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PLATO

OF
MYTHS

THE

THE

MYTHS

OF

P-LATO

""*

TRANSLATED
WITH

AND

INTRODUCTORY

OTHER

OBSERVATIONS

BY

STUDENT
OF

J.

A.

STEWART,

AND

TUTOR

OF

MORAL

CHRIST

PHILOSOPHY

IN

HON.

CHURCH
THE

LL.D.,

M.A.
AND

UNIVERSITY

WHITE'S
OP

PROFESSOR

OXFORD

EDINBURGH

fLonlion
MACMILLAN
NBW

YORK

AND
:

THE

MACMILLAN

1905

All

rights reserved

CO., Limited
COMPANY

4-4'

K.o.oS'f
"2

PREFACE

The

of

object

for

this

Mythologist,

it

which

of

the

Context

to

the

Myths

they

therefore,
the
or

the

material
Plato

of

the

Plato

from

the

not

Myth

pieces

the

or

and

PhcLedrus

the

in

Myth

Dialogues

the

indication

Observations

series.

as

the

possible

confine

to

find

to

expect

shortest

reasonable

from

Myths

the

and

case,

individual

as

the

only

each

in

within

The

reader,

Observations
of

Study

say,

on,

the

Phaedo

Phaedrus.
Greek

The

by

preferred

readings

Platonis

them

large

in

given

are

debt

of

few

to

(1867).

friends

two

where

Stallbaum's

of

Oomprehe'nsa

gratitude

and

places

is that

footnotes,

Volumine

Uno

in

except

Translations

the

opposite

throughout,

Omnia

Opera
owe

printed

text

followed

with

occur,

must

Phuedo

with

influence

special object

extract

to

necessary

in

and

distinguished

as

this

effect

to

was

reader

the

furnish

to

Eeasoner.

or

order

space,

Prophet,

or

Dialectician,

is

characteristics

the

estimating

In

volume

for

help

received.
Professor
in

proof

detected
in

places

to

make
The

is

gone.

serious

the

with
in

of

use

friend

other

few

anxiety

his
who

to

his

the
and

through

Translations
which

errors

feel

other,

sure,

turn

be

to

out

failed

have

may

be

may

suggestions.
helped

before

weeks

or

cause

some

all

care

will,

Translations
from

proper

read

friendly

most

these

where,

S. Phillimore

J.

his

friends,

me,

last
he

Frederick
illness
read

York

began
through

Powell,
to

all

cause

the

vi

THE

Translations
and

also

read

The

sympathetic
of

feeling

parts,

of

he

deep

on

of

which

of

various
I

by

me

gave

points
shall

December

the

to

his

clesed

Theory

long
back

gratitude.

1904.

A.

STEWART,

of

and

suggestive

look

always

J.

OXPOBD,

and

Introduction,

the

relating

those

inclusive,|

Myth,

Phaedrus

the

whole

then

discussion

friendship

the

especially

help

to

up

nearly

PLATO

OF

manuscript
him

to

other

Poetry.

acts

in

MYTHS

series
with

of

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1.

Platonic

The

Drama

Two

elements

2.

General

and

remarks

described

Myth,

iwBoXoyla,

and

Anthropological

Argumentative

j^tpoXoyia

Zoological

Primitive

Story-telling

or

xal

distinguished

as

it

1-4

.....

AvSpiawoXoyia

as

in

distinguished

Pages

Mjth
on

be

to

"

Conversation

Allegory,

an

Myths,

or

(2) Aetiological

from

"

Story-telling

"

Stories,

(3) Esohatological

has

'

(1) Simply

are

Moral

no

A
"

Other-

or

meaning

4-20
...

3.

Plato's

....

Myths
Part

"

distinguished
the

of

expresses
rather

or

Myth
the

in

not

essentially
the

of

sense

shall

the

exemplify

Platonic

"theoretic

effect

produced

in
of

us

this

in

the

by

us

^tatpnic

Feeling,"

which

and

was,

the

from

which

part

"value-judgments,"

in

"That

Passages

"

that

what

to

; "Transcendental

Poetry
of

To

but

produced

presence

awakened

production

by

experience,

appeal

judgments,"
The

that

what

"

Myth

"

overshadowing
is

be,"

To

Allegories

the

"value-feelings"

is

ever

does

Soul,"

itself,

from

is, and

quoted

Poets,

effect

to

20-39
....

4.

"

Transcendental
the

of

Life

principle

in

Life

is

production
that

the

of

Feeling

the

"

the

first

Platonic

Platonic

The

is

for

the

"Life

which,

it

of

of

is

good

and

be

to

The

Platonic

Myth

(1) Imaginative
of

Deduction
Distinction

and

rouses

generally,

of

of

the

"Ideas"

between

"

"

6.

Plato's

distinction
"

represents
deduces
treatment

"

explained

mode

Ideas

of

Categories
of

the

of
"

Idea

Understanding
of

God

It

"

the
"

Feeling
concerned
"

"Transcendental

of

Feeling"
and

Reason,"

Plato

God,

Cosmos,
and

implicit

employ

Moral

by

(2) Imaginative
"Moral

and

"Categories"

Soul,

Reason,
the

that

is with

39-42

of

does

Why

is

"

"Transcendental

Ideas

and

"

there

Conviction

chiefly

are

Understanding"

"

Kant's

Conduct

Science

regulates

Representation
"Categories

of

that

"

and

5.

timeless

Transcendental

"

this

in

Transcendental

"

Metaphysics

of

life

living,"

Being,
of

regulates

Conduct

rational

ness
Conscious-

fundamental

silently,

is worth

end

Poetry

and

which

in

the

Soul,"

whole

phases

two

and

the

Timeless

and

these

rouses

use

of

beginning

Myth,

Myth

of

the

that

Sense

as

of

reflection

the

creatures,

which

on

and

Solemn

and

good,

Part

living

assumption

which,

thus

is

all

assumption

in

"

genetically

"Vegetative
in

rests, the

Cosmos,

explained

the

and

the

Science

Feeling

of

us,

makes

sleep,
and

"

Feeling

Virtues"
in

"

when

Myth
and
Virtues

Plato

when
?

he
he
42-51
51-60

....

viii
7. Plato's treatment

"Idea

Plato"

PLATO

OF

Plato's

""Agnosticismof

of Soul

Immortality of

and

of

matter

of the

the

regard to
by Pindar
8.

MYTHS

THE

day with

Orphic Belief as felt


the
Myths plainlyreproduce
Eschatological
Influence of

the Soul"

Plato's

Orphic teaching

Pages 60-71

"

"

of Pla"

of a defence
in the form
Introductory Observations
Vernunfl,
d. remen
KrUik
againsta charge broughtagainsthim by Kant,
as
(1)representing
Einleitung," 3" Plato's Myths (roughlydistinguished
Faculties,
Categories,
Ideas
of Reason, or
(2) deducing
Ideals, and
taken
m
be
will
the^
back
to their origins)
Virtues,i.e. tracing them

Summary

of

Myth,
Ideas of Eeason, the Phaedo
(a) as representing
Myths
^or
Eschatological
three
the ffor^ira
Myth, the Myth of Er (the
order
following

Golden Age,
Myth togetherwith the Myth of the
;
the ProtagorasMyth (Aetiological
Myths), and the Discourse of Timaeus
the
Virtues,
or
of
deduction
with the
Categories
(6) as chieflyconcerned
Phaedrus
Myth, the Meno
Myth, and the Myth told by Aristophanes
the PolUieus
excellence),

and

Discourse

and

the

Ideals

of
of

Myth

and

Diotima

deduce

the

in

Earth-born,

the

(c) the Atlantis Myth


represent the
respectively

Symposium;

the

Categoriesof

which
the

Nation,

as

from
distinguished

72-76

the Individual

THE

Context

77

of the Myth

...

Observations

1. Plato's method
with
and

....

79-93

Translation

2. The

^^^^

MYTH

PHAEDO

of

the

"

on

giving verisimilitude
Modern

Science

from Henry
paralleled

subjectof

the last section

Phaedo

the

"

to

of his

More
further

Myth

Myth, by bringing it into

day,

illustrated

from

ity
conform-

the

Phaedo,

the

parallel

94-101

....

illustrated by reference

to

of the
Surface
Geography of Tartarus and the "True
Earth"
and
Dante's
Geography of Hell, Purgatory, and the Earthly
Paradise
The
dwelt
Plato
and
Dante
on
chiefly
parallelismbetween
with the view of suggesting the method
stand
best underwe
by which
may
the function
of Myth in the Platonic
of
Philosophy,the method
the
of
master
on
us
sealing the Impression made
one
by
Myth
great
by the study of the Myth of anothei with whom
we
happen to be
may
in closer sympathy
101-113
distinction
between
and
insisted
Dogma
Myth
by Socrates,
upon
Plato's

between

"

......

3. The

114

Phaedo,

Myth

"

"Moral

THE

Context
Translation

.....

Responsibility"the

motif of

the

GOBGIAS

Phaedo
113-114

....

MYTH

1X5

117-125

CONTENTS

Observations
1.

on

Myth

Goegias

the

"

Eesponsibility is the motif of the Gorgias Myth, as it is of the


Phaedo
The
Gorgias Myth sets forth, in a Vision of Judgment,
Myth
and
of the Active,
Purification,the continuityand sameness
Penance,
from the Passive, Self,the Self as activelydeveloping
its
as
distinguished
under
the discipline
of correction,riXao-is,
not as being the
native power
victim of vengeance,
n/iapia Death as Philosopher Pages 126-128
mere
Vice with Large Opportunity
The mystery of the infinite difference between
"Moral

"

"

2.

and

Vice

with

Narrow

on

Tablets

3. Observations

Judgment, and

Opportunity
affixed

the Three

on

THE

Context

to

Judged Souls,

the

Ways

on

Meadow

....

MYTH

OF

ER

1.

Cosmography

2.

Dante's

135-151

...

and

on

Eunoe

taken

which

to

Plato

Myth

the

of the

Geography

and

Lethe

Mythology,

Myth

in
is

op

Er

with

the

152-154

....

connection

largelyindebted

Orphic

for his

the

"

...

"

"

"

"

BeTnarks
IvH/roAuetory

173-174

.....

177-191

........

Myth of the Oolden

of the

Translation

Observations

2. Is Plato
from

.175

...

TrcmslaMon

1. Relation

MYTH

POLITIOUS

THE

on

Age

"

in earnest

the

Politicus
"

Science
Myth to the
in supposing that God,

government of the World


and Metempsychosis

Problem
suppose

"

the

Myth like
helping us

Evil"

of

to

of

raised
of this

solution
that

193-195

....

the

of the Politicus

3. Resurrection
4. "The

and

of

of Forgettingand Eemembering
164-161
as a Process
The
Pillar of
Cosmography and Geography of the Myth
in the lap
Light, the Spindle of Necessity,the Model of the Cosmos
of Necessity
162-169
to
question raised and solved in the Myth, How
great philosophical
with the
of
Law
reconcile
Free Will
169-172
Reign
the

about

...

Context

Ritual

account

Soul's Kidapns

4. The

133

....

Observations

More

of

130-132

....

Translatitm

3.

129-130

the

the

in

problem

"particulardifficulty"
"

to

helps

us

196-197

time, withdraws
.

197-198
198-200

Politicus

Myth

be furthered

"

How

does

Plato

by an Aetiological
AetiologicalMyth as
from a
as distinguished
difficulty"
to "put by" the former
kind of
to

The

"universal
It

time

the

"

day

of Plato's

from

....

Politicus 1

"solve"

"

Mtth

value

of

THE
The
difficulty"

Myth"
Myth
and

The

KaUwala

Story

the

to

MYTHS

quoted to

of the

"Creation

the Discourse

PLATO

OF

Birth

illustrate the function

Myths"

of Timaeus

THE

"

"
.

215-219
.

Observations

2. It

"Platonic

Myth,"

settingforth

sets

the

forth

or

discussed in Kant's

only a

"

Apologue
Sophistic
in man's

between

the

"

?" It is a true

experience

the

220-222
and

the

its parts" It raises the

of

Origin

Virtue

from
distinguished

as

.......

the

Sculptured Myth,

Prometheus

Sarcophagus

in

Capitoline

the

228-229

difference

Myth and Allegory


of
Interpretation The interpreters

Philo"

between

"

The

GhsistianFathers"

of the CaveJ^hich is
"""""^Allegory
the

of

Eitual

Crew

DisdMerly

The

Sketch
Homer

"

of the

gorical
History of Alle-

and of Greek

Myt^ogy

Dante-^lato'

Neo-Platonists"

Myth as well as
Allegory and

...

Allegory) His
Myth
compared

an

"

......

259
.

261-297

........

Obseevations
observations

Purification

3. On

and

the Creation

on

its scope

on

Timaeus

the

298-302

.....

Metempsychosis

302-304

of Souls

304-305

......

THE
Context

of the Myth

Translation

PHAEDRUS

MYTH
306-307

.....

......
.

Observations
1.

Preliminary

2. The

"

on

the

Peaedrus

But

309-335

Myth
333

........

Myth

Phaedrus

with

TIMAEUS

Translation

2.

gory
Alle-

230-258

....

THE

1. General

question
222-226

"

Context

"teleo-

"

Museum

"

'

226-228

Art

5. The

Myth,

"

"mechanical"

and

World

of the

Myth

Myth

Protagoras

Critique of Jvdgment

in the

given

the

distinction

logical explanation of
3. Account

on

priori elements

"

4. A

Myth,
Profos-oross
200-211
Pages

"
.

as

PolUvMS \

the

MYTH

PROTAGORAS

Translation

"

212-213

of the Myth

1. Is it

called,the

so
strictly

Context

Transition from

of Iron"

Aetiologioal

of

as

givinga

"

Deduction

it also sets forth the Ideas

"

of the

of
Categories

of fieason
.

the Understanding

837.339

CONTENTS
3. The

doctrines of 'Avd/xviins,
'Bpus, Immortality

The

6. Poetic

Myth translated,

sense

is the

and

of the

seine

en

the

Inspiration

down

mise

339-349
349-350

of the Soul"

350-381

382-395

MYTHS

SYMPOSIUM

TWO

397

....

THE

TOLD

MYTH

BY

ARISTOPHANES
.

....

the

Observations

THE

on

and

Zagreus Myth

II."

399-407

Myth

the

with

Rabelais

408-413

DISCOURSE

Tra/nslation

OF

DIOTIMA
415-427

....

Observations

on

Discourse

the

of

Diotima

Allegory and a Myth


May be
The
of
nature
PropheticTemperament
Prophecy
The History of the Doctrine of Daemons
Discourse

at

once

an

taken

"

the

as

study of
428-434

"

434-460

OBSERVATIONS

GENERAL
which

forth

set

Myths

in which

Nation's, as

the

the

have

we

of
spectacle

of its Future, (6) conditioned

Myth

in the

Timaeus

and

Ideal

State

of the

account

Hellenic

Empire

and

by

on

the

prom

CATEGORIES

Nation's

life,(a) led
These

B^ublic,

are

by

on

in the

Vision

[a] the Atlantis

in connection

sets forth

the Earth-born

with

the Vision

iJepw^Zic

the
of

an

451-456

MYTH

ATLANTIS

Observations

distingdished

its Past.

in the

translation,or rendering

Geologyand Geography of

MYTHS

Critias,which, taken

(J)the Myth.of

THE

Abbreviated

ON

InDIVIDDAL's,IdEALS

THE

in

for subsequent

seine

en

to Dante

.......

of the Myths

and comparison with

The

Doctrine

"History

of that

Myth,
importance
and religious
philosophical
thought

General

The

' '

Pages
.

PJiaedrus

Trcmslation

Meno

In what

"

....

astronomical, mise

I."

2.

Myth

...

THE
Context

Phaedrus

"

729

celestial,
or
the

the

"mythical"?.

Number

5. The

with

compared

of Ideas"

1.

The

"

and

4.

xi

467-464
.

...

the

Myth

Atlantis

Myth
465-469

xii

THE

THE

MYTHS

MYTH

OP

OF

PLATO

EARTH-BORN

THE

Trwnslation

471-473

Pages
.......

Note

the

on

Myth

of

the

.....

CONCLUSION"

THE

OP

The

than

important
it

is

MYTHOLOGY

THE

Plato
for

contended,

the

the

"

associates

PLATONISTS

represent

Plato

Dialectician,

or

understanding
are

Platonists"

METAPHYSICS

AND

CAMBRIDGE

Platonists"

"Cambridge
rather

474

Earth-born

of

Mythologist,
and

Reasoner,
modern

our

of

the

the

same

this

in

English
kind

or

as

"

Prophet,
respect

Idealists,"

Cudworth

are

who,

and

475-519
.......

his

INTEODUCTION

The

1.

Platonic

The
in

which

are

the

Socrates

form

right
But

is
are

it is

compelled

conversation,

The
Platonic

ofUhe

interrupts

which

of

this

Myth

in

order

Platonic

wl^ich

Sophists

'

Of.

probably

Cratyhu,

387

reader

tA

consists

in

Myth

the

organic

an

is

Plato

ida

tIs

i"m

consists.

the

of

the

organism

part

of

the

about

point

discourses

twv

other
tion
conversa-

have

can

their

times
some-

some

examples
in

ornament,
of

style.

or

the

we

argumentative

mainly

is

that

greatest,

its function

\iyci.v

Dialogues,

argumentative

examine

to

the

element,

traditional,

Drama

ornamented

b,

to

some

Socrates

the

added

an

experienced

the

with

the

discover
IThat

not

the

which

is

work
to

in

tale, sometimes

of

show

may

philosophical

concludes

Drama.

Drama,

them

Plato's

movement

object

Plitonic

Thb

the

which

on

another

present

it, equally

or

has

matters

matters

Drama

contains

of

some

with

although

about

always

Platonic

ostensibly

fanciful

is

everybody

yet

is,

consists

which,

discussion

the

It

to

invented,

newly

in

is

companions

action

part,

Drama

part.

that

not

his

in

that

in

or

regard

is

Myth

the

which

as

and

"

essential

as

interlocutor

discussed

others,

to

which

argument

conversation.

in

Socrates

leading

or

mainly

though

described

conversation

take

wholly

only

striking

The

in

opinions

wrong,

which,

so

speech

profitably

argumentative
Myth,

and

may

workaday
or

action/

conversation

be

can

men

be

another
The

say.

the

Deama

broadly

argumentative

of

or

be

may

The

actors.

that

which

is

speech

mainly

his

Dialogue

Platonic

doubt.

no

and

made

irpd^euv.
B

THE

them

interesting
by

more

like
allegories
is not

Choice

the

illustrative

results

alreadyobtained

reader

of Plato

is silenced for
opens
Drama

is well

in

his mouth

Allegory rendering
He

aware.

Myth,

Socrates

this the

Of

pictoria'

experieno

the brisk

feels when
or

My^

the Platonic

but

by argument.

debal

greatinterlocutd
of the PhilosopI

another

that the movement

arrested,but

is not

of Hercules

while, and

the insertion of illustrative fables ot

it is not

"

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

being sustained, at a crisis, on


the Dialogue wif
bursts in upon
is

plane. The Myth


mattei
and strange ; the narrow,
a revelation of something new
con
the argumentative
of-fact,workaday experience,which
versation
puts in evidence, is suddenly flooded, as it were,j
and transfused
by the inrush of a vast experience,as froi
Put
off thy shoes from off thy feet,for the
another world
thou standest is holy ground."
placewhereon

another

"

"

of the dramatic

It is in the mouth
those

Myths

make

us

be

that

here

the so-called

"

Plato

that Plato

wondering surmise
EschatologicalMyths. It

best fitted to fillus

think

Socrates

represents

with

trait

of

the

real

puts
and

may|

Socratei

argumentative conversation, it is full]


the
dialogue-form of the PlatonSi
recognised,determined
writings. It may be that also the introduction of Myths, at
least of the Eschatological
Myths distinguished
by
Myths
and
style was
suggestedto
great impressivenessof matter
Plato by something in the real Socrates.
The personalinfluencfl
Plato's mind, an^
of Socrates worked
as
a vital principlein
bodied
itself forth in Socratic dramas
plays in which, as 1{
have
said, Socrates and his companions are the actors, andj
discourse is the action.
philosophical
Any element, then, in
the Platonic
writings which the experienced reader finds of
and the Myth is such
is likelytoj
great dramatic moment
represent some
strikingtrait in the person and influence of th"
real Socrates.
In the Myths put into his mouth
Socratea
tha
prophesies sets forth,by the aid of imaginativelanguage,,
method

Socrates'

of

"

"

"

"

"

"

fundamental

conditions

of

conduct

and

knowledge.

Hel

and his hearers listen spellbound. That Socrates'


prophesies,"
influence is very likely.
called mesmeric
possessedwhat is now
The comparison of his influence
(in ordinarydebate)with that

"

See Grote's

Plato, ii. 38,

note

e.

INTEODUCTION
of

the

imply
be

electric fish,r] OaXarna


much

as

taken

; while

evidence

as

vdpKT)}
may

his familiar
of

be

thought to
or
must
spirit,
Satfioviov,

"abnormality."^ i

to offer

venture

the

it may
for what
be worth, that the Platonic
suggestion,
if not
Myths, in manner
always in matter, represent (directly
Socrates
as
spoken by
himself, indirectlyas spoken by
"Timaeus,"
Critias,""Protagoras,""the Eleatic Stranger")
certain impressive passages
in the conversation
of the real
Socrates,when he held his hearers spellboundby the magnetism
of his face and speech. Be this as it may. Myth distinguished
for all by weight and ring from
once
Allegory' is an essential
of Plato's philosophical
element
style; and his philosophy
"

"

"

be understood

cannot
The

main

apart

plan of

it.*

from

this work

is to

append to the English


translation of each of the Platonic
Myths observations and
notes relatingspecially
to that Myth
itself
Each
Myth is a
be dealt with individually
in its
unique work of art, and must
But
I hope that the general effect of these
context.
own
specialobservations will be to leave the reader,at the end,
with an adequate impressionof the significance
of Myth, first
in Plato's philosophy,and then in present-daythought.
Before beginning,however, to carry out the main
plan of
"
'

Meno, 80 A.
Hegel (Gesch.d. Philos. ii. 94-101) regardsthe

SaL/i6vtov
as
a "magnetic"
des
phenomenon, physiologically
explicable.C. R. Volquardsen {Das Ddmonium
Socrates und
seine Interpreten,
Kiel, 1862) holds (pp. 58 and 71) that it cannot
be explained by any law of anthropology or physiology,but is a
singular
Zeller {Socratesand the Socratic Schools,pp. 72-79, Eng. Transl.)
phenomenon.
concludes
that it is "a vague apprehension of some
good oriU result followingon
"

"

certain actions."
of Socrates
Myers {Himum Personality, ii. 95 S.) cites the Saijibviov
the
of
of
that
automatism
the
which
vnse
example
possibility
;
messages
mind
from subliminal
strata of the personality
^ conveyed to the supraliminal
^whether
sometimes
from far
sounds, as sights,or as movements
as
come
may
"

F. W.

as

H.

an

"

beneath

the

convey to us
(Du Dinum,

Xenophon
is

realm
a

de

and

wisdom

of

dream

and

confusion,
"

profounder than

Socraie,1856), who
Plato that Socrates

we

argues
was

know
from

from
"

some

self whose

monitions

(p.100). Against L.
the

records

of the

insane, Myers contends

F. Ldlut

in
Sai/iiviov

(p. 95)

that

"it

explanation; to placethese old records in juxtaposition


that the messages
which
to show
with more
instructive
parallels
; and
Socrates received were
examples of a process which, if supernormal,
only advanced
characterises
that form
of intelligence
which
is not abnormal, and which
we
of Socrates"
describe as genius." Dr. H. Jackson's article on "the Sai/xtviov
aij/ietov
also be referred to, and
in the Journal
of Philology (vol.x. pp. 232 ff.) may
Mem.
to his edition of Xen.
Kiihner's Prolegomena (v. de Socratis SaL/iovlif)
now

possibleto give a

truer

See infra, p. 16 and pp. 230 ff.


Zeller's Plato, pp. 159-163
(Eng.
this and preceding paragraphs.
s

Transl.),may

be read

in connection

with

THE

MYTHS

OF

PLATO

,
preliminaryremarks on fivBoKo^^"''
to
I
hope
or
in general,
of which
in the course
story-telling
indicate what I conceive to be the ground of Plato's methodical
employment of it in philosophy.

this work, I will offer

2.

