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March 2012

EAGLE XG
Diameter and Diameter Signaling Router
Overview
Carlos Arias Fernandez

This document is for informational purposes only, and Tekelec reserves the right to change any aspect of the products, features or
functionality described in this document without notice. Please contact Tekelec for additional information and updates.

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Agenda

Diameter Overview
Use of Diameter in LTE/IMS/3G
DSR Use Cases
Core Relay/Proxy 3G/LTE/IMS
S6/S9 Roaming Proxy (Diameter Edge Agent) LTE/IMS
Policy Proxy 3G/LTE/IMS (Gx/Gxx/Rx/S9)
HSS Proxy LTE/IMS (S6/Cx/Dx/Sh/Dh)
Charging Proxy 3G/LTE/IMS (Rf/Gy/Ro)

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Diameter

Session Management

Diameter and SIP become the dominant signaling protocols


SCTP point-to-point connections remain
Mobility and Subscriber Management

Application and Session Control

Diameter Comparison to SS7

Characteristic

SS7

Routing

Signaling network management


(SNM) and Congestion control

Subscriber number based routing

Diameter

Each message independently routed

Network-wide
Dedicated SNM msgs
Route around failed paths
Congestion levels and traffic
priorities defined

GTT can be used by upper layers

Answer message does not contain


routing info and follows same path
as associated request
Hop-by-hop
No dedicated SNM msgs
Failures discovered with each new
request
Relies on reliable transport
No defined traffic priorities
Specialized, app-specific proxies
required
DRA for PCRF
HSS address resolution for EPC and

IMS

Robustness

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Wide-scale deployment; years of


experience

Early days; lots of prove-in still


required

Example Diameter Message Update Location


HSS
AAA
S6a

MME

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Update Location

Example Diameter Message Update Location


HSS
AAA
S6a

MME

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Update Location

Example Diameter Message Update Location


HSS
AAA
S6a

MME

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Update Location

Use of Diameter in LTE/IMS/3G

Selected Diameter Interfaces in 3G, LTE and IMS


Interface

Endpoints

S6a

MME

HSS

S6d

HSS

vSGSN (Rel 8)

S13

MME

EIR

S9

hPCRF

vPCRF

Rx

PCRF

AF, P-CSCF

Gx

PGW

PCRF

Gy

PGW

OCF

Gz

PGW

OFCF

Cx

I/S-CSCF

HSS

Sh

AF, IP-SM-GW

HSS

Rf

P/I/S-CSCF, AF

OFCF

Ro

S-CSCF, AF

OCF

Rc

OCF

ABMF

Re

OCF

RF

Selected Diameter Interfaces in LTE (EPC) and IMS


Foreign LTE Domain
vMME

Foreign GPRS Domain


vS4-SGSN

vPCRF
Gr

EPC Mobility
Management

vSGSN

EPC Equipment
Check

S6a

S9

S6d

MAP-Diam
IWF
Sh

SLF

EIR

IMS
Registration

HSS
AAA

S13

Cx

SPR

Rx

PCRF
MME

P-CSCF

AS Access
to HSS
I/S-CSCF

Rf

Gz

OFCF

Policy

IMS
Charging

OCF

Gy

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AF

Gx

PGW

EPC
Charging

IP-SM-GW

IMS PCC

Sh

Rc

ABMF

Ro
Re

RF

Tekelec Confidential

Home LTE/IMS Domain

Diameter Agents in 3GPP and GSMA

HSS

3GPP TR 29.909 Diameter-based


protocols usages and recommendations
in 3GPP

Inner Diameter
Relay Pool

Border Diameter
Relay Pool

Inter-operator Diameter
Infrastructure

Defines need for Diameter infrastructure

to simplify the S6 and S9 network

3GPP TS 23.203 Policy and charging


control architecture

MME

MME

PLMN
S-GW

Defines Diameter routing agent to direct

all messages for the same IP-CAN


session to the same PCRF

MME

P-GW

Diameter (PCRF) realm


Gx, Gxa, Gxb, Gxc, Rx

PCRF

DRA

Non-3GPP
GW
Diameter (PCRF) realm

GSMA PRD IR.88 LTE Roaming


Guidelines

ePDG

PCRF

DRA
AF

Defines need for a Diameter agent at the

point of network demarcation

VPMN

HPMN
HSS

S6a

GRX/IPX

MME

S4
SGSN

S6d

Proxy
Agent

Proxy
Agent

S9

vPCRF

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hPCRF

Tekelec DSR - A Multi-application Diameter Agent


Roaming Proxy
LTE/IMS
(S6/S9)

HSS

OCS/
OFCS

Policy Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(Gx/Gxx/Rx/S9)

Agent

HSS
Topology Hiding

HSS/MME/PCRF

Topology Hiding

GGSN
PGW

MME

CSCF

Roaming
Steering

MAP/Diameter
Interworking

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Charging Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(Rf/Gy/Ro)

PCRF
IPsec

Other
Networks

HSS Proxy
LTE/IMS
(S6/Cx/Dx/Sh/Dh)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

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Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

PCRF
Topology Hiding

Network-wide
PCRF Binding

Centralized
Failover Models

TCP/SCTP
Interworking

Tekelec Confidential

LTE HSS
Address
Resolution

IMS HSS
Address
Resolution

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

OCS/OFCS
Address
Resolution

OCS/OFCS
Topology Hiding

OCS/OFCS
Session-based
Routing

Network
Visibility

Use Cases
Core Relay/Proxy 3G/LTE/IMS

Core Relay

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

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Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

Centralized
Failover Models

TCP/SCTP
Interworking

Tekelec Confidential

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

Network
Visibility

Scalability and connection Management

Use Case - 3G Mobile Data Architecture


GGSN

10 PCRFs/Site

Gx+ and Gy

PCRF
DRA
LB

GGSN

PCRF
8 SBCFs/Site

GGSN

SBCF/ABMF
DRA
LB

GGSN

SBCF/ABMF
GGSN

10 PCRFs/Site

PCRF
GGSN

DRA
LB
PCRF

GGSN

8 SBCFs/Site

SBCF/ABMF
DRA
LB

GGSN

SBCF/ABMF
GGSN
10 PCRFs/Site

PCRF

GGSN

DRA
LB
PCRF

GGSN

8 SBCFs/Site

SBCF/ABMF

GGSN

DRA
LB
SBCF/ABMF

GGSN

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Load balancers
can vary from
connection
balancers to
specialized
Diameter proxies

