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BEYOND MAINSTREAM

# DIGI TAL
IMPACT

MARKETING,
SALES & SERVICE

NETWORK & IT

SUPPORT FUNCTIONS

LEAN TELCO

Redefining the telecom business


from cost-cutting to smart efficiency

JUNE 2014

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

THE BIG 3
1

transition
The telco business in Europe has seen many cost-cutting rounds without
fundamentally rethinking business models and organizational principles.
To become fit for the future, telcos should combine growth and efficiency
strategically in a "new lean" blueprint.
p. 3

innovation
Lean means powerful, flexible and adjustable to current and future market
needs. It's not just cutting costs but delayering operations and pushing
innovation.
p. 6

delayering
Defining three key layers with a clear focus on strategy and steering.
Every single function has to be identified as core or non-core for the
company. Core functions remain the key priority while non-core functions
can be outsourced or carried out in partnerships.
p. 11

The
lean telco
matrix
p. 7
2

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

The journey to lean telco. How


telecom players manage the transition
from cost-cutting to smart efficiency
by reducing complexity and leveraging
new partnership models.
Telecom players in Europe are facing an unprecedented
challenge. The need for transformation and change is not
news in an industry that has been driven by accelerating
innovation for decades but has suffered enormous pressure and stagnation in the last few years. A
But the up-coming transition can't be solved like
the last ones. It's not just about cost-cutting anymore,
since that potential has often been exhausted. It's
about a new mindset and strategically combining
growth and efficiency.
We at Roland Berger are known as experts for
restructuring and successfully leveraging previously
unexploited savings potential. This is precisely why we

are intervening with an alternative approach now:


Together with our clients and industry experts, we
recognize that times require more drastic action.
Something beyond merely cutting costs.
As we developed this "smart efficiency" approach, 1
we focused on two key questions:
> What BUSINESS MODEL allows for value creation in
a scenario of profitability pressure and a continuously
changing environment?
> Which ORG ANIZ ATION AL PRINCIPLES can
support an efficient, customer-oriented and flexible
organization that is capable of handling increasing
complexity?

MILESTONES OF THE EUROPEAN TELECOM INDUSTRY

Launch of GSM
in Europe

Cable
internet

Auction of
3G
licenses
in UK

1992

1997

2000

Rollout of
UMTS
networks
ADLS2+
for HDTV via
internet

First iPhone
sold in Europe

Cable internet
via Docsis 3.1

2003

2007

2013

1987

1996

1999

2002

2006

2009

2016

European
Union
recommends
deregulation

Deutsche
Telekom goes
public

Launch of
DSL

Fiber era is
taking off, due
to FTTX
systems

Launch of
broadband
VDSL

Launch of
LTE

90% of all
Europeans
own a smartphone

First smartphone
Nokia Communicator

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO
A

FROM GROWTH TO COST-CUTTING


REVENUES OF EUROPEAN TELCOS HAVE BEEN
IN DECLINE SINCE 2007
Fixed line and mobile telecom revenues [USD bn]

-2%
467

+7%

450
432

448

442
428

404

421

413

409

406

403

398

368
338
310
287

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014e 2015e 2016e

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

The result is the lean telco blueprint, conceptualized by


Roland Berger experts and assessed in close collaboration with international CXOs and strategy departments.
Implementing this approach requires courage and risk
tolerance. It will force some telecom players to turn everything upside-down and require rethinking deeply entrenched old habits, processes and structures. It will be
tough, but for many players, at least the only way to
become fit for the future.

Fundamental shift of value creation


toward vendors and partners

Comparisons with other industries show that this is a


common development. The automotive industry's
answer to stagnating growth was to shift value creation
to its suppliers, for example. Today, major technical innovations in cars, such as next-generation assistance
or safety systems, are developed by suppliers, while
large automotive manufacturers focus on car design
and technology integration. This concentration on core
competencies enables them to reduce the complexity
of their own organization.