General

some

Kemarks

Myth

Stoky-telling.

or
fiv0o\oyia,

on

distinguished

Allegory

from

that Imagiiiationrather than


profound remark
and brute...
the primary difference between
man
Eeason makes
of
the immediate
The brute lives mainly among
impressions
The after-images
of these impressions are evidentlyof
sense.
little account
in his life,being feeble and evanescent.^
the brute, in
not only,with
But man
lives a double life
It

is

-'

"

the

world

narrow

of his own,

of

present sensations,but also

his mind

where

is

in

continuallyvisited

world

wide

re-visited

and

though often grotesque and grotesquely


combined, images of past sense-impressions.It is in this wide
the narrow
wonder- world of waking dream, which
|
encompasses
familiar world of his present sense-impressions,
that man
begins
crowds

by

of vivid,

his human

It is here

career.

that

the

and

savage

child

the

begin to acquire what the brute has no such opportunityof


does acquire, a sense
of vasti
beginning to acquire,and never
and
environment
of the long course
of time.
This waking |
"

dream, which

constitutes

experience,
probably owes
of sleep. Some
of the
have dreams
in sleep.

great

so

much
lower
But

part

man's

of

of its content

animals, as well
man,

we

may

to
as

the

man,

suppose,

childish^
dreams

to]

seem

differs fromi

"In
the lower stages of civilisation Imagination,
than
more
Reason, dis-^l
from the animals ; and to banish art would
men
tinguishes
be to banish thoughtrlj
to banish language,
to banish the expressionof all truth.""
Jowett, Dialoguea of?

Plato, Introduction
2

"At

the

to the

Eepublic,p.
these

clxiv.

birds

all day long to be im-J


(swallows)seem
their habits change ; they become
in flocks.
Whilst
the mother
are
-bird is feeding on
noisy, and congregate
her
t
he
maternal
instinct is probably
over
nestlings,
brooding

pressedwith

migratory ;

proper season
the desire to

but

restless.J

migrate ;

the instinct which

is the

more

strongerthan thai
victory anfl

persistent gains the

and^

her young
when
not in sight,she takes
ones
are
flight
arrived at the end of her long journey,and
the migratorvl
of remorse
instinct has ceased to act, what an agony
the bird would
feel if
mental
with
she
could
endowed
activity,
not
great
being
the
at

last,at

deserts them.

moment
When

froml

prevent

constantlypassingthrough
cold and
from
p. 173, ed. 1901).

north

her mind

hunger

"

of her young
ones
The Descent

(Darwin,

imaeBl
perishingin the bleakl
of Man, part i. ohao iv I
^'

THE

of

the

scientific

which

that

'supplying
an

emotional

another

with

these visions,has

good

how

the

of

ordinary

of

Self

the

used,

be

visions

The

by

does

of the existence, m
strange surmise
world, of another Self which, while it reveals itself in

consciousness

is

it

phrase may

if the

context,

the
fantastical context.
along with
mythopoeic fancy are received by

This

confined.

he

must

within

also indicates limits

it
understanding,

exercise

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

that

small

a
a

deep

man

should

part

of

him

be reminded

the

not

lies the

it

is

present value

the

of

the Eeason

that it is not

"

Herein

chiefly
Poetry,
equivalent.

Man.

(or

Scientific

the

that

"

Whole

Myth

feel in his heart

to

is

head

his

Understanding should
Part, that

made

be

thus

It

disclose.

it will not

which

secret

of its

else)for civilised man.


world
of the dreamThe stories which
the primitiveinhabitants
love to tell one
another
are
always about the wonderful
adventures
and doings of people and animals.
'KvOpcoiroXo^iM
^
Kot
ZipdXoyia may be taken as a full descriptionof these
Once
and doings happened
stories. The adventures
a
upon
that is preface
time
Somewhere, not here
Long ago
enough for the most improbablestory, it receives belief or makebelieve simply because it is very interestingbecause the animals
speak and behave like people,and everything else happens
Music,

whatever

or

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

topsy-turvy
bloodshed
i.e.not

in

and

wonderful

indecency. If
is not
I

make-believe, which
attention

and

there

the story is not

at
interesting

have

is

"

all.

lack

no

of

interesting,"

very

indecent,it does

marvellous,gruesome,

make-believe, and

or

manner,

carry belief
The attitude of

not

mentioned, is worth

the

careful

of the

psychologist.This is not the place to analyse


it.* I will only say that it seems
to me
likelythat it is very
often the attitude of the primitive
and his audience.
story-teller
The

without
Zulu

'

tale

as

of
a

story is very
I

lAddell

very

being believed.

or
probability

the

be

story may

hope

that

to
interesting

This is

modern

as

novel

jeu d'espritlike

be

pardoned

for

true, I take it,of


written

Alice in

there
interesting,

I may

its teller and

will

with

due

always be

regard

two
introducing

words

to Lyrical Ballads, speaks of "that


Coleridge,referring
which
constitutes poeticfaith."

But

to

if

make-believe
which

to be justified,
in the sense
Scott,but seem
in which
I
Aristotle's d,vepunroKlryoi
(E. N. iv. 3. 81)= "fond of personaltalk."
^

grotesque

Wonderland.

and

of disbelief for the moment,

audiepce

use

are

not in

them, by

willingsuspension

INTEODUCTION

least,and

at

often

serious,deliberate

make-believe.

the

that
spiritof this serious make-believe
girltalks about her dolls,but we ourselves
make
pilgrimagesto placesassociated v^ith
fiction.

adventures

Johnson

of Dr.
of

The

followed

are

actuality. The
Forum

Eoman

interested

student

in each

experience may
with

his

from

any rate, we
other
cases,

he

tells and

be

may

well

as

that

stories,we

and

the

the
in

journey
sense

our

that

of the

spiritby

same

from

instances

or

of great

events

Inferno and

much

the

civilised

the line must

be

of

her

"

If make-believe
is

proteg^ stops
have

assume,

be

to

this case,

superfluous

belief,which

as

in

Nature
is

sometimes

he

stops
At

all,a small matter.

is,after

that

sure

That

is told.

does

"

purpose
take
care

the

Dante,

our

little difference

vague
in the mind

nothing that
ovBe /xdTTjv
"n-epiepyov
r] ^wo-t?.
"

the

little

primitiveman
feelingsand vivid imaginationcontrolled by
fact.^ His tendency is to
of ascertained

of belief at make-believe

short

read

how

make-believe

standard

believe whatever

only the

not

Crusoe

These

case.

to show

serve

turbulent

uniform

no

with

topography of
approached in

are

dividingbelief

of Eobinson

It is in

ovhev

Nature's

serve

Certain

make-believe.

wonderful

troiel

she will
difficult,

more

at

in all

as

horrid

or

up

to

pitch,in order to give full expressionand relief to


feelingand imagination at a certain stage of development ;

certain

and

the belief without


themselves

maintain
which

which

these

all,we

at

further

comes

easiest,i.e.make-believe.

is

in

It

plain that
extravagantlywonderful

proportion

or

horrid,the

believe to be the attitude of tellers and


this is the
and

This
a

wonderful

familiar,it comes
tion
more

as

to

it is believed

and

Professor

imagination

story

is

be believed

; and

hearers
go

towards

more

told

that,where

becoming

on

met

and

another.

by

becomes

seriously
; and,

more

in

very

proper-*

itself
it tends to disembarrass
seriously,
which pleasedwhen
wilder improbabilities

it

was

still that

Tylor (Primitwe Gultwre,


among

often

more]

likelyis make-

more

likelyto

are

that

more

of the

more

the attitude
1

are

stories

as

be

will

assume,

extravagantlywonderful or horrid.
is one
tendency which, however, is

more

When

attitude,stories

could not

stories

necessary

ancient

and

savage

conditions of a healthy prosaic modern


in a fever-ward."

An

of make-believe.

im-

usual state of the


"a
the
between
"intermediate

i. 284) describes

peoples"

as

citizen and

raving fanatic

or

patient

story full of extravagant

promptu
of

revolting
indecencyis told

some

afterwards

one

this

as
story itself,

who

him

become

They

rationalise and

hero

of the race, those


him.

improb-

the

it,either leavingout

moralise

the sole

on

old story about

of the

ashamed

be

may

god

or

and if that

When

one.

some

it
regarded,

be

authorityof
revere

and, it may be,


improbability

about

to

comes

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

retainingthe partsthat are probablej


and proper; or allegorising
it,i.e.
showing that the improbabilities
and indecencies are not to be regardedas historical facts,but to
scientific or
or
be interpretedas figuresof some
philosophic
religiousdoctrine favoured by the interpreters.Thus makebelieve accumulates
material for the
highercriticism."
koX ZcpoXo'^La about peopleand animals
'AvOpom-oXoyla
of what
is a suf"cient account
always is and
story-telling

abilitiesand indecencies,and

"

"

"

"

"

it is

why

interesting.

Sometimes

1.

which

happened

once

the interest which

time, and

upon

people and animals.


Simply Anthropologicaland

Such

about
"

beautiful
bosele's."

The

children

children

bosele's."

The

trustingto

self-confidence

them

both,

-away.
In the
children

and

left the

afternoon
"

little

The

elephantwith

an

the

"

hance
en-

story

called

those

are

replied,

child

Whose

"

those

are

Unanana-

"

replied,

built in the

road

on

purpose,
swallowed

He

superiorpower."
The
elephant then

little child.

mother

and

came

girlsaid, "They

"

said,

have

Where

been

Unanana-bosele

markably
re-

Unanana-

"

time,

The

She

"

Whose

"

child

second

and

tusk."

one

to

be

story may

said,

The

elephantsaid,

results

no

as
intrinsically

and
"

elephantasked

beautiful

remarkably

doings

Zoological."

large elephant came

very

left

it

belongs to

and

adventures

story is about

the

went

are

the

taken

said,

away
Where

"

by
did

"
he put them ? "
The littlegirlreplied,
He -ate them."
Unananabosele said, "Are
The little girlreplied,"No,
they dead?"

do

retired to rest.

They
and

put

knife

it into

She

antelope; she said,"


which
has eaten
my
very

"

You

came

morning she ground

with

amasi, and

the

to
are

place where

one

was

the

the

went

an

elephant
antelope

The

place where
She

was

the

me

maize,

carryinga

there

tusk."

white."

much

out,

to the

children ; she has

go till you come


where
the stones
to

set

place where
Mother, mother,pointout for
came

will

high and
She

In the

largepot

hand.

in her

said,

know."

not

trees

are

on.

leopard;

she

said

INTEODUCTION
"

Mother, mother, point


children."

my

the

me

elephant which

has

eaten

The

will go on and on, and


leopardreplied,"You
placewhere the trees are high aifd where the stones

the

to

come

for

out

white."

are

She
she

went

still at

was

white

passingall animals, all saying the

on,

distance

great

below

them.

she

She

some

saw

"When

same.

high trees, and

very

the

elephant lyingunder the


She
she came
stood
trees.
went
to the elephant she
on
; when
still and
for
the
out
said, "Mother, mother, point
me
elephant
which
children."
has eaten
The
"You
will
elephant replied,
my
the
the trees are high and where
to where
go on and on, and come
white."
The
stood
and
asked again
stones
are
woman
still,
merely
the
for
out
me
elephantwhich has
saying, Mother, mother, point
children."
The
eaten
elephant again told her just to pass
my
But the woman,
onward.
seeingthat it was the very elephantshe
and
she
that
was
was
seeking,
deceivingher by tellingher to go
forward, said a third time, Mother, mother, point out for me the
stones

saw

"

"

elephantwhich

eaten

children."

my
her

and
elephant seized
the elephant'sstomach,

The
reached

rivers,and
and

there

and

many

high

many
were

many
dogs and

elephant;
them

has

she

We

"

said,

people

who

nothing,we

eaten

saw

had

Why

die."

roasted

it and

roasted

and

kindled

She

with

ate

built

merely lay down."


?
They said, If

thing1
All the

The

the

were

this

She

They

cut

the

cut

liver,and

also the flesh and

we

there

wondered, saying, Oh, forsooth,

have

remained

"

"

said, Yes, yes.

woman

and

people cut

And

eat

we

said,

; it will itself die ; you

fire.

children.

She

"

ate.

peoplewhich
they eating,whilst
"

great

her

All the
are

great

were

"

will not

she

rocks ;
many
their villages
there ;

side there

one

When

too.

large forests,and

did you not roast


this flesh
"
She said," No
beast,will it not kill us 1
"

her

inside
the
cattle ; all was
there
there.
She
children
own
sitting
gave
she
what
before
ate
came.
They
they

them

asked

have

on

many
too, her

saw,

amasi, and

lands ;

swallowed
she

The

ate.
"

the

be eaten."

elephantcan

the other beasts,saying,


elephant-fcold

I swallowed

eating any^

without

I have

woman

been

ill ; there

has

From
been

the time
a

pain in

woman

be, 0 chief,it
may
there are
now
so
people in your stomach."
many
The
it came
to pass after a long time that the elephantdied.
divided
the elephant with a knife,cutting through a rib

with

an

stomach."
my
arises because
And

see

The

other

animals

said,

"It

said, Moo, moo, we at length


and
out
said,"Mey, mey, at
country." A goat came
out and
said, At length
the country." A dog came
see

axe.

the

cow

and

out

came

"

"

length we
we

see

the
"

saying,

At

country."
length we

And
see

out
laughing and
people came
made
the woman
country." They

the
the

10

THE

MYTHS

PLATO

OF

gave
her

cattle,some
goats, and
children,being very rich. She

because
rejoicing

she

had

arrival

girl was

presents;
She

set

some

with

out

her

little

thinkingthat

her

On
she

because
rejoiced,

she

home

went

was

dead."^

was

adventures

doings and

story is about

the

sheep.

some

children.

with her

back

come

there;

her mother

Sometimes

2.

her

are
remain, and
produced interestingresults which
when
as
of these doings and adventures
explainedby means
the shape of a hill is explainedby the action of some
giant or

which

"

wizard""

He

cleft the

This

Hills in three."

Eildon

is the

AetiologicalStory. It is not only interestingas a piece of


that intrinsic
have
simple anthropology, every story must
"

interest,

but

"

"

"

class of

which

the

creation

is set

forth

which

called

be

of

causes

the

"

scientific

things.

It sets

cause.

the

To

may
the

desire to know

the

curiosity
forth the

it satisfies what

the

"

forth

set

faculties and

in

AetiblogicalStories belong those myths


of the
so-called

the

and

heavens

earth

as

; also

Cosmological Myths
of

creation

virtues ; also

whole

one

myths

origin of his
Myths describingthe

and

man,

Foundation

the

well
as
origin of societyand of particularnations and cities,
as
myths describing the invention of the arts and their
instruments
a
myths
large and important section
; and
explainingthe originof ritual practices the so-called Cultus
features
Myths ; and lastly,myths explaining topographical
and the peculiarities
of animals
and plants.
The
scientific
logical
curiositywhich
inspires these Aetio"

"

"

"

"

Stories
"

To

know

to the

the

the

one

idle.
"

cause

as

savage

cause

is not

can

well

indeed,
Curiosity,

is matter

as

control

to

the

the

wound

made

by

iron.

That

story duly recited

heal

the

iron

one

must

of

much

civilised
effect.
know

the

becomes

idle.'

never

practicalconcern
If

man.

For

is

knows

one

example, to

story of
the

charm

the

heal

originof

which

will

wound.^

Many Aetiological
Myths doubtless have
their rise in the practiceof magic.
illustrate the Aetiological
Let me
Myth by givingexam{)les
of its principal
varieties,
beginning with a Cosmological
Myth
'

Nursery Tales,Traditions,and
332

pp.
^

See

Histories

of the Zulus, Callaway,1868, vol

ff.

infra,pp.

204 ff.,where

the Finnish

Story of

the

Origin of Iron is given.

INTEODUCTION
the

"

down

"

Story of the Children of


by Sir GreorgeGrey among

From
all

11

Rangi,the Heaven,

and

Heaven

and

Earth," written

the Maoris.^

Papa,the Earth, it is said,sprang


earth clave together,
and darkness

and

things;but sky and


them
and
the beings they had
begotten,till at last
upon
their children
took counsel whether
they should rend apart their
Then
Tane-mahuta, father of forests,said
parents or slay them.
to his iive great brethren, It is better
to rend them
apart, and
men

rested

"

let the

heaven

feet.

Let

remain

god

stand

the

close

and

become

sky

to

father

far above

us

as

of

the

as

of

matauenga, god
Tane-mahuta, god

cultivated

food

of

to part them
parents, striving

and

rose

but
struggled,

fierce

Then

men.

his hands

our

earth

strove

in

reptiles,

and

of Tu-

slow

uprises

wrestles

with
"

and

to

vaia_;_and

of fish and

forests,and

with

the

Rongo-ma-tane,

wild-growingfood,

of

father

but

So

Tangaroa, father
of

lie under

us,

of man,

he

earth;

father

and

earth

to

stranger

father
Haumia-tikitiki,
and

the

nursing mother.''

our

separate the heaven and the


the efforts of
vain, too, were
and

us, and

his

Lo,

arms.

he

the earth,
is now
firmlyplanted on his mother
pauses ; his head
his feet he raises up and
rests
against his father the skies,he
strains his back
and
limbs
with
rent
are
mighty effort. Now

apart Rangi and


shriek

and

Papa,

aloud.

But

with

cries and

Tane-mahuta

not

pauses
he presses down
the earth ; far,far above
sky." But Tawhiri-ma-tea, father of winds
.

him
the

consented

never

there

now

realms

in

arose

So

brethren.

the

his breast

and

hide

and

to the

and
from
to

hollows

there.

Then

their father

rushed

forests stood
hurricane
trunks
and

and

the

down

burst

lash

to

the

unsuspecting

and

them, snapping the mighty

on

branches

grub

to

upon
unconscious

and

rent

prey

on.

waters

torn

Then
into

the

clouds

of

fish,and

in

trees

his

dense,
midst

the
his

and

giant
raging
leaving

the

when

the

across,

the ground for the insect


upon
the father of storms
swooped

billows

till Tangaroa, god of ocean


cliifs,
therein,fled affrightedthrough his
father

forth

came

Tane-mahuta

foe.

to

boundless

of the

mighty winds, the fierce squalls,the


dark, fiery,wildly drifting,wildly bursting; and
his

lord,and

against his

war

the

progeny,,

storms, had
her

his father

followed

sheltered
nestle

cling and

they

woe

; far,far beneath
him he thrusts
up

be torn

fierce desire

Storm-god rose

above, hurrying

skies,to

should

that his mother

of

groans

and

whose
father

seas.

Tu-te-wehiwehi,

His
the

summits

rose

of all that

like
dwell

children,Ika-tere,
father

of

reptiles,

myth as it is quoted from Grey'sPolynesian Mythology (p. 1,


this myth,
Tylor (Prim. Cult. I 290 ff.). Mr A. Lang compares
ff.)by
tion
and others like it found in India and China, with the Greek myth of the mutilaof Uranus
by Cronus {Cfustom and Myth, "The Myth of Cronus ").
'

give

Prof.

this

12

sought where
cried,

"

they might

Ho, ho, let

reptilesshouted
and

these

so

the forests

who

them

gave

shelter

of fierce men,
his trees, and

from

since

ever

supplying the

return,
father

has

in

waged

with

nets

should
reptiles

the

Tane,

his brother

on

him

attacks

fish-hooks madeii

spears
from his fibrous

plants,that

Sea-god'schildren

and
his

overwhelms
Forest-god,

the

in

Tu-matauenga,

brother

fish,the

upon

the

and

woven

the

But

scrubs.

and

Tane

his

and

canoes

with

the

war

woods.

his

flyinland,"

the fish fled.into

children

offspringof

they may
destroy withal
the Sea-god turns
in wrath

the surges of the sea, sweeps


with floods his trees and
into the boundless
Next
the god of storms
ocean.
pushed on

with

canoes

houses
to

his

father of

the

rather

us

of fish

father

but

sea;

nay, let
separated,for while

reptiles
sought safetyin
sea-godTangaroa, furious that
him,

"

Nay,

"

answer,

creatures

deserted

safety; the

the

to

sea, the

have

PLATO

for

escape

all escape

us

in

OF

MYTHS

THE

attack

and

the

and

so

that

the

his

brothers,the gods and progenitorsof


wild; but Papa, the Earth, caught them up
these

last of his

for

Tu-matauenga
the

planned
brave

and

he

and

fierce

in

onset

of

his

bosom

but

of

Heaven

now

he

might be

to

stand

leaves
of Tane

of their

been

shore
still

man

mother

the

had

Storm

them,

their mother

he

wrath

Earth,
became

He

parents, and

gods

had

the
of

shown

had

himself

yielded before

depths of
food

and

erect

and

had

who

was

the

his progeny
; the Forestand
in pieces; the
torn

broken
fled to

it

ocean

been

in

safe

upon
hearts
of

the

had

unshaken

last

at

the

tranquil,and

the

their

or

the

passion was

Tu-matauenga,father of fierce men, took thought how


avenged upon his brethren who had left him unaided

the

the

the

stood

against the god

of

by

So

in vain.

his brethren
war;
the Storm-god and

the

his

and

But

put

his children
of

recesses

hiding;

concealed

hid

fell upon
the
of fierce men,
but him he could not
forth all his strength. What
cared
them

brother's

oifspringhad

Sea-god and
the

his

destruction

tremendous

god

children

tilled field

and

brothers,the father

shake, though

even

her

safely
Storm-god sought for
were

the

of storms.

He

twisted

nooses

of

the

whanake

tree, and the birds and beasts,children


fell before him ; he netted nets from the
Forest-god,

and
flax-plant,
dragged ashore the fish,the children of Tangaroa!
the Sea-god; he found
in their hiding-place
underground the^
children
of Rongo-ma-tane, the sweet
potato and all cultivated
the fern-root and all wildfood, and the children of Haumia-tikitiki,
growing food ; he dug them up and let them wither in the sun.
his four brothers,and
Yet, though he overcame
they became his
fifth
he
could
the
not
and
food, over
prevail,
Tawhiri-ma-tea the

Storm-god,still ever
to

destroy him

both

attacks

him

in

by

and

land.

sea

tempest
It

and

was

hurricane,
striving
burstingforth

the

14

THE

of cases,
order of

engenderedby
production.^

the

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

practice,thus reversingthe supposed


"

Myth
complete my illustration of the Aetiological
for the
by giving the pretty Japanese story which accounts
effect produced by tea :
physiological
Let

me

"

It
Before
at

he

legend credits

whom

is Daruna

off into his

went

present

of the ninth

end

the

at

he

made

he awoke

they

and

fallen to

forth leaves.

sent

of Buddha
and

shrub

to

appeared
drink

then

all the world

now

the

do, and

ground
As
and

has not

the old monk


told

thereof.

knows

than, lo !
him

they

looked

to

Daruna

brew

slepta

in

tea.

effort

root,

leaves
the

vision

vexed

so

No

wonder,

plucked

tea, did as the


since.^
minute

was

off.

took

the

as

another

he

them

for their drooping that he cut


at his eyelids
had

origin of

asleep
throughfalling

failed

When

year.

the

trance

had

and
permanent contemplation,

with

sooner

sprouted,
a disciple

of the

new

leaves,which

commanded

him

the

Simply AnthropologicalStory and from the


a third kind
Aetiological
Story it is convenient to distinguish
of story,the Eschatological
Story. Here the teller and his
audience are not concerned
with the adventures and doings of
a
time, long ago, but with adventures
and
people once
upon
doings which they themselves must take part in after death,
3. From

like all who

have

before them.

gone
"

"

It is not

to

mere

love

scientific curiosity that the


personal talk or to mere
EschatologicalStory appeals,but to man's wonder, and fear,
and hope with regard to death.
This seems
to make
a great
in
difference,and to justifyus
putting the Eschatological^
Where
fear and
Myths in a class by themselves.
men
hope,
tend
believe
if
and
to
ritual
strongly;
they
ated
practiceis associwith
their fear and hope, more
strongly. Hence we findthat EschatologicalMyths as
class have
a
more
actuality,
and
a
nd
more
more
consistency
sobriety,
than
other"
dignity,
of

Miss

The

reader

who

"

wishes

to pursxie the
Monuments

"

subjectof

Harrison's Mythology and

the Cultus

of Ancient

Myth

may

consult

Ei-ichthonios

of the storyof the birth of


treatment
a very interesting
instance of aetiological
myth-making of a specialkind, of a legend that
the originalmeaning of which had
arisen out of a ritual practice,
become
Smith's
obscured "; also Robertson
Religionof the Semites,pp. 20 ff.,
where the
that "in the study of ancient religions
rule is laid down
we
must bewi'n
not with
and traditional usage" ; cf. p. 16" "The
with
ritual
but
Myth
he will find

"as
has

an

had

for the

most

part

no

creed ;

antique religione

they consistedTentirelyof institutions and

practices."
2

The

'^

Athens, pp. xxvi. if. where

Heart

of Japan, by C. L. Brownell

(1902),p. 197.