Use Case - 3G Mobile Data Net with Diameter Relay


GGSN

GGSN

Eliminates need for


load balancers in front
of PCRFs and SBCFs

10 PCRFs/Site

PCRF

PCRF
8 SBCFs/Site

GGSN

SBCF/ABMF
GGSN
SBCF/ABMF
GGSN

DSR
10 PCRFs/Site

PCRF
GGSN
PCRF
GGSN

8 SBCFs/Site

SBCF/ABMF
GGSN

DSR

SBCF/ABMF

GGSN
10 PCRFs/Site

PCRF

GGSN

PCRF

GGSN

8 SBCFs/Site

GGSN

Addresses connection
limitations at GGSN

SBCF/ABMF

GGSN

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SBCF/ABMF

Tekelec Confidential

Enables future
separation of SBCF
and ABMF via
Diameter
interconnect

One Region Initial Configuration


HSS Mated Pair

HSS1-Site A
FE

MME

Assumes 2M capacity of MME


Assumes 6M capacity of HHS

DB

MME

HSS1-Site B
MME
FE

DB

HSS Mated Pair

HSS1-Site A
MME

DSR

FE

DB

MME
MME

DSR

HSS1-Site B
FE

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DB

4 MME-DSR connections NEVER NEED TO CHANGE


4 DSR-HSSFE connections ONLY CHANGE WITH HSS
ARCH/CAPACITY CHANGES,
NOT WITH MME CHANGES

Expand Region to 2 HSSs with HSS DRA


HSS Mated Pair

HSS1-Site A
FE

DB

MME

HSS1-Site B
FE

MME

DB

MME

MME

HSS Mated Pair

MME
FE
MME

HSS2-Site A

Required new connections


FE
Potential new connections to
reduce HSS FE Relay load

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HSS2-Site B

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DB

DB

Expand Region to 2 HSSs with DSR


HSS Mated Pair

HSS1-Site A
FE

DB

MME

HSS1-Site B
MME

DSR

FE

DB

MME

MME

DSR

HSS Mated Pair

MME
FE

MME

DB

HSS2-Site A

Required new connections


FE

HSS2-Site B

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DB

Expand Region to 3 HSSs with HSS DRA


HSS Mated Pair

HSS1-Site A
FE

DB
HSS1-Site B

MME

FE

DB

MME
MME
MME

FE

DB

FE

MME

HSS3-Site B

MME
MME
FE

DB

MME

HSS2-Site A
Required new connections
Potential new connections to
reduce HSS FE Relay load
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FE

HSS2-Site B
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DB
HSS Mated Pair

DB

HSS Mated Pair

HSS3-Site A

MME

Expand Region to 3 HSSs with DSR


FE

DB

FE

MME

DB

HSS Mated Pair

HSS1-Site A
MME

HSS1-Site B
MME

DSR
MME

FE

DB

DSR

MME

FE

DB

HSS Mated Pair

HSS2-Site A

MME

HSS2-Site B
MME
MME

FE

HSS3-Site A

FE

Required new connections

HSS3-Site B
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DB

HSS Mated Pair

MME

DB

The HSS Mesh - Network View


Site 1-ABC

HSSC

This blue lines represent one HSSs


connections to all other HSSs but its
mate (28 connections assuming only a
single connection between HSSs is
sufficient). All HSSs will have at least one
connection to all other HSSs except its
mate, for a minimum of 840 connections
for 15 mated pairs of HSSs.

HSSJ

HSSK

HSSL

HSSG

Site 1-JKL

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HSSB

HSSH

Site 2-GHI

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HSSI

Site 2-DEF

HSSN

HSSA

HSSF

HSSM

HSSC

HSSE

Site 1-MNO

HSSB

HSSD

HSSO

HSSA

Site 2-ABC

The DSR Mesh - Network View


Site 1-ABC
HSSA

HSSB

Site 2-ABC
HSSC

HSSA

HSSL

HSSG

DSR

HSSN

Site 1-JKL

HSSH
Site 2-GHI

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HSSI

Site 2-DEF

HSSK

HSSF

HSSJ

DSR

HSSE

HSSM

This blue lines represent one DSRs


connections to all other DSRs (9
connections assuming only a single
connection between DSRs is
sufficient). All DSRs will have at least
one connection to all other DSRs, for
a minimum of 90 connections for 5
mated pairs of DSRs.

DSR

Site 1-MNO

DSR

DSR

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HSSC

HSSD

HSSO

DSR

HSSB

Message Handling

DSR Routing Tables

An important feature of DSR is the ability to support local applications such as Policy
DRA and HSS Address Resolution in 3GPP networks.
Local applications may be invoked when a Request message is first received from a
downstream peer, prior to invoking message routing to an upstream peer. To facilitate
this two step process, two routing table have been defined:
Application Routing Table (ART) - contains a prioritized list of user-configurable routing rules

which define which local applications to invoke and in which order based upon message
content
Peer Routing Table (PRT) - contains a prioritized list of user-configurable routing rules which

define where to route a message to an upstream peer based upon message content
A PRT rule can be associated with a Route List which contains a prioritized list of peers used

to route a Request message.

Downstream

Peer
N-1

(1)
Request

Appl-1

Appl-2

(2)

(3)

Application
Routing
Table

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DSR

(4)

Peer
Routing
Table

Tekelec Confidential

Upstream

(5)

Route
List
Table

(6)

Peer
N+1

DSR Routing Request Routing Parameters

DSR allows the operator to define routing rules based on combinations


of the following data elements:
Destination-Realm (leading/trailing characters, exact match or wildcard)
Destination-Host (leading/trailing characters, exact match, wildcard or

presence/absence)
Application-ID (exact match or wildcard).