To understand the current market needs even better,


we interviewed CXOs from fixed line operators, mobile
and integrated players in Western and Eastern Europe.
The results were incorporated into a modularized blueprint to support telecoms' long-term transformation
process. It provides guidance to a vision that optimizes
operations, reevaluates delivery models and improves
efficiency.
More than 90% of the interviewees think that such
a modularization might be a promising way to tackle
upcoming operational issues. Our interviews clearly
revealed that the times of pure cost-cutting are over
and priorities are shifting more and more toward smart
efficiency. 65% of the managers interviewed agree
that both growth and efficiency are relevant, and 30%
even believe that efficiency is the only priority.
Many operators have started implementing and
testing new models already, especially for ongoing
and CAPEX-intensive LTE rollouts and foreseeable
5G investments. Examples of joint operations
(Everything Everywhere in the UK or T-Mobile/
Orange in Poland) as well as outsourcing approaches (e.g. Hutchison 3G Austria with its network partner Huawei) illustrate this development. These
examples correspond with another result of our survey: that more than 50% of the respondents see a
strong need for partnering. "The core elements of
our future operations are to increase efficiency and
to foster partnering as well as outsourcing," one EXECUTIVE OF A EUROPEAN TELECOM
manager stated.
ATTACKER

"I believe that


efficiency will gain
relevance and
become the main
objective along
with growth, if not
replace growth,
in the medium
to long term."

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

The new paradigm. Lean means powerful, flexible and adjustable to current
and future market needs. It's not just
cutting costs but delayering operations
and pushing innovation.
Before telecom players define their future operating
model, it is absolutely crucial for them to clarify their
strategy first. Which functions will be categorized as
"core"? Which will be "non-core" and thus up to negotiation? Every business segment should be tested regarding market position as well as current and future financial contribution. The same holds true for product lines.
When growth was driven by new services and products,
managing the increasing complexity was given lower priority. As a result, telecoms started to run several services, often with additional systems not fully integrated
into the IT landscape, leading to a tangled mess.
Our survey revealed three key questions for clarifying the strategy and in the second step reducing
complexity in products and services:
> Which markets do we want to be active on?
> Which services/products do we want to offer?
> How do we get from here to there?
The general guideline should be: Eliminate as many
services and offers as reasonably possible and reduce
process complexity from a value perspective. Scrutinize
every function in your company: "We have analyzed every single function from two points of view: Do we need
it on a local or on a global level?" a manager at a UK
telecom player told us. "And do we have to control it
completely or could it be managed by an external partner?" Proximity and ownership those are the two
parameters that have to be analyzed on the way to becoming lean. They are easy to visualize in a matrix. B
6

Each element of the matrix determines what strategies


or approaches to smart reorganization are appropriate.
Functions that have to be owned but do not need to be
available on a local level will become part of the headquarters, for instance. The guiding principle is how to
invest available resources in the most efficient way.
Financial resources of course need to be considered,
but IT capacity, workload and management attention
have to be kept in mind as well to achieve the best
possible return on investment and to remain flexible.
Here's an example: An operator cuts off its very
specialized B2B large accounts business and focuses
on standardized products instead. It no longer needs
to consider the complexity of individual projects. Thus,
it can significantly reduce the number of client-tailored
solutions and shift resources to apply comparable processes in its residential and small to medium-sized
enterprise (SME) business.
This assessment involves three general steps. The
company has to provide transparency coping with the
difficulty of allocating costs to their originator. While
analyzing the possibility to discontinue certain segments in the second step, the contribution margin of
each segment to cover fixed (network) cost must be
considered. And once it has been decided which segments to split, management has to find the easiest way
to do so. This is often determined by the technologies
applied. For example, it is much easier to break up an
operator into fixed and mobile than to separate SME

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

from small office/home office (SoHo) business, because the latter use the same network infrastructure.
Becoming "lean" is about more than just downsizing an operator. Our lean telco approach aims at
strengthening its core. The overarching principle is to
minimize complexity on a strategic level. That's what
we call "lean". Lean does not mean small. Lean means
powerful, flexible and adjustable to current and future
market needs. With this clarified strategy of smart reorganization, the operator can focus on growth again.
This growth is not achieved with endless product variations realized through complex IT solutions, but rather
with a flexible core that allows the integration of additional modules via clear interfaces.
This opportunity to refocus on growth is particularly
important in an industry accustomed to growth. First,
the capital markets want a story with elements of growth
as a major value driver. An ongoing, multi-year focus on

efficiency can't be a story in itself. Second, the transformation toward lean requires various structural changes
with considerable impact on the employees, as significant portions of the workforce could be transferred to
partner companies or joint ventures. This might lead to
relocations for employees and a modified financial
structure, for instance. Therefore, growth elements
should be interwoven with messages purely focused on
higher efficiency and better operating models.
Once the redefined strategy and its growth story
are in place, the blueprint has to be tailored to the
telco's specific situation.
Our interviews revealed four essential components
for doing so:
1. Defining core and non-core functions
2. Partnering for non-core activities
3. Delayering the operator
4. Pushing innovation