INTEODUCTION
in

myths,

the

15

belief

given is,for these reasons,


is enough for other myths, Eschatostronger. If make-believe
logicalMyths demand
genuine belief,and iasilyget it from
It is in no
that he
primitiveman.
spiritof make-believe
will be
performs the rites for the departed,which he knows
performed one day for himself, when he shall have gone to the
other

proportionas

world

of which

the

stories telL

It is not

always easy to assigna story to its class. The


of something that attracts notice may be found in somecause
thing
done
of adventures
which
by somebody in the course
have alreadybeen recounted
ing.
as
being in themselves 'interestA
started as
Simply Anthropological,"
story which
be annexed
being told from pure love of avdptoiroXoyla,
may
by the scientific imagination and become Aetiological.And,
started as Aetiologicalmay
again,a story which
easilyforget
become
and
its original
scientific inspiration
a
pieceof simple
avOpairoXoyia.Lastly,the interest of Eschatology of talk
is so peculiarand
about man's latter end
engrossingthat it
tends to compel into its service Simply Anthropologicaland
The
Phaedrus
Stories alreadyin existence.
Aetiological
Myth
be mentioned
as
showing this tendency at work.
may
"

"

"

We

have

seen

in

that

of the

to whichever

form

three

world,
every story of the dreamis anthropoclasses it belongs,
logical

and
zoological;that it is about the adventures
and men-like
beasts and
men
people and animals
that
it is intrinsically
a
as
interesting
story,and

and

doings of
gods ; and

belief,or,

receives
add

that it has

no

at

any
moral
"

We

rate, make-believe.
i.e. the

teller and

has

no

make
which

it,and
reads

of those
other

meaning

for whom

indecency of stories
work
of those
! rationalising
' stories
but cannot
entirely,
stories which

which

seem

to need

in

the

it is made.
into

it, when

Parable

minds

now

do not

criterion
:

'Myth

of Those

It is

who

later age

the

improbability
told by savage
men
provoke the
who are unwilling to give up the
The
receive them
as
they stand.

meaning

and

most

is the

of

moraI~or~l)'tHer

must

his hearers

anything but the story itself This


Myth as distinguishedfrom Allegory or

think
of

"

this work

most, and

on

which

it is

the treatment
done, are apt to perish under
effectually
filled
fulor
Becoming transparent allegories
they receive.
and
to be
are
soon
interesting,
prophecies,they cease

16

THE

forgotten.But
which

some

MYTHS

PLATO

out

among

the

has not

been

able

there stand

rationalism

OF

myths of the world


even
to destroyor

the creations,not of
impair. These, we may be sure, were
but of "divine
poets" and "inspired
ordinarystory-tellers,
prophets" of genius,using, indeed, material supplied by
but transformingit in the use.^ Such
ordinarystory-tellers,
myths
chieflyEschatologicalMyths, created and originally
received in the spiritof genuine belief,
not of make-believe
yield preciousfruit to interpretation.But the interpretation
be
of a
masterpiece of imagination,to be fruitful,must
psychological."The revival,in any shape,must be eschewed
treated
which
of that
a
now
formally discredited method
masterpiece of creative imagination as an allegoryby which
the accepteddogma of the day might be supported,or
as
a
if not
in some
already fulfilled,
predictionto be fulfilled,
particularevent of history. Fruitful interpretationof a
of creative imagination will consist in showing
Hnasterpiece
in so placing his creation
of its maker, and
the mind
before:,
minds
of some
our
own
by means
accompaniment or rendering
corroborative appealto imaginationand feeling
some
parallel
"

"

"

"

"

"

that it does for

us

in

pause
age, making us
he paused in the midst

of

his,filled

admiration

and

deep muse,

thingsso high

and

strange.

With
Of

in

it did for him


age what
of our
the midst
workaday

our

in

his

life,as

to hear

The

of old myths (which were


allegorical
interpretation
made, it is hardly necessary to say, without thought of the
doctrine got out of them
doubtless sugby the interpretation)
gested
the deliberate making of allegorical
tales and parables.
When
their makers
of genius,these tales are often
are
men
and
myths as well as allegories
parables. Such are Plato's
and
Gme
which
I shall consider,
Bimyan's Pilgrim'sProgress,

later with

reference

to this

point.^

Aesop's Pables, again, though retainingmuch


1

of

the

We
if we come
must not be astonished
across
myths which surpKse us hy
ingeniousdirection,or even by their profound philosophy.This is often
the character of spontaneous products of the human
mind.
The human
mind, when it works thus spontaneously,is a philosopher
just as the bee is a
mathematician."
Eeville,ProUgomhies de VSistoire des Heligions,
Eng. Transl.
"

their

"

112.
See infra,"Excursus

by Squire,
p.
^

on

Allegory,"
pp.

230

flf.

^
'

INTEODUCTION

17

and
"anthropological

zoological"interest which
belongsto
the African
Beast-tale on
which
modelled, were
they were
doubtless,for the most part, deliberately
composed for the
sake of their morals or applications.
As the Beast-tale is rewritten
with a purpose
in Aesop's
in
the moral
Fables, so
"The
zoology of Physiologus even
Natural
is rewritten
and turned
into
History of Animals"
The following,
about the Lion, based on- Physiologus,
allegory.^
in a British Museum
occurs
Bestiary(Codd. Eeg. 2 C. xii.)
in his instructive work, der Bestiaire Divin
quoted by Mann
le Clerc (p.37):
des Guillaume
"

"

"

"

Jacob
'

De

Tiatura

iestiarum
leonis,

benedicens

Catulus

filium

leonis

suum

seu

Judam

Judas

filius mens,
Fisiologusdicit tres naturales habere
"

Prima

animalium

ait

quis

49.

suscitabit

eum

9) :
?'

ut queratur
contigerit,

odor venatoris et de cauda

venatoribus, venit

(Gen.

leonem.

in montibus, et si

ambulat

regis. Etenim

sua

post tergvmi

ierit,ut secutus venator per


cooperitvestigiasua quocumque
inveniat cubile ejus,et capiateum.
Sic et
vestigiaeius non
Salvator
Noster
leo de tribu Juda, radix Jesse,
spiritualis
filius David'
(Apoc. 5. 5), missus a supemo
patre, cooperuit
Et hoc est : factus est
intelligentibus
vestigiadeitatis sue.
cum
angelis angelus, cum
archangelis archangelus,cum
thronis thronus, cum
potestatibus
potestas,donee descendit in
uterum
humanum
virginis,ut salvaret hoc quod eiraverat
Ex
hoc
ascendentem
ad patrem hi
ignoranteseum
genus.
erant
Domino
qui sursum
angeli,dicebant ad eos qui cum
ascendebant
(Ps. 24. 8 f.): 'Quis est iste rex
glorie?'
illi
Dominus
virtutum
est
Eesponderunt
:
rex
ipse
glorie.'
'

'

'

Greek form, compiled at


is a work, in its original
of the second
century, consistingof chapters, in
each of which
an
animal, real or fabulous, (ora precious stone) is first described
in the manner
of natural history(or rather, as if in that manner), and then presented
aa
a
type of Christian doctrine and life. After being translated into
Latin,Physiologusspread over the whole West, and versions of it were made

Physiologus,6 ^vnoX"yos,

Alexandria

towards

the

end

the vulgar tongues


in Anglo-Saxon, Old English, Old High
Grerman,Meiliish,Icelandic,Proven;al,Old French, and Italian. In the East,
too, it appearedin Syrian,Armenian, Arabic, Ethiopic,and Slavonic versions.
Aftierthe Bible it was probably the most popular book throughout the Middle
Age. Examples of it the so-called Bestiaries are to be found in all the
See der Bestiaire Divim des Guillaume
le Clerc (FramzSsische
libraries of Europe.
Studien, 1888), by Max Friedr. Mann, pp. 17 ff.;Pitra, Spicilegium Solesmense,
1855, t. iii. pp. xlviL ff.; Cams, Qeach. d. Zoologie, pp. 108 ff.; and article,
by Prof. J. P. N. Land, in Encycl.Brit.
Physiologus,

everywhere in

"

"

"

18

THE

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

dormierit, oculi eius vigilant,


"(Secunda natura.) Cum
aperti enim sunt, sicut in Canticis Canticorum testatur sponvigilat.'
meum
et
cor
dicena
sus
(5. 2): 'Ego dormio
et
in cruce
obdormiens
Etenim
Dominus
meus
corporaliter
dormiet
qui
non
sepultus,deitas eius vigilabat. 'Ecce
custodit Israel' (Ps.121. 4).
leena paritcatulum, generat eum
(Tereianatura.) Cum
"

mortuum

veniens
ficet

custodit

et

eum.

pater eius die tercio insufflet in faciem ejuset viviJesum


Nostrum
Sic omnipotens pater Dominum

Christum

filium

Jacob

Mos.

(4

catulus

diebus, donee

tribus

mortuum

eum

tereia die suscitavit

suum

24.

'Dormitabit

9):

Quis suscitabit

leonis.

eum

mortuis, dicente

leo,

tanquam
?'

sicut

et

"

"

has
Physiologus The^ Natural History of Animals
facts,"but,
double
character : it is not only a narrative of
a
dramatic,
at the
same
time, a divinelyappointed,as it were
of doctrine for the benefit of man.
representation
History is regardedby Philo
Similarly, Old Testament
In

"

"

"

"

and

his

school

at

as

once

of actual events, and

chronicle

of
representation
great allegorical

or
symbols of philosophictruths
figures
intention
of God, not merely in the mind
are

shall

have

allegory;

meanwhile

the

to

occasion

and

return

be
a

of

to

"

and
of the

events

that, in the

interpreter.

strange school

this

ol

ence
introductoryreferserved if I quote in
sufficiently

purpose

comment,

of

this

in
classical passage
between
distinguishes

Myth
or
allegorical
mystical truth

great masters

the

the

subjectwill

passing,without
of the

to

which

in

doctrine

of

events

which

one

the literal
recorded

in

history.
In
the

the letter to Kan

Commedia,
"Ad

Dante

evidentiam

Grande,^which

is

reallya prefaceto

as.foUows, ""7, 8 :
itaque dicendorum, sciendum

writes

"

est

quod

istius

est simplex sensus,


immc
operis[the Commedia] non
dici potest polysemum, hoc est plurium sensuum
alius
; nam
est qui habetur
sensus
per literam, alius est qui habetur pei
Et primus dicitur litercdis,
secundus
significata
per literam.
sive mysticus. Qui
modus
vero
cdlegoricua,
tractandi, u1
Church (Dante and other Essays,p. 103, ed. 1897) refers to this lette:
"which, if in its present form of doubtful authenticity,
without
an]
is incor
questionrepresents Dante s sentiments, and the substance of which
poratedin one of the earliest writingson the poem, Boccaccio's commentary."
1

as

one

Dean

INTEODUCTION"
melius

pateat, potest considerari

Israel

de

Judaea

Aegypto, domus

Jacob

19

in

his

de

populo barbaro, facta

versibus

sanctificatio eius,Israel potestas eius.'"

In

'

Nam

exitu
est

si literam

solam

nobis exitus filiorum Israel de


inspiciaraus,
significatur
Aegypto, tempore Moysis; si allegoriam,nobis significatur
nostra
redemptio facta per Christum; si moralem
sensum,
conversio
nobis
animae
de luctu et miseria peccati
significatur
ad statum
exitus animae
gratiae; si anagogicum,significatur
ab
huius
sanctae
Grloriae
corruptionisservitute ad aeternae
libertatem.
Et quamquam
isti sensus
mystici variis appelleutur nominibus, generaliter
dici possunt allegorici,
omnes
siut

quum

literali sive, historiali

diversi.
.

manifestum

quod duplex oportet

est

His

visis,

suhjectum,circa quod
alterni sensus.
currant
Et
ideo videndum
de subjecto
est
huius
de subjecto,
operis,
prout ad literam accipitur
; deinde
Est
prout allegoricesententiatur.
subjectum totius
ergo
animarum
operis,literaliter tantum
accepti, status
post
mortem
de illo et circa ilium
simplicitersumptus.' Nam
totius operis versatur
Si vero
processus.
accipiaturopus
allegorice,
et demerendo
subjectum est homo, prout merendo
arbitrii' libertatem
Justitiae
per
praemianti aut punienti
esse

'

'

est." '

obnoxius
In

the

Convivio

exactly

in

as

13)

the

the

four

Letter.

"senses"

Of

the

are

moral

tinguished
disand

he

anagogic senses
third

and

Q.i.1

1, p. 252, 1. 42, Ox" ed.):"The


says (ii.
is called moral; it is that which
readers ought

sense

attentivelyto note, as they go through writings,for their


be noted
in
own
profitand that of their disciples
; as it may
the
Christ
into the Mount
went
to be
Gospel, when
up
'

Gebhart

(L'ltalieMystique, pp.

318

that the literal interpretation


of the JHvma
belief of the mediaeTal
church, the other

personalreligion. M.
instructive:

"

le Convito, est
lui-meme
qu'ilen

dans

Saint-Pierre

Le

analysisof

Gebhart's

nomm^e

dernier

mot

ff.),referringto this Letter,remarks


Commedia
representsthe traditional
interpretations
represent Dante's own

de
au

sa

' '

Dante's

croyance,

cette

"

personalreligion is very
'religiondu ooeur' qu'ila

vingt-quatriemechant
fait la confession.

du

II est

revenu

Paradis,
au

et c'est k

symbole

tr^s

lui comme
et I'amour ; pour
simple de Saint- Paul, la foi, I'esp^rance
pour
elle-mlme
la
foi
n'est,_at.-foad,
fides
sperandarum
I'apfltre,
-"jue Pegp^ranoe,
Pour lui, le p^ch4 suprSmS; celui qu'il punit d'un
ferum.
substantia
n'est ni I'h"^sie, ni Tincr^dulit^, qu'ila montr^es, par le
ce
m^pris ^crasant,
k I'enfer ; c'est la viltd,,
d^ain meme
et la figurealtiire des damn^s, sup^rieures
.

le renoncement
pape

timide

au

devoir actif,au

d6vouement,

Celestin,
Che

fece per viltate il gran

rifiuto."

la vie, la lachet^ du

20

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

the

him
he took with
that of the twelve apostles
transfigured,
three ; wherein
morally we may understand, that in matters
of the greatestsecrecy we
ought to have few companions.
that is,above sense
The fourth sense
is called anagogic,
"

which,
writing is expoundedspiritually
sets forth
signified,
in its literal sense, by the matters
even
in that
be seen
the high things of glory everlasting
: as
may
Song of the Prophet which says that in the coming out of the
people of Israel from Egypt, Judah was made holy and free.
and

this

is when

plainlytrue accordingto the letter,is


is,the Soul, in
: that
less true as understood
not
spiritually
coming out from sin, is made holy and free."
The
rest of the chapter(Conv.ii. 1) dwells on the point,
which
Dante
evidentlyconsiders of great importance,that the
literal sense
must
always be understood before we go on to
Which,

although

seek out

the other

is

"

Book

which

known

better

of

the

irratioTial

to

Myths

Plato's

and

not

begin

to

to the natural

literal

literal

"

ok

sense

First

it would

with

be

order.

distinguished

Myth

Platonic

besides,the

and

the

us," as the Philosophersay? in the

Experience,

WHAT

in

contained

are

senses

envelope;

Physics;

contrary

"

3.

other

their

is

reversal of this order is,indeed,

The

senses.

the

for
impossible,
sense,

it is

Allegories.

fkom

Part

of

the

Soul,"

does

To
the

appeal?

Phaedrus^
Republic^ and
of Myths, and his own
interpretation
deprecatedthe allegorical
taken
not
to be
are
as
allegories;but
Myths, we assume,
in the action of the Platonic
rather as representing,
Drama,
natural
consciousness
which
products of that dream-world
the field of ordinary wide-awake
in
consciousness
encompasses
Plato,

know

we

minds

educated

as

from

well

the

in

as

the

minds

of

children

and

primitivemen.
In appealing to the dream-world
consciousness
of hu
readers by a brOliant
literary
representationof its natural
leave uncannot
products those stories which primitivemen
"

'
2

Phaedrus, 229

Bep. 378

b-b,

and

D.

see

infra,pp.

231

ff.

22

degrees,by
art.

The

comes

over

the

of

sense

of

sense

as

our

the aid of

herself,without

Nature

us

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

we

other

or
literary

which
"might, majesty and dominion"
look into the depths of the starry sky,
with
passing,
passing,

time

short

own

which

again these,and many like them, are


natural experiences
which
closelyresemble the effect produced
these natural
When
in the reader's mind
by Plato's art.
and
is,and
moods
feel That which
was,
are
we
experienced,
shall be"
ever
overshadowing us; and familiar things the
become
the
lilac bloom
suddenly strange and
stars, and
wonderful, for our eyes are opened to see that they declare its
in his cultivated reader
of feeling
It is such moods
presence.
and regulates,
that Plato induces,satisfies,
by Myths which set
we

the lilacs bloom

see

"

"

"

"

forth

God, Soul, and

The

Cosmos,
of

charm

essential

in vision.

is that

Myths

these

of

Poetry

be expresslyeschatoof a poem
the theme
whether
generally,
like that of the Divina
Commedia, or of
logicaland religious,
other kind, for example, like that of the Fairi/ Queene,
some
The
song.
Poetry,for the sake of which in the

like

or

that

of

love

essential charm
it

last resort

of

all

exists,lies

what
and regulating
its power
of inducing,satisfying,
may
of
form
that
be
called Transcendental
Feeling,especially
in

Feelingwhich manifests itself as solemn sense


shall
of Timeless Being
of
That which
was, and is,and ever
Where
this power
be," overshadowing us with its presence.
is absent from a piece be it an epic,or a lyric,
a
or
play,or
of observation and reflection
there is no Poetry; only,
a poem
Transcendental

"

"

"

"

best, readable

at

verse,

"

an

exhibition

of wit

and

worldl^

interesting anthropology,"of pleasingsound, all


either helpful or necessary, in their several places,for the
production of the milieu in which poetic effect is felt,but
of them
none
forming part of that effect itself. Sometimes
of callingup Transcendental
the power
to be
Feeling seems
exercised at no point or pointswhich can be definitely
indicated
of a poem ; this is notably the case
in the course
the
where
wisdom, of

form

of

"

the

grasping
"

'

"

one

poem

is

complete action."

the

all turns

Sometimes

"

on

our

lonelyword

"

Coleridgesays {Anima Poeiae,from unpublishednote-books of S. T. Coleridgei


Deep sky is,of all visual impressions,
; p. 125),
a feelingthan
nearest akin to a feeling. It is more
a sight,
or
rather, it is
and sight!
meltingaway and entire union of feeling

1895
edited by E. H. Coleridge,
the

dramatic, i.e. where

"

"

INTEODUCTION
the

IS

great difference.

iousness

apparatus,

23

At

such

rate, elaborate

any

as

find

we

employed

dreamin

the

"nic

like
Commedia, and in poems
Myths, in the Divina
imion and Hyperion, is not essential to the full exercise
tie power
of Poetry. Some
is simply
common
scene
red for the mind's eye ; some
placehaunted
by memories
3motions is picturedfor the heart ; a face declaringsome
in circumstances

[ is framed

fantasia of sound

or

which

colour

it and

match

its mood

fillseye or ear ; some


sudden
us ; there is perhaps nothing

of

amazes
personification
than
the turn
of a phrase or the use of a word
the
or
and
straightway all is done that the
ig of a cadence
and
elaborate
sustained
employment of mythological
:e

"

could

ratus
1

we

do

we

"

are

in

away

dream-world; and

the

presentlyreturn, we are haunted by the feelingthat


"seen the mysteries
by that Transcendental
Feeling
finds language to express in the twenty-fifth
Dante
of the
of the Vita
Nuova} and in the last canto
''

ave

"

h
et

diso

:
"

ond'
grazia,

abbondante

io

presunsi

Ficcar lo viso per la luce eterna


Tanto, che la vednta vi consimsi
Nel

profondovidi che s' interna,

suo

Legato

con

amore

in

volume,

un

Ci6 che per 1' universo si squaderna;


Sustanzia ed acoidenti e lor costume,

Quasi
Che
La

conflati insieme

cio ch' io dico feun

forma

Credo

Let

di questo nodo
ch' io vidi,perchfe
piiidi

questo, mi

the

means

scene

is

Sole
With

'

sento

examples

some

loyment of
common

modo,

semplicelume.
largo,

godo.
punto solo m' fe maggior letargo,
secoli alia impresa,
Che venticinque
d' Argo.^
1' ombra
ammirar
Che fe' Nettuno

give

me

tal

universal

Dicendo
Un

per

which

ch' io

the

from

I have

justnow

the
simply "pictwredfor

Poets

'

where,this

sonnet

Paradiso, xxxiii. 82-9.

is

their

mentioned.
mind's

Duddon
! to the breeze that played
listener,
thy clear voice, I caught the fitful sound

See infra, p. 38,

of

quoted.

eye:

"

24

THE
Wafted

MYTHS

o'er sullen

PLATO

OF
and

moss

mound

craggy

that seem'd to
Unfruitful solitudes,
The

in heaven

sun

For

"

alders have

thee,green

Their

foliage
; ashes

And

upbraid

to form

but now,

"

shade

togetherwound

flung their

around

arms

risen in silver colonnade.

birch-trees

tempted here to rise.


Mid sheltering
pines,this cottage rude and grey ;
Whose
luddy children,by the mother's eyes
day,
Carelesslywatched, sport through the summer
Thy pleasedassociates : lightas endless May
On infant bosoms
lonelyNature lies.

And

hast also

thou

"

Sometimes, again,the
than

for

the eye

S.nd after him

Row
So

look upon

we

"

is

scene

picturedfor the
place haunted,

There

out

to

There

beneath

Came

that

"Frater

Sirmio

the Eoman

Ave

atque

of Roman

"

Vale

of the Poet's

"

as

"

we

wander'd

years
to and

Lydian laughterof the Garda Lake


Sirmio
aU-but-island,
Catuljus's
olive-silvery
the

Again, it is a face
framed in circumstances
At

eve

There
Backward

that
which

dry
came

we

see

!"

glow,
grow,

ago,
fro
below
!

declaringsome

match

"

hopelesswoe,

hundred

poets nineteen

atque Vale

Ave

Gazing at
Sweet

"

"

row

0 venusta

"

the groves of olive in the summer


the purpleflowers
ruin where

thro' aU

me

Tenderest

Sirmione

from

Desenzano, to your
they row'd,andjthere we landed
us

for the Poet,

emotions

and

ourselves,by memories

for

rather

heart

its mood

it and

cicala sung,
a sound
as of the

sea

mood, and
:

"

the lattice-blind she

flung.
And
lean'd upon
the balcony.
There
all in spaces rosy-bright
her tears,
on
Large Hesper glitter'd
And
thro'
the
silent
deepening
spheres
Heaven
Heaven
the night
over
rose

Again, some
of sound, like

fantasia of
this

sound

or

lightfillsear

"

Sometimes
I heard

a-droppingfrom
the

the

sky

skylark sing ;

all little birds that are.


seemed
to flU the sea and
they

Sometimes
How

With

their sweet

jargoning!

air

or

eye,
"

'i

INTEODUCTION
And

like

And

now

That

Or

like this

'twas like all

now

Now

25

instruments,

lonelyflute ;
it is an angel's
song,
a

makes

be mute.

the heavens

"

The

silver

With
The

did meet

soundinginstruments

the base
Water's

of the Water's

murmur

fall with

difference

fall :

discrete.

soft,now
loud,unto the Wind did call :
gentle warblingWind low answered to all.

Now
The

Of

sound

and
A

like
lighttogether,
shaft did

sunny
From

And

sky

"

behold.
it slanted

to earth

poisedtherein

this

bird

bold

so

"

bird,thou wert enchanted !


sank, he rose, he twinkled,he trolled

Sweet
He

Within

that shaft of sunny

His

his beak
eyes of fire,
All else of amethyst !

