IT Electrics/Electronics
department for Audi in Ingolstadt. The car relieves the driver of
bothersome tasks like parking and calms his nerves in stop-and-go
traffic. This means he can make far more sensible use of his time in
the car than he does today both professionally and privately.
Young customers in particular are used these days to
having their family life, their friends, their favorite books or films
and their office with them at all times, to be always on. Audi brings
the necessary functions into the car, easy-to-use and tailored precisely to the needs of the customer. Audi connect is the keyword
the comprehensive networking of the car with the owner, the
Internet, the infrastructure and the other vehicles on the road. Dr.
Peter Steiner, Head of Development Infotainment comments: We
are bringing our Audi connect services into the car today at UMTS
speed*. In future, we will be working on the even faster LTE Tech
nology* and expanding our portfolio even further, says the expert.
With Audi connect, we are creating added value for our customers,
because they dont have to abandon their digital lives while driving.

Audi music stream


easy listening
Music pleasure made simple the Audi music stream smartphone app can be operated easily via the MMI Navigation
plus when the cell phone is connected to the car via WLAN.

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Without powerful IT in the background, this networking would be impossible. For a long time, this simply wasnt an
issue for vehicle buyers, explains Matthias Ulbrich, Head of IT/
Organization at Audi. Their perception was dominated by the classic aspects of the driving machine.
It all comes together in the nerve center of the Audi
connect services inside the Audi Computer Center in Ingolstadt.
This is where the so-called Modular Backend Platform (MBB in
German) is located. Its counterpart in the car is the Modular Info
tainment Platform (MIB in German)*. Data exchange flows via the
vehicles roof antenna, which is connected to the Internet via a
conventional SIM card, or via a cell phone with SIM Access Profile.
Innovations in networking are particularly evident in
the Audi A3, the brands most recent model. In the MMI Navigation
plus, engineers have integrated a Touchpad into the rotary/push
control for the first time. The Touchwheel recognizes handwriting
in a number of different languages even Chinese characters. Al
ternatively, the driver can also input the destination and control
the phone, music system or other Audi connect services using freetext voice search.
Functions that are already familiar from smartphone
apps can also be used via the MMI system if a friend has sent an
answer on Facebook or has tweeted something, the new A3 informs
the driver itself with a spoken alert. If desired, Facebook friends
can also be kept up-to-date on your location using pre-prepared
text blocks combined with current positioning. And online news
brings the latest developments into the car from the drivers preferred sources. When the car is at a standstill they are shown on the
MMI screen and read out while driving, thus avoiding inconvenient
and dangerous glimpses at the cell phone display.
Information on the current location or travel destination, such as the weather, can also be searched. And, prior to setting
off, the driver can take a look at the destination surroundings using
the integrated navigation map with Google Earth images and Street
View. Using the Picturebook Navigation function, you can even nav
igate to places depicted on pictures taken yourself made possible
by Geodata. The Point-of-Interest search understands spoken terms
and processes the data with the help of Google Search the results
list is the same as on your computer at home. Flight and train connections can also be searched, as can fuel stations and fuel prices
within range. The City Events function tells you what is going on in
the area and thus helps you put together your own leisure program.

In the past, it was the juke box that set the mood at
exactly the right moment in the local watering hole. In the 80s,
the invention of the Walkman brought the individual music experience to the street. Today, all you need to do is pick up your
smartphone. One stroke of the finger delivers access to songs
of all genres and from every era from the golden twenties
through the 70s to the latest chart hits of the day. Added to that
is internet radio with an unending array of stations to suit absolutely every taste, often specializing on one particular type of
music from rock through classical to electro.
With Audi music stream for the iPhone, Audi is now
bringing this audio experience into the car. The customer downloads it from the app store and simply connects it via WLAN* to
the MMI Navigation plus in his Audi. It can now be operated via
the MMI, simply and conveniently. Sorting them by category
simplifies their selection, including the top 20 most popular
stations. There is also a free-text search facility.
If there is nothing on the radio right now that takes
your fancy, you can just as easily play music from your personal
iPhone media library via the MMI.

* see glossary, pp. 168169

Meanwhile, the Audi Traffic Information online application turns the car into an interactive road user. It takes data from
hundreds of thousands of smartphones and navigation devices and
processes them online. Thus, the driver receives a more precise idea
of congestion along the route.
But it is not just the driver of the Audi A3 that is well
networked. Using a WLAN hotspot*, Audi connect offers all occupants the greatest possible freedom to surf with their own smartphones or tablet PCs. Up to eight mobile devices can be connected
to the Internet via the hotspot.
A further Audi project is the implementation of the
Seamless Media vision. Thanks to this technology, the customer
can, for instance, start listening to an audio book at home, stop it
wherever they want and then continue listening where they left off
in the car the next morning all the data are stored in the cloud.
The compilation and preparation of the data would not
be possible without the MBB in the Audi Computer Center here,
in the Backend, is where the real work is done. Audi connect can be
used not only from the car, but also from the home computer, mean
ing you can do things like enter a destination into the navigation
system from the comfort of your PC.
The MBB and MIB are connected for the first time in the
new Audi A3. Their modular construction ensures that Audi connect
services and the hardware are always fully up to date. Audi is setting itself an enormous challenge, explains IT departmental manager Gunnar Lange. With the aid of the computer center and MBB,
we are guaranteeing that an Audi will be constantly supplied with
the latest tailor-made content throughout its lifecycle. Audi will
integrate function updates and new services into the Backend on
an ongoing basis, making them available to all Audi connect users.
The server, computing and storage capacity necessary for the software can be made available at very short notice using new IT concepts. The MIB, too, has a modular construction. Its unique architecture enables it to accommodate the installation of hardware
components to the latest technological standard during the production life of a model range.

Audi IT
always on duty

Glass-fiber cables they make communication


between the car and Audi IT even faster.
They are standard equipment in the new Audi
Computer Center.

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Nerve center all the threads of Audi connect come


together in the Audi Computer Center.

Online news call up the latest news


on MMI, then read it or have it read
to you. Easy to configure via myAudi, even
from home.

The Audi A3 is showcasing today what will be taken for


granted tomorrow the car is a part of the Internet, it receives data,
generates it itself and forwards it. The phrase of the future, car-to-X*,
encompasses a field of technology in which cars communicate with
each other and with the traffic infrastructure such as traffic lights
and car parks.
Another of todays trends is that new generations of
customers are connecting with each other via online communities,
and we are seizing on this, too, explains Gerhard Stanzl, Program
Manager for Audi connect IT. Current projects on which the IT team
is working include Follow Me, an application conceived specifically
as the name implies for driving in convoy. When the cars move
out sight of one another, we ensure they dont get lost, says Martin
Heimann, Head of Innovation Management and IT Program Man
ager for Audi mobility. Users can talk during the journey via a
walkie-talkie function. It is also conceivable that they could play
games with each other or synchronize their next stopover.
And, with all this virtual networking, should people
want to meet face-to-face, the navigation systems can calculate an
ideal meeting point with individual driving times for each user.
This, too, is organized by the intelligent Backend IT.

Information Technology, known for short as IT, plays


a central and cross-functional role at Audi. Be it for computing
in Technical Development, for equipment programming in Pro
duction or for networking most of the almost 64,000 employees
worldwide, Audi IT ensures that all processes run smoothly. The
customer benefits when he calls up the Audi website, configures
his vehicle in a dealer showroom or when he is traveling in a vehicle with Audi connect. IT is increasingly becoming a decisive
factor in the purchase of a car, and therefore a competitive factor
in the automotive industry.
In Germany alone, there are 600 people working for
Audi IT. The technical infrastructure currently encompasses two
computer centers in Ingolstadt. They accommodate around
3,500 servers, with a further five percent added every year. The
current storage capacity stands at 6.2 Petabytes which is more
than 12,000 standard 500 GB hard drives. To prepare Audi IT for
the future, a new computer center will come online in August
2012. It has 2,000 square meters of space for up to 6,000 servers and network components, all of which are connected with
around 3,000 kilometers of glass-fiber cable.
Despite its substantial computing power, the new
computer center consumes around 35 percent less energy than
the previous computer center, thanks in part to indirect cooling
with outside air. This equates to an annual saving of up to 9,000
tonnes of carbon dioxide.

* see glossary, pp. 168169

City Events displays concerts,


cultural highlights, good restaurants
and more at the current location,
at the destination or at another place.

AC/DC
The new sound of the rings
Electric cars drive silently but not at Audi. In the brands acoustics lab,
Rudolf Halbmeir has developed an artificial sound for future e-tron
models that turn the head of every pedestrian. The careful construction
of the sound DNA is now complete.

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Text
Lena Kiening

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

In developing the e-sound,


we simply had to start from zero.
Rudolf Halbmeir

The car of the future what will it look like?


How will we drive it? And, first and foremost,
how might it sound? The cinema gives us an initial idea of how film
makers imagine it. When Jedi knight Obi-Wan Kenobi in Star Wars
Episode II draws his light saber, when the Starship Enterprise battles through the galaxy with a Klingon Battleship or when Will Smith
is chased by robots in his futuristic Audi RSQ. Many Hollywood productions have attempted to define the sound of the future.
Rudolf Halbmeir has seen all of these movies. His archive includes hundreds of excerpts, starting with Raumpatrouille
Raumschiff Orion (Space Patrol Starship Orion), the first Ger
man space series, to animated movies like Wall-E; from series like
Star Wars or Star Trek to science fiction movies like I, Robot or Tron:
Legacy. He enjoys watching these kinds of movies in the evening on
the couch, but there is also a professional interest.
Halbmeir is a Sound Designer at Audi and has developed
the working sound of the brands future e-tron models. Quite honestly, these kinds of movies served only as inspiration, he admits.
But he quickly noticed that he was looking for a completely new
sound. Something to make everyone on the road turn their head
and think: Wow, what is that? That sounds good!

1 The first notes the virtual sound


of the electric motor in its basic form
was created at the keyboard.
2 Lord of the Sounds Rudolf Halbmeir has been fine tuning the sound
of the R8 e-tron for three years.
3 Special software, hardware,
everything had to be developed from
the ground up.

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The sound a car makes is part of the business card of


every vehicle. The last decades have seen Audi perfect the sound of
the engine. The deep frequencies of an internal combustion engine
convey power and quality. A six-cylinder should also sound like a
powerhouse. But all that doesnt apply to the electric motor of an
R8 e-tron virtually no noise emanates from its drive. The high fre
quencies of the electric motor are rather unpleasant to the ear,
which is why the car needs a virtual sound.
For three years, Rudolf Halbmeir and his team have
worked on fine-tuning the e-sound. In the beginning, they had no
point of reference, because there was nothing on the market neither hardware nor software and certainly no sound models from
which to work. We simply had to start from zero, says Halbmeir.
This was also the greatest challenge: To know that,
with this project, we would be taking steps that would most certainly continue for years and cost a great deal of money that was
the toughest part, says Rudi Halbmeir today. To simply trust your
own judgment. Today he knows that it has been worth it. The 40
year-old reckons that no competitor is as far forward in e-sound
development as Audi.
But how do you develop a sound? Everyone works with
their own hand tools, explains Halbmeir. For him, it was music. At
the tender age of five, he was already playing trumpet in a band.
Then, as now, he couldnt read a single note; he heard only the tones,
the rhythm, the melody. Later, the guitar became his firm favorite
and he played in a few rock bands. At home, he has his own small
sound studio in the attic. Its not very big, but I use it regularly to
produce music, he says, pulling a CD out of his desk drawer. He plays
every instrument himself. So is a talent for music part of the job
specification? Rudolf Halbmeir thinks for a moment. My musical
background has certainly played a part, he says. But whether it was
crucial, he cant say.
Creating a sound is very similar to composing a piece of
music, admits Halbmeir, but goes on to stress, The room for creativity is significantly smaller than you might think, because you
often have only seconds instead of minutes to fill with sound. He
starts with an abstract image of a sound in his head; then he tries
to make this idea more tangible, audible with the help of a computer. This should not come over as pretentious, explains Halb
meir carefully. But developing the e-sound was actually more of
a feeling. The artificial sound was created using a great deal of
sound experience, a trained ear and his understanding of music.