THE LEAN TELCO MATRIX


Functional decision criteria

High

Global partnership/
outsourcing

Global core/
headquarter function

Local partnership/
outsourcing

Local core function

PROXIMIT Y

Low
Low

OWNERSHIP

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

High

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

"Defining clear
interfaces helped
us to identify the
core processes.
This additional
transparency
itself increased
efficiency."
EXECUTIVE OF A EUROPEAN TELECOM
INCUMBENT

1. Defining core and non-core


functions
What should the operator look like in the future? First,
management has to look at every single function to
identify it as core or non-core. The core functions will
focus on strategic tasks and the steering of non-core
functions, such as shared and customer services, procurement or mass delivery processes. In the non-core
functions, the focus will be on improving efficiency and
creating synergies.
This separation implies that only a minor part of
today's headcount will form part of the future core.
Depending on the legal structure of the non-core
elements, significant transfers of employees have to
be managed, as mentioned above. Additionally, the
P&L will change significantly, if various former internal
operation costs are externalized.

2. Partnering for non-core activities


Alternative partner models are a recommended way to
improve efficiencies within the non-core activities. The
majority of the interviewed experts agree that there is
a strong need for partnership. "It is a core element for
us," said an executive of a provider in CEE.
The overall idea of these alternative models is to
increase synergies and share them among the partners. In our interviews, network, IT and call centers
were mentioned most often as areas where partnering
is already very relevant today. When asked about areas
where partnering may be relevant in the future, the experts most often named cross-industry functions such
as accounting and payroll.
The approaches to partnering vary widely and
strongly depend on the structure of the operator and
the local partners available. For example: A multinational operator group can centralize its core network
operations, making local centers redundant, and save
on headcount and equipment. The group is partnering
internally across its subsidiaries. In contrast, a standalone operator cannot apply this approach and has
to look for external partners. It can partner with its

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

network equipment vendor by transferring responsibility for network operations to the vendor, for instance.
The latter can create synergies by integrating the unit
into its global operations center.
Other partnership models include working with
competitors and specialized service providers. If
carve-out models are relevant and the carved-out
units have a reasonable size, financial investors can be
partners, too. Even IPOs for carved-out units can be
considered with a high number of shareholders as
financial partners.

To foster innovation, the incentive system should incorporate it as a central element. Industries such as the
semiconductor business, with its consistently defined
research career paths and awards for inventions and
technological breakthroughs, can be role models in
this regard. The incentive system might include idea
contests for all employees, innovation training and
workshops and publicly announced rewards for the
best inventions.

3. Delayering the operator


Delayering, or removing organizational layers, aims to
simplify steering and define clear interfaces. For historical reasons, operators are very monolithic in terms
of organizational structure and especially IT. Redefining functional responsibilities with clear interaction
and relevant steering methodologies improves transparency and therefore efficiency. Moreover, it increases the flexibility for future structural modifications of
core and non-core activities. As the definition of core
and non-core as well as the market environment might
change over time, the operator may need a partner for
additional functions. Establishing such a partnership
will be much easier if the functions are clearly separated from each other via standardized interfaces.

