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• Packaging is often called the hidden P or 5th P of Marketing Mix.

• Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting
products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to
the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.
• Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods
for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging
contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells.


• Physical protection - The objects enclosed in the package may require

protection from, among other things, shock, vibration, compression,
temperature, etc.

• Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapour, dust, etc.,

is often required. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages
contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life.
Modified atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in
some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile and safe
for the intended shelf life is a primary function. E.g. ice cream.

• Containment or agglomeration - Small objects are typically
grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency. For example, a
single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000
single pencils. Liquids, powders, and granular materials need Pencil box packaging.

• Information transmission - Packages and labels communicate how

to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. With
pharmaceuticals, food, medical, and chemical products, some types of
information are required by governments. Some packages and labels also
are used for track and trace purposes. E.g. Eucalyptus oil.

• Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to

encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package graphic
design and physical design have been important and constantly evolving
phenomenon for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic
design are applied to the surface of the package and (in many cases) the
point of sale display. E.g. Fair & handsome.

• Security - Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security

risks of shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper
resistance to deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to
help indicate tampering. Packages can be engineered to help reduce the
risks of package pilferage: Some package constructions are more resistant
to pilferage and some have pilfered indicating seals. Packages may
include authentication seals and use security printing to help indicate that
the package and contents are not counterfeit. E.g. Intel processor.

• Convenience - Packages can have features that add convenience in

distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use,
dispensing, and reuse. E.g. Bru Packing.

• Portion control - Single serving or single dosage packaging has a
precise amount of contents to control usage. Bulk commodities (such as
salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable size for
individual households. It is also aids the control of inventory: selling
sealed one-litre-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own
bottles to fill themselves. E.g. Tooth paste available with different


packaging-reusable, recyclable, less wasteful and safer for environment.


It is convenient to categorize packages by layer or function:

“primary”, “secondary”, “territory”.

• Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and
holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the
package which is in direct contact with the contents.
E.g.: Hamam soap has primary cover (white cover), Pears soap.

• Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, perhaps used to

group primary packages together.

• Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and

transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that
packs tightly into containers.

These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example,

depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when
applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when combining
smaller packages, and tertiary packaging on some distribution packs.


Packaging is the ultimate vehicle for design: industrial, graphic, and

typographic design is all put to the test to create an impression so meaningful
that it converts currency into consumerism. This compilation of packaging
excellence is a comprehensive source of inspiration applicable to any project

• Economical.
• Functional.
• Communicative.
• Attractive.


• Packaging is a sales tool.

• Identifies the maker of the product.

• Biggest advertising and promotional tool.

• Encourages repurchases e.g.mazza bottle used as water bottle.

• Facilitates retailers function.

• Creates product image and individuality (e.g. maaza and fanta).

• Easy display e.g. Shampoo satche etc.


• Glass bottles. E.g. Dettol bottle etc.

• Pet Bottles. E.g. Coke, Pepsi etc.
• Tin Bottles.
• Card board boxes. E.g. Mysore sandal Box.
• Jute bags. E.g. shopping bags.
• PVC bags. E.g. Files
• Tetra packs. E.g. Fruity etc.
• Aluminium. E.g. medicine covers.
• Thermocol.
• Rubber. E.g. Flask etc.
• Plastics.
➢ Tubes. E.g. Fair & Handsome.
➢ Plastics packets.
➢ Plastic bottle/cans.
➢ Pouches and Sachets.
➢ Pressurised cans.
➢ Paper-Tissue paper e.g. tea bags

Transport packing

The product entering in to the trade need to be packed well enough to
protect against loss damage during handling, transport and storage. E.g.:
fibreboard, wooden crate etc.
Hazards of Transport - There are four main hazards of transport E.g. Water
* Drops and impacts
* Compression forces
* Vibration
* Climatic variations

Various Mechanical Tests

Drop Test: This test help to measure the ability of the container and inside
packing materials to provide protection to its contents and to measure the ability
of the container to withstand rough handling.

