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ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR

[Type the document title]

Yamikani Hassan
Due date: 02 September, 2015

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
Management is the process of achieving organisational objectives, within a changing environment,
by balancing efficiency, effectiveness and equity, obtaining the most from limited resources, and
working with and through other people. For productivity of an organisation, managers have to put in
consideration basics that can take their organisation on a move. Classical, human relation, systems
and contingency are some of approaches traced by some scholars to improve management in
organisation. These approaches have divisions, for instance; classical approach is divided into
scientific management and bureaucracy, of which, in this essay I will focus on, scientific
management.
Scientific management is a determination of the most efficient method of working, using what can
be termed as an "engineering approach. With this reason, it is a duty of an organisation to fall under
some principles which were contributed by some scholars like; F. W. Taylor (18561917), Fayol, and
Urwick, just to mention but a few, and these principles are as follows;

Principle of the objective


Every organisation and every part of the organisation must be a face of the reason of the job
concerned, or it is worthless and therefore out of work. It is therefore the work of
management to make sure that the objective of the organisation is fulfilled. In this course, the
management has to introduce mechanisms, ideas, tool just to mention but a few, for the
accomplishment of the objectives.
Principle of authority
In every organised management, there must lie somewhere an authority when running the
organisation. (This is also known as the "scalar principle"). Authority helps in an organisation as
some workers are lazy, and if power is not employed, organisation cannot be productive. And it can
be also good giving punishment to those who dont take their job a responsibility so as to make an
organisation a discipline one. Though the case, there should be a clear line of authority to every
individual in the group.

Principle of responsibility
Management has a responsibility to clarify organisational goals and to attempt to put together
personal goals (including their own) with the overall objectives of the organization. It is the
responsibility of the management to planning the work, to direct, to organize and to control for
productivity of the organization. If the management dont take its responsibility, the work can be
distorted as many workers target, lies on salary not to assist. However, management should consider
its worker when excising its responsibility, as, the workers are human beings.

Principle of correspondence
In every position, responsibility and authority should correspond. When responsibility is
excised without authority, organisation can merely achieved its goals because workers cannot
put strong-mind on the work for they will have nothing to fear of, and mistakes can be
repeated deliberately. And where authority valued most than responsibility, workers will be
working with fear, and for this reason some quit while some will be busy with plan of how to
defeat the management. So responsibility and authority has to work simultaneously for the
high productivity.
Principle of continuity

The organisation is a continuous process over time, and specific condition, should be made for this
continuity of process in every undertaking. For this to be achieved, management should organise
trainings, that, if one retires, quits, or dies, there must not be a big gap. Task-oriented behaviour is
what every worker should be.

Principle of specialisation
The activities of every member of any organised group should be confined, as far as possible,
to the performance of a single function. For example an account should not interrogate the
duties of human resource. There must be limitations to prevent conflict, and to improve
productivity.
Principle of definition
The content of each position, including the duties involved, the authority and responsibility
contemplated, and the relationships with other positions, should be clearly defined in writing and
published to all concerned. Definition of tasks and responsibilities within the structure of
management gave rise to a permanent administration and standardisation of work procedures not
withstanding changes in the definite holders of office.

Principle of Span of control


Span of control refers to the number of subordinates who report to a given manager or
supervisor. No person should supervise more than five, or at the most six, direct subordinates
whose work interlocks. Nevertheless, where there is less interlocking of work like in lower
levels of an organisation, the span of control may be larger.
Principle of co-ordination
The purpose of organising by itself, as distinguished from the purpose of the undertaking, is to
facilitate co-ordination for example to achieve unity of effort. So, as unity is power, organisation
must lie on it. Hence, management and individuals must work hand in hand. Workers have not to be
intimidated when working, they must be free to report anything to their bosses.

Principle of balance
It is essential that the various units of an undertaking should be kept in balance with the purpose of
the organisation. For this to be accomplished the following should be considered; care - the
organisation must show concern to its workers.
Communicating - the organisation must talk what the company really wants to achieve.
Listening considering not only the words but also what lies behind the words.
Knowing the individuals who work for you, their families, personal wishes, desires and ambitions.
Rewarding money is not always necessary; a genuine thank you or public recognition can raise
morale.