In addition to the above, the following data elements are supported in


DSR to facilitate screening, application invocation, and enhanced
routing:
Command-Code (exact match or wildcard)
Origin-Realm (leading/trailing characters, exact match or wildcard)
Origin-Host (leading/trailing characters, exact match or wildcard)

DSR allows the operator to prioritize rules for cases where a Diameter
Request may match multiple user defined rules

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Example Peer Routing using RT and Route Lists


Routing Table (RT)
Action

Route List
Name

Pri

Dont care

Route to
Peer

HUB_NW

Dont care

Dont care

Route to
Peer

OPCO2_NW

43

Dont care

Dont care

Route to
Peer

HSS1

opco2.com

65

Dont care

Dont care

Route to
Peer

MME2

Dont care

Dont care

Dont care

Dont care

Send Answer
--X

Dest-Realm*

Orig-Realm* Appl ID*

Dest-Host* Orig-Host*

opco1.com

homeop.com Dont care

Dont care

opco2.com

homeop.com Dont care

homeop.com

opco1.com

homeop.com
Dont care

CmdCode*

99

Route List Table


Route List Name Route Name

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Pri

Weight

HUB_NW

HUB_PEER1

60

HUB_NW

HUB_PEER2

40

HUB_NW

HUB_PEER3

50

HUB_NW

HUB_PEER4

50

OPCO2_NW

OPCO2_PEER1

100

OPCO2_NW

OPCO2_PEER2

100

HHS1

HSS1_SRV1

100

MME1

MME1_SRV1

100

MME1

MME1_SRV2

100

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Active Route Group


Standby Route Group

Multiple Route Groups in a Route List Conceptual View

DSR

W=40
W=30

Peer1
Peer2

Route Group-1
(Routes with Pri=1)

W=30

Peer3

Route List-1
Route Group-1
Route-1, Pri=1, Wt=40, Peer=1

W=60
W=40

Route-2, Pri=1, Wt=30, Peer=2

Peer4

Route Group-2
(Routes with Pri=2)

Peer5
W=50

Route-3, Pri=1, Wt=30, Peer=3

Route Group-2
Route-1, Pri=2, Wt=60, Peer=4

W=50

Peer6

Route-2, Pri=2, Wt=40, Peer=5

Route Group-3

Peer7

Route-1, Pri=3, Wt=50, Peer=6


Route-2, Pri=3, Wt=50, Peer=7
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Route Group-3
(Routes with Pri=3)

Request Message Re-Routing Beyond Standard Diameter


Alternate Routing on Answer

Configurable per Result Code

Target
DSR

2
Agent

Client

Server

Agent

DSR

5
2

Alternate routing on transport failure

Connection failure occurs after


message 3 has been sent

DSR

T-bit set on re-routed message to


warn of possible duplicate

No response received for


message 2

1
Client

T-bit set on re-routed message to


warn of possible duplicate

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DSR

DSR

Timeout

Client

Alternate routing on timeout

Target
DSR

Target
DSR

2
Agent

Server

Agent

DSR

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Server

DIAMETER Mediation

Diameter Rules Engine

Not My Fault

MME

Not My Fault

IP Cloud
Diameter
Variant 1

HSS FE
Diameter
Variant 2

Mediation and Advanced Routing

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Diameter Mediation via Rules Engine


In-line 3rd
Party App

Off-line
3rd Party
App

Local

DSR

Appl

(2)
Peer

(1)
Request

N-1

(3)
ART/PRT

(4)
(4)

Answer
Processing

(8) Answer

Diameter Rules Engine


trigger points trigger
one or more tasks, with
priority

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Route
List Table

Conditions logically ANDd or ORd:


Origin/Destination Host/Realm
presence, value match, partial
value/range match
Header fields (Appl-ID, CmdCode,
flags, etc.) value match
Application specific AVPs
presence, value match, partial
value/range match

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(5)

Peer

N+1

(6) Answer

Actions:
Add AVP
Delete AVP
Modify AVP
Modify header field
Route to Local App
Route to Peer via Route-List
Send Answer with specified
Result-Code
Copy message/session

Mediation Conditions

The DSR must evaluate conditions provisioned by the operator


before attempting to perform mediation

The conditions can be ANDed and include checking for


Origin-Host/Realm (begins with, ends with, any or exact match)

Destination-Host/Realm (begins with, ends with, any, present, absent

or exact match)
Command Code (exact match or any)
Application ID ( exact match or any)

If the request traversed a certain host (i.e hostname present in route-

record)
If the request includes a certain AVP (check attribute name)
If the request does not include a certain AVP (check attribute name)
Ability to check for the value of a certain AVP
And so on
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Mediation Actions Supported

Add AVP
The Attribute Value can be specified or derived based on another

attribute value present in the message

Delete AVP

The AVP code (Attribute Name or free format) is specified by the

operator
Delete specific instance or all instances

Modify Header CC, Appl-ID, Flags


Modify AVP code (Attribute Name)
Modify AVP flags Set/Reset/Toggle
Modify Value of a specific AVP code

The AVP code is specified by the operator

The Attribute Value can be specified or can be derived based on its

current value or derived from another attribute value present in the


message

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3rd Party Application Support

3rd Party Application Support


Several options for App
server:
Redirect server
Special redirect server
returning encapsulated msg
B2BUA
Proxy/Relay (requires
special processing at DSR to
suppress loop detection)

In-line
3rd Party
Appl

Receives a copy of
complete Diameter
message and performs
processing

Off-line
3rd Party
Appl

DSR
Upstream

Downstream
(3)
(2)
Peer
N-1

(1)
Request

Peer
Routing
Table

(3)

(6) Answer

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Route
List
Table

Answer
Processing

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(4)