And

thus

he sang:
dreams
prove

Love's
The
The

"

of

mist ;

gold.

! adieu !

Adieu
seldom

trua

no
delay:
will
not stay.
dewdrops
sparkling
month
of May,
Sweet

blossoms,they make

We

must

Far, far away

away
!

*"

To-day! to-day!"

Again, it
amazement
see

one

that fillsus with


of personification
thought that Nature was most solitary,

stroke

some

where

"

some

is

we

is present !

up-perchedhigh.
nightingale,

The
And
She

How

cloister'damong

singsbut

to her

tiptoeNight

cool and

love,

holds

nor

back

bunched

leaves

"

e'er conceives
her

dark-greyhood.

Or, it may

Nature

and

we

be, the presence is that of Great


what
she feels what
feel,and knows
we

know

hope to gentlemind !
As Eve's first star thro' fleecycloudlet peeping;
than the gentlesouth-west
wind.
And sweeter
waters
creeping.
O'er willowy meads and shadowed
the sultryhind
Ceres' golden fields;
And
and stays his reaping.
Meets it with brow
uplift,
O

fair is Love's

first

"

herself
:

"

"

26

THE

Lastly,it
a

cadence

is

that

the heart

I heard

His

mates

the

or

failof

"

the

spring;
idlysporting,

were

stayedto

Nor

phrase

courting

linnet

lady in

His

of

but the turn

perhaps

touches

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

of love

His

sing

him

hear

song
I fear my
speechdistorting
His tender love.

So

"

as
poetic effect produced,
by way of illustrating
how
to produce it, by very
inspired poet knows

much

only the
simple means.
believe with

that the

me

effect

quoted,by these simple


that produced by the use

the

ask

to

venture

student
the

produced,in
does

means,

of

passages

to

just
from

kind

differ in

not

Plato

the

Myths
effect is always the
with which
this work is concerned. /The
induction
of the dream-consciousness, with its atmosphere of
solemn
feelingspreading out into the waking consciousness^
which

of

elaborate

apparatus in

follows.

It will be

well,however,

not

ourselves

confine

to

to

the

other
examples from
examples given, but to quote some
closely
Poetry,in wjiichthis effect is produced in a way more
it is produced in the Platonic Myths.
to that in which
parallel
I will therefore ask the reader to submit
himself to an experiment
all
three
take
the
first,to
:
following passages
and carefully
relatingto Death
reading and re-readingthem,
allow the effect of them
to grow
upon him ; and then, turning
to Plato's Eschatological
Myths in the Fhaedo, Gorgias,and
Bepuhlic,and reading them in the same
way,_to ask himself
"

"

whether
effect

or

has

produced by

that the
Poets

he

no

more

the

these

are

foretaste

other

habituate

we

better

had

pieces.

ourselves

likelyto

we

of their

to

receive

venture

the
the

Prophets.
Deh

che pensosiandate
peregrini,!
Forse
Venite

Come
Che

cosa

che

non

vol di si lontana
alia vista voi

ne

fepresente,

gente,
dimostrate ?

quando voi passate


piangete,

non

'

di

La

Vita

Nuova, " 41, Sonetto

24.

effect in the
to

think

influence

of the

message

of the

INTEODUCTION

27

Per

lo

Come

quellepersone, che neente


che intendesser la sua gravitate.

Par

suo

la cittA.dolente,

mezzo

Se vol restate, per volerla


Certo

lo

ne'

core

Che

lagrimandon'
ha perdutala sua
le parole,
ch' uom

Ella
E

Hanno

To

udire,

dice,

sospirmi

virtti di far

uscirete

pui.

Beatrice

di lei

pu6 dire,
piangerealtrui.

that

where
high Capital,^
Kingly Death
Keeps his pale court in beauty and decay,
He came
: and
bought,with priceof purest breath,
A

the eternal
Come
among
away !
while
the
vault
of
blue
Italian
Haste,
day
grave

"

Is yet his

chamel-roof ! while stiU


fitting
if
in
lies,as
dewy sleephe lay ;
Awake
him not ! surelyhe takes his fiU
and
of all iU.
deep
liquidrest,forgetful
He

Of

He

will awake

Within
The

the

His
The

more

"

oh, never

chamber
twilight

shadow

Invisible

no

of white

extreme

Soothe

her

So fair

to her

way

eternal

Hunger
pale rage,

dim

at the door

trace

to

but
sits,
nor

spreadsapace

Death, and

Corruptionwaits

more

dwelling-place
;
pity and

awe

dares she to deface

prey, till darkness and the law


Of change shall o'er his sleepthe mortal curtain

Oh,

for Adonais

draw.

The

quick Dreams,
passionwing"d Ministers of thought,
Who
his flocks,
whom
the living
were
near
streams
Of his young
he taught
spirithe fed,and whom
The love which
its music, wander
was
not,
Wander
from kindlingbrain to brain,
more
no
But droop there,whence
their lot
theysprung ; and mourn
Eound
the cold heart,where, after their sweet pain.
weep

"

The

"

ne'er will

They

nor
gatherstrength,

find

home

again.

tremblinghand claspshis cold head.


her moonlight wings, and cries :
Our love,our
hope,our sorrow, is not dead ;
the
silken
See, on
fringeof his faint eyes,
Like dew upon
a sleeping
flower,there lies
And

one

And

fans him

with

with

"

tear some

Dream

has loosened

Shelley,Adonais.

from

his brain."

28

THE
Lost
She
She

Angel
knew

from

had

bow

in her

Another

Which

With

its rain.

which

one

fire

anadem,

whence

mouth

to draw

wont

was

cheek.

alit,

his mouth

it

weak

more

was

againsthis frozen

Splendour on

if to stem

winged reeds,as

and

greater loss with

And

stain

pearlsbegem
griefwould break

wilful

dull the barbed

That

no

of starry dew

urn

him, like an
upon
frozen tears instead of

Another

the breath

gave it strengthto piercethe guarded wit,


pass into the panting heart beneath

lightningand

with

caress
Quenched
upon
And, as a dying meteor

damp
icy lips;

music
his

its

Of

outwept

wreath

Her

with

as

his

Which

own

which

lucid

Another

And

'twas her

cloud

Paradise !

ruined

PLATO

OF

lightlimbs, as if embalming them


cUpt her profuselocks,and threw

Washed

The

of

not

faded,like
One

MYTHS

stains

which

the

death

wreath

the cold

night clips,
moonlight vapour,
through his palelimbs,and passedto its eclipse.

It flushed

And

others

Desires and

Adorations,
and veiled Destinies,
Winged Persuasions,
Splendours,and Glooms, and glimmeringIncamatioiks
Of hopes and fears,
and twilightPhantasies ;
And Sorrow, with her femily of Sighs,
And
blind with tears, led by the gleam
Pleasure,
Of her own
dying smile instead of eyes.
Came
in slow pomp
the moving pomp
might seem
;
came,

"

"

Like

pageantry of mist
AU. he had

and

an

autunmal

moulded

stream.

into

thought
sweet
sound,
Lamented
Adonais.
Morning sought
Her eastern watch-tower,and her hair unbound,
with
Wet
the tears which
should adorn the ground,
Dimmed
the aerial eyes that kindle day ;
Afar the melancholythunder
moaned,
Pale Ocean in unquietslumber
lay,
the wild winds flew around, sobbingin their dismay.
From

And

loved

on

shape,and

Lost

Echo

And

feeds her

hue, and

sits amid

odour,and

the voiceless

mountains.
griefwith his remembered
lay,
winds
And will no more
to
or fountains,
reply
birds perched on the young green
Or amorous
spray.
Or herdsman's horn, or bell at closing
day ;
Since she can mimic
not his lips,
dear
more

30

THE
He

is

Which
His

MYTHS

portion of

the loveliness

he made

once

part, while

its

And

to the forms

From

each

likeness,

own

as

burstingin

trees and

its

they

wear

that checks its


may
its might

into the Heaven's

men

flight

bear ;

mass

beauty and

beasts and

bear

world,compellingthere

dull dense

Torturingthe unwillingdross
To

he doth

stress
plastic
Spirit's

one

successions

new

lovely:

more

the

Sweeps through the


AU

PLATO

OF

light.

splendoursof the firmament of time


but are extinguished
not ;
May be eclipsed,
Like stars to their appointedheightthey climb,
The

And

death is

low

mist

which

And

blot

cannot

The

When
it may
veQ.
brightness
Lifts a young
heart above its mortal

loftythought

And

what

love and

Shall

be its

move

like

The

life contend

lair.

it,for

earthlydoom, the dead live there.


winds of lighton dark and stormy air.

inheritors
from

Rose

in

of unfulfilled

their

renown

thrones,built

beyond mortal thought,


Unapparent. Chatterton
Rose pale,his solemn
agony had not
Yet faded from him ; Sidney,as he fought.
And
and as he lived and loved.
as he fell,
Sublimelymild, a Spiritwithout spot.
Arose ; and Lucan, by his death approved :
like a thingreproved.
as they rose, shrank
Oblivion,
Far

in the

And

many
whose

But
So

long as

Rose, robed
"

Thou

"

It

was

Swung

more,

When

thy

names

on

Earth

eflSuence cannot

are

dark,

die

fire outlives the parent spark,


in dazzlingimmortality.

art become

of us,"they cry ;
as one
for thee yon kingless
spherehas long
blind in unascended majesty,

Silent alone
Assume

whose

transmitted

amid

Heaven

wingfedthrone,thou

lilacs last in the

of

Song.
Vesper of

our

throng!

"

dooryardbloom'd,i

And

the great star earlydroop'din the western


sky in the
I moum'd, and yet shall mourn
with ever-returning

night,
spring.
bring,

Ever-returning
spring,trinitysure to me you
and droopingstar in
blooming perennial,
And
thought of him I love.
Lilac

Walt

Whitman,

Leams

the west

of Grass (Memories of President Lincohi).

INTEODUCTION
From
With
A

In
A

this bush, in the

delicate-colour'd

sprig with

31

blossoms

its flower

and

dooryard,
heart-shapedleaves
,

in secluded recesses,
the swamp
and
hidden
bird is warblinga song
shy

Song

of the

Death's

of rich green,

I break.

"

bleedingthroat.

outlet song

of Ufa

of the

spring,the land, amid cities.


through old woods, where latelythe violets peep'd from
the ground,spottingthe grey debris.
the grass in the fields each side of the lanes,passing the endless

Over

the breast
lanes and

Amid
Amid

grass,
Passing the

yeUow-spear'dwheat, every grain from its shroud


dark-brown
fields uprisen.
the
blows of white and pink in the orchards.
apple-tree
Passing
Carryinga corpse to where it shall rest in the grave.
Night and day journeys a coffin.
CofSn

in

the

through lanes and streets,


night with the great cloud darkeningthe land.
of the inloop'd
with the cities drap'din black,
flags,
of crape-veil'd
of the
States
themselves
as
women

that passes
Through day and
With

the pomp
the show

With

standing.

With

countless

the

torches

lit,with

the

silent

sea

of

faces

and

the

bared heads.

tollingtollingbells' perpetualclang.
Here, coffin that slowlypass^
I giveyou my
sprig of lilac.
the

With

Sing on there in the swamp,


0 singerbashful and tender, I hear your notes, I
I understand
1 hear, I come
you.
presently,
But

The

star, my

0 how

moment

linger,for the lustrous


departingcomrade, holds

myselffor

shall I warble

And

how

And

what

star

the dead

one

call,

your

has detain'd me,


detains me.

there

I loVd

soul that has gone


song for the large sweet
I love ?
of
him
the
for
be
grave
perfume

shall I deck
shall jny

and

hear

my

32

THE

Sea-winds
Blown

from

With

from

East and

the Eastern

the

on

I'n

blown

MYTHS

prairiesmeeting

these and

West,
and

sea

from

blown

Loud

of my
chant,
I love.
of him

grave

of the

song, with

liquidand

0 wild
You

dusk, out

only

bushes,

pines.
reedy song.

your
voice of uttermost

woe.

tender !

free and

and

loose to my soul
0 wondrous
I hear
yet the star holds me
"

"

Yet the Ulac with

the

chant from

your

of the cedars and

dearest brother,warble

humsm

sea,

"

Sing on, singon, you grey-brown bird,


Sing from the swamps, the recesses, pour
Limitless out

the Western

the breath

perfume the

Sing on,

PLATO

OF

the

mastering odour

singer!
(butwill soon

holds

depart).

me.

knowledge of death as walking one side of me.


the other side of me.
the thought of death close-walking
I in the middle
with
as
companions,and as holding the

With

the

And

And

hands

of

companions,
I fled forth to the

hidingreceiving
night that talks not,
Down
to the shores of the water, the path by the swamp
To the solemn
shadowy cedars and ghostlypinesso stiU.

in the

dimness,

singerso shy to the rest received me,


grey-brown bird I know received us comrades three.
he sang the carol of death,and a verse
for him
I love.

And

the

The
And

*******
*******

And
As

the charm
I held

And

of the carol rapt me.


if by their hands my
comrades

as

the voice of my

tallied the song


spirit

in

the

night,

of the bird.

and soothingdeath,
Come, lovely
round the world,serenely
arriving,
arriving,
In the day, in the night,to all,to each,
Undulate

Sooner

or

later delicate death.

Dark

mother

Have

none

Then

I chant

',

'

alwaysglidingnear with soft


feet,
thee
chant
a
for
offullestwelcome
it for thee,
I glorify
thee above all,

chanted

bring thee

song that when

thou must

indeed

come,

come

unfalteringly.

"*"""""

*******

i'Vom

me

to thee

gladserenades,

And

for thee I propose salutingthee,adornments and feastings


for
the sights
and the high-spread
of the open landsca/pe
are
sky

And

lifeand

Dances

thee.

fitting,

the

and
fields,

the

huge and thoughtful


night

INTEODUCTION
The

night in

The

ocean

silence under

shore and

the

star,

many

33

wave
huskywhispering

whose

voice I

And

the soul

And

the

turning to thee,0 vast and well-veil'ddet^h.


bodygratefully
nestlingclose to thee.

Over

the

I floatthee
tree-tops

Over

the

risingand

know,

song,

sinkingwaves,

the

over

myriad fieldsand

the

prairies

wide,
Over
I

the

cities all and the teemingwharves


dense-pack'd
joy,with joy to thee,0 death.

and

ways,

floatthis carol with


The

conclusion

examination

of what

of which

"

quoted

at

charm

of

which

the

follows,as

"

for the

"

sake

lies in its power

of

circumstances, that
fully chosen
Feeling which is experiencedas
of

presence

he."

The

fUfiTj/iara

and

"

That

Poet, always by

products

"

often with

from

me,

experiencesin perusinggreat Poetry


I have
widely dissimilar pieceswhich
eminent
examples is that the essential

three

"

to

seems

one

length are
Poetry that

resort, it exists

it

of

the

of

solemn

df

the

last

certain

care-i

Transcendental
of

the

shadowing
over-

is,and

ever

shall

sense

and

was,

in

which,

inducing,in
mode

which
means

of

Eepresentations images,
"

dream-consciousness

in

himself,

'

aid of

Ehythm and Melody which call up


certain
shadowy Feelings,strange,in their shadowy form, to
sciousness
ordinaryconsciousness,induces in his patientthe dream-conin which
such Eepresentations
and Feelingsare
at.
home.
in the patient
But
the dream-consciousness
induced
by the imagery and melody of the Poet lasts only for a
The
the most
sustained Poetry is a
moment.
effect of even
succession of occasional lapsesinto the state of dream-consciousness,
each
of which
occurs
one
suddenly and lasts but
for

the

the

in

moment,
with

way,

manages
the moment

of
"

"

That

at

the

theme,"

his

of

dream-world

that

which

was,

heard

moment

of

one
sense

is,and

these

of the
ever

hears

ago

"

the

or, was

a
"

continuous

matter-of-fact
how

the

poet

It is at

things.
lapses into

immediate

shall be

sees, in the

one

image, or

only a

the dream-world

and

when

moment

from

solemn

the

otherwise

an

is about," and
poem
other
and a hundred

waking

the
consciousness,
or

the

what

of

is concerned, in

which

waking- consciousness
"

midst

world

"

is

presence

experienced

of wide-awake

melody, which
it not

the

one

saw

ages ago ?

"

:
"

in

THE

34

Un

e maggior letargo,
venticinquesecoli alia impresa,

punto solo m'


Che

fe' Nettuno

Che

It is

It is essential

us.

d'

succeed
that
to

of its

the power

not

for its immediate

needs

grows
of
power

intervals of
of

sense

"

in which

the

realisation

at

Poetry

experiencingthe

our

be,

another, it may

one

Poetry that there should be intervals,and


the lapses. The
length,between
heard
or
seen
thingsbelonging to a world
"

Argo.

each followed immediately


lapses,

sudden

these

thus, as

1' ombra

ammirar

by waking and amazement,


in a poem,
long intervals,
upon

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

siderable
con-

having
Time

is

presence, in the

waking consciousness,of thingswhich shall remind


is not
Time
of the things of that other world in which
be no
such
without
us, there would
things to "remind"

world

"

of

"

us
"

recollection

"

us

the

into

visit to

our

the

in

world

to which

consciousness

we

are

which

returned,and

now

"

Time

"

is

began by throwing
the state of waking

poet'simage, therefore,which
dream-state, must
persistin

The

not."

of

"

"

there, as

we

1
blance
resemus by its
day,amaze
lightof common
Time
in which
in the world
to an
archetype seen
of waking conAnd
its persistencein the world
sciousness
is not."
less wide
be guaranteed only by a more
or
can
and
addressed to our
context
ordinaryfaculties to the senses
this
Over
understanding and to our ordinary sentiments.
"

look at it in the

"

"

"

"

matter-of-fact

context, however,

the

produced in

amazement

image, or other product of the


Poet's
set
dream-consciousness, which
just now
us, too,
double
is
is
both
in
the
world
without
a-dreaming,
something
casts
Time, and in this temporal world
a
glamour for a
while.
Then
the glamour fades away, and we
find ourselves
accompanyiag the Poet through the every-dayworld ; and it
us

when

perceivethat

we

the

"

"

may

be

in

accordance

with

the

secret

scheme

which

he

is

carrying out that we are kept in this every-day world for


a
long while, in order that we may be taken the more
by
surprisewhen
suddenly,as we journey,the lightfrom heaven
shines round
about
Whatever
us.
specificimport," says
"

we
Coleridge,^
"

attach

involved in it,as

length neither

can

poetry, there will be found,

to the word

necessary consequence,

be,

nor
'

ought

to

that

poem

be, all poetry."

Biog. Lit. oh. xiv.

of any

iJN

The

chief end

1 JKUJJ

UHUiN

3D

of

Poetry,then, is to
Feeling experienced as solemn sense
"

of
Poet's

That

"

which

and

was,

is,and

induce

Transcendental

of the

immediate
"

be
ever^hall

"

sence
prein the

him

suddenly,for a moment, into


the state of dream-consciousness, out of a waking consciousness
the
Poet
which
supplies with objectsof interest; the
sudden
tion
lapse being effected in the patient by the communicaof images and other productsof the Poet's dreamto him
of language generally,
but
consciousness,through the medium
not always,distinguished
from that of ordinarycommunication
by rhythm and melody.
patient,by throwing

But

the

result

same

Transcendental

induction

the

"

of the

of

form

same

Feeling is produced,not only by the means


which
the Poet
employs, dream-imagery communicated
by
not
language generally, but
necessarily,rhythmic and
melodious, but also by different artistic means
by the
which
Painter
the
the
and
Musician
means
respectively
of firstto be a matter
and this seems
to me
employ ; indeed
rate
importance for the Theory of Poetry it is sometimes
Nature
herself without
the aid of any art,
produced by mere
and
by events as they happen in one's life,and, above aU, by
and situations and persons remembered
out of the days
scenes
of childhood
We
and
are
always dreaming,"Eenan
youth.
knew
when
of faces we
we
were
(I think) says somewhere,
let me
ask
the reader to
eighteen." In this connection
consider Wordsworth's
lines beginning
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

There
And

It
a

to

seems
scene

me

to which

was

Boy

ye knew

islands of Winander

the

that

mere

it would

not

him

well,ye

cliffs

"

scene

be

described

in these

difficult to find

lines

"

in
parallels

experience is,entirelyapart from the language in


of
which
it is described,and simply as a picturein the mind
remembers
the person who
it,and in tbQ"*lindsof those to
true poeticeffect
he describes
whom
it,the milieu in which
is experienced. As I write
this, I can
hardly recall a line
ing
the readof Wordsworth's
description
; but the picturewhich

any

one's

"

descriptionhas left in my mind is distinct ; and


is in dwelling On the picturethat I feel the poeticeffect
it was, I am
convinced, in dwelling on the picture,before
of his

it
as

"

36

THE

he

composed
the

than

to enhance

of
re-reading

poem

is

to

perienced
exme.

likelyto impair

more

has

who

one

once

scene.

I read

more

such

communicated

has

by
feelingexperienced

the

picturedthe

The

he

poet himself

the

that

poem,

feeling which

And

PLATO

OF

line of the

the

for all

MYTHS

of the

re-read the works

and

great poets,

study the writings of those who have some


I convinced that
am
Theory of Poetry to set forth, the more
the question What
be properlyanswered only
is Poetry ? can
it does it.
if we
WTiat
it does take precedence of Mow
make
The
result produced by Poetry
identical,I hold, with that
sometimes
by the
produced by the other fine arts, and even
and

the

more

"

is the one
Life
and Human
contemplation of Nature
thing of prime importance to be kept always in view, but is
of the means
too often lost sight of in the examination
by
from
those by
which
Poetry produces it, as distinguished
that is now
which, say"JPaintingproduces it. Much
being
with
the impresthe Theory of Poetry leaves one
written
on
sion
that the writers regard the end of Poetry as something
sui generis in fact,something not to be distinguished
from
the employment of technique peculiarto Poetry among
the
fine arts.^ I shall return to this point afterwards.
In making the essential charm
of Poetry
that for the
mere

"

"

"

sake
of

of

which,

of

sense

That

"

that

there

distinct

which
with

us

the

last resort, it exists

lie in its power


circumstances, and so
"

chosen
inducing,in certain carefully
regulating.Transcendental
Feelingexperienced as

of

in

is

was,

and

its presence,

is, and

shall

ever

I must

be

not

taken

be

solemn
"

shadowing
over-

to

mean

is not induced
as
Poetry where this sense
ecstatic experience. Great
Poetry,just in those
no

it is at its very
its
places where
greatest,indeed shows
peculiarpower not otherwise than by inducing such distinct
ecstatic experience; but generally,
poetic effect not the very
greatest,but yet indisputably
poetic effect is produced by
of this form
of Transcendental
something less
by the presence
Feeling in a merely nascent
state, ^justa little
"

"

"

"

and

more,

'

it would

Mr.

of the

be

Courthope{Life m
rightmetrical form

of

idea

distinctly
; as

it

is,there is

"

Poetry,p. 78) aays :


Poetrylies in the invention
epic,dramatic,lyric,or satiric for the expression
to the imagination." And
universallyinteresting
of. p. 63.
"

some

there

be it

"

38

THE

MYTHS

they

rouse,

mere

of
understanding

sentiments

and, at

the

PLATO

OF

in check, behind

time, hold

same

picturesand
familiar though they are,

their literal meaning.

conjuredup, simple and

our

The

yet that about them which I can only compare with


are
mysterious quality of those indifferent things which
have

the
so

carefullynoticed, and those triflingthoughts which are so


seriouslydvelt upon, in an hour of great trouble.
But
the Transcendental
Feeling which, being pent up
behind
our
understanding of their literal meaning, makes the
burst
magic of such lines, may
through the iridescent film
figuration
which
have
contains it. We
an
example of this in the transThe
of the Earthly into the Heavenly Beatrice.
Transcendental
understanding of
our
Feeling latent behind
and eanzoni of
the praise of Beatrice
in the earlier sonnets
the
Vita Niiova
distinct experience when
we
a
as
emerges
assist at her praise in the Paradiso.
Contrast
the eleventh
of the Vita Nuova
sonnet
with the twenty-fifth,
which,'with
its commentary, is a prelude to the Paradiso.
The eleventh
sonnet

of the

Vita

ends

Nuova

:
"

Aiutatemi,donne, a farle onore.