4 Dry run beneath the desk


the e-sound always sounds different
depending on how the driver
works the pedal.
5 Basic principles the route to
the e-trons virtual sound calls for a
fine ear and a feel for sound.
6 Finer, clearer, quieter the Audi
e-tron accelerates with a quiet growl
thanks to its 380 hp.

Halbmeir is one of those creative people with his feet


firmly planted on the ground. Music is his hobby, but also his job.
Following his training in energy electronics, Halbmeir decided to
go to university to become a mechanical engineer. He then became an acoustic engineer at Audi and, for more than eight years,
was responsible for ensuring that ancillary units, like ventilation,
impede on engine sound as little as possible. Three years ago,
Halbmeir became a sound designer for the Ingolstadt automaker
and was given the job of finding a synthetic sound e-sound.
He now sits at a rather unusual desk, even for someone
from Audis Technical Development function. Alongside the screens
are two studio speakers; beside them are large shell headphones
and, on his right, a musical keyboard. This is where the sound is
created in its basic form.
But Rudolf Halbmeir is well aware that you dont develop an e-sound with just a keyboard and a computer. It also takes
co-workers like Axel Brombach and Dr. Lars Hinrischen. Its an
organic process, explains Halbmeir. Over the last three years, the
three co-workers have worked very closely together. We are the
perfect team.
Brombach is responsible for bringing the sound of the
electric motor to the road. Robust speakers on the underbody of
the R8 e-tron are there to warn pedestrians and cyclists of the
sports cars silent approach. Hes as mad about speakers as I am
about sound, jokes Halbmeir.

The software and control unit were created in the hands


of Dr. Hinrischen. The control unit generates the sound in accordance with the speed of the electric motor, load and road speed.
The e-sound is dependent on the driving situation. That is another
big difference to music: In a song, you always hear the same melody, explains Halbmeir. And it has a beginning and an end. The
e-sound, in contrast, is always different, depending on how the
driver is working the gas pedal.
But thats enough talk, says Rudolf Halbmeir, leaping
to his feet. Sound is a hard thing to talk about, you have to hear it.
Full of anticipation and with a broad grin, he slides into the sports
seat of the R8 e-tron, slips his sunglasses over his eyes and starts
the electric motor and it remains silent. Is the motor running?
You certainly cant hear it.
Then Rudi Halbmeir gently touches the right pedal. With
a quiet growling sound, the car glides out of the building into the
open air. Halbmeir accelerates round the bend; the red R8 e-tron
shoots forward with its 380 hp, and the quiet growl turns into a
proper roar. This is definitely no conventional internal combustion
engine, which sets the current benchmark. That will change, predicts Halbmeir. In the distant future, the sound of the electric vehicle will be designed to be finer, clearer and quieter.
It should sound realistic and not artificial, authentic
and futuristic at the same time a fine line that Dr. Ralf Kunkel
has walked for many years as Head of Acoustics, Total Vehicle. We
wanted to orientate Audi at the sporting pinnacle, to extract the
maximum from the sound. This is how Kunkel describes why the
R8 e-tron became the first electric vehicle with an artificial sound.
Now they will turn their attention to other e-tron models like the
A1 and the A3. All electric Audi models will have their own distinctive sound in future, although all of them will be typically Audi.
The sound DNA for that has already been constructed.
Customers, too, should soon be able to enjoy the electric sports car, with the R8 e-tron scheduled to reach the streets by
the end of the year. The focus for the coming months, according to
Halbmeir, is on fine-tuning the sound, especially the quieter tones.
The diamond has been cut, now it must be polished.

This sound should make


everyone on the road turn their head.
Rudolf Halbmeir

Experience the sound of the e-tron on video.


www.encounter.audi.com

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High-Voltage Battery Projekthaus
Audi is working intensively on all aspects of electro
mobility, including the design and testing of batteries. This work now even
has its own dedicated Projekthaus.

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Current Affairs
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1
4

3
Text
Johannes Kbler

2
1 The start of the production
process individual flat cells are put
together to form a stack.
2 Heavyweight a special tool is used
to lift and position the units.
3 Base unit the plate serves as the
basis for the construction of the Audi
R8 e-tron battery.
4 Assembly the battery of the elec
trically powered sports car
groups cell stacks one top of the
other in several layers.

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Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Electromobility is a quiet affair. In the new


High-Voltage Battery Projekthaus that Audi
established early this year at the gates of the Ingolstadt plant all
you can hear is the whirring of electric drives behind some of the
doors. Otherwise, all areas are very peaceful in the office section,
of course, but also in the test area and in the so-called Battery
Technical Center.
More than 100 specialists work together in the Projekt
haus in a closely knit and flexible team. They come from a range of
Audi development departments, from production and from the
pre-production center. Two postgraduate students from the RWTH
Aachen complete the team; Panasonic is an important external
partner supplying the battery cells. Intensive discussion between
the different disciplines is one of the great strengths of our approach, says Jens Koetz, Head of Networking and Energy Systems.
Disagreement and debate generate sparks and that always leads
to new solutions.
This highly networked approach is so important because
the integration of the sizable battery system into the vehicle leaves
absolutely no room for compromise. And even in an electric-drive
Audi, all the brands strengths are fully preserved the progressive
design, the sporty handling, the passive safety and the comfortable

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climate control. However, the demands on the battery system in


an electric car are very high and sometimes also contradictory
quite different from batteries in electronic devices. Traction batteries have to be lightweight and compact and supply as much en
ergy as possible. They have to last for at least ten years and withstand 160,000 km of travel and thousands of charge cycles without
any appreciable aging. Regardless of the outside temperature, they
must always remain within the recommended temperature range
from around 25 to 45 degrees Celsius which calls for a sophisticated fluid cooling system. And, on top of all that, safety and robustness are of the highest priority.
In developing its battery systems, Audi works on solutions that fulfill all requirements in a balanced manner. The competence that the brand is gaining in this field starts with assembly,
which takes place in the Battery Technical Center. The specialists
here have so far built more than 70 batteries for the A1 e-tron and
the R8 e-tron. They are currently working on prototypes for vehicles
like the A6 L e-tron concept that Audi presented earlier this year at
the Beijing Auto Show.
The Battery Technical Center is a workshop in which the
individual process steps are handled partly manually and partly
automatically. One piece of equipment checks the prismatic flat
cells that come from the store, while another presses them together into modules known as stacks. They generally consist of 6
to 13 cells that are isolated from each other by spacer elements
like Teflon plates. Every cell is secured by a burst valve, which ensures that in the event of overheating the cell does not burn, but
outgas instead.

5
6

In the next step, establishing the electrical contact, assembly technicians set the stacks on top of the conductive aluminum rails. The tension level is already more than 60 volts, the level
above which it becomes dangerous for human beings. The workers
in this area are thus fully qualified for the task. They wear protective
suits and work in an area that is isolated from the rest of the hall by
bands. The general safety technology throughout this building is
first class.
The rails in the battery system, bonded together by la
ser welding, incorporate channels in which coolant will later be
circulated. In the 48.6 kWh battery of the R8 e-tron, which is made
up of 530 cells, some of the stacks are mounted on top of each
other in four layers. Afterward, the assembly technicians fit the
units with low-voltage connections for the external control and
diagnosis devices.
The last process step is final assembly. The battery systems are fitted with their casings in the case of the R8 e-tron it is
made from carbon-fiber reinforced polymer and the junction box
containing fuses and connectors. Following initialization, every
unit is then put through a test cycle lasting around 16 hours.

Next to the Battery Technical Center is the test area


(photo page 112). This is where development engineers test the
batteries as cells, as stacks and as complete units. Their test beds
are chambers that can be adjusted to temperatures ranging from
-40 to +80 degrees Celsius; some of them also generate a high level
of humidity. The three largest test chambers, each with a 6,000liter capacity, are located in separate containers. They can accommo
date the substantial batteries of the R8 e-tron, which weigh in at 550
kilograms each; their electrical systems are rated at 350 kW each.
The test bed cycles simulate the later operation in the
vehicle; some of them last several hours, others a few months. The
components are charged and discharged using direct current run
through a rectifier from the buildings electricity network. During
the process, probes pick up all the key data such as temperatures,
capacity, internal resistance, voltage and current.
The test area includes further equipment. The shaker
is a climatic chamber in which stacks weighing up to 50 kilograms
are shaken and vibrated at frequencies up to 2,700 Hertz. Further
test beds serve to put the vehicles transformer and cooling system
through their paces. Finally, in the laboratory, specialists prepare
individual battery samples for analysis. This takes place outside the
Projekthaus with the aid of gas and ion chromatography and scanning electron microscopes*.
There is an unused piece of land next to our building,
says Jens Koetz, Head of Networking and Energy Systems. In the
medium term, we could envisage putting a low-volume production
facility there. The new traction battery Projekthaus is a major investment by Audi in the future of mobility.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

Encounter Technology

7
5 Lifting equipment cranes on
the roof of the hall facilitate trans
portation of the heavy batteries.
6 Precision connecting the individual layers calls for a very high degree
of accuracy.
7 Completion the finished battery
takes the form of a T. On top of it is
the control and connection unit.