4. Pushing innovation
For both core and non-core activities, it will be
increasingly important to focus on innovation. In the
past, operators innovated mainly on the product
level, either through large-scale introductions of
completely new service lines such as DSL and mobile
broadband or, more often, by offering new tariffs. In
the future, process innovation will be the major driver
to generate an advantage in customer perception,
automate processes and provide services cost-efficiently. A look at other industries can help provide
know-how in production systems (e.g. aviation) or
automation (automotive industry).
ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO
C

THE LEAN TELCO BLUEPRINT


REDUCING COMPLEXIT Y BY DELAYERING

BY DISTINGUISHING THE KEY SEGMENTS OF MARKETING, SALES & SERVICE,


NETWORK & IT AND SUPPORT FUNCTIONS, THE LEAN TELCO BLUEPRINT MAKES
IT POSSIBLE TO LEVERAGE SYNERGIES IN BRAND MANAGEMENT, NETWORK
INTEGRATION AND STREAMLINED HEADQUARTER FUNCTIONS

3
10

MARKETING,
SALES &
SERVICE

STRONG BRAND
Marketing
Sales & channel steering
Customer service

NETWORK
& IT

INTEGRATED NETWORK
Fixed network planning
& management
Mobile network planning
Lean IT architecture

SUPPORT
FUNCTIONS

STREAMLINED HQ
Strategy
Procurement
Finance & Controlling
Talent Management

ROLAND
ROLAND
BERGER
BERGER
STRATEGY
STRATEGY
CONSULTANTS
CONSULTANTS

Shop partnerships
Call center partnerships
Field service joint ventures
E-sales joint ventures
Wholesale centers

Network partnerships
> e.g. 2G/3G/LTE sharing,
FTTx
Billing partnerships
> e.g. with another telco
Outsourcing
> Fixed network
construction
> Unbundled local loop
platform
> I T

Shared services
> Accounting
> Payroll
> Procurement joint
ventures: network,
devices, IT, content
Outsourcing
> Facility Management
> Fleet Services

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

The lean telco blueprint. Defining three


key layers with a clear focus on strategy
and steering.
Based on the four components, we envisioned the
blueprint of a future lean telco player as shown in the
illustration. C
A lean telco core, therefore, consists of three key
layers:
> Marketing, Sales & Service
> Network & IT
> Support Functions
For Marketing, Sales & Service, the focus lies on the
future brand, which today is usually the responsibility of
the marketing department. The unit defines the overall
brand, channel and service strategy as well as product
and service development. It selects and steers retail
partners and negotiates contracts (especially legal
terms and conditions) as well as service level agreements. Performance of mass processes is tracked and
new models are continuously tested with partners.
If performance is poor, then processes or partners are
changed. For example, cooperating with several shopcultur partners makes it possible to test slightly different
shop designs and agents as well as performance and
incentive systems. Additionally, the unit provides the
partner with advertising material, handsets and training.
The key responsibilities of Network & IT are
planning the fixed line and mobile network, selecting
vendors, steering partnerships and designing the IT
architecture. Regional rollout planning, especially for
fiber and LTE, is performed in alignment with marketing
and sales requirements. Vendor and technology partners are managed based on the service level agreements and agreed KPIs.
New partnership models for the mobile and fixed
segments are assessed organizationally as well as

financially. This can range from passive or active


sharing approaches in the mobile network to local
loop unbundling platform partnering models with
competitors. Regarding mass processes in network
maintenance, an outsourcing model can be considered. More sophisticated partnering models bundle
the maintenance operations teams of various players
in one market, providing the service for all partners in
a joint venture.
The core IT team focuses on defining the IT landscape architecture and selecting appropriate providers. In keeping with the delayering aspect, the landscape is modularized with clear interfaces so that IT
partners can be changed for selected systems. The
architecture must also define interfaces for major systems such as CRM, billing and network management,
so that any one of these can be changed or updated
without affecting the others.
The role of the Support Functions unit is also in
line with a focus on strategy and steering. Therefore,
key tasks will be the definition of the overall operator
strategy, Talent Management, Strategic Procurement
and Finance & Controlling. Additionally, legally required tasks have to remain in this core, especially
teams for regulatory as well as compliance and audit
management. Again, mass processes for Payroll,
Accounting and Facility Management will be steered
and controlled here.