In so doing balance can be achieved.


Principles of management if highly considered they can bring change to organisation. In
addition to change, workers and managers can live in harmony in an organisation. And
companies can easily achieve their goals, not miner goals, but high goal.

THEORY X AND THEORY Y

One can ask why people do what they do. People prefer a particular route of action in
preference to others with reasons. The individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of
effort toward attaining a goal is known as motivation. In an organisation, there can be success
unless members are motivated to use their full talents, abilities, and direction to perform well
in the right areas. However, for a person to provide a recommended service, it depends with
the way he is being treated. With this reason, it is obvious that peoples influence, for a good
work to be done in an organisation, comes with the management. It is with this manner that
will take us into Douglas McGregor typology of two opposed views about employee
behaviour, related to Maslow's categories of need, and considered their implications for
management and motivation. These two views are known as Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X
This is direction and control through a centralised structure of organisation and the exercise
of authority.
With assumptions it shows that;
The average people are lazy
The average of people avoids responsibility
Motivation occurs only at physiological and security levels
Thus, it is with these assumptions that make the managers to concur that, in an organisation
people have an innate dislike of work. So, they must be directed, controlled and threatened
with punishments. It is therefore with this approach that has read to authoritarian style of
management as, managers are afraid that, if they dont use authority, if they dont direct, they
may not achieve the organisational goals. Motivation and management on Theory X is
characterised by the carrot and stick approach of pay awards and other incentives, together
with close supervision and control. This is to say that managers can award a certain worker
with an assign of influencing workers to work hard in an organisation.

Theory Y
It is a model in which individuals may satisfy their motivational needs through combination
with meeting the goals of the organisation. Manager believes that people find work a natural
and rewarding activity, they learn to accept and to seek responsibility, and they will respond
positively to opportunities for personal growth and to sympathetic leadership. Thus, if we
accept Maslow's concept of higher needs which people try to find to satisfy through work,
Theory X is clearly lacking. McGregor develops a study of the implications of accepting
Theory Y in regard to performance appraisal, administration of salaries and promotions,
involvement, staffline relationships, leadership, management development and the
managerial team. The more rounded view of people is encompassed In Theory Y. The
characteristics of which are as follows:

The spending of physical and cerebral effort in work is as normal as cooperate


or relax, and the average human being learns, under the appropriate situation,
not only to agree to but to seek responsibility.
External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for
bringing about effort towards organisational objectives. People will exercise
self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are
committed, and commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards
associated with their achievement.
The ability to employ a relatively high level of imagination, ingenuity and
creativity in the solution of organisational problems is widely, not narrowly,
distributed in the population, and under the conditions of modern industrial
life, the intellectual potential of the average human being is only partially
used.
In addition, motivation and management on Theory Y seek to produce an environment in
which employees are not disturbed and can take an attention in their work and the overall
objectives of the organisation. This puts the emphasis on self-motivation and self-direction.
Theory X and Theory Y contribute a lot to the productivity of organisation. Both theories can
be applied in an organisation. When an individual is given a task, theory X must be applied,
and during maintenances functions, theory Y is to be followed as Education and change of
social values have made people to have potential in self-motivating. But in an organisation
where managers believe in theory X, yield high productivity initially because of obedience
based on fear. However, because of unfavourable attitudes, poor communications, lack of cooperative motivation and restriction of output, the long-term result is high absence and
turnover, and low productivity and earnings. Where the job offers a high degree of inherent
satisfaction or involves a variety of tasks, an element of problem-solving and the exercise of
initiative, or where output is difficult to measure in quantitative terms, an informal,
participative approach would seem to be more effective. In this case theory Y is more
productive as workers contribute their full knowledge without interference. Theory Y is
effective where workers have a sharp knowledge of the work. However, due to lack of
authority, later productivity can decrease as workers can become reckless. So a combination
of both theories can be more productive.
In every company it is good to use authority, but in the midst of using authority, workers
must be put into consideration. Workers must be given an opportunity to show their skills
without much interference of the management. In so doing, organisation will be more
productive.