The battery of
the Audi R8 e-tron
Technical Data

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Weight

550 kg

No. of cells

530

Capacity

48.6 kWh

Voltage

389 V

In two-four time
cylinder on demand

Text
Johannes Kbler

Illustrations
Steven Pope

The brand new 1.4 TFSI that Audi will soon


be offering in the A1 Sportback and the new
A3 is a powerful engine. It generates 103 kW (140 hp) from its
1,395 cm displacement (bore x stroke 74.5 x 80.0 millimeters)
and produces 250 Nm of torque at the crankshaft from 1,500 to
4,000 rpm. The four-cylinder accelerates the A1 Sportback from
zero to 100 km/h in 7.9 seconds and onward to a top speed of 212
km/h. The sporty performance is paired with amazingly low fuel
consumption, averaging just 4.9 liters per 100 km.
The entire concept of the 1.4 TFSI is state-of-the-art. Its
crankcase is made from pressure cast aluminum instead of the grey
cast iron used in the previous unit. As a result, it weighs just 18 in
stead of 33 kilograms. Further dietary measures on the likes of the
crankshaft and con rods contribute to an overall weight of just 107
kilograms. The improvement of 21 kilograms delivers substantial
benefits for overall vehicle weight and axle load distribution.
A further innovation is the integration of the exhaust
manifold within the cylinder head. It ensures that cooling water
reaches operating temperature very quickly after cold start; not
until then does a thermostat in the new coolant pump module permit crankcase cooling. Under full load, such as high speed autobahn
driving, the water jacket lowers the exhaust temperature; this negates the need for enrichment of the fuel/air mix that would other
wise be necessary for cooling, and fuel consumption decreases as
a result.
The aluminum pistons in the 1.4 TFSI have been developed from scratch; the almost flat crown design is precisely matched
to the intake channels, which are also new. The common-rail injection system generates up to 200 bars of pressure, with its five-hole
injectors dispensing up to three injections per cycle. Compared with
the previous engine, the turbocharger has lost 1.8 kilograms; its
new electric waste gate actuator operates extremely quickly and
precisely. Charge air cooling is integrated into the intake manifold
with a correspondingly compact layout which also increases the
rate of charge pressure build-up.
Compared with the previous engine, friction losses in
the new 1.4 TFSI are down by up to 20 percent. The most significant
improvements are the piston rings and their clearance within the
cast iron liners, the reduced diameter of the main crankshaft bearings, the lighter valves and the toothed belt drive for the control
and ancillary units, which is designed for long engine life. The new
valve timing module has a separate bearing arrangement for increased stiffness and lower weight. The camshaft drive pulleys run
on needle bearings for minimal friction. The intake camshaft can
be adjusted by 50 degrees of crank angle. The oil pump operates
with pressure control, contributing to improved efficiency.


1.4 TFSI with cylinder on demand
Even more from even less Audi is making its
engines even more efficient. The new 1.4 TFSI with cylinder shut-off
stands for progress through hi-tech.

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In addition to all of these high-end solutions, the new


1.4 TFSI brings with it a new technology from Audi the cylinder
on demand system (COD), which celebrated its premiere in a similar form in the large S models. It has the potential to reduce fuel
consumption in the EU cycle by several tenths of a liter per 100 km.
The COD technology is based on the Audi Valvelift System that varies valve lift and deactivates the second and third cylinders of the
four-cylinder engine under low and mid-range load, as well as trailing throttle conditions. The engine speed has to be between 1,400
and 4,000 rpm and the torque between around 25 and 75 Nm.
Actuation occurs via axially movable sleeves known as
cam sections that have two different cam profiles. To activate the
COD system, electromagnetically actuated metal pins are fired into
spiral grooves on the sleeves, offsetting them by 6.25 millimeters
longitudinally on the camshafts. Now the so-called zero-lift profile
cams are rotating on the rocker arms of the exhaust and inlet valves
without actuating them. The valve springs hold the valves closed;
fuel injection is deactivated simultaneously. In active cylinders 1
and 4, efficiency increases because the operating points shift to
higher loads.
As soon as the driver opens the throttle, the cam sections
are pushed back and the deactivated cylinders are reactivated. De
pending on engine speed, the entire switching procedure takes just
13 to 36 milliseconds and is smoothed out by adjustments to the
injection and throttle valve. If the driver looks up the current fuel
consumption in the DIS, he sees the two-cylinder status display.
Without that, he would be virtually unaware of the change even
on two cylinders, the 1.4 TFSI still runs quietly and smoothly. This
is thanks to its low moving masses and special modifications to the
engine mounts, the dual-mass flywheel and the exhaust system.
In order to identify driving style, the system accesses the
information from the gas pedal sensor. If it shows an uneven pattern
such as when driving through a roundabout or sporty driving on a
country road deactivation does not occur; in such situations it
would probably be too short and thus not save any fuel. Two-cylinder
operation ceases as soon as the driver brakes, so that all four cyl
inders support the braking effort under trailing throttle conditions.
Cylinder deactivation also does not occur when rolling downhill.

Completely on demand under low load,


the system temporarily deactivates two of the
four cylinders.
COD active and inactive in the image on
the left, the valves are closed by the rocker arms.
In the one on the right, they are open.

Magazine
Only those prepared to look beyond their horizonscan
evaluate and build on their own progress. Technology news
from around the world.

Nano-precision a 285 micrometer 3D race car printed


in record time.

From top to toe

You have barely settled onto the sofa and


the TV switches itself on. As soon as you slip on two
special armbands, your own body can even function as
a touchpad. And even water can recognize when someone touches its surface. These are all visions that might
soon be made reality through a technology known as
Touch.
The technology behind it is called swept
frequency capacitive sensing. Researchers at Disney
Research in Pittsburg have developed the system in
such a way that it not only recognizes the scenario no
contact/contact, but also the nature of the contact. It
can thus tell whether it is just a fingertip that is touching the door handle, or the entire hand.
All that is required to turn everyday objects
into sensors is a simple wired or wireless connection to
the process electronics. Additional electrodes are required on the body or in liquids. According to Disney
Research, the system functions with almost 100 percent accuracy.

Nature as a role model

Shells are experts in adhesion. They can fasten themselves to virtually any surface. The key is their
byssus threads. This is the term applied to the anchor
ropes, at the ends of which they excrete an adhesive
substance. Using the Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)
amino acids within this secretion, the shells are able to
stick to organic oxides in the stone and absorb metal
ions from the sea water. The ions supply the adhesive
with self-healing properties.
Researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for
Polymer Research have been able to make use of these
findings. They have manufactured four-armed, starshaped polymers that are related to DOPA and have attached nitrodopamine groups to their ends. This enables the adhesive to crosslink under water and to heal
itself in the event of damage to the adhesion surface.
Plus, the adhesive can also be dissolved with the aid of
UV light. The nitrodopamine group gives this adhesive
a distinct advantage over natural adhesives it is reversible.

Adhesion points on glass mussels excrete their


DOPA adhesive via their byssus threads.

DOPA
For further information go to:
www.mpip-mainz.mpg.de

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Fastest time

A world record at the nano level! A new 3D


printer at the Technical University of Vienna is setting
record times for three-dimensional printing. The printer
took just four minutes to produce the 285 m long race
car. It is made from 100 layers each consisting of 200
individual polymer strokes.
To date, weve been measuring print speed
in millimeters per second. Our printer manages five
meters in one second, says Professor Stampfl from the
TU Vienna. In order to achieve this speed, researchers
worked in an interdisciplinary project to improve the
Two-Photon Lithography technology.
A key factor leading to the increased speed
was the optimized control of the mirror and the application of new photoresists synthesized by the TU Vienna.
A laser beam is focused inside liquid photoresist using
a microscope lens. The substance hardens (polymerizes)
only at the focal point. The focal point can be adjusted
within the test piece by moving two mirrors in front of
the lens.
For further information go to:
www.tuwien.ac.at

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Image provided by: Disney Research

Image supplied by: Technical University of Vienna

Image provided by: Fraunhofer IFAM

For further information go to:


www.touche-sensor.com

Touch recognizes the nature of the contact.

Image provided by: West Saxon University of Applied Sciences in Zwickau

EO
Swarm intelligence the EO smart connecting car is primarily
efficient as part of a group.

Traffic signs on the torso 4,230 LEDs are required


for gesture control.

Crme de la kren

For further information go to:


www.fh-zwickau.de

A Lego car made from just 50 individual


parts? No problem! Thats pretty difficult to achieve
with a real car bodyshell, though. It normally consists
of 150 to 250 individual parts.
A project team at the Deutsches Zentrum
fr Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center)
has now reduced the number of elements to 50. The
bodyshell is kept very simple and weighs just 80 kilograms. The outer and inner shell is made from aluminum. In order to ensure a high degree of safety, the
foam core in between is made from high-performance
polymers.

Bright spot

Reflective safety vests are a critical safety


component as soon as people (have to) stop on or next
to the road. Students at the Weiensee School of Art in
Berlin have worked in cooperation with the ThringVogtland Textile Research Institute to develop a safety
vest that uses LEDs to display a variety of different signs
and that can be controlled by gestures.
The TexVest is made from polyester fitted
with 4,230 LEDs. The textile panel is connected to move
ment sensors on the arms and a microprocessor. This
enables the vest to recognize the wearers hand signals
and display the associated image. The technology could,
for example, help police officers to regulate traffic at
night.
For further information go to:
www.kh-berlin.de

Minimal principle

Copyright: Jaka Plesec

For further information go to:


www.dlr.de

Slimmed down by a factor of 5 a bodyshell made of only


50 parts.

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Image provided by: DFKI GmBH

Low weight and extremely strong that


is the essence of lightweight design. And these are
exactly the characteristics of horseradish fibers, also
known in Bavaria as kren.
Young scientists at the West Saxon University of Applied Sciences in Zwickau have compared
horseradish with other renewable raw materials usually used to reinforce polymers hemp and flax. They
have established that kren fibers display significantly higher strength with lower weight. Moving forward
on the basis of these findings, the young researchers
are now working on optimizing fiber extraction and defining the possibilities for processing.

Image provided by: Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR)

Electric swarm

They drive in a chain formation, charge each


other and swap data with one another. This is how electric vehicles known as EO smart connecting car extend their range.
Scientists at the DFKI Robotics Innovation
Center in Bremen have developed the electric car to
adapt itself to traffic conditions. It can lift each one of
its four wheels individually and turn them through 90
degrees. It can also drive diagonally and turn on the
spot. The chassis can push itself together while driving,
thus shortening the length of the car by 0.8 meters to
1.5 meters. Additional modules like passenger cells can
be attached all depending on the individual needs of
the driver. In future, the EO smart connecting car will
also be able to drive completely autonomously.
For further information go to:
www.robotik.dfki-bremen.de

Passion.


Passion
Passion is a driving force of Audis development work.
Passion means love, sometimes lust and always full commitment.

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126 Gran Torino


136 Fan-tasyland
144 Dynamic Axle-ence
150 (T)rusty Companions
158 Italian SUVenir
168 Glossary

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Gran Torino
Text
Uwe Hans Werner

From the wrist delicate lines, strong lines with deft strokes,
the contours of a new vehicle are conjured onto paper.

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch


Perfectly formed
With iconic Turin design house Italdesign,
one of the most globally successful Italian automotive designers
is now under the Audi umbrella.
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Moncalieri, Via Achille Grandi, is sit


uated around 20 kilometers south
of Turin the home of Italdesign lies in the middle of a
sprawling industrial area. A handsome complex of buildings
set within carefully tended gardens hidden behind high
fences and wires, access secured by electric gates. At work
here, in these secluded workshops and studios, are more
than 800 people: creative minds, skilled draftsmen and
women and CAD experts, model makers and toolmakers,
as well as automotive tradesmen metalworkers and mechanics, electronic technicians, saddlers and carpenters.
Specialists for everything that you need to build a complete car. We are like a small car factory, says Giorgetto
Giugiaro, Chairman and founder of the Turin company.
IDG Italdesign Giugiaro is one of the most
important and successful design houses in the international automotive industry. In the 45 years of its existence, it has created more than 200 vehicle models for all
well-known car brands as show and concept cars or as
series-production vehicles. If you count the combined production volumes of the manufacturers, Giugiaro has put
well over 50 million cars on the road from two-seater
super sports cars, through fuel-efficient family cars to
military off-roaders, minivans and exclusive luxury limousines under contract to manufacturers from Europe, Asia
and the USA.
In spite of his 74 years, Giorgetto Giugiaro is in
his office almost every day because, although IDG was
acquired by Audi almost two years ago, since when the
load of running the company has been shared among several individuals, the youthful grandesigneur remains the
head and face of the company. Well-groomed white hair,
blue suit trousers, a white long-sleeved shirt, brown designer shoes he has an aristocratic air as he meets us,
every bit the Italian gentleman. Benvenuto, he says with
a friendly smile, welcoming us with a strong handshake.
We join Giugiaro on a sightseeing tour of his world the
company with its studios and production halls, the seemingly endless gallery of dream cars created throughout the
decades, the city of Turin, with a few of those locations and
places most important to him.
Torino, this once modest little town on the
River Po that the House of Savoy made its capital in 1563
and that subsequently developed to become a stately
residence, was created on the drawing boards of the royal
architects and builders of the time a Baroque city center
with grand streets, colonnades and squares, with wonderful palaces, theaters and churches. Until well into the
19th century, a dedicated city department guarded the
integrity of the ensemble, which is one reason why the city
center conveys to this day an almost textbook architectural image.