Peer
N+1

(5) Answer

In-line App Server as a Special Proxy/Relay


The DAS routes the original

request, perhaps with


modifications, back through the
DSR

DAS

The new request (msg #3) has a

new Hop-by-Hop ID
The End-to-End ID is unchanged

by the DAS
4

To prevent loop detection, the

DSR
8

DAS does NOT add DSR to the


Route-Record before sending
out msg #3
The DAS must maintain

transaction state and relay the


answer msg #6
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In-line App Server as a Special Redirect Server


This method is used when the

DAS wants to drop out of the


Answer path

DAS

This is a future case, post DSR 2.0


The DAS returns a Redirect
3

response with the original,


perhaps modified, Request
encapsulated (in a mutually
agreed AVP)

2
1

The DSR extracts the

DSR
6

encapsulated Request and routes


it, factoring the Ingress Peer (i.e.
DAS) into the routing decision
The DAS will not see the Answer

msg #5

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In-line App Server as a B2BUA

DAS responds with an Answer

to an incoming Request and


originates a new Request

DAS

The hop-by-hop id and more

importantly the End-to-End id in


the inbound and outbound
Requests are different

The two Requests are only

DSR
8

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logically related at the DAS


5

Supported in DSR 2.0

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In-line App Server as a Standard Redirect Server


DAS responds with an

Answer (Result-Code 3006)


to an incoming request

DAS

The Answer includes a

Redirect-Host AVP
indicating the destination
host the message should be
routed towards

2
1

The DSR uses the contents

DSR
6

of the Redirect-Host AVP to


route the Request

Supported post DSR 2.0

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Off-line App Server

DAS receives copy of

Request (1) and, optionally,


the associated Answer (4)

DAS

DSR does not maintain

transaction state for copied


Requests (any Answers
received from DAS are
discarded)

1
1

Supported post DSR 2.0

DSR
4

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Peer Overload and Flow Control

Remote Congestion Control

Peer Transport Congestion Control via the transmit queue


When queue level exceeds a user-configurable

threshold, the transport connection is marked


congested
New Requests must use an alternate route
Answer messages are unaffected
Peer Transport Congestion Control using Answers
Answer contains the DIAMETER_TOO_BUSY ResultCode
Optionally mark connection congested for a userconfigurable time
Answer messages are unaffected

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Message Throttling

To assist with prevention of Diameter peer overload, DSR


provides a method for throttling the volume of Diameter
Request traffic sent to peers based on Request content.

For example, a registration storm resulting from an HSS failure


could result in the remaining HSS nodes becoming
overloaded.
In this scenario, having the capability to throttle the rate of certain

message types routed to the HSS may effectively prevent the HSS
from becoming overloaded.
Selection of the traffic to be throttled leverages the Peer Routing

Table (PRT) described earlier, allowing a combination of Appl-ID,


Command-Code, Destination-Realm, Destination-Host, OriginRealm, and Origin-Host.

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Network Visibility
Diameter Intelligence Hub

Diameter Intelligence Hub Features

Tracing
Trace nodal transactions across DSR and between other network elements (e.g., other

DSRs, HSSs, MMEs)


Full decode of Diameter payload
Display trace output in ladder diagram
Extensive tracing filters available (e.g., IMSI, SGSN, etc.)

Data Feed of xDR records

NFS and (S)FTP supported


Correlated records can be exported to any external server

Filtering

View actual traffic as xDRs


Filter through traffic to pinpoint issues

Alarms
Alarm forwarding for DIH system alarms via SNMP/email
Configuration and provisioning
Web-based GUI providing security, configuration, and application access for DIH
Collection and Storage
Create and store unique records for each desired transaction (PDUs, xDRs)

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Use Cases
S6/S9 Roaming Proxy (Diameter Edge Agent) LTE/IMS

S6/S9 Roaming Proxy (Diameter Edge Agent)


Roaming Proxy
LTE/IMS
(S6/S9)

HSS/MME/PCRF

Topology Hiding

Roaming
Steering

MAP/Diameter
Interworking

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

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Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

Centralized
Failover Models

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TCP/SCTP
Interworking

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

Network
Visibility

MME Topology Hiding (MME Binding)


MME <> IMSI
Mapping

MME 1

MME 2

1) Update-Location-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm = Op1.NET
Destination_Realm = Op2.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

Gateway
DSR

Current
Serving
MME

Previous
Serving
MME

IMSI

MME1

MME2

IMSI_1

2) Update-Location-Request
Origin_Host = MME_Public
Origin_Realm = Op1.NET
Destination_Realm = Op2.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

DSR replaces MME ID with generic


ID and saves the mapping of
IMSI <> Current MME and
Previous MME. Mapping must
be shared with mate(s) as well.

55 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

HSS

MME Topology Hiding


MME <> IMSI
Mapping

MME 1

MME 2

Gateway
DSR

56 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Previous
Serving
MME

IMSI

MME1

MME2

IMSI_1

1) Cancel-Location-Request

Origin_Host = HSS1

Origin_Realm =Op2.NET

Destination Host = MME_Public

Destination Relam = Op1.NET

User-Name = IMSI_1

2) Cancel-Location-Request

Origin_Host = HSS1

Origin_Realm =Op2.NET

Destination Host = MME2

Destination Relam = Op1.NET

User-Name = IMSI_1

3) Cancel-Location-Answer

Origin_Host = MME2

Origin_Realm = Op1.NET

User-Name = IMSI_1

Current
Serving
MME

4) Cancel-Location-Answer

Origin_Host = MME_Public

Origin_Realm = Op1.NET

User-Name = IMSI_1

Tekelec Confidential

HSS

HSS Topology Hiding

HSS 1

HSS 2

2) Update-Location-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm = Op2.NET
Destination_Realm = Op1.NET
Destination_Host = HSS1
User-Name = IMSI_1

Gateway
DSR

IMSI

HSS

IMSI_1

HSS _1

1) Update-Location-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm = Op2.NET
Destination_Realm = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

3) Update-Location-Answer
Origin_Host = HSS1
Origin_Realm = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

4) Update-Location-Answer
Origin_Host = HSS_Public
Origin_Realm = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

DSR replaces HSS ID


with generic ID. The
mapping of IMSI <> HSS
is provisioned.