Lean means leveraging synergies


Once an operator has defined its lean core, mass
processes will become non-core. These are not

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

11

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

sufficient to provide significant differentiation on the


market; however, a certain standard of quality has
to be assured at the highest possible efficiency.
For Marketing, Sales & Service processes, this can
be done by tapping synergies through various partnering models. For example, operators can partner
with different retail chains to set up shop-in-shop
models. The e-channel can be transferred to a
specialized partner that manages the online shop
together with the logistics.
For several customer services, outsourcing models
or carve-outs can be an option. Sharing or relocating
call centers alone results in total OPEX savings of
0.5-1.0% on average. Outsourced field services could
be bundled with the services delivered by utilities or
consumer electronic players, for instance.
Within Network & IT, the major driver for synergies
is partnering on infrastructure. Sharing mobile infrastructure is already a proven standard approach. Models such as the carve-out of towers into separate legal
entities have been tested in some countries, too
(examples: American Towers, Albertis, Millicom).
Partnerships with providers for network equipment and
services as well as for IT operation should be evaluated
regarding their savings potential. Our analyses for
European players indicate that such partnerships can
realistically cut total CAPEX by 13-14%.
Regarding Support Functions in headquarters, the
majority can be transferred to specialized partners.
Payroll Management, Procurement, Fleet and Facility
Management can be purchased in a standardized way.
Just the lean organization of procurement processes
alone can help reduce total OPEX by up to 5%. For
operator groups, shared models are an alternative:
resources of various subsidiaries are pooled in one
country, therefore saving on headcount.
In all models, preparing and structuring the partnership is key. A thorough definition of the legal framework is time and effort well spent. Issues that seem
insignificant in the preparation phase can snowball as
the partnership progresses, developing into major
challenges if no standard approach to dealing with
them has been defined.
12

From a loose collection of tools to a


truly coherent vision
Our interviews revealed that many telecoms already
apply frameworks and continuous improvement approaches like Lean, Six Sigma or Kaizen. Nevertheless,
complexity, ownership and silo-thinking seem to be the
reasons why a centralized simplification of processes
is still out of reach. "We still have inconsistencies in
the long-term view within our own company," a Swiss
manager explained in our survey. These inconsistencies might become a roadblock on the way to an even
leaner operating model. And the strategist of a CEE
telecom player conceded that there are "some parts
remaining of the old silo structure".
Overall, there's overwhelming commitment to leaner
structures: Around 60% of the interviewees in our survey
"strongly agree" with the lean telco blueprint, another
25% "partly agree". Despite such high acceptance, half
of the respondents say that their corporation has no
need for action. More than 40% of the interviewees believe that their company is already on track: "We operate
in a lean way and our product development is similar to
a lean factory," one executive stressed.
This analysis might hold true when measured by
former telecom standards. However, compared to other industries, and considering that most executives
recognize that efficiency will become a top priority, it
sounds absurd. Telecoms are in denial: Their mindset
is often still growth-oriented and hence has no room
for the required move to smart efficiency, even as they
acknowledge that markets are shrinking.
Obviously, changing such a mindset takes time. It
may take even more time than a "regular" change due
to the new and challenging approach. Don't underestimate the difficulty: It is anything but easy to anchor
lean thinking (or to release "change capacity", as one
of the interviewed experts called it) among managers
used to investing millions or billions of euros in growth
scenarios or developing fancy new products. Employees have to be convinced that lean means smart. That
it's worth focusing on the core business, to invest energy in optimizing and refining internal interfaces and

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

processes. That the result will not only be lower costs


but a more transparent, more flexible and more innovative company.

How to set up a step-by-step


master plan
Transformation will take several years. Therefore, the
process should be started sooner rather than later. On
the one hand, communication technologies, customer
demands and competition are developing faster than
ever. On the other hand, it's a question of cashflow:
If revenues begin to erode faster than costs can be
reduced, it may already be too late. Every change costs
money. So it's much easier to become lean as long as
there is sufficient financial leeway.
Based on a clarified strategy with a leaner product
and service portfolio, a step-by-step master plan with
emphasis on the various partnering approaches needs
to be devised. The blueprint, or its elements identified
as key for an operator, can be implemented in a modular approach, understanding that there is no golden
rule for which functions to begin with. This depends on
the status of the preparation, the available partners
and an assessment of management regarding the
highest need for action. However, each year clear
transformation targets should be defined and a review,
including an update of the strategy with regard to
changes in the market environment, needs to be conducted. At the same time, as argued above, a growth
focus has to be included.
The key is to generate commitment for the master
plan within top management, including the supervisory
board. This is a challenge for international players in
particular, as one interviewee reported, because "we
need a global as well as a local alignment". A second
source spoke about the problem of internal turf battles: "We have to fight hard to overcome regional kingdoms." We see two kinds of potential risks that have to
be assessed: organizational ones (if employees rebel
against the new approach, for instance) and operational ones (securing delivery). Hence, mitigation strategies should be in place and a failure-tolerant atmo-

sphere should be instilled as the transformation is


complex and depends on external partners. Additionally, innovations normally have a certain failure rate.
To account for that fact, an ongoing communication
and compliance with these guidelines is key during the
implementation. Trial and error and the acceptance of
failure are crucial if companies want to foster a culture
of innovation and dare to promote bold managers.