Outside of Italy, Turin is associated primarily


with the impression of a gray industrial and automotive
city, closely connected with the company and brand of Fiat.
Very few know the glamorous side of the Alpine metropolis that is also embroiled in an ongoing competitive battle
with its important neighbor, Milan and not just when it
comes to soccer. They vie for supremacy as the center of
fashion, as the cultural capital, as cities of economic prosperity. Both cities are home to significant names on the
roster of of globally renowned Italian design in Milano
they tend toward haute couture and the furniture industry;
in Torino, they come from the auto industry Bertone,
Pininfarina, Ghia and Italdesign Giugiaro.
Turin becomes the focal point of life for Gior
getto Giugiaro at an early stage. At the age of 14, he moves
here from his home in the south of Piedmont and attends
the School of Art he also takes evening classes in technical
drawing. Today, Turin is a city he is proud to stroll through,
where he has his familiar routes, his special little corners,
where people know, like and greet him when he enjoys a
cappuccino in the Caff Torino on Piazza San Carlo, as a reg
ular at the neighboring gentlemens outfitter Olympic or
as a visitor to one of the many museums. He may not have
been born in this city, but he most certainly grew up here.
Giugiaros story is one of an ambitious career,
characterized by lucky coincidences, by meetings with important people and patrons and by disciplined work at his
own success in 1955, Dante Giacosa, who was Fiat's Chief
Designer at the time, discovers the young talent and brings
him to work at his company, aged just 17. This is a breath
taking step for Giugiaro, who was never particularly interested in cars; as a child, he had preferred to spend time
with his pencils, sketchpad and paint box. He first comes
into contact with automotive design in the design department of the major international automaker. It was like a
university for me. As part of a large team, the young Gior
getto is initially only permitted to draw components, and
not yet to design his own cars. But the chance isnt long in
coming just a few years later, under the wing of Giuseppe
Nuccio Bertone. He makes the 22 year-old Giugiaro the
head of his newly established design center after seeing
the work of the young designer at an exhibition. Designs
penned by Giugiaro are then realized as show and concept
cars, and the first vehicles designed completely by him
enter series production Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint, Simca
1000, Fiat 850 Spider, BMW 3200 CS and the Sprint version of the legendary Alfa Giulia.
Following a further move, this time to Bertone
competitor Ghia, the up-and-coming stylist finally takes
the step into independence in 1967. His dream is to establish his own design and development house, able and willing to do more than define the form of future car models

Expert eye Giugiaro signs off on every


single line.

Fine touch the lines have to be right


in the interior, too.

Sporting spirit the passionate


mountain biker is often in the saddle,
even at work.

With the design of the first VW Golf in 1974, Giorgetto


Giugiaro and IDG achieved their breakthrough within
the international automotive industry an unparalleled
design made its mark on a whole era and defined
its own vehicle class. The style with uncluttered forms,
razor-sharp edges and powerful lines was defined
in the business as a one-box or folded-paper design
unadorned objectivity.

For Giorgetto Giugiaro, design is a means to an end.


Above all, he sees himself as having an obligation
to the logic of the product form follows function the
driver and passengers should not become slaves to
their vehicle. To this extent, design is for him primarily
a mathematical vision that implements the demands
laid down by functionality and convenience clear di
mensions with clear proportions and a spatial logic
that always relates to the user.

Design should not be a work of art, explains


Giugiaro. In contrast to art, you do not go beyond the
confines of logic. Getting in and out, sitting down
in a small space the attraction is in reducing this to
its essence.
Italdesign has also styled many well-known industrial
products outside of the auto industry. The company
has created designs for products like Pendolino trains
for Fiat/Alstom, coffee machines for Faema and the
legendary camera bodies of the Nikon F and D ranges.
Curiosities among the broad array of contract work
include the styling of a small single-portion bottle
for Sanbitter lemonade by San Pellegrino and the
Marille designer pasta created for Italian producer
Voiello/Barilla.
Design has to be appealing, has to meet current tastes:
You can never take the risk that the product wont
be understood, stresses Giugiaro. And it should make
life easier. Nevertheless, hedonistic temptations,
the pursuit of enjoyment and sensual fulfillment are
not entirely lost on him: Naturally, we want to show
off with our cars from time to time; naturally, it is
always also a bit of a toy for our self-image. And right
there lies an appealing conflict of objectives for the
designer one with which he enjoys playing around
pleasure and desire versus temperance in the interests
of reason.

Together with his son Fabrizio (47), who has been with
the company since 1990 and has been managing it
for the last 16 years, Giorgetto Giugiaro has shaped
IDG into a forward-looking development partner for
the automotive industry. The 74 year-old remains the
figurehead of IDG to this day a highly decorated
icon of international automotive design. In 1999, he
was voted Designer of the Century and inducted
into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2002.

Perfezione
We are like a small car factory; we have everything we need
to build a complete vehicle.
Giorgetto Giugiaro

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Design should not be


a work of art

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Riduzione

Tireless despite his 74 years,


Giorgetto Giugiaro is still in the office almost
every day, working at his drawing board.

Design should not be a work of art the attraction is in


reducing this to its essence.
Giorgetto Giugiaro

or vehicle generations in a studio. The objective and challenge are to create a professional full-service provider for
the automotive industry creative design from the first
sketches through the engineering drawings to the building
of functional pre-production vehicles, complete with cost
calculations and proposals for manufacturing logistics.
He launches his venture in 1968, together with
his friend, engineer Aldo Mantovani. In retrospect, Gior
getto Giugiaro sees this pairing as a stroke of genius. With
Mantovani, the very outward-looking creative finds an
ideal and fruitful match in the shape of a great, yet unpretentious and rather introspective technician and engineer.
This is the birth of Italdesign, to this day one of the worlds
most outstanding design workshops, one of the most influential shapers of international automotive design. Many
of the more than 200 models and series that are created
there and take to the streets in the years and decades that
follow become classics or achieve cult status think of the
Fiat Panda, Lancia Delta, Saab 9000, BMW M1, Alfasud,
Fiat Punto or the Audi 80.
Of enormous importance to the young company, however, are first the sizable contracts for the Volks
wagen brand. With the angular and sharply defined Golf
1, it is not just Italdesign that achieves its breakthrough
onto the international scene, it also helps the VW Group
in its transition from the Beetle era into the new period of
automotive design. The most important car of my career,
recalls Giugiaro. With it, Volkswagen not only achieves a
vehicle concept that is completely new from a technological and economical standpoint, the successful replacement of the curvy icon by a distinctly edgy and remarkably
spacious new contender secures the future of the company and the brand. This fundamental reorientation is aug
mented by the successful introduction of further new pro
duct lines that retain their relevance to this day Passat
and Scirocco originate from this era and come like the
first Golf from the studio of Italdesign in Torino.
Every time I meet my children, it gives me
great pleasure to see what they have become, says Gior
getto Giugiaro on a stroll along the Via Po. But I usually
also see right away the small shortcomings that arose during the creative process back then. Giugiaro is a perfectionist and extremely hard to satisfy especially critical of
himself. He knows all the strengths and weaknesses of his
products, knows where concessions were made and compromises reached. A lack of time, costs too high, weight,
technological necessities, safety aspects all factors that
impact a design and that seldom lead to a perfect form.
There is always something that could have been done better, admits the designer.
In fact, his own standards appear to have permitted him to truly bond with just one of his many series-

production vehicles the Fiat Panda from 1980. Even to


this day, there is little about it that he does not like. Seen
through the eyes of the time, this car is like a pair of jeans
to him a perfectly designed consumer product, minimalist in form and appearance, with a particular aesthetic de
rived from its unconditional expression of functionality.
With these dimensions, smiles Giugiaro, you really cant
achieve anything better.
For a lunchtime aperitivo, we sit on the central
Piazza Castello in Barratti & Milano, one of the citys elegant coffee houses, where we are served small appetizers
and a refreshing Prosecco. The sparkling drink loosens the
tongue time also to chat about matters private. Giugiaro
speaks of an exhibition of paintings he is working on in his
hometown of Garessio to honor his late father, tells of his
leisure pursuits and of his personal preferences. On studying the menu, the conversation turns to Italian cuisine, to
particular wines and local specialties.
Signor Giugiaro is an infrequent but enthusiastic amateur chef. He once travelled especially to the
truffle town of Alba to take part in a cooking competition
with Penne Vodka the Italian variant of what was originally a Russian pasta dish. Into the pot alongside the pasta
go slices of cooked potato, tomato puree, cheese, butter
and plenty of vodka, as well as small pieces of the delicious
white fungus. It was with this that he attempted to impress the jury albeit with little success, as he recounts
with amusement. Nevertheless, he succeeded in sparking
our interest in the recipe. He explains the ingredients and
preparation in great detail and with plenty of gesticulation
the master chops, stirs and shakes, moves around the
pots and pans, fans away air and steam and very much
gives us the feeling of standing right next to him at the
stove. The movements come from the wrist with devotion and virtuosity, as if he were guiding a pencil at the
drawing board.
That was where we had watched him just a few
hours beforehand, as he deftly conjured the contours of
a new vehicle onto paper with just a few strokes some
strong, some delicate. It quickly comes together as a distinctive silhouette with characteristic features and style
elements a spontaneous creation, as he may have produced at the start of the design process for a Maserati
Bora, the Ferrari GG50 or an Alfa Romeo Brera.
However, Giugiaro seeks inspiration for new
creations from another world. The accomplished fine artist and enthusiastic portrait painter, who has not a single
automotive sketch in his home environment, finds stimulation primarily on visits to art exhibitions and museums.
In the heart of Turin, he leads us through the world of
Egyptian forms, in the Museo Egizio on the Via Accademia
delle Science. He likes to talk shop with director Eleni

Minimalismo
Seen through the eyes of the time, the Panda is, for me,
like a pair of jeans.
Giorgetto Giugiaro

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Powerful Giugiaro caused an


uproar at the 2012 Geneva Auto Salon
with the Brivido concept car.

Curious under contract to


San Pellegrino, IDG designed a small
bottle for Sanbitter lemonade.

Classic Nikon F and D cameras were


also designed in Moncalieri.

Visione
Dialogue Giugiaro likes to visit his
friend in Turin, auctioneer Alberto Bolaffi.
Inspiration the clarity of Pharaonic
art fascinates the successful designer.