57 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

MME 1

HSS Topology Hiding

HSS 1

HSS 2

Gateway
DSR

HSS

IMSI_1

HSS _1

1) Purge-UE-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm =Op12NET
Destination Host = HSS_Public
Destination Relam = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

1) Purge-UE-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm =Op2.NET
Destination Host = HSS1
Destination Relam = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

58 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

IMSI

Tekelec Confidential

MME 1

Roaming Steering

Assumes operator has preferred roaming partner(s) for LTE roaming, such that it
is desirable for roaming subscribers to attach to the preferred visited network
whenever possible.

It may not be feasible to attach to a preferred network due to limited coverage, in


which case roaming on a non-preferred VPLMN can be allowed.

Roaming Area
Prevent sub from
roaming into nonpreferred
networks

Preferred Visited
PLMN

Allow LTE
roaming if sub is
in preferred
coverage

59 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

NonPreferred Visited
PLMN

Tekelec Confidential

Example Flow - Preferred network


Home PLMN

HSS

Preferred
Visited
PLMN

ULA to HSS

DSR

Rules

Diameter: ULR

Trigger on
Registration
events with
PLMN ID

MME

eNode B

Roaming
Subscriber

Event to Subscriber
Specific Rules DB
DSR to
allow
registration

60 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Using
Subscriber
Profile
PLMN ID
making
Roaming
Decision

Non-Preferred
Visited
MME
eNode B
PLMN

Tekelec Confidential

Example Flow - Not a Preferred network


Home PLMN

HSS

Preferred
Visited
PLMN

Diameter: ULR
DSR

Rules

MME

eNode B

Trigger on
Registration
events with
PLMN ID

Event to Subscriber
Specific Rules DB
DSR to not
allow
registration

Using
Subscriber
Profile
PLMN ID
making
Roaming
Decision

Non-Preferred
Visited
MME
eNode B
PLMN

Registration on non-preferred network can be allowed after configured # of failed attempts


If there is other Roaming Agreement with the HPMN covering other Radio Access Technology
(RAT) it could return a RAT_NOT_ALLOWED (5421) error to the MME
If there is no Roaming Agreement between HPMN and VPMN it can send
ROAMING_NOT_ALLOWED (5004)

61 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

Roaming
Subscriber

USA Tier 1 Operator - MAP-Diameter IWF Use Case


Visited Net

Home Net
3G subs
LTE subs
3G subs SRP
3G subs
LTE subs

Gr

S6d

DRA

SGSN
AT&T subs
roaming under SGSN
3G coverage
SGSN

S6d
LTE subs

IWF

DRA
GW

S6d
HAR

LTE subs

DSR will do address resolution on incoming S6d message and direct it to the HLR
for non-LTE capable subs, requiring Diam -> MAP conversion.
Other use cases will arise.
64 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

MAP-Diameter Interworking Function


Example Authentication request initiated by SGSN for UMTS/GERAN sub

vSGSN

1) MAP Send_Auth_Info
Requesting node type = SGSN
SCCP
CdPA=MGT
CgPA=SGSN ID

6) MAP Send_Auth_Info ack


Auth set list=UTRAN vector
SCCP
CdPA=SGSN ID
CgPA=HSS ID

1.

2.
3.

DSR

SS7

M-D IWF

2) MAP Send_Auth_Info
Requesting node type = SGSN
SCCP
CdPA=MGT, IMSI or DSR ID
CgPA=SGSN ID
5) MAP Send_Auth_Info ack
Auth set list=UTRAN vector
SCCP
CdPA=SGSN ID
CgPA=HSS ID

HSS
AAA

3) Auth-Info-Request
Orig-Host=SGSN ID
Req-UTRAN/GERAN -Auth-Info
4) Auth-Info-Answer
Orig-Host=HSS ID
Auth-Info=UTRAN vector

This covers the case where vSGSN doesnt know the HSS for the sub. Assumes the IMSI of the LTE-capable sub
is in a specific range that can be distinguished from non-LTE capable subs. Assumes Requesting node type =
MME/SGSN will not be used.
In the SS7 net, MGT or DSR ID can be used to GT route to DSR. It is assumed that IMSI is not sufficient.
DSR will be required to do HSS address resolution if necessary.

65 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

MAP-Diameter Interworking Function


Example Cancel location request initiated by HSS for UMTS/GERAN sub

vSGSN

3) MAP Cancel_Location
SCCP
CdPA=SGSN ID
CgPA=HSS ID
4) MAP Cancel_Location ack
SCCP
CdPA=HSS ID
CgPA=SGSN ID

66 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

DSR

SS7

M-D IWF

2) MAP Cancel_Location
SCCP
CdPA=SGSN ID
CgPA=HSS ID

5) MAP Cancel_Location ack


SCCP
CdPA=HSS ID
CgPA=SGSN ID

Tekelec Confidential

1) Cancel-Location-Request
Orig-Host=HSS ID
Dest-Host=SGSN ID

6) Cancel-Location-Answer
Orig-Host=SGSN ID

HSS
AAA

MAP-Diameter Interworking Function


Example Update Location initiated by SGSN
DSR
SGSN

HSS
AAA

M-D IWF

UpdateGprsLocation
ULR
ULA
Dialogue Continuation

UpdateGprsLocation ack

Dialogue Continuation consists of the exchange of one or more InsertSubscriberData messages if


subscriber data is included in the ULA . If trace data is included in the ULA, the DSR sends an
ActivateTraceMode message to the SGSN.