Ogni dolcezza,ogni pensieroumile
Nasce

Ond'

Quel
Non

core

chi

parlarla sente ;
prima la vide.
quand' un poco sorride,
a

chi

ch.'ella par
si pii6dicer,nfe tener

Si h

Here

nel

h beato

miracolo

nuovo

mente,

gentile.

it is the

magic of the lines which is all in all. Now let


to the twenty-fifth,
turn
the last,
of the Vita Nuova,
us
sonnet
and
after it ending the book with the proijiise
to the words
of more
worthy praise more
worthy, because offered with a
of the encompassing presence
of
That
which
deeper sense
"

"

was,

and

is,and

ever

shall be

Oltre la spera, che


Passa

il

"

:
"

pii largagira,

sospiroch'

Intelligenza
nuova,

esce

del mio

core

che 1' Amore

Piangendo mette in lui,pur au lo tira.


Quand' eglife giunto1^,dov" el desira,
Vede
una
donna, che riceve onore,
E luce si,che per lo suo splendore
Lo peregrinespirito
la mira.
Vedela tal,
che,quando il mi ridice,

INTJRODUCTION
lo

non

Al

cor

So

lo

intendo,si parla sottile

che lo far parlare.


doletite,
el parla di queUa gentile,

io ch'

Perocche

"
apesso ricorda Beatrice,
Sicch' io lo intendo ben, donne
mie

after

"Straightway
unto

this

marvellous

sonnet

care.

writ, there

was

vision,wherein

V*^

appear

I heheld

things whi
made
determine
me
not to say more
concerning this Bless
until
I should
One
be able to speak of her more
worthi
To this end I studied with all diligence,
she knoweth
as
we
Wherefore, if it shall be the pleasureof Him
through Whc
all things live that my
hfe endure
for some
years, I hope
say

me

of her

And

that which

then

it

may

before hath

never

pleaseHim

Who

been

is Lord

said

of

woms

of

Courtesy th
Lady, to wit,

Soul may
the
glory of her
my
go to behold
that Blessed Beatrice,who
in glory doth gaze upon
Him
Who
is blessed for evermore."

the

face

M
4.

Transcendental

Feeling,

Platonic
APPEAL,

Myth
explained

Transcendental
every
another

and

mood,

Experience

the

all

to

Forms

other

ti

which

Poet:

of

GENETICALLY.

Feeling

whatever

its

I would

explain genetically(

present value

that

be,

may

"

ought to be explained)as an effect produc


within consciousness
(and, in the form in which
Poetry
t
with
Transcendental
chieflyconcerned
Feeling, within
in us of that prime^
dream-consciousness)
by the persistence
matter,

condition
sound

"

which

from

we

are

Death, and

asleep as

sprung,
there

no

Time

fall for

while,

now

then, from

still

was

yet.

That

waking, tin
marking life,into the timeless slumber of this primeval life
; for the principlesolelyoperativein th
easy to understand
primeval life is indeed the fundamental
principle of o
whi
nature, being that
Vegetative Part of the Soul
made
from
and still silently
the first,
makes, the assumpti
should

and

was

Life

when

our

"

"

on
"

which
the

which

our

whole

assumption
Keason

can

rational
that

Life

life of conduct

living.
against,this

is worth

bring for,or

and

No

science

rei

argumei

ultimate

tru

40

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

stir without
assuming the
relevant; for Eeason cannot
to disprove.
very thing which these arguments seek to prove or
Live thy life
by
is the
Imperative addressed
Categorical
Nature
of her creatures
to each one
accordingto its kind.
At
the bottom
of the scale of Life the Imperative is
are

"

"

in
obeyed silently,
tropicalforest :

timeless

the

by

sleep,as

trees

of

the

"

fair and

statelythings.
Impassiveas departedkings,

The

stood,

still in the wood's stillness

AH
And

dumb.

other

and

brooded,bloomed

art, no

hope,they knew.
seek the blue.

the earth and

Than

clutch

touched
eyes were
the wood
for what it was

with

My

saw

dreamed,

It seemed

nndivined.

Unmeaning,
No

multitude

rooted

The

and

Nodded

the victorious

sight.

The

lost and

The

deadly battle pitchedin line.

cause,

and shine :
cross
weapons
Silent defeat,
silent assault,
Saw

battle and

burial vault.

Green

from overhead
conquerors
Bestrode the bodies of their dead
The

Unused

"When

Caesars of the

For

in the

The

cancers

the

sylvan field,
foredoomed
to yield:
fail,
of
groins branches,lo !

to

of the orchid

grow.^

"

"

Sensitive
Soul is first
Vegetative the
added, the Imperative is obeyed by creatures
which, experiencing
only isolated feeUngs,and retainingno traces of them
to

"

still live

in memory,

timeless

"

life,without

sense

future, and

of

past

or

consequentlywithout sense of selfhood.


Then, with Memory, there comes, in the highgrSnimaJs,
dim
of a Self dating back
and prospectingforsense
some
ward.
be.
the
to
Time begins
But
of its paseage brings
sense
no
melancholy; for its end in death is not yet anticipatadi
by reflective thought.
Man's
anticipationof death would oppress his life with
'

Songs of Travel, E.

L. Stevenson

"The

Woodman."

INTEODUCTION

insupportablemelancholy, were
especiallythose which
engrossing that is, I would

it not

conscious
"

Soul
holds

on

is

there

leisure.

but
some

past

in which

into that
future

or

enough

If comfort

to

comes

him

his

of

it is worth

in

so

the

self,silently

or

good to
melancholy in his

for

that

Part

"

it is

his

from

not

of

duties,are

as

it not

implicitfaith that

Cosmos

there is still room


and

the

of

its roots

ments,
employ-

current

spoken
explain,were

with
sense

Life, in

to

that

"

without

which,

that

are

"

life feels down

41

be.

living

hours

such

it is,

As

of

ease

it is

hours,

solution

of his melancholy,
thinking out some
from his putting by thought,and sinking,alone, or led by
/jLvcrraryaybi;
tov
^lov,for a while into the sleepof that

fundamental

"

Part

of the

life again,it is with

the

When

he

elementary faith

newly confirmed in
strengthof it,to defy all
Soul

Soul."

his heart
that

; and

wakes

into

daily

of this Part
he

is

of

ready,in

his

the

give it the lie in the


world of the senses
and scientific understanding. Sometimes
him
the very melancholy, which
overclouds
at the thought
in the
of death, is transfigured,
glow of this faith,into an
I shall pass, but He
exultant resignation
abideth for ever.'5
figure,
Sometimes, and more
often, tihe faith does not merely transthe
but dispels,
melancholy, and fills his heart with
of personal
sweet
hope, which
fancy renders into dreams
immortality.

"

to

seems

"

"

To

sum

in effect what

up

I have

said about

Transcendental

in our
indeed
Feeling: it is feelingwhich
ordinary
appears
but
time
does
-distinguishing,
-marking consciousness,
object
not
originatein it. It is to be traced to the influence on
of

Soul"

holds

which

living.
-

the

consciousness

shall

be

as

i;obe
'

See

normal

"

and

which
the

was,

Part

and

is

"

Transcendental

experience of

our

Feeling may

conscious

p. 38.

life : it
Vita

the

worth
solemn

that

"

good

of

is,and

conviction

Paradiso, xxxiii. 82-96, quoted supra, p. 23, and

jkxv.,
quotedsupra,

"

phase Transcendental
experienceof our conscious
^
in its other phase
state ;

ecstatic
Life

that

first-mentioned

abnormal

well-marked
that

an

That

"

"

In the

good.

Iappears
a

Being of
overshadowing us

"

of

sleep,to life as
the
Feeling is at once

Transcendental

Hence

of Timeless

sense

is

in us
presence
in timeless
on,

ever

Life

Feeling
life,as
as

viction
con-

be said

is not

Nuova, Sonnet

42

MYTHS

THE

PLATO

OF

experience occasionallycropping up alongside of other


ences
but a feeling which
accompanies all the experiexperiences,
thaF"'swee"t hope," yXvKeta
of our
conscious,life
take the trouble to seek
in the strength of which
iXirk,'^
we
make
after the particularachievements
which
up the waking
life of conduct
Such
science.
and
though normal, is
feeling,
of the
it is not
one
because
rightly called Transcendental,^
but the condition, of our
ing
effects,
enteringupon and persevermakes
in that course
which
of endeavour
experience.
an

"

5.

The

Myth

Platonic

Feeling
TATioN

Ideas

OF

Deduction

of

Categories

offered these

I have

(2)

and

Understanding

the

of

Imaginative

Virtues.

Moral

AND

Ebason,

of

Eepkesen-

Imaginative

(1)

by

scendental
Tran-

eegulates

and

kouses

remarks

Transcendental

about

Feeling

which
I now
venture
prefacea general statement
Platonic
about
the
to make
Myths- that they Oire^JDr-eams
Feeling,told in such a manner
expressive,_Qf_Ti2jascendeiital^
the
tellingof them"regulates,~for
[and such a context_^J;hat
the feelingexpressed."
the servide of conduct and science,,
How
then are conduct and science served by such regulation
,
Iof Transcendental Feeling?

in order

to

"

the

In

wide-awake

left to

Sense,

to

be the

life of

itself,claims
criterion

of

conduct
to

good

be
and

and
the

standing,
science, Under-

measure

bad.

of

truth ;

Transcendental

Part of the Soul," whispers


Feeling,wellingup from another
Sense that they are
to Understanding and
thing.
leavingout someWhat
?
Nothing less than the secret plan of the
And
is that secret plan ?
what
Universe.
The other
Part
of the
Soul
indeed comprehends it in silence as it %,' hwt
[ can
explain it to the Understanding only in the symbolicaH
language of the interpreter,
Imagination in Vision.* Jn|
assiat_.at",-a..
the_JPla.tQJllc
.Jdyth,-^w_e
Yjsion in jghictujbh^
"

"

"

"

yXvKeti,o! xapSlav iriWoLffa

yt)paTpb(f"oi
crwaopci AttIs, 4 /idXtirraBvaTdiv

iroKidTpo^iov7^i4moi'Kv^epvq,. Pindar, quoted Rep. 331


"

As

'

Plotinus, Enn.

Tim.

71 D,

B.

A.

"Empirical Feeling" ; see infra,p. 389.


iii. 8. 4, and see infra,p. 45.
The liver,the organ of Imagination,is a fmvTeiov.

distinguishedfrom

INTEODUCTION

life of

jgjde-awake
seen

and
ordinary p.xpe^ip.nnes

our

in

an_act

as

The

habitudes

and

intellectual constitution,which

and

are

reveals.

the Vision

which

planned

as

determine

of

"

And

than

more

wise

and

mindful

He

is of the

welfare

ol

Virtues

are

deduced

from

Plan

selves
them-

which, in turn,
of the Universe
the

"

good

our

priori

life,are

this,

shows, is the work-^"

the Vision

difficulties

under

faculties of

experiencesand doings in this wide-awake


by causes
clearlyseen to be determined
the
Plan
clearlyseen to be determined by

our

doings.is

"f- fehe--frea4;ioB-"Bdcon_vas.t.-draiBa

snnimatioQ_fif all things.


moral

43

Universe,

albeit

accomplished

God

for

how

see

throughout all its


the
Vision
as
wanderings from creation to final purification,
We
unfolds them !
ought, then, to be of good hope, and to
use
strenuously,in this present life,habitudes and faculties
with a universal
which
are
so
plan
manifestlyin accordance
so manifestlybeneficent.
in us that the Platonic Myth,
It is as producing this mood
ing
Feeland Eschatological,
regulatesTranscendental
^etiological
and
In Aetiological
science.
for the service of conduct
Myth the Categoriesof the Understanding and the Moral
a

man's

soul

of the

which

Universe, of

together with the whole,


remembered
in a former
life,and
piecemeal in this ; in
and Eschatological
(but chieflyin Eschatological)
Aetiological
of Eeason," Soul, Cosmos, as
completed
Myth the "Ideas
system of the Good, and God, are set forth for the justification
of that "sweet
hope which guidesthe wayward thought of mortal
should not take the trouble
the hope without which we
man
fuller
and persevere
to enter upon,
in, that struggleafter ever
wider
ever
correspondencewith
comprehension of conditions,^
they are

representedas

parts

seen,

"

"

"

"

"

and

intellectual
and

structure

the Moral

habits

the

which

environment,"

Virtues

the

"

and

Categoriesof

enable

"

us

of

faculties

to

the

carry

on

moral

our

ing
Understandin detail.

ling
point,before I go on further to explainPlato's handof Transcendental
Feeling,I will make bold to explainmy
metaphysicalposition. A very few words will suffice.
that it is in Transcendental
Feeling,manifested
I hold
At

own

this

'

'

Kant

part e.g.

makes

"

Eeason

"

"understanding")

"conceptionsof the
of any

(t.e. the whole


the

source

unconditioned,"

thing that

is

given as

man

in

oppositionto

of "Transcendental
"conceptions of the

conditioned."

this

or

that

Ideas," described

totalityof

the

as

ditions
con-

Faith

normally as

OF

MYTHS

THE
in

the

PLATO
as
ecstatically
Thought proceedingby

of Life, and

Value

Beiag, and not in


comes
Consciousness
of speculativeconstruction, that
way
Ultimate Eeality. It is
"o the objectof Metaphysics,
in Transcendental
Feeling,not in Thought, that Consciousness
that
Ultimate
nearest
to
comes
Eeality,because without

sense

iFaith

of Timeless

in the Value

of

is the

Life, which

normal

manifestation

It is
Feeling,Thought could not stir.
of
Transcendental
Feeling that Consciousness is aware
it is good
The
Good
of the Universe
as
a placein which
ho be.
Transcendental
Feeling is thus the leginning of
start without
make
a
for Metaphysics cannot
faphysics,
as
a
place in which
Good, or the Universe
assuming "The
of Metaphysics,for
it is good to be
; but it is also the end

\oiTranscendental
"

"

"

"

SpeculativeThought does not reallycarry us further than


the
Feeling,which inspiredit from the first,has already
brought us : we end, as we began, with the Feeling that it
To the question, "Why is it good to be
is good to be here.
elaborated by Thought are no more
here ?
the answers
really
preting
than
those supplied by the Mythopoeic Fancy interanswers
have
former
the
Transcendental
Feeling. When
not
value, but
value (and they are sometimes
only without
mischievous)they are, like those suppliedby the Mythopoeic
"

"

impressiveaffirmations of the Faith in us,


of its ground.
not at all as explanations
Conceptual solutions
further along
of the
no
problem of the Universe
carry us
the pathway to realitythan
imaginative solutions do. The
reason
why they are thought to carry us further is that they .1,
mimic
those conceptual solutions of departmental problem^
Fancy,

valuable

as

"

"

which

we

are

accustomed

to

do

accept, and

well

to

accept,

Imaginative solutions of the


are
problem of the Universe
thought to be as inferior to
conceptualsolutions as imaginativesolutions of departmental
problems are to conceptual. The fallacyinvolved in this
analogy is that of supposing that there is a
problem of the
Universe
a
difficultypresented which
Thought may
solve."
The
first prowas
problem of the Universe
pounded,
and
Life
when
straightway solved,at the moment
began on the earth, when a livingbeing as such, from the
lacking nothing which is essential to selfhood or
very first,

from

the

positive sciences.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Kant's

of the Understandipg
Categories

"

which

there

of that

which

could

alone is

"

no

"

known," the world

priori

Structure,

Mental

experience

no
"

certain

"

"

be

are

"or^the

Characters

Conceptions,certain
without

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

46

of

ledge
know-

sensible

not
Categories,however, if they are
be regarded as
to remain
mere
logicalabstractions, must
functions of the Understanding as active manifestations of
funcAs
consciousness.
the unifying principleof mind
or
the
tions,the Categoriesneed for their actual manifestation
In
the absence
qf_sensajionsjEey
presence'bf'^sSasatipns."
They are functions of the mental organism or
aig^''emt)tv."
from
called into operationby stimulation
which
structure
are
or
figurations
environment," and that only in schemata

These

phenomena.

"

"

"

"

of Time.^
vehicle
Thus, the
or
involving the
garment
of the perCategory of Substance is realised in the schema
sistent
is
in time
perceivedas
Something present to sense
attributes
Substance
persisting in change of
; the
of succession in
Category of Cause is realised in the schema
of which
is antecedent
time," two sensible phenomena, one
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

and

the

other consequent,

latter

the

former.

"

is
The

conceived

as

amounts

to

are

saying

rightlyconducted^will_never

'But

as

cause

and

effect"

following necessarilyfrom

schemata, then,

This
if

conceived

are

the

true

scientific categories."^

that

the

Understanding,

make

use, of any
onlj^n^_emgirical

the

transcendental

of its

use,

priori principles.
These
forming
principlescan apply only to objectsof sense, as conconditions
of a possibleexperience
to t^e universal
to things as such
(phenomena),and never
(noumena),or apsirt
in
which
from the manner
we
are
capableof perceivingthem.'
In contrast

the

to

of
Categories

"immoiwew^-^adequatel?"realised

are

the
in

Understanding^which
sense

experience;we

is cause
of
Bay, for instance, that this thing present to sense
that other
of Eeason
transcendent:
thing theldeas
are
"

they overleap the limits of all experience in experienceno


objectscan be presentedthat are adequate to them.
They
"

'

See

"

Wallace's

'

See

Wallace's Kant, p. 172.


Kritik

Kami, p. 173.

d. reinen Vern?
A conception is employed
pp. 297, 298, 303.
when
it occuis
in a proposition
transcendentally
regardingthingsas such or in
themselves ; empirically,
when
the propositionrelates merely to phenomena, or
objectsof a possibleexperience.

INTEODUCTION

defined, generally,as

47

"

problematic conceptions of the


totalityof conditions of anything that is given as conditioned
aloiJk makes a totality
; or, since the unconditioned
of conditions
as
possible,
conceptionsof the unconditioned,
in so far as
it contains
a
ground for the synthesisof the
^
There are three Ideas of Eeason, products of
conditioned."
in
its activity
carryingthe fragmentary and detailed results
of human
experienceto their rational issues in a postulated
These
three
ideas are
the Soul, as the supertotality.
sensible
the
of
substance from which
Consciousness
phenomena
World
derivative manifestations
are
[Cosmos,Universe],
; the
ultimate
as
totalityof external phenomena; and God, as
vmity and final spring of all the diversities of existence.
The
as
ideas,strictly
ideal,have a legitimateand a necessary
thought. They express the unlimited obligation
placein human
which
feels
laid
itself
the
details
to
unify
thought
upon
of observation ; they indicate an
anticipatedand postulated
between
the various lines indicated by observation,
convergence
even
though observation may show that the convergence will
never
visiblybe reached; or they are standards and model
experiencemay, and indeed must, if she
types towards which
of truth, conceive herself bound
to approxiis true to the cause
mate.
of
is
the
function
Such
ideas, as regulative : they

are

"

"

"

govern

and

direct

the

action

of

intellect

in

the

effort to

the ideas
^itemafis^e__3iui'--6Sife"Es"lJ6"5fIfi3gerTTT
into
another
natuially^sink
knowledge.
place in human

stimulatingresearch, they become, as Kant once


puts it,a cushion for the lazy intellect. Instead of being the
ever-unattainable
they play a part in
goals of investigation,
Ceasing to be regulativeof
founding the edifice of science.
to be constitutive of a pretended knowXSSearch^they come
Instead

of

~~

"dge."'
The
but

of

Ideas
have

they
The

three

Eeason, then,

are

ideals
aims, aspirations,

adequate objects in

no
"

Sciences

"

which

venture

ence.
possibleexperito define objects
Cosmology, and

Psychology, Eational
Theology are, according to Kant, sham sciences. The Idea
of Soul, the absolute or unconditioned
unity of the thinking
for

them

"

Eational

"

i"iWi,2pp. 379,
2

Wallace's

(Prof. "Watson's Traiisl.).


Kant, pp. 182, 183.

384

subject,has
of

We

it.

to

no
are

we

objectunder the
ultimate
totalityof
as

possible experience answering


an
illegitimatetranscendental use
the subjectof all knowledge
conceive
the
Similarly,
Category of Substance.

object
making

Categorywhen

an

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

48

in

Cosmos
the
as
phenomena
is not an
absolute whole
objectof possibleexperience; it is
not
something given in sense, to be brought under Categories
the Idea of God is perverted
or scientific conceptions. Finally,
external

"

"

from

its

regulativeuse, when
Dogmatic Theology

the foundation

it is made

of

applies the Categories


of Substance, Cause, and the rest, to a Supreme Being, as if
He were
an
objectpresentedin sense experience.
of the Understanding are so
The Categories
To sum
(
up :
Human
of thought which
conditions
Understanding,
many
does
it is, expects to
find, and
find, fuUy
as
y constituted
Isatisfied in the details of sensible experience,f The Ideas
Iof Eeason indicate the presence of a condition of thought
satisfied in any
is not
particularitem of experi/ which
Uence. They are aspirationsor ideals expressing that nisua
alEer fuller and
fuller comprehension of conditions,wider and
in short, that nisus
wider correspondencewith environment
would
which
after Life, and faith in it as good, without
man
the experiencerendered
not will to pursue
possiblein detail
by the Categories. But although there can be no speculative
Ideas
of Eeason, we
science of objects answering to the
such
did not act as if there were
should come
to naught if we
of objectsanswering to these
objects
; and any representation
does not invite exposure
Ideas which
by pretendingto scientific
act as if." The
rank is valuable as helpingus to
objectsof
bufef^u; fyhh. "WTjen
theseJd"aa.are_abjaeta^.noiJQt"s"en"e,
Ithe scientific imderstanding proves that God exists,or that
science

"

"

which

"

"

"

"

"

Ithe

Soul

is immortal, refutation

of the moral
Viij,s_i"."

agent

rests

lies
on

near
sure

at

hand

; but

the

foundation.'^

*
have three postulates
of practical reason
"We
which
related to
are
closely
These Ideas reason
the three Ideas of theoretical reason.
in its theoretical use
unable to supply the solution.
set before itself as problemsto be solved ; but it was
the permanence
of the thinkingsubject
Thus, the attempt to prove theoretically
led only to paralogism
of the subjectpresupposed
a confusion
in
; for it involved

all knowledge of objects,and only in that point of view permanent, with an


But now
find that a faith of
we
objectknown under the Category of Substance.
existence
of
the
endless
self-conscious
the
in
reason
subject is bound up with ffie
the moral
law.
of his fulfilling
Again, the attempt speeulatirelylo
possibility
the world
as
a system
determine
complete in itself landed iis in an antinomy

INTEODUCTION
To return

from

now

49

to Plato

Kant

Plato's Myths induce

:
"

of conduct
regulateTranscendental Feelingfor the |ervice
and knowledge by settingforth the a 'priori conditions of conduct
and knowledge
that is,(1) by representing
certain ideals
in concrete
form
of
the presuppositions
or
presuppositions,
immortal
Soul, of an intelligible
an
Cosmos, and of a wise and
all three being natural
good God
expressionsof the sweet
lives and struggles
and on ;
on
hope in the faith of which man
and (2)by tracingto their originin the wisdom
and goodnessof

and

"

"

"

of the

God, and the constitution

in

faith

or

or

virtues),
belongingto the make of
moral nature, which prescribe
the various

intellectual and

modes

habitudes

certain

and
(categories

faculties
man's

Cosmos,

he

which

order

must

hope impels

sweet

in

him

detail the

life which

maintain.

to

his

_Myth,

not

argumentativeconversation, is rightlychosen by Plato as the


conditions y
vehicle of erposiiiQa when .Jia.4eals
witn_.ajinon
of conduct and knowledge, whether
they be ideals nr"7ac'ulties.
When

man

asks

himself, as

he

struggleson

in which

hope

faculties,he is fain

Soul,created
under

whose

finished

guides the
expressionreacts
which

which

if it

as

wise

Universe

and

good God,

which

is

Hisl

answer,

"

"

It is
to

But

God

Good, and

the

I live in

by

immortal/

an

am

"

true.

were

"

true

naught

"

answer

if he did

Soul, Cosmos
not

are

"

in

the

sense

not

act

and

that
think

completed system of
along
particularobjects
presented,
as

able to escape only by the distinction of the phenomenal from


which we
were
which
theoretic reason
world"
the intelligible
a distinction
suggested,but which
the moral law forces us to think ourselves as free,
it could not verify. But now,
world which
further obliged
and therefore as belongingto an
are
we
intelligible
the phenomenal world is the appearance. Lastly,
of which
to treat as the reality
ideal which
a mere
the Absolute
knovrledgecould
Being was to theoretic reason
not

realise ; but

now

His

existence

of the objectof a Will


possibility
we
reason
gain a conviction
praotical
the

three Ideas of Pure


called
of

knowledge

them

Keason.

of these

assertion
under
perception

into

prescribedby hisl

"

it expresses.
life would
come

man's

ways
Because I

of thel

reason

accordingto Plato, as I readj


and legitimate
sweet
hope
expressionof the
and
of
the
mortal
man
;
wayward thought
that
on
givesstrength and steadiness to
This

natural

the

in

faculties

government

work."

him, is the

answer

for the

must,
"

to
these

with

he

an

bringany
judgment regarding the

We

is certiiied to us as the necessary condition of


determined
by the moral law. Thus, through
to the
of objectscorresponding
of the reality

acquirewhat is properlyto be
only change the problematicconception

do not, indeed,

objects. We

not able to
we
of their real existence ; but, as
are
to make
unable
such Ideas,so we
are
any synthetic
Caird's
assert."
we
objectsthe existence of which
"

Critical'Philosophyof Kant, ii. 297.