Vibration Test: This test is to determine the ability of the container to

withstand vibration and the protection offered by materials used for interior

Compression Test: This test is carried out, generally, on empty containers, to

measure the ability of the container to resists external compressive loads applied
to faces or applied to diagonally opposite edges or corners.

Inclined Impact Test: This test help to study the extend of damage in a way of
crushing, breaking, cracking, distortion, and shifting during handling storage
and transport which occurs to the container and its content.

Rolling Test: This test helps to evaluate the overall strength of the container
and the cushioning material provided inside and any failure of the content.

Drum test: This test help to evaluate loaded shipping containers with respect
to general overall durability and for the protection afforded to the contents
against certain hazards of handling and shipment.

Various Climatic Tests

Rain Test: This test is conducted in a simulated rain condition to assess its

impact on the test area for two hours.

Sand and Dust Test: This test is to evaluate the resistance of a package to the
penetration of sand and dust.

Salt Spray Test: This test is to evaluate the resistance of a package to corrosion
by salt spray and to serve as a general standard for corrosion.

Fungus Resistance Test: This test is to evaluate all the materials used in the
fabrication of shipping containers for fungus resistance.

Importance of Cushion Materials

Cushioning is that part of packaging, which protects the article from
damage due to shock and vibration. The main functions of cushioning materials
can be detailed as follows:

1. Shock protection against vibration

2. Protection of grease proof and water proof barriers at ponut of contact with
solid blocks

3. Protection of moisture vapours barriers at points of contact with sharp edges

of the article itself.

4. Protection of small projections

5. Filling of void space in the container

6. Other secondary purposes

Packaging Cost
The most important aspect when we look into packaging is the packaging
cost. Packaging cost includes the following:

* Material cost: It means the cost of the pack and quality control cost.

* Storage and handling cost of empty packages: This include the handling
cost of bulky packages, heavy materials of construction, drums etc.

* Packaging operation costs: This includes the cost involved in operations

like, cleaning the package product filling – closing, labelling – unitizing,
stencilling, handling cylindrical slums etc.

* Storage of filled packages: This includes the cost incurred to shift the goods
from one form of packaging to another.

* Transportation cost of filled packages: This involves the transportation cost

by sea, air etc. (freight by volume)

* Loss and Damage cost: It is related to the loss and damage during operation,
transportation delivery etc.

* Insurance cost: It varies depending on the vulnerability of package

* Effect of packages on sales: The package that influence on sales.

* Obsolescence Cost: This cost involves when changes in the packaging

materials, packages and labels happen.

* Package developmental cost: This include the evaluation cost, pilot test cost,
field testing cost, consumer research cost, feedback cost, final trial cost etc.


Talking about sachets is unlikely to cause any surprise. After all, the
FMCG sector has been talking sachets for a long time and other segments like
food and beverages have followed suit with varied degree of success. So why
are we talking about these mini packs again? Because the products in question
are OTC (over the counter) products and for the first time, the brand is taking
the sachet route to make further inroads using a particular price point.

Sachets are divided in three categories:

• Sachets with liquids
• Sachets with dry products
• Sachets with damp tissues


• Attractive prices
• Perfect presentation
• Easy to use
• Always the same dosage


• Poor seal strength.

• Not available in all flavours.
• Careful handling of sachet is necessary.
• Some products are costly.

• The buyer cannot judge the content of the pack of appearance.
• Specific quantity may not be sold when packed.

• There is no feasible way to check the weight and volume of the content
unless the buyer opens the pack.
• Pack design looks large but the content will be small. E.g. Lays, cheetos.
• The colour of the pack will be different from the colour of the product
e.g. Cintol soap.
• Packages may create health hazards for consumers.


• Easy to open and close.

• Be safe to use.
• Keep the product from deteriorating.
• Be a proper size and shape.
• Be reusable, able to be recycled or bio degradable.
• Package should be economical.
• Be available in size, appropriate to the market segment served.