67 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

Use Cases
Policy Proxy 3G/LTE/IMS (Gx/Gxx/Rx/S9)

Policy Network Scaling


Policy Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(Gx/Gxx/Rx/S9)

PCRF
Topology Hiding

Network-wide
PCRF Binding

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

69 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

Centralized
Failover Models

Tekelec Confidential

TCP/SCTP
Interworking

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

Network
Visibility

Standard 3GPP Diameter Routing Agent (DRA)

Provides the standard 3GPP DRA


functionality

P-CSCF

Selects PCRF based on a load


balancing algorithm

Same PCRF (MPE) within one


realm is selected for all users
sessions

Acts by default as a Diameter proxy


with regards to Rx, Gx and Gxx

HSGW/SGW
Gxx

Rx

DSR
(DRA)

Gx

Can act as DRA and/or Diameter


base proxy/relay agent based on
routing table configuration
GGSN/
PGW

70 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

PCRF

DSR Policy Scalability & Binding Overview

The DSR Policy Binding is a


feature capability of the DSR.
The DSR sits between the PCEF
and the PCRFs in the network

Site1
PCRF

PCRF

Site2
PCRF

PCRF

PCRF

DSR Policy Binding Benefits:


Session correlation The DSR

Policy Binding routes sessions for


the same UE to the same PCRF

DSR

DSR

Load balancing The DSR Policy

Binding can balance transaction


load across PCRFs
Scalability The DSR Policy

Binding allows the PCRFs to


scale across sites by adding
hardware

72 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

PCEF

Tekelec Confidential

PCRF

DSR Policy Binding Message Flow


1. The DSR Policy Binding receives
a message from a PCEF

Site1

2. The DSR Policy Binding makes a


routing decision for the incoming
message

PCRF

New UE route to an PCRF based


on the load balancing algorithm

Site2

PCRF

PCRF

PCRF

4
3

Existing UE route to the PCRF


that is already handling sessions
for this UE

2
DSR

3. The DSR Policy Binding sends the


message to the appropriate PCRF

DSR

5
1

4. The PCRF processes the


message and sends the response
to the DSR Policy Binding

PCEF

5. The DSR Policy Binding sends the


response to the PCEF

73 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

PCRF

Tekelec Confidential

PCRF

Policy Binding Across a DSR Pair

Multiple DSRs serving one


Diameter realm act as one
logical DRA function ensuring
the same PCRF is selected for
all users sessions
DRMA protocol: Diameter
Routing Management
Application proprietary
Diameter application used for
inter-DRA communication
about load and topology

Region 1

PCRF

P-CSCF

DSR

DRA
PGW/
HSGW

Gateway DSRs support


roaming interfaces

Gateway
DSR

DRMA

S9 policy/charging roaming
interface support to be added
when needed

IPX
PGW/
HSGW

DSR
DRA

P-CSCF

Region 2

PCRF

To/From Other
Networks

Policy Binding Across Multiple Pairs

Subscriber Binding Repository


(SBR) added to each DRA to
retain binding information
SBRs share binding information
with each other in real time

Region 1

PCRF

PCRF

Region 3
P-CSCF

P-CSCF

DSR

Gateway DSR can be added to


the DRA pool to optimize S9
routing

DRA

DSR
DRA

PGW/
HSGW

PGW/
HSGW

Gateway
DSR
IPX
Diameter
Subscriber Binding Repository

PGW/
HSGW

Replication

DRA
DSR

DRA
DSR

P-CSCF

P-CSCF

Region 2

PGW/
HSGW

PCRF

PCRF

Region 4

Separate DRAs and Core DSRs

Core DSR nodes support S6a/d


interfaces to support internal
network scalability
Gateway DSRs support
roaming interfaces
Separate DSRs deployed to
serve as 3GPP Diameter
Routing Agents (DRA),
dedicated to PCRF binding
function for the network

Region 1

MME

HSS
P-CSCF

S6

DSR

DSR

DRA

PGW/
HSGW

Multiple DSRs serving one


Diameter realm act as one
logical DRA function ensuring
the same PCRF is selected for
all users sessions
DRMA protocol: Diameter
Routing Management
Application proprietary
Diameter application used for
inter-DRA communication
about load and topology

PCRF

Gateway
DSR

DRMA

IPX
PGW/
HSGW

DSR

To/From Other
Networks

DSR

DRA

S6

P-CSCF
HSS

Region 2

76 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

PCRF

Tekelec Confidential

MME

DSR Incorporates DRA Functionality

Core DSR nodes support DRA


function and S6a/d interfaces to
support internal network
scalability

Region 1

PCRF

P-CSCF

S6

Gateway DSRs support


roaming interfaces

DSR

Other charging and IMS


interfaces are also supported,
but not shown
S9 policy/charging roaming
interface support to be added
when needed

MME

HSS

DRA
PGW/
HSGW

Gateway
DSR

DRMA

IPX
PGW/
HSGW

DSR

To/From Other
Networks

DRA
S6

P-CSCF
HSS

Region 2

77 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

PCRF

Tekelec Confidential

MME

UE attach PCRF selected


DSR NE

GGSN

Roaming
PGW
Agent

DSR

PCRF

SBR

Gx CCR

SBR Query

Binding, looks for


existing bind
SBR Response

DSR Selects PCRF

Gx CCR
Gx CCA
Binding Persist Message

Gx CCA
Gx CCR
SBR Query

Binding found
SBR Response
Gx CCR
Gx CCA
Binding Update
Gx CCA

78 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Use Cases
HSS Proxy LTE/IMS (S6/Cx/Dx/Sh/Dh)

HSS Access Network Scaling


HSS Proxy
LTE/IMS
(S6/Cx/Dx/Sh/Dh)

HSS
Topology Hiding

LTE HSS
Address
Resolution

IMS HSS
Address
Resolution

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

80 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

Centralized
Failover Models

Tekelec Confidential

TCP/SCTP
Interworking

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

Network
Visibility

Internal S6a Network without Agents


Multi-HSS

This shows the SCTP/Diameter


mesh created by just 6 MMEs and
4 HSSs, with 2 front ends per HSS

HSS
FE

HSS BE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS BE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS BE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

Actual networks may have many


more MMEs and HSSs

Single HSS

HSS BE

MME

MME

MME

This shows a single HSS option


with all data for all subscribers in a
single backend

MME

MME

MME

HSS BE

Each MME could connect to just 2


front ends in order to partially
reduce the mesh, as shown

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

However, HSS FE capacity must


be hand-managed (e.g. where to
connect the next MME?, what
happens when traffic on one MME
grows disproportionately?, etc.)
MME

81 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

MME

Tekelec Confidential

MME

MME

MME

MME

Simplified S6a/S6d Network

HSS BE

HSS BE

HSS BE

Diameter
Agent

HSS BE

HSS
HSS

Operator_2

HSS

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

HSS
FE

MME
MME
MME

Congestion Control
Roaming Hub
protects HSS
Provider
from overload

Mapping of subscribers
to HSS, if needed.