E

50

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

particularobjects,in sensible experience. Ihisit tries to


the Scientific Understandiog fails to graisp.- When
indTiTis ready enough to make the venture
deaTwith them
it must
needs envisagethem, more
suo, as though they were
with

other

"

"

in
which could be brought under its Categories
particular
objects
the
sensible experience. Then
are
question arises, "Where
And
the answer
later, They are
or
sooner
comes
they ?
chills the
sweet
nowhere
science
Thus
to be found."
hope
in which
man
lives,
by bringing the natural expressionof it
"

"

"

"

"

"

into discredit.

This, I take
rather

than

wishes

to set

it, is Plato's

for

reason

language and method


forth the a priorias it

of

the

"

employing Myth,
when
science,''

expresses

he

itself in Ideals.

Myth of Er, Soul,


Cosmos, and God are presented concretelyindeed, but in such
visionaryform that there is little danger of mistaking them
for particularsof sense
requiring "scientific explanation."
Faculties
of man's
or
Again, as for the a priori Habitudes
moral and intellectual structure, whereby he correspondswith
In

the

his

mise

en

sUne

of

in

detail

environment

set forth
are

in

Myth
"

deduced

"

Cosmos

matter

"

"

It is
that

as

in

the

question of

Timaeus

the

or

these, too, Plato holds,are

"

; for

they

traced

to

are

their

properlyset forth
which
is
origin,

to

when

that

be

they
of the

standing.
beyond the reach of the Scientific Underin a Myth
of Beminiscence, therefore, such

Fhaedrus, that

take

must

we

the

origin of knowledge ; in a Myth such as


that of the Golden Age in the Laws, of the questionof
the
^
originof society."
and other ultimate
These
questionsof origin,"carrying
back as they do to the nature
of God and the constitution
us
"

the

of

account

"

"

"

of

the

Cosmos,

are

in the

minds

invested

tradition

of old

had
tragedians
2

and

has

the

influence

'

Plato
'

any
minds

and

for

not

of his
the

bestowed

new

upon

of the

other

Master

Plato

contemporarieswith

value, he found
of

"science."

charm
it ;
it

Pindar

associated,in his

that

Myth
authority

the

perhaps,too, if

Socratici
where

which

found

viri, with
influence

and
my
own

the
was

the

suggestion
mind

personal
most

im-

and much
in the detail,
of the Craiylusjustify
spirit,
the view that
approachedthe questionof the "origin of language"too Sid ni'6o\aylas.

The

Supra, p.

3.

INTEODUCTION

gressiveand

mysterious

hand, and

took

he

it up, and

philosophicalpurpose,
Sculpturetransformed
Further

remarks

forth

set

as

Faculties

he

"

by

and

51

found
used

Myth
it in

an

thus

ready
originalway

it%s

transformed

the

to

his

for

Genius

of

^oava of Daedalus.
the a prioriin conduct
and knowledge
of the
of
mythological deduction

the

on

means

will be best deferred

till

we

to the Phaedrus

come

general observations on the a priori as set


forth by means
of the mythologicalrepresentationof Ideals
forms of hope,"^
be helpful at this
objectsof faith
may
Plato's
introductory
stage. Let us then consider broadly,first,
Idea of God," and then
his handling of the
handling of the
of his handling of the
Idea of Soul."
Consideration
Idea
Myth

; but

some

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of
"

Cosmos"

well

may

be

deferred

till

we

to

come

the

Xj

Tiinaeus.

Treatment

Plato's

6.

To

of

Idea

the

God

of

religiousconsciousness, whether showing itself in


the faith which
find privately
non-religious
people sometimes
and cling to in time of trouble, or expressedto the world
in
the creeds and
the Idea
mythologiesof the various religions,
of God
is the idea of a Personal
God, or, it may be, of personal
the

"

"

Gods.

Thfl

he

be, is first of all

may

Gnd

of

the reLLgJQua-CfljisciQusness. whatever

other

individuals, human

whom

he

limited.
be true

stands

one
ffl(]j,vid^iia.l
sep"j;jite,
among
be, superhuman, to
and, it may
"

Sr
'^*

relations

he is determined
or
by which
is Maker, King, Judge, Father, Friend.
It may
inconsistent with
attributes logically
his being a

He
that

in

else

person

creeds ; but

when
inconsistency,
perceived,is always so
the
all important idea of his personality

dealt

with

the

that

is left with

the

moral

to

him

in

of

some

the

undiminished

or
individuality

to

are

ascribed

'^

finite individual

power.

personalityof the
consciousness

than

The

idea

Self is not
the

idea

of the
more

of

the

separate
essential

separate

of God is to the religious


ness
consciousor
individuality
personality
consciousness,at any rate, both of
; and in the religious
'

To lay down

It never
yet did hurt,
likelihoods and forms of hope.

Hmry

IV. (Part ii.),


i. 3,

ideas

these

are

involved

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

52

in

stands

individual Self

an

"

personalrelation

to

God^
jmo|hgr.^2iyiduai,

thinking
^'^SuTBgi^I

metaphysics
"

with
be

of

fond

too

in

or

doing,

this cannot
jcasdusion
Idea_ofGod," agciaea.at...a,
the cpMicj^oPPfthe
0jlP"M8ed.-t9stated^^fljatly
pTafnly

the

too

it is
itself,
as

it busies

when

science

natural

in

whether

"

"

"

Aristotle's ivepyeiadvev Svvofieox:


reUgjous-^fionssJansness.
is Spinoza'sSubstantia Infinita
is not
Person ; nor
; nor
a
of later systems, although its true logical
is the Absolute
character

of modern

been

sometimes

has

disguised
; nor

Logicalor

science.

is the

Nature

"

"

scientificthinking presupposes

explicitthe idea of an orderly Universe, of an


of its
organic whole determining necessarilythe behaviour
parts, of a single system realisingitself fully,at every
which, for the most
and at every place,in events
moment
part, recur, and recurringretain a imiform character, or only
be here,
should
not
gradually. We
change their character
science assures
us
livingbeings,actingand thinking if the
not
were
orderlyand
catastrophic,
changes in our environment
be orderlyif we
must
gradual. But although the Universe
follow that it is orderlythat we
to live,it does not
are
may
scientific
scouts
live.
as
such,
teleology
thinking,
Logical or
cherished
the
c
ness,
onsciousform
in
which it is
in that
by
religious
belief in a Particular
Providence, logicalor scientific
thinking,as such, that is,when it is not deflected from its path,
it sometimes
is,by the attraction of religiousconviction,
as
just as the religiousconsciousness, on the other hand^ is
disturbed
sometimes
taken
by science. Teleology,when
up
is
method
which
not
a
assumes
seriously, merely played with,
of
the intentions of a Personal Euler
the Universe, and explains
which
he
the means
employs in order to carry out his
makes

and

"

"

"

intentions.^ Logical
'

Cf.

In

or_ scientific

it

thinkiiig,,
_as such, finds

A. S. Pringle-Pattison,
Hegelianiamand Personality,
pp. 217-218.
which recommends
itself to the
saying that "science" scouts the teleology
I do not think
that I contradict the view, so ably
"religiousoonsoionsness
enforced by Prof. W. James, that
is the essence
of intelligence that
teleology
"science"
the translation,in which
consists,of the perceptual into the conceptual
order
alwaystakes placefor the sake of some
subjective
interest,
with which
handle
and the conception
we
a bit of sensible
experienceis really
but
instrument.
This whole fuTietion of coaetiving, of
a
teleological
nothing
to meamings, has no significance
fixing,and holding-fast
apart from the fact that
"

"

"

"

"

the conceiver

Psych, i. 482.

is

creature

with

partial purposes

and

private ends."

"

Princ.

of

MYTHS

THE

54

of

learned

life,"as

common

yet understand

cannot

then, with

what

PLATO

OF

in fact.

is true
"

Their

only faculty is

Hence

it is all

important to

stories to

good

have

begin,

must

being interested

of

that

"We

stories.

fictions,with

with

is false in fact

what

children

primer. Young

the

in

stories.

in

tell them

"

good tendency. Thej^re Ja. be


getJioldof
in order that they may
/oafse,
tald_wijati8-iitoa^^
invent

to

with

Myths

the
tru""wE^^J"^spirituaUy
"

^s

"

great fundamental truth that God

"truthful"

beneficent "and

both

"

to
applicai"le
adjectives

to believe

person ; and a finiteperson, for they are


the author only of what is good.

That
tell

God

; not,

us

is such

then, is true, Plato would

finite person,

indeed,true in the

that he is

in which

sense

the

description

experiencemay be true, but true, as


at least for children,
best possible
expression,
of the maxim
or
principleof guidance without which human
If children believe that God is the
life must
to naught.
come
author,not of good only,but of evil also,they will grow up to
be discontented
and without
hope without faith in the good
ready
helps those who help themselves
providence which
God
bad luck, rather than themselves, for
or
always to blame
their troubles and failures.
If they do not believe that he is
truthful,they wiU grow up to be careless observers and abstract
and
due
to accident,"
as
neglecting,
insignificant
reasoners,
those so-called little things which
the careful interpreterof
nature
They
recognisesas important signs and symptoms.
will grow up without
and
the principles
which
Conduct
on
Science respectively
depend. On the one hand, they will be
without
that
hope which guides the wayward thoughts of
men"
the faith (which indeed
all struggle for existence
ing
implies)that honest effort will,on the whole, succeed in attainfar as it is possible
so
good ; they will believe instead
for a livingbeing to believe this
that "life is not worth
living ; and so far as they are not, and cannot be, consistent
pessimists,
they will be selfish,individualistic citizens. On
the other
been
not
hand, if they have
taught in their
childhood
God
is truthful," they will
to believe that
grow
faith in the order
up without the first postulateof science
of the world.
In
and
interpretability
one
sentence, "The
the spiritof pessimism in conduct
Lie in the Soul"
and
of

phenomena or
being the only or

data

of

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

INTEODUCTION

scepticismin
not

science

will

"

55

bring to naught

believed, in their childhood, that

and

In

true.

afterwards

their childhood

is

have

Person, good

they,will

May
Personalitywhen

belief in his

the

God

all those who

they,give

it has

done

up

its

work?
Most

of them,

and
sense
continuingto live in
imagina
under
tion," albeit,
good guidance,useful lives, will have no
in retainingthe belief of their childhood ; but a few
difficulty
will become
so
"logical" that they will hardly be able to
"

"

"

retain

it.

It is in relation
to consider

and

Plato
have

they

fact without
"that

idea

by

the idea of

ought

we

Personal

God

Personal

of

Immortality of the Soul,


has put into his Dialogues. In these MythSl
of what
believed
as I
representations
they once
questioning. They see the world of childhood)

dream-world

for them

of these latter that

needs

Myths settingforth

correlate

the

which

the

to the

which

once

was

great Maker

real

so

put

"

on

the

stage

Mysteries and Miracles.


I
But why
representit ? That the continuityof their lives
that
be led to
to them
may~Bebrought home
they may
sympathise with what they were, and, sympathising,to realise
that what
It is
are-en-isdue to what
they now
they were.
the continuity of life is lost sight of, that religious
because
conviction and scientific thought are
brought into opposition.
The
scientific thinker, looking back
his life,is apt to
over
divide it sharply into the time during which
he believed what
is not true, and the
time
the
during which' he has known
a

of

"

truth.
Thus
with
and

sympathy

happy condition of
the feelingswhich

the

with

when

fail in

to

hour

the

of his death

with

the

his

childhood, and

own

majority of

may
draws

yet
near,

and

men

women,

to comfort

return

betokens, Plato

him
would

philosophy of life." The man


life.
abstracts
the present time" from its settingin his whole
He plucks from its stem
the
knowledge of truth," and thinks
The
that it still lives.
knowledge of truth," Plato would tell
say,

serious flaw

in

man's

"

"

"

"

us,

does

formed

not

and

come

except

man

understandingguided,in

unquestioning faith
Personal

the

to

God.

And

in

the

this

whose

character

childhood

goodness

faith he must

and

and

has

youth,by

truthfulness

reverence

been

of

all his life

through,looking back
death.

To

past, is what

will

Thinker

no

Present, and
which

is

Future

life is all

His

does not

"

of the
"
"

cut

the
the

up

of Past, and
Present

is non-existent.

is

which

imaginary point. Future

mere

Thinker

abstractions

the

which

Past

"

"

his

to

thing

The

do.

to

care

life into

of his

false,and

as

all existence

spectatorof all time and

organic unity

faith

of this

speak

forward

and

childhood

his

to

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

56

existent.
non-

Present, concrete, continuous,

one

indivisible.^
The

man

so

with

does

private use.
whole, will
both

who

life into

cuts

up
the intent of

Past, Present, and

Future,

appropriatingsomething for his own


The
Thinker, who sees Life clearlyand sees itl
belief and scientific knowledge as I
regard religious
for

means

sake

the

of

conduct,

corporate action.J

or

by setting his face


steadily
againstindividualism in the pursuitof knowledge.and
the holding of belief
ideal
against the scientific specialist's
of the
indefinite accumulation
of knowledge
against the
doctrine of the opus operatum, effectual in securingthe
priest's
only true good, as it is thought, the private profitof the
individual
hardest of all,against the refined form of individualism
by which he is himself tempted,the individualism
He

will

show

his

devotion

end

this

to

"

"

"

of the schoolman,

or

who
doctrinaire,

withdraws

himself

within

his

and
logicalfaculty,
pleaseshimself there with the construction
of
"a
System"
i^emrriSei;a\\"?Xots
prjfiaTa
mfioitofiiva.
"

of
Allegory^

In the
the

Thinker

last into
and
pay
which

The

daylight,and, when

enjoy it,he
his rpo^eia

will not
the

"

he

Cave, Plato shows

individualism.

over

the

the

has

received

stay,but

debt
"

he

which

us

Thinker

the

has

into

he

by carryingon,

the

for the

owes

in

the

out

come

might stay in

returns

victoryof
it

at

always

Cave

to

education

trainingof

the regime to which


he owes
generation,
it that he has
the light. We
shall compel him to return," Plato
says,
he adds, We
do him no injustice.''
The
compulsion is

new

"

seen

and

"

moral,
'

He

for "our

not

external.'

realises in

an

eminent

It is the

degreewhat

'present'is always an extended


i. 351.
Bosanquet's
Loffic,
'"'
and Myth ; see infra,p. 252.
3
Eep. 520.
"

peifectlv
obliQationjwhichthe
seems

time,"

to be the
not

an

experienceof

us

indivisible point:

all ;
see

INTEODUCTION
educated

in

inherence
of

feels laid upon


the continuous

man

his

it that

seeingto

57

him

his consciousness

by

life of

his

of his

city the obligation


generation"shall have worthy

own

"

successors.

How

faith in which

the

with

alive in the elders

important,then, to keep
Consciousness

young generation!
and earnest
desire
will do most

it is necessary

to

sympathy
bring up the
they owe as rpo^ela,
to worthy successors,

they should

of what

pass the State on


alive this sympathy ;

but, on the other


keep
hand, the logical
understandingwill always be reminding them
that "in truth" (though perhaps not "in practice")
the doctrines
consciousness
of the religious
of science and the convictions
are
I
this
incompatible ; and it is here, take it,with regard to
awopla started by abstract thought,that Plato hopes for good
thinkers may
from Myth, as from some
great Ritual at which
the scientific
feel that
there are
assist and
mysterieswhich
fathom.
understandingcannot
Th,at the scientific understanding,then, working within
its own
region,must rejectthe idea of a Personal God, was^ I
to

"

"

it,as clear

take

Would

to

GodMs

be

not

taught
did

the Gods
fact.

it

as

this

scientific

"

say

"
"

it is

that

"

which

proposition
"

"

is not

"

"

all the

say that what children


time God
that once
or
a
upon

within

true

is

There

would

its
"

or

be

true

historical

as

fact is concerned, the

scientific

or

understandingcannot

foundation

the

that

thing or

understanding is

to

scientific

believe

to

historical

Where

He

true

to Aristotle.

was

that

Plato, then, say

Personal
are

to Plato

is

region,and

own

it is not
allowed

true."

petent
com-

the

But

criticise its

to

faculties of the

livingman,
granted

own

the

that
understandingitself included, take for
I have
life into which
it is good to go on living the human
while employing my faculties
been
born ; and that it is worth
in the conduct of my
life,for they do not deceive me^
carefully
This fundamental
assumption of Life, It is good to live,and
into the proposiPlato throws
tion,
my faculties are trustworthy,"
There is a Personal
God, good and true, who keeps me
in all my
ways." He wishes children to take this proposition
that abstract thinkers will say that "It
literally.He knows
"

scientific

"

"

"

is not

true

"

traininghave

; but

made

he

is satisfied if the

them

influential

men,

in their

whose

parts and

read
generation,

58

it to

mean

things happen

"

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

as

if they

were

by

ordered

and true.
ToJbhii.as_:y"=3"blua-J
Go3J.good
they are
Prind^le"-"
as
/Of "Perg4alGod"
"Kegulatiye,
of which
agenciesT
hetpe*--so I take Plato to Jwik" by W

Personal

the
the logicof the Dialogue with
upon
of the religious
experienceof childhood, and of
r^re'sentation
The other
is one.
venerable
old age like that of Cephalus,
portant
is Ritual.^ This
is recognised
by Plato as very imagency

Myth, breaking in

andllythmay

be taken

its literary
counterpart.

to be

ference
things in the Bepublicis the designificant
paid to Delphi. Philosophy that is,the Constitution
of orthodoxy,"
indeed laysdown
of the Platonic State
canons
^
dogma ;
the TVTToi
rrepldeoXoyia"! determines the religious
from without, by Delphi.*
but the ritual is to be determined
One

of the

most

"

"

"

"

Eeligionis

be

to

at

rational

once

of catholic

reformed, and conservative


a

positionto

It is

some

cases

and

traditional
Plato

use.

involved in
difficulty
that ritual reacts
discovery,

realise the

modern

creates

even

Plato

it.

seems

at

"

to

this
on

once

not

was

in

arrangement.

dogma,

take

for

and

in

granted

be
the pure religious
dogma of his State will not
that
ritual.
At any rate, he assumes
affected by the priestly
and Delphi, as
his State,as the civil head of a united Hellas,*
in time

that

the ecclesiastical head,

will,like Empire and Church

Monarchia, be in sympathy with

Be

'

other.

indicated
plain,then, from the placq if I have rightly
place which Plato assignsto Ritual in daily life,and to

It is
the

each

in Dante's

"

"

A rite is an assemblage of symbols, grouped round


a
religiousidea or a
religious
act, intended to enhance its solemn character or develop its meaningjust as a myth is the groupingof mythic elements associated under a dramatic
form.

"

Thus

we

hare

the

rite of

baptism,funeral

rites, sacrificialrites."

Edville,ProUgomhies
by Squire),p. 110.
Religions(Eng.
2
Bep. 379 a.
'
In iv tjiuv XotTriK t^s vo/nofleo'tas
Rep. 427 B, T" oiv,i"jyii.
eftj
; Kal iyi) etTOK
Sti 'Kfitv itJkvoiSiv, tQ liivToi KirhWiiivi Tip iv AeX^ot; rd re
/ieyurra xal
K"Wurra
xai wpurra
re
li, iroio ; ? S' 6s.
'Ie/)i3"'
iSptfiros
tuv
vo/ioSeni/iiTui/.
Kal $vfflai Kal "\\ai
$eun" re
Kal Sai,f),6vuv
Kal iipiiuv
reXevTiiaavTar
Bepaireiat,
^/tti Sei iirqperouvTas tXeias airoii
aff S^Kat Kal iira toU
re
^x^'"- '''^ 7*P ^
oiSr iiruTTd/ieSaij/teUolKl^ovrh re
TriXiK oiSevl d\\(p TeuTO/ieBa, iav
roiaCro
a\K
a
vow
Sljiroi/
^aiiev, oiSi xp);(r6/U69o
i^riyitT^,
1) r(f ""raTpl"foSros yap
Beis ireplTct ToioDTa jtoo'u'
iy liiaifTijtT^s iirl roC
dvSpJnrois Tarpioi ^Ji/yijrijs
6li,"t"a\ov
Kadi^juevos
^^Tj^eiToi.
"*
stood
See infra,pp. 454-5, where
it is argued that;Plato's
icoXXiTroXis is misunderfor an
(as in part by Aristotle)if its constitution is taken to be drawn
de I'Sistoire des

Transl.

'

isolated

Athens
Empire-city(likethe antedilavian
civil head (Delphibeing the ecclesiastical
againstbarbarians for the propagationof liberty

and not for an


municipality,
Myth),under which,

of the Atlantis

head), Hellas

should

be united

and culture in the world.

as

INTEODUCTION

Myth

59

literature/what
philosophical

in

place he assigns to

the scientificunderstanding.

Xhe jeieatificunderstanding, which


and

late

developedpart, of

is

the whole

flnlya

related

as

man,

part/
to his]

small

whole

environment,Js_apt,chieflybecause it has the gift of


speech and can explain itself,while our deeper laid faculties
dumb,

are

tQ_flaltoLjJsd^"WTth~fehe-c"iKjeit_jihat.it is the

of

meagme

all things" -that


It cannot

jmposgMe.
therefore
a

it says that
"

God

Personal
Plato

has,

conceive the
the

is not

far

is
what^Ju).Ji^jneonceiirable
Part

ruling the

the World

"

proposition

Whole

is ruled

true.
I

by
-"

to this
gather, two answers
of the scientific understanding. The first is,
pronouncement
Life would
acted as if the scientific
to naught if we
come
understanding were
right in denying the existence of a
Personal
God
he trusts to Eitual and
Myth (among
; and
other agencies)to help men
His attitude here is
to feel this.
:
very like Spinoza's
so

as

can

"

"

"

Deum

nullam

est, talia Dei

15, 16).
Deo

Deo

; nempe
.

Fidem
.

Plato's other

credere

carta

hoc

vivendi

eumque

hoc
caritatis,

rations

imitari

docet

(22.

praeter simplicem fidem


revereri,
sive,quod idem est,
tam

non

requirerevera,
ad

animum

veritatem, quam

tam

prophetas

nihil

est, talia,quae

non

per

verbis
expressissimis

Sequiturdenique fidem

pia dogmata,

movent.

homines

Jeremias

hominibus
et
justitiae

suae

Evangelicadoctrina

obedire.

quam

cognitionemab

attributa,quae

quod quidem

possunt;

sui

cognitionemdivinae

petere, quam

continet

aliam

obedientiam

pietatem exigere.^

deeper. It consists in showing


that the
be grasped
Whole," or all-embracingGood, cannot
but must
be seen
scientifically,
imperfectlyin a similitude.^
The
logicalunderstanding,as represented by Glaucon, not
satisfied with
knowing what the all-embracingGood is like,
wishes to know
it is
if it were
what
an
as
objectpresented
to knowledge. But
the Good
is not an object presented to /
knowledge. It is the condition of knowledge. It is like I
answer

goes

"

"

"

Or

all,with
followed
continued

Platonic Dialogues,after
only offered as models to be
conversation
being essential to the

conversation ;
rather,in philosophical
their written
discussions and myths,
in

actual
conversation
life of Philosophy.

"

Spinoza, Tractatvs

"

Sep. 506.

"

actual

for the
are

chapters13
Theologico-polUicus,

and

14.

60

which

Light
of

is not
To

seeing.

read

finds

him,
I

might,
follows

with

think, be allowed
The

"

of

conception

its

of

proof
"

conception

Universe
"

part

"

the

of the

Whole.

