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Indah Water Population Equivalents (PE)

8 October 2014 12:14 AM


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Population Equivalents (PE)

In order to design pipe network, pump stations and sewage treatment plants, estimates need to be made of the volumetric
flow rate which will be expected to be carried, pumped and treated.
Such flow rates are measured in cubic metres per second and need to be calculated for both existing land use and for
expected future development.

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There are many methods for calculating expected flow rates. One method is to calculate a design parameter called the
"population equivalent" (PE) of a catchment and convert this to a flow rate.

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The PE is an estimate of the usage made of sewage facilities. It is not a measure of population.

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For residential areas the population equivalent is calculated as five per dwelling and is a direct measurement of the
population in an area.
However for commercial areas it is calculated from the floor area, which is considered to be proportional to the number of
people using a premises during the day. In this case it does not reflect the population living in an area.
The following table shows how the PE is calculated.

Type of Establishment

Population Equivalent


5 per house

Commercial :
Includes offices, shopping complex,
entertainment / recreational centres,

3 per 100m2 gross area

restaurants, cafeteria and theatres

School / Educational Institutions :
- Day schools / Institutions
- Fully residential
- Partial residential

0.2 per student

1 per student
0.2 per non-residential student
1 per residential student


4 per bed

Hotel with dining and laundry facilities

4 per room

Factories, excluding process water

0.3 per staff

Market (Wet Type)

3 per stall

Market (Dry Type)

1 per stall

Petrol kiosks / Service stations

15 per toilet

Bus Terminal

4 per bus bay

Taxi Terminal

4 per taxi bay

Mosque / Church / Temple

0.2 per person


0.2 per person



Indah Water Population Equivalents (PE)

Swimming Pool or Sports Complex

0.5 per person

Public Toilet

15 per toilet


0.2 per passenger/day

0.3 per employee


10 per machine


1 per person

Golf Course

20 per hole

The PE may be converted to a flow rate using a simple formula such as set out in Malaysian Standards 1228 (MS1228).

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