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If you go through life with open eyes, you perceive so many things in your
subconscious and some of it comes back in your work.

Giorgetto Giugiaro

Integrazione

Experts among themselves in Turins


Egyptian Museum, Giugiaro enjoys talking
shop with the director.

We are now part of a large family. But, naturally, we will keep our
independent, creative soul.

10

Misjudged Turin a stately metropolis with


magnificent buildings, streets and squares.

Giorgetto Giugiaro

11

Benvenuto Audi the four rings have


already arrived, even in the coffee house.

Vassilika on the clarity of art from the time of the Pha


raohs. Perhaps he had the angular, geometric architecture
of the pyramids in mind back then when he sketched the
outlines of the VW Golf or the Fiat Panda. If you go through
life with open eyes, you perceive so many things in your
subconscious and some of it comes back while you are
working at the drawing board, explains Giugiaro, an im
age, a quote, a vision. He copies nothing, emulates nothing, but he registers what he sees and works it into his
sketches. The same can be said for the sweeping lines of
art nouveau and the harder forms of art deco. Alongside
artworks from previous centuries, Giugiaro collects prints
from this period. Every now and then, he rummages around
in the auction house of Alberto Bolaffi on the Via Cavour,
looking for pieces by Toulouse-Lautrec or other influential
artists from this era. And whenever the boss is available
during his visits, the two friends always find time for an
espresso and some animated conversation. Or indeed a
moment to view the latest exhibits in Bolaffis lovingly
compiled private collection of phenomena of human communication.
The free time found in the diary for our wander
through this sunny Turin has obviously pleased the 74 year-
old automotive designer. But it is not yet clear when the
time will come that he can dedicate himself in full to such
things. In periods of change and upheaval, the Senior at
IDG is still very much needed. He has to manage the transition to being part of a corporate grouping and to drive
the integration into the Audi organization. We are now
part of a big family, stresses Giugiaro. We have to redefine
our own role teamwork is the order of the day.
Naturally, we will keep our independent, creative soul, the master designer assures us. As a world-re
nowned automotive service provider, IDG wants to function
within the overall group as an engineering center with
the development and production of concept cars, drivable
prototypes and low-volume runs for all brands within Volks
wagen AG. And also, as an Italian design studio with a rich
history, to be involved in the advanced development of the
specific design languages of the individual brands. In the
early phases of a vehicles creation, several design variants
should also be on offer.
The company still uses the Geneva Auto Salon
as an international platform a show at which IDG has
been consistently represented for more than 40 years. It
still wants to kick up a stir every year with its own concept
car, in order to test the market and current tastes. As it did
this year with the highly acclaimed Brivido study, which
was greeted by the industry with widespread approval.
Benvenuto Giugiaro, was the motto for 2012 at the
Geneva Palexpo, benvenuto a welcome for a truly attractive Audi subsidiary.

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Giorgetto Giugiaro
and Italdesign

1938

Giorgetto Giugiaro is born in Garessio in southeast Piedmont.

1955

1959

Apprenticeship in the design department of


Fiat in Turin.
Nuccio Bertone hires him as Chief Designer at his
new design center.

1965
Move to Ghia as Head of Styling Center and
Prototypes.
1967
Move into independence Giugiaro founds the

company Italy Styling.
1968
Change of name to Italdesign joined by partner,

engineer Aldo Mantovani.
1974

The Golf 1 is created as the successor to the


Beetle under contract to Volkswagen.

1990

1999

Son Fabrizio joins the company. He has been part


of the management team since 1996.
Voted Designer of the Century.

2002
2007
2010

Induction into the Automotive Hall of Fame.


Die Mantovani family withdraws from the company.
Takeover of 90.1 percent of shares by Audi.

12

10

13

Product Design
Lagostina Atmosphere pressure cooker
Fun porcelain range Richard Ginori
Marille pasta Voiello/Barilla
Daiwa G2-EX ski boot
Tecnica inline skates
Bright red soda (Sanbitter/San Pellegrino)
Okamura C/P Baron ergonomic chair
Molten Official GL7 world championship basketball
Nikon Camera F36, D14, D800
Fiat/Alstom Pedolino ETR 460 ff
Minuetto regional train set
Lamborghini Tractors
Seiko Speedmaster
Beretta CX4 Storm

11

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Way of life a cappuccino in Caff Torino


is part of every day out in the city.

12

Model of success the Golf 1 is the most


important design produced by IDG.

13

-tasyland

24-Hour Race
Every year, the endurance classic draws motorsport
fans from across the globe. But why?

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Also a part of Le Mans


The true fan combines luxurious travel with Spartan lodgings. This is where
high-performance sports cars and two-man tents come together.

1 In good company for three days,


Le Mans turns into a camping site for
top-drawer machinery.

2 Up close Jake Jacobs tent is


separated from the race track by just
a small spectator vantage point.
3 Appearances can be deceptive
it is seldom this peaceful on the campsites around the race track.

I dont normally go camping, only here


in Le Mans. My tent is very minimalist, but you
dont need any more than that.
Jake Jacobs

Text
Stefanie Kern

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Thats Le Mans! A short sentence that


sounds very simple. A sentence that is preceded by countless tales. But most of all, a sentence that you hear
again and again when people explain with eyes aglow why they
make the pilgrimage year-for-year in the their hundreds-of-thousands to a town 200 kilometers southwest of Paris. Why they, for
one weekend in June, dispense with all human comforts. And why
they try to stay awake for 24 hours all because of a car race.
In order to understand it, you have to meet people like
Adrian Le Monnier. You find him on the road that connects the main
grandstand opposite the pit lane directly with the tracks largest
camping site. This place is buzzing day and night chanting groups
of fans wander past, throwing their empty beer cans into the roadside ditches, the Gendarmerie makes regular patrols and proud
owners of high-performance cars jockey their treasured rides up and
down the straight with engines howling. Seeing and being seen
that, too, is Le Mans.

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You wouldnt necessarily think that this is a good place


to pitch a tent. For Adrian Le Monnier, however, its the best spot
in town. In real life the Brit with the French roots is a lawyer who
lives in Birmingham and drives a matte grey Audi R8. But, for one
weekend only, he is called simply Ade, is a motorsport fan and fullon camper. Amid colorful tents, he sits on his camping stool with a
view of the road, a cool beer in his hand at all times. The English
flag flies above him. The racing action is unfolding a few hundred
meters away, but can be heard everywhere. Booming over large
speakers is Radio Le Mans, the English-language radio station that
provides fans with analysis and interviews round-the-clock. Ade
has been coming to the legendary 24-Hour race since 2007, back
then with six friends. There are now 23 people on the area marked
out with red and white tape. There are more of us every year, he
says. We come from all over England and meet once a year here
in Le Mans.
In the middle of this continually growing camp is a provisions tent that is remarkably well equipped for a weekend outdoors a refrigerator, a portable cooking setup with large hotplates
and a huge table with room for everyone. The group shares everything during the race weekend the sleeping space in the tents,
food, beer and, above all, the passion for racing. Ade looks forward
to the race all year this real mens holiday as he calls it. It starts
as soon as he heads south in his R8 in convoy with all the other Le
Mans enthusiasts. Cars and friendship, this combination is the
special appeal that Le Mans holds for him. Months in advance, he
is thinking up a theme for the evening before the race, better known
by motorsport fans as mad Friday. Ade and his friends, who are all
wearing colorful Hawaii shirts, barely register among fans dressed
up as Walt Disney characters, Super Marios and stuffed rabbits.
Seeing and being seen.

Le Mans is a true Mecca for photographers. Motorsport


fans like Adrian Le Monnier and their camps already offer a plethora of crazy subject matter. Add to that the many expensive cars
that you might rather expect to see under the spotlights of a dealer showroom instead of in the mud next to the tents. Nowhere else
can Aston Martins, Ferraris and Porsches be admired in such large
numbers and such close proximity as in Le Mans.
And then theres the race itself, of course. All of them
want to snatch the best view of the race cars powering around the
13.629 kilometer course lap after lap. All of them want to capture
the best shot, that moment in which everything is right the light,
the car in the bend, the background. In these 24 hours, you have
378 opportunities to do that at least for the victorious Audi R18
e-tron quattro, which completed the most laps. Naturally, you can
watch the race from the comfort of the main grandstand. Under
the roof, it is dry in the rain and cool in the heat, and the stands
roundabout can supply the motorsport fans with drinks and snacks.
But you are never alone here, thousands of fans are crowded onto
the tiered rows you really have to fight for a good photography
spot here.

The true professionals therefore opt to make the trek


to Arnage, several kilometers away. This is an area of Le Mans that
is home to several large properties with pools and double garages
and where, for the rest of the year, not much happens. The hardened photographers make it here by road people like Jean-Charles
Colombier. The Frenchman is continually in search of photo subjects. For him, the view of the track is more perfect here on the
small, secluded hill of Arnage than anywhere else the race cars
come catapulting out of the Indianapolis curve with a big long
straight ahead of them. This is where the drivers send the needle
as far round the dial as it goes, before they brake for the next curve
and the red brake lights come on.
Jean-Charles Colombier loves this interplay of acceleration and deceleration. The trainer at a mechanics school in Rouen,
France has gasoline coursing through his veins and was born on May
26, 1963 40 years to the day from the very first Le Mans race. One
of his best friends is also a driver in the race Raymond Narac, in a
Porsche 911 competing in the GT2 category. Colombier lives and
breathes Le Mans. He came here for the first time in 1985. All year
long he collects every available book and magazine on the subject.
His dream is someday to publish a book of his own featuring his
own images of drivers and their cars. Of the true champions, as
Colombier says. Although the 49 year-old is realistic: I know that
publishing a book is very expensive.

Dont feign fatigue


Stay awake is the motto of Le Mans even when its really tough.
Those who hang in there are rewarded with great shots.

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4 Well dressed a real mens holiday


at the race track should also
have the right outfit.

5 Well disguised thick pullovers


keep the cold out in the early hours of
the morning.
6 Well positioned brake lights
look their best at twilight and dawn.
5

7 Grandstand space a good


view of the race cars is worth a
kings ransom.

8 Victory celebration following


the triple victory, Audi fans
make their way to the podium.
9 Color display before the
start, the French flag appears in
the sky above the track.

Colombier has travelled to the endurance classic with


his pals. They are staying at the campsite and want to experience
Le Mans the same way they always do staying awake for 24 hours,
although they can virtually no longer stand from sheer exhaustion,
in order not to miss a single second of action on the track or the
perfect photo. That is Le Mans for Jean-Charles Colombier.
Another nice subject for the paparazzi is Jake Jacobs
Audi R8. The car is just three weeks old and also unmistakably a real
Le Mans racer. It is stealing the show on the campsite right next to
the Porsche curve its hood and doors are adorned with brightly
colored stickers emblazoned with 24 Heures du Mans. Less of an
eye-catcher, however, is the tiny tent from which Jake Jacobs crawls.
It is very minimalist, but you dont need any more than that, he
says. Camping isnt really his thing. The Brit owns three large fitness
studios in Cheltenham and normally prefers luxury vacations on
Barbados, an island in the Lesser Antilles. But once a year, the motorsport fan, who is himself an amateur racing driver, shoots down
to Le Mans in an Audi R8, Ferrari or Maserati. He does it to pitch his
tent less than ten meters from the race track and then to lose himself in the rush of speed, to hear the sounds of engines throbbing
in his ears and to feel the vibration of the ground beneath him.
Yes, thats Le Mans.