Its

"

conception

is not

that

"

of

which

Whole

"

the
a

argument

that

because

the

does, with

this

God,
it

also

always

The

juggling, as

Whole,"

the

which

conceive

is

Personal

as

is not

God,

cannot

whole

"

"

manipulates

and

Personal

understanding

Universe

rule

cannot

sham

of

something indefinitely greater.

of

Ruler

Part

have,

to

criticism

Universe

"

or

professes

The

finished

as

"

all.

at

Whole

"

non-existence

the

"

as

Platonist

Master's

the

develop

to

and

object,

an

Plato,

which

fault

the

logicalunderstanding

the

logical understanding

the

"

is

is

Good,

or

condition

the

but

seen,

Whole,

the

that

suppose

things

the

objects, of knowledge,

among

in

of

one

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

also

is not

"

Part

"

is inconclusive.

7. Plato's
Let

Treatment

turn

now

us

represented

the

in

Eschatological, as
him

for acts

ava^fKT]

"

it

after

ever

is

subject
of

terms

for

incorrigible
"

into

the

which

it

cycle

it
to

peace

is

God

death

to

Soul

The

responsible

and

body,

body

an

"

limits

which

will

existence

it is

in

during
the

flesh ;

thoroughly

of

in

which

own

till

receives
last

at

purified by

never-ending
its

it

continue
which

in

it
and

penance,

disembodied

with

recompense
if

"

is

it

not

enters

state, like

peculiar star, before

to

by

set

existence

an

the

strictly

not

agent within

this

this

and

by God,

free

in

Myths

is

of

periodical re-incarnations, alternating

done

enjoyed

of

other

throughout

its incarnation

disembodiment,
deeds

the

which

Soul."

of

in

created

Person

the

Idea

Republic, and

responsible

before

began
for

in

"

Soul

of

strictlyEschatological Myths

three

Gorgias, and

Phaedo,

the

to

Idea

the

of

began

that
the

of incarnations.

Zeller,^ while

admitting

that

many

details

in

Plato's

authorities.

They

like

that

which

Eth.

Nic.

i. 10

avoid

to

\lav

TO

feeling.

Eohde,'

says

a^iKov,

of what
deliberate

\d0oiev

of

his

relatives

world

his

than

language

of

is little

fame

among

offered
condition

famous

with

that

great

well

describes

departed

of the

master

Simonides,

to

land

"

of

will

T(6vaa-i

oflerings

in

this

to

the

exalted
the

to

solations
con-

higher

attained

in

agreement

are

word

of their

assigning

but

places

deeds, which

the

their

lasts,

"

(ird

(rcj)'
dperfj KaOvirtpdfv

identified

'AtSeai.^

adavaaia

expressly

with

"

o^6e

His

The

look

interest

body

is buried

the

required
influence

diroXXvrai

yrji jrep iwv

VTTO

in peace,

Dramatists,
at

ia-OXbv

kA."os

TTOTt

aXX

to

had

the

blessedness

blessedness,"

avdyti Su"paTOi i^

Similarly Tyrtaeus*

rav

epitaph- writing, as Eohde^


never

memory

davovTK,

KvSaivovcr'

KKeo's

the

last, in this world


ouSe

has

who

with

ytyvofiivov

reference

Orators

of

art

eternal

immortality entirely in
and

the

sciousness
con-

rtve?

miss, among

any

Here

its

deceased

the

life of conscious

dead."

et

from

Even
we

mourners,

eternal

an

the

by

to

to

"

the

to

orations

death,"

afi"rmed

vvv

Apart

tender

but

only

in

chiefly

after
;

tov

survivors.

funeral

solemn

is

to bind

more

much

wound

to

orators

rivl

frequent.

there

remarks

qualifications as

rpoiro)

aiadija-ivare

his

Soul

the

the

very

concerned

are

world

this

in

Such

uncertainty.

irpcryfiaro'!

of

existence

belief

of

likely

statements

happens

reTeXevrrjKOTayv

him,

questioned by

is not

"

basis

the

and, like

continued

The

"

11

granted

for

makes

Aristotle
and

take

to

seem

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

62

dead
that

too,
in

did
the

but

dead

his

much
same

here

ovop.' auroC,

dddvaroi

yiyverai

prominence

of the

ov8'

"

name

to

liveth

induce
for

way;
should

be

rather

than

for

their
the

given
to

evermore.

public
dramatic

to

their

the

thumous
pos-

personal

INTKODUCTION
condition
old

in another

national

Eohde^

world.

When

the

legends on

pointsout, from

mere

events

of

the

hitherto

motives

personages

now

presented,for

plotswere

by

the audience

as

of the

legend with

hearts

of modern

he

not

Motives

of

else not

or

men,

so

the

which

merit

not

shadowy legendary

to
time, clearly

the

moral

and

evil

deed.

merit

the

would

of the audience

sense

by

events

to

ing
mov-

than

story

have

must

understood

the

now

traditional

agents who
be

sense.

important

more

combine

the motives

story to the

curiouslyattended

became

to

put the
turned, as

was

of the

of the personages

the characters

had

first

tragicconflict between
is fated that a good man
shall do an
for such
be responsible
a
deed, and
Hence

It

the

and

known,

before their eyes.


The Dramatist
events.

Dramatists

the

and

well

the

stage, attention

characters

The

63

the

the

ence.
audi-

motives.
How

can

retribution

resent

if he

did

tragicairopLawhich the Dramatists


suggest,by taking the Family, rather than the

it ?

This is the

solved, I would

Individual, as the moral

unit.^

The

descendant

is free because

doing the ancestral, the fated, thing a


to Aeschylus,
doctrine which
Eohde,^ in ascribingespecially
of av^KardOea-i^.* The
with
the Stoic doctrine
compares
human
interest of tragedyrequiresthat the penalty for sin
in Hades.
This is why
shall be paid here on earth rather than
about
there is so little in the Greek
Dramatists
the punishment
he

is

of

conscious

"

in the

of the wicked
is in
have

this world
any

the

moral

is ancestral.

children

sin must

interest.

hiunan

is the
here

that

other

unit, it

Nay,

suffer for

the

TOWS

etV
TO)

1
^

and
3
*
'

yap
ovv

/"7T"

for their

own

sins.

It

is to
punished if the drama
Since the Family, not the Individual,
matters
not that the sin punished
tragiceffect is heightened when

the

fathers live in their children

know, the only life they

world

have

davovTas

be

sins of
that

their

fathers.

is,for aught

we

The

dead

can

ever

:
"

el OeXei'S "Vfpy"Ttiv

KaKQvpyelv,dp^iSe^ms

\a'i,pav
p'ljTe

e\ei

X-vTretcrdaiveKpovs.^

Psyche, a. 225.
nv/minis mndicta, 16, on the continuityof the
See Plutarch, cJe sera
the justiceof punishing children for the sins of fathers.

Family,

Psyche, ii. 229.


Cic. defato, 18, where trvyKaridens is rendered
by adsensio.
all circumstances,"
Aeschylus,/rajr.266, quoted by Rohde, Psyche,ii. 232. "Under
(ReligiousThought in the West, edit. 1891, pp. 91, 92),
says Dr. Westcott

If the dead, then,

livingmust
of

the

Gods

formulate
and

unconscious

are

punished for

be

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

64

or

the sins of the

barelyconscious, the
dead, that the justice

be satisfied.^Aristotle did little

may

widely-prevalentopinion supportedby

the

defined the Soul

he

Dramatists, when

Orators

the function

"

as

than

more

of

and Plato himself bears witness to the prevalence


body
Glaucon
he makes
of the opinion when
express surpriseon
hearing it suggestedby Socrates that the Soul is immortal*
"

the

"

It had

that

to Glaucon

occurred

never

of the Soul's

the doctrine

immortalitycould be taken seriously.Socrates then offers a


he offers,
scientific proof of its immortality a proof which
I would
suggest,only or chieflythat he may supersede it by
the Myth of Er.'
"

"

"

for considerations

much

So

that
Plato, like many
suppose
day, felt at least serious doubt

which

make

others

in

as

to

it reasonable
Athens

the

whether

to

of his

anything

could

life of the Soul


about
the conscious
scientifically
after death, if he did not actuallygo the length of holding,
individual,
his discipleAristotle
did, that, as conscious
as
function
it is. That, while
the body whose
it perisheswith
entertainingthis serious doubt, Plato did not go so far as
in which
to me
to be shown
Aristotle,seems
by the manner
class of opinions
he allows himself
to be affected by another
known

be

"

the view

clearest

condition

of the

lightin

of the

describingthe

Dead, which

condition

of the

Aeschylus brings out


Guilty,is consistent.

into

the

The

ness
ful-

The part of man,


earth.
in all his energy and
on
capacity
the curtain falls there
action, is played out here ; and when
unbroken
rest,or a faint reflection of the past, or suffering
wrought by
life is

of human

passion and

for

remains
the ministers

fold
justice. The beautyand the power of iBe,the manibe regretted,
but they cannot
be

of inexorable

of sense, are gone.


They can
but not joy.
replaced.Sorrow is possible,
ministers

"

different this

However

and

the

teachingmay be from that


which
they witnessed to

popularbelief

vague

from

different,
again, even

that

of Pindar, with

which

of the

Myths

of Plato,

and

fostered ; however
Aeschyluscannot have

it is
unacquainted
,

Plato clothed
in a Greek
dress
pre-eminentlyGreek.
instincts of humanity ; Aeschylus works
the common
out a characteristically
Greek view of life. Thus it is that his doctrine is most
As a
clearlyHomeric.
like Homer, the nobilityof our
Greek he feels,
present powers, the grandeur of
of our
strengthand wealth, the manifold delights
complex being ; and what was
of ashes which
the close-packed
survived
the funeral pyre' compared with
urn
been

'

the heroes
man

the whole

"

work

out

its record
'

whom

On

scheme

is

it

?
represented

man

"

of

could

That

'

tear-stained dust

'

the witness

was

that

not live

again. The poet, then, was constrained to


divine justiceupon
earth,and this Aeschylus did, though

strain of sorrow."

the necessityof

the justiceof
satisfying

the

Gods,

see

Rohde, Psyche,

ii. 232.
'

'

Bep. 608 D, on which


See infra, p. 73.

see

Rohde, Psyche,ii. 264, 265,

and

Adam,

ad

loc.

INTRODUCTION

65

I refer to the
opposed to the agnosticism of his time.
opinionsassociated with the Mysteriesand the Orphic revival
in Athens.*
The Eleusinian
throughout Greece, and especially
Mysterieswere the great strongholdin Greece of the doctrine
of a future
life ; ^ and
the same
doctrine was
taught, in
definite form, by the Orphic societies which
appeared in
in close connection
with
cases
Italy and Sicily(in some
the spread of Pythagoreanism) before
the
close of the
latter

and

half

of

the

sixth

the centre

more

thither.

We

Greek

of

find

century. As

Athens

became

life,the Orphic cult

more

gravitated

it

the
at
representedby Onomacritus
Court of the Pisistratids ; and, meeting the need of
personal
the
felt
tribulation caused by the
religion," especially
during
it had, in Plato's
PeloponnesianWar and the Great Plague,^
day, become
firmly rooted in the city. The sure
hope of
"

and

salvation,for themselves

life,the details
before

the

Orphic
it

made

was

and

rites.

to rest

on

to

them, in

future

held
minutely described,was
afflicted who
duly observed the prescribed
all
because
The
the
was
surer
hope
of having one's self
the consciousness

of which

anxious

dear

those

were

something ; it was all the surer, too, because the comfort


but to sympathetic
which it brought was
offered,not to selfish,
ancestors
feeling for even
long dead could be aided in their
of their
purgatorialstate by the prayers and observances
piousdescendants.^
done

"

History, p. 397, and Gardner and


275.
Antiquities, p.
See Eohde, Psyche, ii. 105, 106.
See important note (5),Eohde, Psyche, ii. 128, in which
Hep. 364 B, c, Eibs apa Xiiirett re koI KaBapfiol
is cited especially
365 A, veWovret
See

Jevons'
'^

'

365

Gardner's

Mmvual

Nivi

Chapters in

Greek

of Greek

"

el"rlniv In iwnv, eUrl Si icol TcXfun)Sii, Bvirtav xal iratSidi -fiSovav


iSimiijATiiiv
AvoKiovaiv
4s
"
tQv
ixel
KaKwv
reXeris
Si)
Ka\ov"Tir,
tiims, /ai]Siaavras
aanv,
could be aided by the
ancestors
Si SetvA, reptfiireiaa showing that deceased
of descendants.
Although the Orphic Fragm. 208 (cf.
prayers and observances
\
\iirtv vpoybvuiv ide/ilaTwn^
iiV.
t'
Ph.
Gr.
i.
Mullach,
188) d/)7ia iicreMffova-t,
ab Si raiaai ixw
oBs k' edi\ri"r8a
\\i"reis (k re irbvuiv xaKcirwv
(c/jdros
liatd/ievM,
it quite
to make
Kal ivelpovos otrrpov,quoted by Kohde
in the same
note, seems
clear that dead ancestors
oonld be aided by their descendants, I think that the
in doubt ; see Paul Tannery in
passage quoted from Hep. 365 A leaves the matter
Sev. de Fhilol. October
1901, on reXero/ {Orphica,Fr. 221, 227, 228, 254), who
explainsthe eM /livIn ^Qiaiv,elal Se xal TeKexrriaaaiof Rep. S65 A to mean
"

that the
his

expiatoryrites clear
of them
earthlylife,some

TcXerai

Ka\ov"n.

himself (to whom

they cannot
Rep, 364 c,
affected by

ItKeral

the initiated person, some


for his life after death.

cannot

affect any

one

of them
These

for the time of


Ss Si\
latter are

except the initiated person

they supply directions as to his journey in the other world) :


the reference in
ancestor.
According to this explanation,
an

clear
eire n
tou
iSlieinjA
yiyover airov ^ irpoydvuv,is not to ancestors
the observances
of their descendants, but to sin inherited from
F

as
an

66

THE

"

Orphic cult ? This


:
difficulty
least,without

this

to

be answered, in

derived

He

PLATO

OF

is Plato's attitude

Now, what

questioncan

MYTHS

the main

part at
doctrine,together with

of the

most

the doctrine of the preof his Eschatological


"details,
Myths
of the
existence,penance, re-incarnation,and final purification
"

through Pindar, from Orphic sources, the


view
of
chief of which, if we
accept the carefullyformed
Dieterich, was
a
popular Orphic Manual, the Kard^aai"{
eU AiSov, in which the vicissitudes endured
by the immortal
Soul, till it frees itself,
by penance, from the Cycle of Births,
described
work
which
of
were
a
lay at the foundation
Pindar's theology,
ridiculed by Aristophanesin the Frogs,
was
the ultimate source
of the NeKvtai
of Plutarch
and Virgil,
was
Soul

and
directly,

"

"

and

greatlyinfluenced

doctrine.^

Neo-Platonic

Pindar, a

poet and
always quotes with

theologianafter Plato's heart, whom


he
deep respect,was, we may
suppose,
brought into contact with the Orphic cult in Sicily,where,
it had found
along with the Pythagorean discipline,
a
genial
conhome.*
that

of

difference

The

the

Athenian

between

Orators

and

Pindar's

outlook, and

Dramatists

and

their

agnosticpublic,is very striking. In certain placeshe indeed


alone
speaks of the dead as gone, their earthly fame
surviving. But this is not his dominant
Not
tone.
only
have
favoured
few
heroes like Amphiaraus
a
been
lated,
transand
a
miracle, body
by
soul," to immortal
homes, but,
"

"

"

ancestor, which
that

the

reference
quotedby Mullach

cleanse
himself of. I do
may
the Xiitric rpoydvuf iSeijU"rruv of
(i.188) and Rohde
be to this.
can
man

not

in

the

' See
Dieterich, Mkyia,
Sistory of Religion, pp. 353,

116-158

think, however,
fragment

Orphic

and

cf. Jevons, Introduction


to the
had
descended
into Hades
; hence
to be regardedas
of verses
came
of Hades, which
descriptive
were
in thiasi, or
current
disseminated
by itinerant agyrtae.
In Rep. 364 E,
xal 'Op^ius, the reference
pi^\av Si SiulSov -rapixovrax Uvaalov
is, doubtless,
to this and other Orphic guide-books for the use
of the dead.
These Orphic
books
be compared with
the Egyptian Book
may
of the Dead, a guide for the
of tlie Ka, or " double " (on which
use
see
Budge'sEgyptian Ideas of the Futvre
Life, p. 163), which wanders from the body, and may lose its way ; cf. Petrie'e
Egyptian Tales, second series,p 124 ; see also Meusinia, by le Comte Goblet
d'Alviella (1903), pp. 73 If.,on the connection
between
Greek
and Egyptian
guide-booksfor the use of the dead. To Dieterich's list of eschatological
piecesin literature inspiredby the Orphic teachingwe ought perhaps to add
the Voyage of Odysseus to Hades
{Od. xi.) ; see v. Wilamowitz-MoUendoref,
Horn.
Untermch.
that
the
p. 199, who
supposes
was
put in by
passage
Homer
Onomacritus, when
was
being edited at Athens in the tune of the
354
the author

Orpheus

I'yrants.
" See
UoMe, Psyche, ii. 216, 217 ; and,
Keligion,Bury, Sut. of Greece, chap. vii. sec.

for
13.

the

spread of

the

Orphic

INTEODUCTION
when

ordinaryman

any

that,

not

as

conceives

dies,his Soul

it, is

immortal
the

not

philosophersand

it, but

the

Double

comes

Double

the

Gods

the

Kai

of

Being

in

the

The

is immortal

"

eireraL

mpurdivel, ^uiov

yap

God, the

immersed

responsible

as

body, and

AcHTCTtti ai'bivos"?Sa)A.oi/"

"Tt

rh

and

TrdvTiav
/jiAv

(Tto/JM

davdria

life.

but

his

Pindar
as
*\/pu;^j;,
totalityof the bodily functions,"as
agnosticAthenian
public conceived
has its home
in the body.
This

"

which

from

survives

vanishing shade,

poor
for

destined

person

the

67

tort

Ik dttiivA

[lovov

Soul

is

necessarilyimmortal,

because

body

of

ancient

sin

but

is

iraXaiov

"

iTev6o"i.
At

the

where
done

death

it is
in

judged

the

reappears
it goes

of its first

purged.

But
in

earth

second

and

flesh.

on

Then

body, the
recompensed for
its sin
second

time

it returns

body, at
where

animate

to

the

is not

Hades,

to

Soul

Hades,

to

goes

deeds,good

or

ill,

wholly purged.
the

death

its

sin

third

It

of which
is further

body

on

earth

(see Pindar, 01. ii. 68 ff.). Then, if these three lives on


earth,as well as the two periods of sojourn in Hades, have
been

spent

time

to

ninth

of this

third

be

born

sojourn

for iraXaiov

in

the

(see Pindar, quoted Meno,


a

holy Hero,

Soul

has

at

or

last

'

Pindar,fr. apud

'

am

indebted

Daemon

Plut.

Eschatology.

In

of Souls which

"

it returns

for the third

fault,Persephone,in

in

Hades, receives the full


and
irevdo';,

of

b), who,

at

sends

kvkXo";

it back

Philosopheror King
his

death, becomes

finallydisembodied

of the

the

:
spirit

This
yevea-eeov.^

the
is

Coniol.

ad Apoll. 35.
{Psyche,ii. 207-217)for the substance

to Rohde

of Pindar's

person

81

out

got

if,when
without

there

satisfaction due

earth, to

to

fault,and

Hades, it lives

year

tale of

without

the

of this sketch

the
paragraph I have tried to combine
doctrine of 01. ii. 68 if. and the fragment.Men. 81 a
The life of Philosopher
or
King is indeed a bodilylife on earth, but it is not one of the three bodily
lives necessary (togetherwith the three sojournsin Hades) to the final purification
of the Soul.
The
Soul has been finally
purifiedbefore it returns to this
fourth and last bodilylife which
immediately precedesits final disembodiment.
the

In

last

do not pass three faultless lives here and in Hades,


of re-incarnations would be greater. Pindar's estimate seems
to be
that of the time requiredin the most
We
take
favourable circumstances.
may
it that it is the time promised by the Orphic prieststo those whose
ritual
the

case

number

observances were
most
regular. According to Phaedrus, 249 A, however, it
would appear that a Soul must
have
been incarnate
in three
a
as
Philosopher

68

THE

MYTHS

OF

PLATO

plainlyOrphic doctrine, with heauty and


distinction added to it by the geniusof the great poet.
Plato's Eschatological
Myths also, like Pindar's poems,
plainlyreproduce the matter of Oi-phicteaching. Is it going
for the genius of
too
far,when we consider Plato's reverence
Pindar's form which
helped to
Pindar, to suggest that it was
he reproduces in his
recommend
which
to Plato
the matter
Pindar's

doctrine

"

of
that the poet'srefined treatment
EschatologicalMyths
the Orphic /^u^o?helped the philosopher,himself
a
poet, to
that
how
see
/ivdo"s
might be used to express imaginatively
what
indeed- demands
kind, man's hope
expressionof some
risk of fatal
of personalimmortality, but
cannot, without
injury,be expressedin the language of science ? It is Pindar,
divine
who
chief among
is quoted,in the Mejio (81),
as
seers
and
for
the
pre-existence,transmigrations,responsibility,
Socrates
is careful
immortalityof the Soul ; but the Platonic
"

"

"

"

"

say that he does not contend


in Pindar's
doctrine embodied

for the

to
the

myth,

literal truth

but

insists

of
its

on

practicalvalue in giving us hope and courage as seekers after


knowledge (Meno, 86 b). It is Pindar, again,who is quoted
at the beginning of the Republic (331 b) for that
yXvicela
which
is
in
visualised
outlines
and
colours
at
i\.7ri"i,
Orphic
the close of the Dialogue,in the greatestof Plato's Eschatological
Myths. Orphic doctrine,refined by poeticgenius for
his
philosophicuse, is the material of which Plato weaves
almost to go out of his
Eschatological
Myths. And he seems
Not only is the Meno
Myth introduced
way to tell us this.
with
of the priestly
from which
it is
source
specialmention
derived {Meno, 8 1 B),but even
brief allusions made
elsewhere
in it are similarly
introduced
in
to the doctrine contained
as
the
the doctrine of the transmigrations
Phaedo, 70 c, where
"

Soul

of the
the
Kara

Phaedo,
tmv

successive

is said to be derived
81

A, where

from

it is connected

in
fiefjuvrj/^ivcov
; and

the

Laws,

TraXato?
with

872

what

in

is said

E, where

the

before entering on
the disembodied
state : see
Zeller, Plato,
cf. Phaedo, 113 D if.,where
five classes of men
are
p. 393 ; and
with respect to their condition
after death
which
Rohde,
distinguished
on
see
Psyche, ii. 275, n. 1. "''EturpUiKaripwdi.,"says Prof. Gildersleeve in his note
Find. 01. ii. 75, " would
six times,
three
on
naturallymean
^orpls may mean
The
Soul
descends
times
in all.
to
Hades, then returns
to
earth, then
descends
again for a final probation." I do not think that this last interpretation
be accepted.
can

Eng.

lives

X070?

Tr.

"

Let

of the heart
Platonic

takes

of the

such

"

On

contrary,

it is

of iropo's and
in Diotima's Myth in the
child
IjOft)?,

truth

in the Neo-

a
"ro(j}ia
strictly
"f)i\oa-o"f"la
"

"

the parentage
as
a-iropLa,

Symposium

Plato

which

is not

Plato

but

"

regarded

be

to

view

non-scholastic,concrete

of ascertained

ticism
the scholas-

"
"

find afterwards

we

as

the

"

mysticism

"

Philosophy. Philosophy to

of

system

mere

"

teaching.

evidence

as

that this is

think

not

us

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

70

is set forth

Philosophy is

not

what

finallysatisfies or surfeits the intellect: it is the organic


it is Human
functions
and
play of all the human
powers
Life, equipped for its continual struggle,eager and hopeful,
its hope being
and
successful in proportion to its hope
These
state.
future
of a
naturally visualised in dreams
"

"

"

"

dreams

human

the

holds, will

outgrow,

never

so

"

aside

ultimatelycast

never

"

will

race

the Platonist

untrue

as

; for

the

generation,and the
of genius
will cherish them, and men
and bereaved
weary
will always rise up to represent
saints
poets,philosophers,
be largely
The
them
anew.
Philosophy of an epoch must
How
it "represents" them.
judged by the way in which
much
virtue Plato finds in
representation philosophical
and
be
poetical may
gathered from the fact that, while
he attaches
the highestvalue
to the Orphic doctrine which
himself
borrows
for philosophicaluse, he
ascribes
the
he
moral
influence to the actual teaching of the Orphic
worst
will

young

in

believe

in

them

every

"

"

"

"

"

"

priests.^
I

said

that

it

is reasonable

to

suppose

that

Plato

affected

by the agnosticismwhich prevailedin Athens,


he ventured
felt, notwithstanding some
proofs which
"

"

offer,serious doubt

as

immortalityis
"

to whether
matter

the

even

of scientific

bare, fact of

knowledge.^

was

and
to
scious
con-

It may

"Der

des
des
Mysticismus ist die Scholastik
Herzens, die Dialektik
Maximen
und
dritte
Spriiche in Prosa:
:
JCeJlexioneti
Abtheilang.
^
In Aristoph.Ranae, 159, and Demosth.
de Corona, 259 ff.,
Repmhlw, 364 E.

