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5.

FUEL BURNING EQUIPMENT


AND FUEL BURNING CONTROLS
5.01

GAS BURNING EQUIPMENT

(1) The high-pressure mechanical atomizing type


is characterized by an air tube, usually horizontal, with
a pressurized oil supply centrally located in the tube
and arranged so that a spray of atomized oil is introduced
at approximately 100 psig and mixed in the combustion
chamber with the air stream emerging from the air
tube (see Fig. 5.02A). The oil is supplied to the burner
by a fuel delivery unit which serves as a pressure flow
regulating device as well as a pumping device. Where
electric ignition is employed, a high-voltage transformer
is used to supply approximately 10,000 V to create an
ignition arc across a pair of electrodes located above
the nozzle. Where gas ignition is employed on a larger
burner, a gas pilot is used. The firing rate is governed
by the size of the nozzle used. Multiple nozzles are
used on some of the larger burners and variable flow
nozzles are used on others.
A low fire start on a modulating burner which
employs a variable flow nozzle is accomplished by
supplying the oil at a reduced pressure. A low fire
start on a multiple nozzle burner is accomplished by
permitting oil flow to only one or two of the nozzles.
(2) The low-pressure atomizing burner differs from
the high-pressure type mainly by having means for
supplying a mixture of oil and primary air to the burner
nozzle. The air meeting the mixture in the furnace is
secondary air which provides for complete combustion. The air pressure before mixing and the pressure
of the airoil mixture vary with different makes of
burners, but are in the low range of 1 psig to 15 psig
for air and 2 psig to 7 psig for the mixture. Capacity
of the burners is varied by making pump stroke or
orifice changes on the oil pumps.

Gas burners fall into two general classes: atmospheric


and power type.
A. Atmospheric Gas Burners. Atmospheric burners
depend upon natural draft for combustion air. There
are several types of atmospheric burners, most of which
fall into the general classifications of single or multiport
type. See Fig. 5.01A.
B. Power Gas Burners. Power gas burners depend
upon a blower to supply combustion air. They fall into
two general classifications: natural draft and forced draft.
(1) Natural draft burners operate with a furnace
pressure slightly less than atmospheric. The proper draft
condition is maintained either by natural draft or an
induced draft fan.
(2) Forced draft burners are designed to operate
with a furnace pressure higher than atmospheric. These
burners are equipped with sufficient blower capacity
to force products of combustion through the boiler
without the help of natural or induced draft.
C. Combination Fuel Burners. Combination fuel
burners are designed for burning more than one fuel
with either manual or automatic switchover from one
fuel to another. The combinations of fuel generally
used are natural-liquefied petroleum gas or gas oil. See
Fig. 5.01C.

5.02

OIL BURNING EQUIPMENT

An oil burner mechanically mixes fuel oil and air


for combustion under controlled conditions. Ignition is
accomplished by an electric spark, electric resistance
wire, gas pilot flame, or oil pilot flame.

B. Steam Atomizing Burners. Steam atomizing


burners utilize steam to atomize heavy grade fuel oil.
Steam is usually supplied by the boiler being operated.

A. Pressure Atomizing Burners (Gun Type). Pressure atomizing (gun type) burners may be divided into
two classes: high-pressure and low-pressure mechanical
atomization.

C. Air Atomizing Burners. In this type of burner,


the compressed air or steam is used as the atomizing
medium.
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5.02

1998 SECTION VI

An air compressor is usually provided as part of the


burner although the air may be supplied from another
source.

(a) high stack temperature


(b) high or low gas fuel pressure
(c) high or low fuel oil temperature
C. Safety Controls
(1) Stop fuel flow in case of ignition failure.
(2) Stop fuel flow in case of main flame interruption.
(3) Stop fuel flow in case of mechanical draft
failure.
(4) Stop fuel flow in case of circuit failure.

D. Horizontal Rotary Cup Burner. The horizontal


rotary cup burner (see Fig. 5.02D) utilizes the principle
of centrifugal atomization. The oil is prepared for
combustion by centrifugal force, spinning it off a cup
rotating at high speed into an air stream, causing the
oil to break up into a spray. This type can be used
with all grades of fuel oil. Modulated firing can be
provided on these burners.

5.03

D. Programming Controls. Programming controls,


when used, provide proper sequencing of the above
controls to insure that all conditions, necessary for
proper burner operation, are satisfied. Included in a
programmed control are prepurge and postpurge cycles
to remove accumulated gases.

COAL BURNING EQUIPMENT

Generally, stokers are used when burning coal. Stokers provide a mechanical means for feeding coal and
supplying combustion air. They are built in several
types, the most common of which are underfeed,
spreader, and chain grate. See Fig. 5.03-1, Fig. 5.032, and Fig. 5.03-3.

5.04

5.04

E. Spare Parts. Spare parts for controls, including


electronic components which require time for procurement, should be maintained in stock supply.
F. Power for Electrically Operated Controls. All
controls should be powered with a potential of 150 V
or lower with one side grounded. A separate equipment
ground conductor should be brought to the control
panel frame with ground continuity assured to the fuel
valve. All operating coils of control devices should be
connected to the neutral side of the control circuit, and
all control limit switches or contacts should be in the
ungrounded (hot) side of the control circuit. If an
isolating transformer is used, it should be bonded to
the control panel frame. The equipment ground is not
required when the isolating transformer is used. Do
not fuse control transformers above their rated current
value because these devices are current limiting and
an oversize fuse may not blow under short circuit
conditions.

CONTROLS

Automatically fired boilers may be equipped with


operating, limit, safety, and programming controls which
may be electrically or pneumatically operated. These
controls perform the following functions.
A. Operating Controls
(1) Start, stop, and modulate the burner (if desired)
in response to the systems demand, keeping steam
pressure or hot water temperature at or below the limit
control setting.
(2) Maintain proper water level in steam boiler.
(3) Maintain proper water pressure in hot water
heating boilers.

G. Air for Pneumatically Operated Controls. Determine that compressed air for pneumatically operated
controls is clean, dry, and available at adequate pressure.

B. Limit Controls
(1) Stop burner when steam pressure or hot water
temperature exceeds limit control setting. Steam boilers
to operate at not more than 15 psi; hot water boilers
to operate at temperatures not more than 250F.
(2) Stop burner when water level drops below
minimum safe level.
(3) When required, stop burner in case of unusual
conditions such as:

H. Venting of Gas Controls. Venting of gas controls


should conform to recognized installation standards.
I. Reference to ASME CSD-1. ASME CSD-1 contains specific requirements regarding the controls to be
included in the fuel train, the timing of their operation,
and the resulting action that must be achieved.

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Fig. 5.01A

5. FUEL BURNING EQUIPMENT AND FUEL BURNING CONTROLS

FIG. 5.01A ATMOSPHERIC GAS BURNER

FIG. 5.01C COMBINATION FUEL BURNERS

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Fig. 5.01C

Fig. 5.02A

1998 SECTION VI

FIG. 5.02A HIGH-PRESSURE ATOMIZING BURNER

FIG. 5.02D HORIZONTAL ROTARY CUP FUEL OIL BURNER


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Fig. 5.02D

Fig. 5.03-1

5. FUEL BURNING EQUIPMENT AND FUEL BURNING CONTROLS

FIG. 5.03-1 UNDERFEED SINGLE-RETORT STOKER

FIG. 5.03-2 OVERTHROW RECIPROCATING PLATE-FEED TYPE SPREADER STOKER


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Fig. 5.03-2

Fig. 5.03-3

1998 SECTION VI

FIG. 5.03-3 CHAIN GRATE STOKER WITH SECTION SHOWING LINKS

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