A lap at Le Mans

Virage
du Tertre Rouge
190 km/h
4th gear

S du Tertre Rouge
150 km/h
3rd gear
Courbe Dunlop
100 km/h
2nd gear

290 km/h
5th gear
Start/Finish

Ligne droite
des Hunaudires
315 km/h
6th gear

Virage Ford
112 km/h
3rd gear
275 km/h
5th gear

Ralentisseur
Playstation
105 km/h
2nd gear

Virage
Porsche
210 km/h
4th gear

Ligne droite
des Hunaudires
320 km/h
6th gear
S dIndianapolis
106 km/h
2nd gear

At the track
Once a year, hundreds-of-thousands make their way to Le Mans
motorsport fans from around the world.

Virage dArnage
75 km/h
1st gear
Virage
de Mulsanne
87 km/h
2nd gear
Follow the Audi R18 e-tron quattro
on a lap of Le Mans!
www.encounter.audi.com

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310 km/h
6th gear

Ralentisseur
Michelin
105 km/h
2nd gear

305 km/h
6th gear

Innovation 2012 the Audi R18 e-tron quattro


combines a highly efficient V6 TDI at the
rear axle with an electrically driven front axle.
Follow the Audi R18 e-tron quattro
on a lap at Le Mans!
www.encounter.audi.com

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Acceleration up to 120 km/h,


the 3.7 liter V6 TDI drives the vehicle via
the rear axle alone.

Energy recuperation the flywheel


stores energy recovered from braking.

Boost mode the electrically driven


front axle is activated.

Text
Thomas Voigt

1 LED technology the R18 e-tron


quattro brings LED light from the road
to the race track.
2 Characteristic the long fin between
the cockpit and the rear spoiler.

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Illustrations
sxces

Audi and Le Mans the success story con


tinues. Again and again, the brand with the
four rings manages to bring new technologies to the worlds most
important endurance race and to win with it, too. The first victory
by a vehicle with TFSI (2001), the first success of a diesel sports
car (2006) and the first triumph with variable turbine geometry
(VTG) at the record-breaking race in 2010 are just a few outstand
ing examples. Now 2012 brings the next technological milestone
the first victory of a hybrid vehicle at the 80th running of the en
durance classic.
Around 200,000 spectators watched a spectacular race
packed with the kind of drama seen only in the French motorsport
Mecca. The chance for the brands eleventh Le Mans victory was
within reach for all four Audi R18s on the starting grid, and the
result emerged 378 laps later at the wheel of the Audi R18 e-tron
quattro with the starting number 1, last years winner was once
again out in front.
The car is driving like its on rails, winner Andr Lotterer
had enthused earlier after securing pole position with the brandnew hybrid race car. During the race, the Audi R18 e-tron quattro
was able to take full advantage of all its benefits first and second
place for the hybrid vehicle, at its Le Mans debut.

Aerodynamics lower drag raises


dynamic efficiency.

The race organizers, the Automobile Club de lOuest


(ACO), intentionally leave the vehicle makers engineers plenty of
room for creativity. And Audi uses that to the full the victorious
Audi R18 e-tron quattro from Le Mans, affectionately dubbed Elec
tra by the mechanics, combines a highly efficient 3.7 liter V6 TDI
at the rear axle with an electrically powered front axle. e-tron
quattro is the name of the technology that Audi is already testing
for series-production applications and that is unique in a sports
prototype.
A whole host of further innovations successfully withstood the Le Mans endurance test. The digital rear view mirror used
could one day find its way into series production a tiny rearwardpointing camera on the roof of the sports car captures the events
going on behind it and sends its signal to a new kind of screen. In
place of LCD is an active matrix OLED (AMOLED) display. The organic materials used are self-illuminating making back-lighting
superfluous. The extremely thin displays have an exceptionally high
contrast, very good color reproduction and switching times of just
a few milliseconds. Even at 330 km/h, the image sequence in realtime transmission is absolutely fluid.
The so-called motor-generator unit (MGU) is a real technical revolution and sits at the front of the monocoque. It is activated by braking and converts the rotation of the front wheels,
transmitted to the inside of the MGU via two drive shafts on the
front axle, into electricity. This electrical power is used to turn a
flywheel in the cockpit at up to 45,000 rpm. The stored energy
can then be used to feed two electric motors in the MGU. Under
acceleration, they send up to 150 kW (204 hp) to the front wheels.
Nevertheless, as is often the case in motorsport there
are regulatory restrictions: only a maximum of 0.5 Megajoules can
be used seven times per lap in Le Mans on precisely defined track
sections. And in the case of the R18 e-tron quattro, only at speeds
higher than 120 km/h.
In 2014, the cards will be reshuffled once more in Le
Mans. The new, innovative regulations specify an amount of energy
per lap from which everyone must extract the absolute maximum.
In terms of power units and hybrid systems, manufacturers will
have even more freedom than before. At the same time, fuel consumption should fall by a further 30 percent.
The regulations, on which we have participated intensively, are a major step in the right direction, says Audi motorsport
boss Dr. Wolfgang Ullrich with conviction. It promotes the development of new technologies that are first and foremost also relevant for series-production application. This is why Audi participates
in Le Mans.

Lift and downforce aerodynamic


forces are precisely distributed for
optimized dynamics.

3 Rear view camera the tiny rearward-pointing


camera on the roof captures the events going on
behind the R18 e-tron quattro.
4 Digital rear view mirror what is seen by the
rear view camera is shown on an active matrix OLED
display (AMOLED).
5 Iron deficiency the transmission casing in the
R18 e-tron quattro is made from CFRP.
6 Miniature powerhouse the V6 TDI with 3.7 liter
displacement produces 375 kW (510 hp).
7 VTG turbocharger the variable turbine geometry
(VTG) improves responsiveness.

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Audi Classic Owners
Behind the private garage doors of some Audi employees lies unimagin
able treasure vintage and classic vehicles: 425 cars, 14 tractors and 176 motorbikes
from all eras of automotive history. A total of 295 fans and owners have come together to
form Audi Classic Owners (ACO). All brands are permitted the tally is up to 51 so far.
Every car has its history, and we have compiled a few of them.

(T)rusty Companions

Text
Agnes Happich

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Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

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Pure passion for many Audianers classic cars


are more than just a hobby.

1 Mother, father, car for the


Wildes, the classic car is part of
the family.

2 Red parlor the artificial leather


interior of the DKW Monza is a
real eye-catcher.

A two-stroke
love story

3 Futuristic for Walter Wilde,


the rear lights are the highlight
on his Sputnik.

Auto Union 1000 SP


Build period: 1958 to 1965
Engine: three-cylinder, two-stroke
Displacement: 981 cm
Power: 55 hp
Original price: 10,950 DM
Roadsters built: 1,640
Coupes built: 5,004

Classic cars are simply old cars. For some


people, however, they mean a lot more
memories, first love, life stories. Walter Wilde fell in love with an
Auto Union 1000 SP 51 years ago and fulfilled a dream when he
bought himself a new one. Then he fell in love with his wife and
started a family. Time changed a great deal, but the car remained
the same.
The romance had a somewhat rocky start. Walter Wilde
had actually already decided against his dream car, the Auto Union
1000 SP. The sensible car, the solid DKW Junior had already been
ordered. In the early 60s, the DKW was the standard mode of transport owned by employees of the Auto Union and in no way a status
symbol; unlike the 1000 SP.
But, as a young bachelor, Wilde followed his heart. He
had a spontaneous change of mind and paid a deposit on a racy
1000 SP. The decision was far from sensible. Walter Wilde had
switched from the least expensive car in the lineup to the most
expensive. For the price of the 1000 SP, I could have bought two
DKW Juniors, explains Wilde, who is now 75 years old. By choosing
this car, he was also opting for a certain image; the 1000 SP was an
American Dream car. Like a US road cruiser, fins adorn the rear of
the car. The combination of white paint and an interior upholstered
in red artificial leather was another eye-catcher. The 1000 SP, known
as Sputnik, is a real beauty and in spite or because of its twostroke engine a pretty fast mover. Not exactly a car for plain old
Auto Union engineers like Walter Wilde.
It was a flashy car, says Albine Wilde. The bank clerk
knew the 1000 SP owned by her future husband before she knew
the driver. In her hometown near Ingolstadt, word had quickly
spread that a newcomer from Dsseldorf an engineer was the
driver of the fancy white car. By coincidence, Walter and Albine
nevertheless met and despite the flashy car fell in love. Albine
quickly noticed that she was not alone in her relationship with
Walter Sputnik was always there. Even on their wedding day,
Walter Wilde insisted on driving the wedding car his 1000 SP
himself. That was highly unusual back then, says the 71 year-old
Albine. The Wildes then drove off in Sputnik on their honeymoon
through Switzerland, Austria and South Tyrol. When little Gerhard
was born, Sputnik brought him home from the hospital. Gerhard
grew up with and in the rocket car. On long drives to friends and
relatives, his parents warmed his baby bottle on the engine block.
That must have left its mark on Gerhard, says Albine Wilde with
a smile. Her son is now a classic car fan and Audi employee himself.
From the very beginning, Sputnik has played a supporting and
driving role in the family.

Images courtesy of the Wilde family

Experience the classic car crazy


Wilde family on video!
www.encounter.audi.com

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But the 1000 SP was not conceived as a family car. The


Wildes had to be creative. When they wanted to go on vacation in
the car, they simply hung a small luggage trailer on the back. The
luggage for the whole family by now the Wildes had two sons
would never have fitted into the car. And so Sputnik grew with
the family.
In the 70s and 80s the 1000 SP became old fashioned
and thus once again attracted attention. However, this did not
in any way move the Wildes to sell it. Sputnik evolved into a modern
classic before finally, after 30 years in the loving care of the family,
being officially designated as a classic car at least as far as its
license plate is concerned. I dont see it as a classic car, says Albine
Wilde. For me, it is a part of my memories, part of my youth.
Albine recalls well the first classic car rally in which she
took part as co-driver with her husband and the now graciously
aged Sputnik. It was 1988. I had envisaged that kind of rally completely differently, as something far more glamorous. The drive
turned out to be nothing but stress from start to finish, a true test
of our relationship. Difficult beginnings notwithstanding, the ambi
tious Albine Wilde did not give up. She went on training courses for
rally co-drivers. She learnt to operate six watches at the same time
and to provide professional navigation for her husband. And she
was successful. In 1993, the couple won the European classic rally
championship, the Mitropa Cup. And not least thanks to the fighting spirit of Biene (Bee), as Walter affectionately calls his wife.
She had definitely caught the bug. It was she who, in the
early 90s, was the driving force behind buying a classic car specif
ically for rallying. It had to be something nippy, something sporty,
a true rarity a DKW Monza. His wifes high expectations spurred
Walter Wilde into action. A Monza is incredibly rare. There are
barely more than 50 left. Following an extensive search, they finally found such a gem. And Sputnik had some sporty company in
the garage.
The family now owns eight classic cars of varying ages
and one DKW motorbike. They had never intended to become collectors. Walter Wilde had simply bought a car and taken care of it
over the years. From the very start, he spent a lot of time with his
Sputnik, knows every screw, every part. Sometimes, when the twostroke rattles into life, he hears a slight whistle. Thats the V-belt,
explains Albine Wilde. He calls it his witch. For Albine Wilde, who
was far from being a car fan in the early days, Walters passion for
his rocket was not always easy. I love my car a lot, admits Walter
Wilde. But I love my wife more.