Diameter
Agent

Diameter Agent
significantly reduces
total number of
connections

Diameter
Agent

Interconnect to
Foreign Realms for
Roaming

Diameter
Agent

HSS
HSS

MME
MME
MME

Diameter
Agent

HSS
HSS
HSS

MME
MME
MME

MME

MME

82 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

MME

Tekelec Confidential

Operator_3

HSS

Operator_N

USA Tier 1 Core Use Case - Regional S6a Architecture


Region 1

Region 2
Region 3

FE

FE

MME

FE

FE

MME

MME

FE

DSR

FE

DSR
DSR

Roaming Hub

DSR Edge
Agent
MME

DSR

MME

DSR

DSR
HSS

DSR

HSS

DSR

HSS

FE

FE

FE

FE

HSS
MME

Region 4

MME

MME

HSS
MME

MME

MME

Region 5
Operator_1

83 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

HSS

Tekelec Confidential

Operator_N

USA Tier 1 Core Use Case


Colorado
Springs

Cincinnati

Site 6

Site 7

SDM segment 2
DRA/SLF5

SDM segment 3

DRA/SLF6

DRA/SLF7

DRA/SLF8

Midwest Area

South Area
DRA Network

Full Mesh Full


DRAMesh
network
DRA network

West Area

Northeast Area

DRA/SLF1

DRA/SLF2

DRA/SLF3

DRA/SLF4

SDM segment 1

Azusa

Southlake

Branchburg

LTE network experienced rolling outage of HSS Front Ends (NSN-Apertio) triggered by single faulty MME.
Adding DSR (DRA) to: 1) use message throttling to protect HSS FEs, and 2) use address resolution (SLF)
to split HSS data across new segments and introduce new HSS vendor(s).
84

HSS Topology Hiding

HSS 1

HSS 2

2) Update-Location-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm = Op2.NET
Destination_Realm = Op1.NET
Destination_Host = HSS1
User-Name = IMSI_1

Gateway
DSR

IMSI

HSS

IMSI_1

HSS _1

1) Update-Location-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm = Op2.NET
Destination_Realm = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

3) Update-Location-Answer
Origin_Host = HSS1
Origin_Realm = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

4) Update-Location-Answer
Origin_Host = HSS_Public
Origin_Realm = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

DSR replaces HSS ID


with generic ID. The
mapping of IMSI <> HSS
is provisioned.

85 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

MME 1

HSS Topology Hiding

HSS 1

HSS 2

Gateway
DSR

HSS

IMSI_1

HSS _1

1) Purge-UE-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm =Op12NET
Destination Host = HSS_Public
Destination Relam = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

1) Purge-UE-Request
Origin_Host = MME1
Origin_Realm =Op2.NET
Destination Host = HSS1
Destination Relam = Op1.NET
User-Name = IMSI_1

86 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

IMSI

Tekelec Confidential

MME 1

HSS Resolution for LTE Mobility Management


Visited PMN
(MNC=123; MCC=567)

Home PMN
(MNC=15; MCC=234)

1. Update-Location-Request

Destination-Realm= epc.mnc015.mcc234.3gppnetwork.org
Origin-Host= MME1
Origin-Realm= epc.mnc123.mcc567.3gppnetwork.org
User-Name= 234150999999999

vMME

HSS1
2. Update-Location-Request

DSR

4. Update-Location-Answer

Destination-Host= HSS2
All other fields same as msg 1

HSS2
3. Update-Location-Answer

All fields same as msg 3

Origin-Realm= epc.mnc015.mcc234.3gppnetwork.org
Origin-Host= HSS2

HSS3

Initial Update-Location message will contain pre-defined Destination-Realm constructed based on IMSI in the User-Name
AVP, according to 3GPP TS 23.003
DSR performs address resolution on message 1 and inserts Destination-Host associated with the IMSI, which is HSS2
in this example
Subsequent messages are host routed, since the MME and HSS now know the identity of each other

87 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

IMS Subscription Locator Function


Scenario 1 HSS Provides (redirect) SLF Function
DSR

S-CSCF

HSS1

HSS2

Invite
Location-Info-Request (Public-ID)
Location-Info-Answer (Server Name= HSS2)

Location-Info-Request (Public-ID)
Location-Info-Answer (Destination Server)

Scenario 2 DSR Provides (relay) SLF Function


S-CSCF

DSR

HSS1

HSS2

Invite
Location-Info-Request (Public-ID)
Location-Info-Request (Public-ID)
Location-Info-Answer (Destination Server)

88 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

> Less messages


> Reduced delay
> Less HSS and CSCF
processing

Use Cases
Charging Proxy 3G/LTE/IMS (Rf/Gy/Ro)

Charging Network Scaling


Charging Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(Rf/Gy/Ro)

OCS/OFCS
Address
Resolution

OCS/OFCS
Topology Hiding

OCS/OFCS
Session-based
Routing

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

92 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

Centralized
Failover Models

TCP/SCTP
Interworking

Tekelec Confidential

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

Network
Visibility

Reference Model for 3G Online Charging


OCS
Ge
(CAP)

MSC

Online Charging
Functions (OCF)
Account
Balance
Mgt
Function

Rc
Gy

GGSN

Ro
IMS
Gtwy

Session
Based
Charging
Function
(SBCF)
Ga

SIP AS

Charging
Gateway
Function

Ro

IMS
MRFC

Ro
Ro

Event
Based
Charging
Function
(EBCF)