"The process to a
lean telco provider
will be a very slow
one. Many still
think in their old
structures and
lean thinking is
not anchored in
their minds."
STRATEGIST OF A EUROPEAN TELECOM
ATTACKER

ROLAND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS

13

THINK ACT
LEAN TELCO

A LEAN TELCO APPROACH OFFERS HUGE


SAVINGS POTENTIAL
OPEX [arb. units]

100

up to
-20%
80-88

before

Key success factors and why it's


worth becoming lean
As our interviews revealed, the transformation
toward a lean telco is a key topic on European CXOs'
agendas in saturated markets. Some elements of the
lean approach have been tested, but this radical approach requires a new organizational setup, an
open-minded attitude as well as operational and
financial backing from stakeholders.
Based on the definition of the core, partnering approaches, delayering and innovation, future telecoms
will look and act completely different. The strategic
lean core will steer selected partners that carry out
mass processes for the operator. The speed of implementation and the scope of the transformation will
vary widely, but the blueprint will provide guidance for
the overall direction. D
To summarize the necessary steps, telcos will need:
> Top management sponsorship to communicate and
support the idea
> A central "lean team" with sufficient experience to
coordinate and support all projects
> A change in corporate culture to embrace the idea of
continuous improvement and manage the expectations of all stakeholders accordingly
> End-to-end optimization of operational, administrative and management processes
> Lean initiatives initiated bottom-up and integration
of the employees in the process to foster a motivated
and innovative culture.
The path to becoming lean might be bumpy, but it's
worth the effort: In total, a successful implementation
will enable annual OPEX reductions of up to 20%. Thus,
EBITDA margins will increase significantly.
These figures and the ability to create a flexible and
modern telecom player with a clear focus are the ingredients for promising prospects, which are appreciated
by shareholders and financial markets alike. Thus,
even in times of shrinking margins, a lean player can
plausibly tell a new growth story.

after

LEAN TELCO APPROACH

14

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ABOUT US
Roland Berger Strategy Consultants
Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, founded in 1967, is one of the world's leading strategy consultancies.
With around 2,700 employees working in 51 offices in 36 countries worldwide, we have successful operations
in all major international markets. Roland Berger advises major international industry and service companies
as well as public institutions. Our services cover all issues of strategic management from strategy alignment
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"It's character that creates impact!" www.rolandberger.com

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TELCO 2020: How


Telcos transform for
the "Smartphone
Society"

DELIVERY MODEL
2.0: Vision for the
future business
model

While usage and


associated data
volumes continue to
grow exponentially,
telecom operators
are under the price
pressure that
inevitably accompanies commoditization. So what can they
do to fight their
battle against
Internet giants like
Apple, Facebook or
Google?

Merely reacting to
new competitors, to
growing complexity,
and to increasingly
detailed customer
requirements does
not answer the
fundamental question
for telcos, which is
where and how they
aim to earn money in
the future. A reorientation of the entire
company is required.

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Partner
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carsten.rossbach@rolandberger.com

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Germany
+49 89 9230-0
www.rolandberger.com

PHILIPP LEUTIGER
Partner
+49 89 9230-8904
philipp.leutiger@rolandberger.com
TIM BOTTKE
Partner
+49 89 9230-8790
tim.bottke@rolandberger.com

Special thanks go to Dr. Marcus Steiner and


Philipp Schaefer for their valuable contributions.

MICHAEL TRENKWALDER
Project Manager
+49 89 9230-8250
michael.trenkwalder@rolandberger.com

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provided in this publication without receiving specific professional advice. Roland Berger Strategy Consultants GmbH
shall not be liable for any damages resulting from any use of the information contained in the publication.
2014 ROL AND BERGER STRATEGY CONSULTANTS GMBH. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.