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The hunter
of lost treasure

Thomas Frank loves classic cars. As Head of


Audi Tradition and founder of Audi Classic
Owners, he knows all about the magic of old metal. He is constantly
on the lookout for the perfect bargain and knows what to look for
when buying a classic car.
You just arrived in an 1973 Audi 100 Coup S. Is that your
everyday car?
I drive my old cars as often as I can, even to work. Thats
my best way to relax on the drive into work.
So, for you, a classic car is something that should be used?
I dont think any car should be allowed to rot in the ga
rage, and certainly not a classic car. At the end of the day, it was
built for driving, not for standing around. A car like that can handle
the odd shower of rain.
Nevertheless, the Coup S is a very rare car.
It would bring you a place at any classic rally in Ger
many. By comparison, Mercedes Gullwings, Porsche Spyders and
Jaguar XKs are mass-produced goods. There are considerably more
expensive than a Coup S, but also far more commonplace.
You are not only the founder of Audi Classic Owners, but also
Head of Audi Tradition. You go out hunting on behalf
of Audi for vintage and classic cars. What sources do you
recommend in the search for the perfect classic?
The specialist magazines like Motor Klassik, Oldtimer
Markt and Auto Bild Klassik are a good starting point. Another key
factor is always contacts. Thats also the idea behind Audi Classic
Owners. We bring people together; people who perhaps want to
buy a car can chew the fat with owners of classics. An extremely
important source is also the Internet. I look almost every day in the
Internet, at whats on mobile.de, Autoscout24 and eBay, for instance. I am always on the search for bargains. Thats by far the worst
thing about being a classic car fan you are constantly hunting.

You have bought a car on eBay. Can you recommend


this as a source?
eBay is one of the worlds biggest trading platforms for
classic cars and also includes international sellers. I bought my
Porsche 944 S2 Cabrio on eBay. It was the middle of winter at
minus 24 degrees; I was the only bidder. At those kinds of temperatures, nobody wanted to bid on a cabrio.

5 Not with kid gloves Thomas Frank believes


that classic cars are there to be driven.
6 The hunter and his catch Thomas Frank is
always on the look-out for bargains.

What are the most important rules to follow when buying


a classic car?
First, you should look at the overall condition of the car
and then, of course, the person selling it. Then comes the test drive.
Buying a car is a matter of trust. You notice quickly if a car has been
warmed up, for instance. As a point of principle, you should always
set yourself an upper price limit. Experience says that there are
always subsequent repairs that have to be taken into account.
Audi 100 Coupe S

It sounds like an expensive hobby.


Not at all. The insurance premiums are very low now.
Then you have the reduced road tax of 191 Euros per year with a his
toric license plate. The main issue is making sure you have enough
room for this hobby. You need to have a place to store the car. The
side of the road is no place for a classic.

Build period: 1970 to 1976


Engine: four-cylinder, in-line
Displacement: 1,871 cm
Power: 112 to 115 hp
Original price: 14,400 DM
Number built: 30,676

In times of financial crisis, more and more people are buying


classic cars as an investment. Is there a sure thing
when it comes to classic cars? A brand or a model that you
can recommend as an investment?
If only it were that simple! You can, of course, buy the
well-known models of the major brands, such as a Mercedes SL
Gullwing. But they are unaffordable these days. The situation is a
bit more complicated for Audi. There are expensive and extremely
rare pre-war cars like Horch, Wanderer, DKW and Audi. The post-war
DKWs are harder to sell, quite simply because young people these
days are more interested in modern classics. It starts getting interesting again as of the 70s. I would advise anybody who can to buy
the extremely rare Audi 100 Coup S. Also a good buy are the Audi
50, the NSU TT and the Ur quattro.
You have bought many cars in your time, both professionally and privately. What classic car dream do you still
want to fulfill?
I have owned ten 2CVs in my life. Right now, I dont have
any. So I could well imagine another 2CV.

Watch the Thomas Frank interview!
www.encounter.audi.com

Encounter Technology

Is there still such a thing as the ultimate bargain,


the hidden treasure?
Oh yes, its out there. These treasures are often the socalled granddad cars, which have been hidden away for years in
garages with just a few miles on the clock and barely a scratch on
them. From that point of view, Im a modern-day treasure hunter.

154

4 Worth its weight in gold the Audi 100


Coupe S is extremely rare and
therefore a worthwhile investment.

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The 1600-piece puzzle

It smells of oil, car wax and rubber in Wolf


gang Mielichs garage. On a rolling gurney
an operating table of sorts lie carefully arranged nuts, screws,
seals, tools, a toothbrush. The patients heart an imposing 12-cylinder is ready for surgery.
It is a mammoth task that Wolfgang Mielich has set
himself. By day, he develops driver assistance systems at Audi; in
his free time, the engineer is restoring a Lamborghini Espada, model
year 1971, part by part. He bought the car in 2005, and there was
a lot wrong with it. Time had left a distinct patina on this aging
beauty. The brakes didnt work, which made the first drive in the
Espada quite an adventure.
Mielich began his operation in the interior. He dedicated
the first three years entirely to the cars passenger cell. He cleaned
every single part, bought a new old radio. He cut the foam for the
seats to size himself. Mielich traveled to Italy in search of a suitable
saddler Bruno Paratelli, who has worked for Lamborghini from
the very start. The seats of the Espada are covered with a fine pattern of holes and there is virtually nobody who can master the complex perforation technology. However, the Italians books were so
full that it would have taken years for Mielich to get the seats. In
the end, a German saddler did the job, to the amazement of the
Italian master. You meet new people with every job experts and
collectors. That is what Wolfgang Mielich likes so much about classic cars. Today, the inside of the Lamborghini Espada smells like a
new car. That comes from the deep red carpet and from the black
leather seats. A total of 14 half cows were crafted into the car.
The interior stage is complete.

7 Attention to detail Wolfgang Mielich


knows every screw on his Espada.
8 Razor sharp the rear of the Espada
is shaped like the blade of a sword
(Spanish: Espada).
9 A job well done after three years
of work, the interior is fully restored.

A project of this size demands skill, attention to detail


and, first and foremost, patience. Mielich went through highs and
lows with the Espada. The power windows a rarity in the 70s
drove him to the brink of insanity. The tiny motor no longer worked,
the cable winch had to be readjusted. The cable that raises and
lowers the windows runs in the door through a maze of hidden,
convoluted twists and turns a game of enormous patience. After
days of trying, and following the advice of an expert, Mielich managed to thread the cable back into the correct conduits, and the
restoration could move on to the next stage.
Wolfgang Mielich has always enjoyed tinkering with
things earlier on motorcycles and then tuning his cars. Today he
is tinkering in the engine compartment of the silver Espada. He no
longer knows exactly how many parts he has disassembled and re
assembled. Although he does have one point of reference Mielich
has photographed every part that he has disassembled. After working on it, he takes a second photo the after picture. He now has
3,300 photos, which equates to around 1,600 parts taken out and
put back in again.
If all goes well, the Espada will be finished by the end
of the year. After seven years of disassembling, cleaning and photographing, the wedge-shaped sports car should be back on the
road. And then? Then comes the next project, for sure, says Wolf

gang Mielich with a smile.

Lamborghini Espada
Build period: 1968 to 1978
Engine: twelve-cylinder, V engine
Displacement: 3,929 cm
Power: 325 to 350 hp
Original price: 69,375 DM
Number built: 1,217

Images courtesy of Wolgang Mielich

Before and after the blood, sweat


and tears of Wolfgang Mielich.
The Espada footwell is once again
resplendent in deep red.

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Italian
SUVenir

Power SUV from Lamborghini

Even as a concept car, the Urus cuts an impressive figure
with its unique look. The design work carried out at Lamborghini is just as
dynamic as the high-performance SUV.

Text
Hermann Reil

Photos
Myrzik und Jarisch

Possente is the word that says


it all.Mighty, powerfulor even
puissant are the words suggested by the English dictionary, but, for Filippo Perini, possente means more
a refined superiority, a virtually infinite source of pow
er, but one that appears playful rather than aggressive,
and that can be controlled with perfect precision. For
the Chief Designer of Automobili Lamborghini, this is an
exact description of the new Urus. The name also refers
to the most ancient ancestor of the bull, the Aurochs.
Lamborghini is entering new territory with
this sports utility vehicle concept. The super sports cars
from SantAgata Bolognese the Aventador and Gallardo
models are surely among the most fascinating known
to the automotive world. Yet they are always something
for special occasions, for the enjoyment of extreme dynamics on the right kind of roads, or for making a grand
entrance in front of the right audience.
The Urus, on the other hand, is a Lambor
ghini for everyday use, states Maurizio Reggiani. It
unites exceptional performance and unique design with
versatility and everyday usability, sums up Lambor
ghinis Director of Research and Development. The Urus
is intended as a family car for leisure pursuits with
friends. Above all, however, it is a true Lamborghini
unique, extreme, fast, condensed technology.
Permanent all-wheel drive is also part of the
DNA of the super sports cars from Lamborghini. And
the brand with the bull is no stranger to the SUV segment. Lamborghini founded the super-luxury SUV segment in the 80s with the now legendary LM002. The
off-roader with a twelve-cylinder drive was revolutionary; its appearance impressive.

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The Urus, too possesses this ability to impress. Here in the hall of the Centro Stile Lamborghini,
the Urus shows its enormous presence. And this is not
a function of its size at a length of around 5 meters, it
is well within the scope of well-known performance
SUVs. With a breadth of almost two meters, it is somewhat wider than its future competitors. Its height of
1.66 meters, however, makes it around 15 centimeters
lower. The right proportions are crucial, says Chief
Designer Perini, and they are perfect for a high-performance model like this.
Lamborghini Design is unique. What are cre
ated here in the Centro Stile are technical sculptures
moving at high speed. They look purist and minimalist
with a clear focus on the essence. The surfaces are
clean and taut, interrupted many times by extremely
precise, razor-sharp lines. A Lamborghini is simply a
beautiful automobile, says Filippo Perini with conviction. It is, of course, a highly specific, deeply technical
beauty but one that is combined with great vibrancy
and lightness.

Lone wolf the Urus proudly defends its territory


in the Centro Stile Lamborghini. The concept
car is still alone. Its series-production siblings
could follow in 2016.

A Lamborghini is simply a beautiful automobile.


It is, of course, a highly specific, deeply technical beauty but one that is combined with vibrancy
and lightness.

Filippo Perini

A stroke of the hand despite the enthusiasm


for virtual work on the computer, Filippo Perini still
uses a pencil to sketch.