Re

Service
Nodes

93 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

Rating
Function

Rr

Bo

Recharging
Server

OSS Post
Processing
System

Use Case Offline/Online Charging Network Scaling


Site 1

OFCF

OFCF

OFCF

OFCF

Site 2

OFCF

OFCF

. . . OFCF

OFCF

OFCF

Topology hiding drives


the need for session
stateful routing

DSR
Charging Proxy

OFCF

OFCF

DSR

Common/centralized :
OFCF load-balancing
Rf network intelligence
Rf troubleshooting

Gz

PGW

OFCF

Adding OFCFs is
transparent to
GW/CSCF/TAS

Charging Proxy

OFCF

. . . OFCF

Significant reduction
in number of
connections

Rf
GGSN

SGW

CSCF/
TAS

CSCF/
TAS

GGSN

PGW

Adding GW/CSCF/TAS
is transparent to OFCFs

94 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

SGW

3G Mobile GGSN - OCS


GGSN

GGSN

Eliminates need for


load balancers in front
of OCS

GGSN

8 SBCFs/Site

SBCF/ABMF
SBCF/ABMF

GGSN
GGSN

DSR
8 SBCFs/Site

GGSN

SBCF/ABMF
GGSN
SBCF/ABMF
GGSN

DSR
GGSN
GGSN

8 SBCFs/Site

SBCF/ABMF

GGSN
GGSN

Addresses connection
limitations at GGSN

GGSN

95 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Tekelec Confidential

SBCF/ABMF

Enables future
separation of SBCF
and ABMF via
Diameter
interconnect

Summary

Tekelec Confidential

Tekelec DSR - A Multi-application Diameter Agent


Roaming Proxy
LTE/IMS
(S6/S9)

HSS

OCS/
OFCS

Policy Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(Gx/Gxx/Rx/S9)

Agent

HSS
Topology Hiding

HSS/MME/PCRF

Topology Hiding

GGSN
PGW

MME

CSCF

Roaming
Steering

MAP/Diameter
Interworking

Core Relay/Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(all interfaces)

Charging Proxy
3G/LTE/IMS
(Rf/Gy/Ro)

PCRF
IPsec

Other
Networks

HSS Proxy
LTE/IMS
(S6/Cx/Dx/Sh/Dh)

Scalability and
Connection
Management

97 I Tekelec. For Whats Next.

Centralized
Routing and
Load Sharing

PCRF
Topology Hiding

Network-wide
PCRF Binding

Centralized
Failover Models

TCP/SCTP
Interworking

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LTE HSS
Address
Resolution

IMS HSS
Address
Resolution

Diameter
Variant
Mediation

OCS/OFCS
Address
Resolution

OCS/OFCS
Topology Hiding

OCS/OFCS
Session-based
Routing

Network
Visibility

Diameter Network with DSR


Foreign LTE Domain

Foreign GPRS Domain

Simple, secure network


interconnect

Simplified addressing

HSS address resolution and SLF


(subscriber mapping to HSS)
vMME
Maximizes HSS utilization
and
allows for HSS arch flexibility
Policy DRA for PCRF scalability
On-line charging addr resolution

SS7

Diameter
Agent

Single point of interconnect


Access control vSGSN
Topology hiding

Diameter
Agent

HSS Res

EIR

vPCRF

HSS
AAA

SBR

DSR

vS4-SGSN

Reduced network complexity

Adding endpoints requires


IP-SM-GW
changes to agent only
Load balancing and
congestion/network mgmt.
handled by agent
AF

PCRF
P-CSCF

MME

PGW

I/S-CSCF

OFCF

Ease of interworking

Improved network visibility

Mediation of Diameter variants


SCTP-TCP interworking
MAP-Diameter interworking
IPv4-IPv6 interworking

OCF

ABMF

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RF

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Generate reports and track KPIs


Diagnose network problems
Probeless monitoring
Auto-config of perf. mgmt. system
Capture encrytped messages
Home LTE/IMS Domain

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Backup Slides

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Acronyms
ABMF

Account Balance Mgmt. Function

OCF

Online Charging Function

AF

Application Function

OFCF

Offline Charging Function

CSCF

Call Session Control Function

PCRF

Policy and Charging Rules Function

DNS

Domain Name System

PDN

Packet Data Network

DRA

Diameter Routing Agent

PGW

PDN GateWay

EIR

Equipment Identity Register

RF

Rating Function

EPC

Evolved Packet Core

SB

Service Broker

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

SBCF

Session Based Charging Function

GRX

GPRS Roaming eXchange

SCTP

Stream Control Transmission Protocol

HSS

Home Subscriber Server

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

IMC

Inter-MP Communication

SGW

Serving GateWay

IMS

IP Multimedia Subsystem

SLF

Subscription Locator Function

IPX

IP Packet eXchange

SSR

SIP Signaling Router

IWF

InterWorking Function

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

LTE

Long Term Evolution

TLS

Transport Layer Security

MME

Mobility Management Entity

UE

User Equipment

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References

IETF 3588bis Diameter Base Protocol

GSMA PRD IR.88 LTE Roaming Guidelines

3GPP TR 29.805 InterWorking Function (IWF) between MAP based and Diameter based
interfaces

3GPP TS 29.305 InterWorking Function (IWF) between MAP based and Diameter based
interfaces

3GPP TS 23.292 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) centralized services; Stage 2

3GPP TS 29.272 Mobility Management Entity (MME) and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
related interfaces based on Diameter protocol
3GPP TS 23.003 UMTS; Numbering, addressing and identification
3GPP TR 29.909 Diameter-based protocols usage and recommendations in 3GPP

3GPP TS 33.210 3G Security; Network Domain Security; IP network layer security


3GPP TS 23.204 Support of Short Message Service (SMS) over generic 3GPP Internet Protocol
(IP) access

3GPP TS 23.203 Policy and charging control architecture


3GPP TS 29.109 - Zh and Zn Interfaces based on the Diameter protocol

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