From the very first glance, the relationship


between the Urus and the Aventador the brands new
twelve-cylinder icon is clear. The sharpened arrow point
of the front end, the large air intakes to the left and right,
the Y form in the LED headlamps and the central line
that runs from the hood over the roof to the rear end are
typical features of the Lamborghini design language
yet completely reinterpreted in every single detail.
Extremely modern and highly dynamic is
also the manner in which this design was created. The
Centro Stile has a comparably small team of designers
working on its projects. We have two secrets, explains
Perini. The first is called Alessandro, Michele, Luca,
Alessandro, Marc, Nelson and Biagio. These are my
highly motivated and dedicated colleagues. The second
is our virtual process. From the first stroke of the pen
to production sign-off, we work in digital 3D models.
This makes us very fast and guarantees a consistently
high level of quality. This is how the extremely lightweight super sports car Sesto Elemento, which will soon
enter low-volume production, was created in the space
of just three months. The Aventador another CFRP
monocoque construction* was also created using a
purely virtual design process.

Perini sees the computer systems of the


Centro Stile as partners in the creative process. Once
you have learned the right way to work with the digital
model, you can also make a very good evaluation of the
subsequent outcome. Physical models are only required
when it comes to making presentations to decision
makers or when the new idea is to be shown to the
public as a concept car. This was how the Urus made its
world premiere this year at the Beijing Motor Show. It
was subsequently shown to groups of potential customers for evaluation in so-called car clinics.
And the reactions were amazing, according
to Technical Director Maurizio Reggiani. Just a few days
after its presentation at the show, Google had counted
around twelve million hits on the World Wide Web. Some
participants in the clinics in China would have liked to
buy the Urus on the spot regardless of the price tag.
However, it will be at least the start of 2016 before the
first production models will make it into the generously proportioned garages of their new owners.

The designer Filippo Perini runs the Centro


Stile Lamborghini.
Innovative cameras as exterior mirrors,
center console and bucket seats made
from new carbon materials, start button with
a cover flap just in case

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* see glossary, pp. 168169

The vital technical statistics have, nevertheless, long been established by Reggiani and his team.
Now, it is time for the detail work. The power plant in
the Urus will produce around 440 kW (600 hp), while
its outstanding performance and handling are guar
anteed to be as razor sharp as its design. However,
we also want to achieve the lowest fuel consumption
among our comparable competitors, stresses Maurizio
Reggiani. Alongside a highly efficient power unit, this
will be helped by systematic lightweight design and a
very low cd figure. A plug-in hybrid system* is also conceivable, enabling the Urus to run on zero-emissions
electric drive in urban areas.
At Lamborghini, lightweight design means
an intelligent material mix in the structure and body
shell, as well as consistent and intensive use of carbonfiber technologies.
The brand from Terra di Motori between Bo
logna and Modena possesses expertise in the development and production of specific carbon-fiber technologies that is unique in the world. Forged COMPOSITE* is
one of them in contrast to conventional CFRP materials, based on long, interwoven fibers, this Lamborghinipatented material is made from short fibers measuring
2.5 to 5 centimeters. More than 500,000 intermeshed
fibers per square inch deliver a material that has just
one third of the density of titanium, but a higher load
rating. Thanks to an innovative forging process, Forged
COMPOSITE can be formed very efficiently and with
extremely high precision. Just how precisely is demon-

Driving legend the LM002 with


its twelve-cylinder was revolutionary,
its appearance impressive.

strated by a glance into the interior of the Urus. The cen


ter tunnel, for instance, is formed by an open, skeletal
carbon structure made from Forged COMPOSITE. The
bucket seats are also made using this technology, combined with another new and flexible carbon material
that delivers optimum seat suspension and damping
together with extremely low weight.
A Lamborghini is a Lamborghini the eyecatcher inside is, and remains, the release button the
button that starts the engine. A red cover flap secures
it from unintentional activation, because Possente is
the word that says it all

SUVs stand for freedom and emotion. The Urus


is surely the most extreme interpretation of
this concept it is quite simply the Lamborghini
among SUVs.

Maurizio Reggiani

The engineer Maurizio Reggiani runs Research


and Development at Lamborghini and is also
responsible for the Aventador twelve-cylinder
super sports car.
Possente the diffuser and the mighty exhaust
system stand for the performance of the
Urus, the large tailgate for its everyday usability.

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* see glossary, pp. 168169


Technical terms explained
Brief definitions of the terms used in this issue.

Glossary

ALZ
The Aluminum and Lightweight Design Center (ALZ)
at Audi in Neckarsulm serves the development, pro
duct ion planning and quality assurance of lightweight materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced
plastics.
Audi Electronics Venture (AEV)
A one-hundred percent subsidiary of AUDI AG. It
functions as a link between cars and electronics. Its
objective is to work on behalf of Audi to implement
innovations within vehicles on the basis of new tech
nologies. Its tasks include function and software de
velopment, alone and in cooperation with partner
companies.
Audi Space Frame (ASF)
Audi Space Frame refers to an extremely stiff aluminum framework structure for the vehicle bodyshell.
The use of aluminum delivers a considerable weight
reduction that improves fuel economy and efficiency.
Audi is also making increasing use of other lightweight materials in bodyshell design. The simultaneous application of various high-end materials such
as aluminum, magnesium, carbon and high-strength
steels is making an increasing number of Audi components lighter this route leads to the Multi-Material
Space Frame.

CFRP
CFRP is the acronym for carbon-fiber reinforced poly
mer, whereby carbon fibers are embedded into a
polymer in several layers for reinforcement.

Light alongside aluminum, CFRP plays an


important role in Audis lightweight design concept.

Modular Transverse Platform (MQB)


Known in German as the Modulare Querbaukasten,
it is a Volkswagen Group development for the Audi,
Seat, Skoda and Volkswagen brands. The first vehicle
to be built on the MQB is the new Audi A3. The platform principle uses synergies that transcend vehicle
class and brand. It increases efficiency, safety, comfort and driving fun. Technologies from higher vehicle segments are also now making it into the compact
class thanks to the MQB.

LTE
The acronym LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and
refers to a new mobile communication standard that
transmits data five to six times faster than the current UMTS network. Transmission rates of up to 100
Mbit/s make data-intensive infotainment functions
like HD television or video conferencing possible
while on the move. Audi aims to be the first provider
to offer LTE in a car.

MIT
The acronym for Massachusetts Institute of Tech
nology, a private university in the city of Cambridge in
the US state of Massachusetts. Established in 1861,
MIT is a globally renowned institution for research
and teaching. MIT has produced no less than 77 Nobel
Prize winners.

Filling up with electricity Audi is testing the


everyday usability of plug-in hybrid technology.
Innovative the new A3 is the first model
to be based on the Modular Transverse Platform.
OLED Technology
The abbreviation OLED stands for Organic Light
Emitting Diode. It refers to a thin-film lighting element that, in contrast to conventional LEDs, contains
an organic semi-conducting material. The material
characteristics enable the construction of flat and
flexible lighting elements.

Scanning Electron Microscopy


Scanning electron microscopy is a microscopy process that creates an image via line-by-line sampling
(scanning) of a surface with an electron beam. The
interaction of the electrons with the surface delivers
information about its properties and condition that
are displayed in parallel with the scanning process
as a very high-resolution image. The maximum mag
nification is around 500,000 to 1.

Piloted Parking
At Audi, piloted parking refers to the use of technologies that enable the autonomous driving of the car
without input from the driver. Audi is developing one
application example for this technology with the
Parkhauspilot. It steers the driverless car from the
car park entrance to a free parking space.

Microcosm Alcantara fibers magnified 20,000


times.

Minus driver the car orientates itself with the


aid of sensors.
Plasmatron soldering
Plasmatron soldering is a procedure for bonding to
gether steel components that enables an extremely
high degree of precision. It is used in a number of dif
ferent areas of the bodyshell. On the Audi A7 Sport
back, for example, it creates a very precise splitline
between the roof and side panel; the permitted tolerances are less than 0.1 millimeter.
Networked Audi car-to-x systems create entirely
new communication structures.

Encounter Technology

RTM Process
The acronym RTM stands for Resin Transfer Molding,
a process that Audi will use in future for the production of many of its CFRP components because it is
more efficient than previous processes. The dry fiber
matting is pre-formed then laid into sealed, heated
tools into which epoxy resin is injected under pressure. The resin completely soaks the matting before
curing under pressure and temperature.
TCNG
TCNG is the abbreviation for the future generation
of Audi cars that will run on fossil fuel compressed
natural gas (CNG), as well as the renewably produced
Audi e-gas.

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP)


Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are materials in which
fibers, such as carbon fibers, are embedded into a
polymer in several layers for reinforcement.

Car-to-X-Communication
Car-to-X communication refers to a communications
technology whereby vehicles can communicate with
each other, with their owners and with the traffic
infrastructure via wireless networks. This benefits
fuel efficiency and safety and enables services such
as cash-free refueling.

168

Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV)


A plug-in hybrid is a vehicle with hybrid drive whereby
the battery can also be charged externally by plugging it into the electricity grid.

Composite Solutions
Composite is the term used for fiberreinforced poly
mers (see below).

Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis


Audi uses this form of analysis for investigating materials with the scanning electron microscope. The
interaction between the electron beam on the micro
scope and the sample generates a characteristic x-ray,
captured in a colored graphic and on an element dis
tribution image. Both provide important information.

210 kilograms the ASF bodyshell of the Audi R8


is made entirely from aluminum.

Modular Infotainment Platform (MIB)


Known in German as the Modulare Infotainmentbaukasten, it is part of the Modular Transverse Platform
(MQB) (see below) and transfers the platform princi
ple to in-car infotainment. Hard and software can be
updated independently of the vehicle lifecycle, allowing them to keep pace with the innovation cycles
of the IT sector, which are often just a few months.

169

Encounter Technology

Recuperation
Recuperation means the recovery of kinetic energy
derived from deceleration. Under trailing throttle or
during braking, the generator converts the kinetic
energy into electrical energy, which is then stored
temporarily in the battery. Recuperation reduces the
fuel consumption of internal combustion engines
and is an important element in all hybrid and electric
drives.

Filling up with gas the Audi A3 TCNG uses CNG


and Audi e-gas.
UMTS
UMTS is the acronym for Universal Mobile Telecom
munications System, a standard for the wireless
transmission of data.
WLAN
WLAN is the abbreviation for Wireless Local Area
Network, a localized network system that enables
computers and phones to access the Internet wirelessly.

Impressum
AUDI AG
85045 Ingolstadt
Responsible for Content:
Toni Melfi,
Head of Communication,
I/GP
Editor:
Uwe Hans Werner
Concept and Realization:
reilmedia
Graphic Concept and Layout:
stapelberg&fritz
Organization:
Stefan Kotschenreuther
Britta Schmidt (Video)
Authors:
Eva Backes
Regina Brand
Klaus Thomas Edelmann
Paul-Janosch Ersing
Melanie Goldmann
Christian Gnthner
Agnes Happich
Annika Jochheim
Stefanie Kern
Lena Kiening
Johannes Kbler
Stefan Kotschenreuther
Anja Nerreter
Hermann Reil
Thomas Tacke
Hanna van der Velden
Thomas Voigt
Uwe Hans Werner
Translation from German:
Elaine Catton
Photography:
Myrzik und Jarisch
Stefan Warter
Alexander Herbold
Illustrations:
Andreas Nicolas Fischer
Cedric Kiefer
Steven Pope
Barbara Stehle
sxces
Post Production:
RAWKOST
Printing:
Pinsker Druck und Medien