GefilMs,"

of
practices

the
up

Goethe,

the

agyrtae, or

itinerant

celebrants of

rites,are
initiatory

held

to ridicule.
'

But

Zeller's Plato, p. 408


future retribution

(Eng. Transl.). Zeller holds that the fact of


was
regarded by Plato as established beyond
doubt ; only details were
uncertain.
Couturat
[dePI. Myth. p. 112) thinks that
doctrine of immortality
the whole
in Plato is "mythic."
Jowett
(Introduction
that in proportionas Plato succeeds
to Phaedo) remarks
in substituting
a philosophical
for a mythologicaltreatment
of the immortality
of the Soul, "the contemplation
of ideas
under the form of eternity takes the placeof past and
see

immortalityand

'

'

INTRODUCTION
be

now

added, however,

religion,in which
profound, and moved
from

the

Official

the

'

existence.''

of

Plato

Mr.

Aristotle

left

personal) religionoffers
Eecognising this,

Plato

almost

of

entirely

free

own

way

civil status,

or

sex

no

took

presented religionas

their

Adam

iirmly convinced

is

and

Gardner

See

Jevons'

and

choice,

enter

can

that soul is
(iJep.vol. ii. p. 456) says,
transmigration he regards as probable, to
"

Manual

in the

Greece,

is

century B.C., both

sixth
a

against
conception

reaction

sacramental

with

communion

actual

Greek

of

Jevons'

Introducticm,
Orgiastic Cults,"
"The
374.
leading characteristic," says
"

older

borrowed

least."

the

say

openly

pursue.^

states

immortal,

MytH

distinction

beings, of

personal

agnosticism, was

subjectswhich

from

all,without

human

as

and

future

distinct

in

the

from

strictlyEschatologicalMyths

which

of salvation

upon

with

Orphic teaching,which

the

simply

deal,

to

with

sympathy

refuge

agnosticism.

of his

matter

from

him

(as

from

refuge

his

took

many

religious teachers,

alone.
safe

that

71

the
of

Semitic

area,

gift theory
offeringand
flesh

and

blood

to the

reversion

sacrificial meal

the

and

transplanted into

as

sacrifice,and

the

whose

History of Religion, pp. 327(o.c. p. 339), "of the revival

Jevons

of

God

the

in the

to

Dr.

iii. ch. iv.

Antiquities, Book

the

affording

as

consumed

were

by his

The
it
unifying efficacy(p. 331) of the sacrificial meal made
worshippers.
We
have the principleof voluntary
possible to form a circle of worshippers.
to all.
Membership did not depend on
religiousassociations which were
open
constituted
birth, but was
by partaking in the divine life and blood of the sacred
formed
fhiasi or
for religiouspurposes
animal."
These
voluntary associations
that
all
the
cult
tke
national
in
differed
from
of
erani""
gods
women,
(p. 335)
In short,
of the State.
admitted, not merely members
were
foreigners,slaves
to religious
took
the place of civitas as the title of admission
imUiatio
(.ii.ii](Ti.s)
privileges.
closes the chapter on
Prof. Gardner
"Orgiastic Cults," referred to above, with
of
several
thiasi
In
the
were
respects the
following words :
precursors
If they belonged to a
it entered.
Christianity, and opened the door by which
full of vulgarity
intellectual level than the best religionof Greece, and were
lower
.

"

"

"

"

' '

"

imposture, they yet

and

in

common

properly Hellenic
did

not

which

had
the

with

divided

future

religionwas

nor
proselytise,

cities

were

certain

in them

as

pulled

as

forei^
down

least,

and had
of progress,
mankind.
of
past histiiry

elements
the

thing, belonged

tribal

admit

even

well

not

; and

converts

it sank
tribal

and
it

to the
so

when

decayed.

sought

and

state

the
The

converts

thing
some-

All

the

race,

barriers
cultus

of
all

among
Cybele was,
Slaves
having found them, placed them on a level before the God.
idea
of
The
and
office.
common
admitted
to
a
to
and women
membership
were
philosophers before the ago of the Stoics,
by Greek
humanity, scarcelyadmitted
that men
of
learned
who
to believe
these
found
sectaries,
despised
a hold
among
the
to
superior
low
birth
and
might be in divine matters
foreign extraction
for this great lesson we
pardon them
In return
may
wealthy and the educated.
this
Gardner
subject further
much
superstition."Prof.
pursues
follyand much
and
the
"Christianity
in his Sxploratio
Emngelica, pp. 325 ff., chapter on
i.
oh.
i.
19,
20,
i.
(vol.
Grote's
also
History of Greece, part
thiasi";
see
Sabazius

or

ranks, and

ed.

1862).

of

at

72

8.

MYTHS

THE

Summary
OF

Defence

AGAINST

Let

close

meaning, in
brought by
The

Plato

of

form

Kant

in

of
a

lightdove, in
Even

narrow

wings of
He

so

Plato

limits to the
the

did not

Here

free

flightcleavingthe
that

up

of its

againsta charge

passage.^

in

airless

left the world

and
understanding,

brings against Plato

air and

would

she

space

feehng its
fare

it sets so
of sense, because
ventured
beyond, on the

Ideas,into the empty space of


he
see
that,with all his effort,

Kant

form

brought

summing

of Plato

defence

well-known

resistance,might imagine
better.

with

this Introduction

the

Charge

against

the

in

KaNT.

BY

HIM

me

Observations

Introductory

of

PLATO

OF

the pure
made
no

understanding.
way.

the

dental
transcencharge of
standing
rather,misuse, of the Categoriesof the Underuse, or
"^
of supposingsuper-sensible
Soul, Cosmos,
objects.
Ideas
have
which
God, answering to
no
adequate objects
in a
and
then
possibleexperience,
determining these supposed
of conceptions the Categories
objectsby means
the applicationof which
ought to be restricted to sensible
objects.
In bringing this charge,Kant
to me
to ignore the
seems
which
function
Myth performs in the Platonic philosophy.
I submit
that
the
Plato
for the
objects which
supposes
"^
Transcendental
Ideas
are
imaginatively constructed
by
him, not presented as objectscapable of determination
by
scientific categories that Plato, by means
of the plainlynonscientific language of Myth, guards againstthe illusions which
Kant
of
criticism
guards against by means
; or, to put it
otherwise,that Plato's employment of Myth, when
he deals
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

with

the ideals of Soul,

of Eeason

of the

shows

"

The

part

action

of

evidence

nothing

in

which

the

his
the

Myth
BepuUic may

Republic,to

Kritik

and

der reinen

God

attitude

for this view

the
'

'

that

Cosmos,

Kant's

"

is

mind,

plays in

taken

of Plato's
my

as

attitude.
so

dogmatic.
the philosophic
specimen
There

significant
as

Vemunft, Einleitung,
" 3.
Dialectik,Einleitung,
1.

See Krit. d. rein. Vem.


: die transc.
" " Ideas " ill Kant's
sense, not

Ideas

"critical,"not

of Er
be

three

the Platonic ISiai.

is
the

INTEODUCTION

73

deep sympathy of its ending with the mood of its beginning.


It begins with
the Hope of the aged Cephalus
The sweet
hope which guides the wayward thought o^ mortal man
it
;
ends with
the great Myth
in which
this Hope is visualised.
As
his Hope is sufiicient for Cephalus, who
retires to his
devotions from the company
of the debaters, so is the Eepresentation of it
the Vision of Er
in the
given as sufficient,
"

"

"

"

end, for the


here

"

debaters

themselves.

To

rationalise

to

attempt

for such a Hope, or against


give speculative
reasons
be to forgetthat it is the foundation
it, would
of all our
specialfaculties,
includingthe facultyof scientific explanation;
and that science can
neither
explainaway, nor corroborate, its
to

"

foimdation.

own

The

half of the Tenth

attempt

Book

of

which

is made

in

latter

the

the

Republic to place the natural


man's
belief in the immortalityof
expressionof this Hope
the Soul
scientific basis," to determine
Soul
a
on
by
of
of the Understanding," I regard as
means
Categories
intended
to lead up
to the
by the great philosopher-artist
to give
Myth of Er, and heighten its effect by contrast"
the reader of the JRepublica vivid sense
of
of the futility
rationalism in a region where
Hope confirms itself by vision
^
splendid."
Of course, I do not deny that passages may
be found
in
which
God
the Ideas of Soul, Cosmos, and
treated by
are
Plato, without Mythology, as having objectsto be determined
the scientific categories
under
of Cause
and
Substance
e.g.
in Phaedrus, 245
to have
Fhaedo, 105
c,^we seem
E, and
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

'

"The

argument

about

any organicconnection
follows it. It would

and

either with
seem

608c
to 612a),"
Beinains, ii.355), " does not

immortality {Sep.

{PhilosophicalLectures
Nettleship
that

what

Plato

actuallyprecedesor
plans in his

Iiad two

with

says

actually

what

inind

E. L.

to be in

seem

to how

as

to

finish the Republic." I cannot


think
that Plato had
two
plans in his mind.
The
is formally
argument for the immortality of the Soul in Sep. 608c-612a
inconclusive
that it is impossible
Plato to be serious with it. The
to suppose
so
Deaih
equivocal use of the term
{66,vaT(K)in the argument could not have
The argument is,that, as Injustice
acute as Plato.
{aSiKla),
escaped a logician
so
the proper vice (icoieio)
Death
of the Soul, does not cause
{edvaroi),iu the
Death
of the separationof Soul from body, nothing else can
cause
sense
ever
of the
annihilation
the
the
be
understood
in
of
($"vaTm\ now, however, to
sense
"

"

"

"

disembodied
^

Soul

itself.

"Nemesius,
note on Phaedo, 105 c,
{Plato,ii. 190) has an interesting
the Christian bishop of Emesa, declares that the proofsgiven by Plato of the
immortality of the Soul are knotty and difficult to understand, such as even
Grote

"

belief in
adepts in philosophical
study can hardly follow. His own
of the Christian Scriptures(Nemesius,de Nat. Homin.
inspii-ation

the

ed. 1665)."

it rests upon
o.

2, p. 55,

serious

scientific

by Kant,
such

fade

passages
We

Myths.

into

lapses

Plato

treating them,
for
The

well

is

this

latter

Platonic

in

"

while

"

these
"

Places

sense
"

two

science, but

or
"

Here

and
order

The
amounts
as

the

"

to

and

the

Myths

shall

end

with

The

the

so-called

some

of them

latter
I
and

the

take

do

of

limits

"

set

In

and

carries

us

in

not

was

a,n"

(2)

either

following

involved

take
in

the

to

away

the
the

ken

of

concrete

mainly

which

are

be

may

concerned

ever,
how-

with

roughly

only
as

to

ideals,

with

answer

but

described

begin,

concerned

mainly

"

according
faculties

trace

I shall

remarked,

scarcely

Myths
classes

two

both.

are

properly

to

roughly,

for

Aetiological ;

the

Aetiological Myths.

first

Myth
Myths,

within

them

them

which

it

to

of

those

the

to

shall

be

to

Eschatological Myths

answer

conduct

indeed, beyond

propose

of

more

of

tion
regula-

them

represent ideals, or

to

former,

are

ference
pre-

ordinary experience.
I

most

with

of

way

the

"

between

Myth

are,

felt

are

of

object is, either

origins.

which

which

origins, for

their

"

"

purpose

origins.

their

arrangement

an

Ideas

"

profitably distinguish,

may

we

Platonic

yet

Now
in

to

the

Times

"

great

or

(1) by representing ideals,

back

ways

and

the

marked

service

the

distinction

the

mind:

by tracing faculties
of

which

that

Plato's

in

explicit

for

Peeling

ways

admitting

that

another

is
shows

its

then, effects

Myth,

two

of

ideals,

these

he

that

submit

way.

of Transcendental
science

and

"

passages,

that, if sometimes

there

that

aware

Myth,

in

"

of

side

the

least

at

logicaltreatment

he

Eeason,"

of

saying

in

safe

"

understood

as

but

insignificance by

into

are

Idea,

and

Soul

the

such

no

were

mind

Plato's

explicit in

is not

if there

Category

between

of

immortality

the

astonishing

be

distinction

the

for

for

argument

indeed, it would

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

74

Er
which

by

the
in

Myths
the

the

Fhaedo

JRepublic,
"

the

present
avar/Kr],

in

and

Soul

and

strictly
as

Gorgias,
"

logical"
Eschato-

immortal,

responsible,

under

free
God's

INTEODUCTION
Then

Timaeus}

I shall go on
to the
Ideas of Eeason

ideals,or

"

"

75

in which

the three

Soul, Cosmos, and

"

God

"

are

representedin one vast composition.


these Myths
all chieflyinteresting
Having examined
as
I shall
Ideas
of Eeason
representationsof ideals, or
examine
three Myths which
are
chieflyconcerned with the
deduction
of Categoriesor Virtues.
These are the Myths in
the Phaedrus, Meno, and
cerned
Symposium. They are mainly conwith
showing how man, as knowing subjectand moral
by his past. Although the Eschatoagent, is conditioned
logical outlook, with its hope of future salvation, is by no
absent from these three Myths, their chief interest lies
means
in the way
in which, as
Aetiological Myths, they exhibit
the functions of the understanding and moral
facultyas cases
of avdfwr]"Ti";
which, quickened by epw?, interpretsthe particular
and
the
impressions,
recognises
particularduties, of
the present life,in the lightof the remembered
vision of the
Place.
Eternal Forms
in the Supercelestial
seen
once
the
set forth the Ideals
Having examined
Myths which
and Categoriesof the Individual, I shall end my
review with
the
examination
of two Myths which
set forth respectively
an
of which
Ideals and the Categoriesof a Nation
one
gives us
the spectacleof a Nation
led on
by a vision of its future,
while the other shows us how the life of the "social organism
is conditioned
by its past. These are the Atlantis Myth,
in the fragmentary
introduced
in the Timaeus
and continued
in the Republic. The
Critias,and the Myth of the Earth-Born
of the Ideal
Atlantis Myth (intendedto complete the account
State given in the Republic)is to be regarded as an EschatoMyths of
logicalMyth ; but it differs from the Eschatological
in representing,
not
the other class which
have
been examined
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

the future
Nation

before

has

Hellas, under

Earth-Bom

it in

this

Soul, but
world

"

the

the

ideal which

ideal

of

united

Athens, maintaining civilisation against

New

the assaults of outer


After

Individual

lot of the

barbarism.

Myth I shall take the Myth of the


Myth,
J;heRepublic,which is an Aetiological

Atlantis

the
in

ipse totus
Plaionis
Mythia (Paris, 1896), p. 32, Tirmeus
of
investiture
whole
"The
and
160
Traiisl),
Zeller,Plato,.
est;
mythwus
(Eng.
t^.
the Timaeus
is mythic" the Demiurgus, togetherwith the subordinate
gods,and
'

Couturat, de

all the

historyof

the creation

of the world.

"

76

MYTHS

THE

differing
have

from

Aetiological

the

been

faculties

and

virtues

of

Myths
deducing,

in

examined,

PLATO

OF

of

other

the

the

not

which

Categories

but

Individual,

the

class

the

"

deep-cut

"

characteristics
while

again,

"

of

deduced,

are

KaXXi'jroXi';

the

more

less

or

man's

exhibit

is

of

ante

and
the

Mythology

continuous

"

of

part

as

blended

sub

the

great

"

and
in

the

one

"

Vision.

the
this

Indeed,

They

aeternitatis

in

all
God

"

plan
be

reviewed

Especially

post.

of

Myths.

of

to

that
"

represented.

specie

here

yet,

Ideal

an

Platonic

the

progress

parte

Genesis

all

life

present

it

term

of

true

And

organism."

social

"

view

see

the

Categories

life

orderly
is

of

Providence

as

"

in

Apocalypse

at

the

once

Timaeus
"

of

the

one

parte

do
Platonic

we

MYTHS

THE

78

107c-114c

Phaedo
107

'AWo

eiirep r)
ypovov

Br) Selrai ov)(^ mrep


adavaTo";, e-7ri/jie\eia"!
'^V')(r}
"S KoXovfiev ro
^rjv,aW
Toiirov
virep
fxovov, ev

diraXKayq,

iravrof
Te

ovSefiiaav
TrXrjV

TOV

^eXrlarriv

ft)?

oiiBev yap

aXko

dvodavovai

t^?

avrmv

KaKia"s

^aiveTUi
ovBe

ovaa,

a-WTijpia

yevecr"at.
"j)povifjitoTdT7}v

Koi

"yjrvj(r]
e/aj^erat irXfjv

rj

a
Btj
Tpo"f)rj"!,

xal

re

KaKoii

eU "AiBov

e')(pvaa

Trji}vaiBeiai;

"^v to2";

diro^vyr)KaKwv
re

eivai,

6dvaT0"; rod

eTTetS^dddvaTOf

avTrj aWrj
el'i;

tov

^v 6

dTrrjXXdyOaiKoi
Be

tov

yap

/lev
olv

epfiaiov

a/ia

amfiarot

Beivoi

Bfj xal Bo^etevav

vvv

VVV
T^9 "\lruY?j9'

fieTa
D

KivBvvoi

el
aiirrjidfieX'^aei,

Tt?

TOV

Kol

iravTo^,

et

Biavo'rj0r]vai
on,

SUaiov
avhpe"i,

7', e^r),w

ToSe

PLATO

OF

koI

Xeyerai

/leyia-ra

dp^fj rij?
TeXevTrjcravTa evdvi ev
m^eXelv "^ ^XdirreLV tov
XiyeTat,Be oOtws, ""? dpa TeXevrrjcravTa
eKeiae
iropeui";.
6

^KoerTov

St; Tiva
et?
eiri'x^eipel

ayeiv
E

BalftMV,o"nrep

exdcTTOV

'

eli
BiaBiicaaap,evov";

oS Brj irpoaTeTaKTai
iiceivov,

B'
Tvy(6vTa";
aXXo"{
")(p6vov

108

ft)?

evQevBe

oifiov"^r)abvel"s

(^aiverai
p-oi

AiBov

elvai,. ovBe yap

av

TO,

orrep

T"v
vofiLpiCOV
Kal

irapovTa'
ev

rm

fiev

eBei'

ovar^f;.

ej(ei,v

TeK/jLaipo/ievo^

ep/irpoadev
eiTrov,
Trepv

tov

opaTov

iradovaa, /8ta Kai

BaLp,ovo"i
oi^erai
Tr}V

evddBe

oBov

dirX^v

yap

ov

vvv

Xeyco.

Be

rj

fioyi'i

viro

tov

Kat

ti

re

dyvoel
e')(pv"ra,
"ypovov

dvTiTeivacra

7rpo"7TeTay/Mevov

Be oOnrep ai
d/yo/jbivr).
d^iK0/ji^VT}v

axdOapTOV

eoixe

/jLev oJ)V

iroXvv

iroXXa

irov

oaimv

t"v

otto

irepleKelvo
tottov,

fila

ydp

Kal
eireTal re
ovk
^povi,fio";
""^vj(ri
Be
tov
iiri.ffv/j/rjTi.K"'i
17
aa"p,aTOi

eirrotifievt} Kal

Kal iroXXd

j(p-q

dirXrj ovTe

ovre

riyefiovav

oi/Ba/iocre
Biafidproi.
/x.(a?
Kal TrepioBov;
TToXXat
Te
"Tj(i"Tei"!

KoafiiaTe

iropevaai.

eKelvo"; fiev

"pepetv,
17 B

av

Kal

eKelae

hv
fji^ivavTa"!

Kal

rv^elv

Aio-^uXou TjjXe^o? Xeyer


'

Ti";

"^ye/iovo'}

iropeveaOai fj,eTa
tous

Bel

^vXXeyevTa"i

tov?

iroXXal^
ev
Bevpo irdXtv "qyep^v Ko/il^ei,
Be dpa t] TropeLaov')(
eaTi
fiaxpal^ TrepioBoi"i.

Kal

"ypovov

"v

eKel

ol Bel

tottov,

AiBov

^Sivra etXrjy^ei,,
outo?

Treiroi/riKvlav
TOtovTOv,

aXKai,

^ "}"6v(ov

THE

PHAEDO

MYTH

79

Translation
It is meet,

"

this

that

"

the
in

care, not

only

regardof

the time

Soul.

Were

wicked

wickedness

"

she

riddance

she

taketh

standeth

of this

be

inasmuch

of

in

of

need

but in
present life,

to-day,

even

all,'twould be good luck for the

rid

as

thought

will still be careless of his

man

of

evil
esca^e^from

other
that

; but

take

end, and that 'tis now,

great, if
and

time

the

without

die

to

should

we

being immortal,

regard of

death

man

friends,that

Soul,

the jeopardy is

that

no

my

of

body

the Soul

hath

she

is
nor

and

soul

and

his

immortal^
manifestly
salvation

save

this

be

perfectedin righteousnessand wisdom.. For


hence
of Hades,
nothing with her to the House

that, to wit, whereonly her instruction and nurture


from
dead
to the
or
they say the greatest profit cometh
greatestdamage straightwayat the beginning of their journey
thither ; for when
Familiar
which
a
man
dieth, his own
Spirit,
had gotten him
and leadeth
to keep whilst he lived, taketh
him
the
dead
be gathered
to a certain place whither
must
together; whence, after they have received their sentences,
they must journey to the House of Hades with him who hath
been appointed to guide thither
those that are
here; and
when
they have received there the things which are meet for
another Guide
them, and have sojourned the time determined',
of time.
long courses
bringeth them
again hither, after many
The way, belike, is not as Aeschylus his Telephus telleth ; for
he saith that a singlepath leadeth
of Hades.
to the House
But, methinks, if it were
single and one, there would be no
would
need of guides,for no
man
go astray. Nay, that it
hath many
partingsand windings I conclude from the offerings
save

"

which

men

use

to make'

unto

the dead.

arightand hath wisdom,


understandeth
well her presentcase, and goeth with her Familiar.
lusteth after the body, having fluttered
But
the Soul which
about
it and the Visible Place for a long while, and having
her appointed Familiar
withstood
with
great strife and pain,
and carried away ; and when
is by him
at the last mastered
the other Souls are assembled
she is come
to the placewhere
she is impure and hath wrought that
as
together,inasmuch
"

The

Soul which

ordereth

herself

"^/Jbfiev^v
rj aW'

aBUmv

TavTtjv

0VT6
^vvefiTTopoi

iv

"v

Aevyei

cnra"!

uev

Be

r)

"^yefiovavffemv

Kal
^Dve/iTToptov

o'ia oiire

ovre

koX

eyib vtto

ta?

Tavra,

Xeyei";, "
e"f"Tj,

oiv
ye

rivo's

To3
%L/j,fiLa,

fiTjKei

IBeav T^s 7^9, o'lav


fie

KtoXvei

iv p,eacp

ajia

aWa

TOtawTi??,
rov

rw

Xoyov

ireireiafuii,

ovpavov

iKavrjv

airov

oup^

ofioim^S'
rovro

fiexpi

o?,

tou?

eym,

yap

avrrjv

re

fievroi

avTrj^

tottov;

w?

irpStrov/lev, el
Belv

rijv ofioionjra
'la')(eiv

irdvry Kal
-irpay/ia

oiiS'

rrji yrji

ofwiov

opOuf

arTJX"v
'i{paKXei"ov

diro

rivo";

avrfj";rrjv
ev

p.eo'to

"^rrov ovBapJxre KkiOrjvai,,

fievel. irp"rov

elvai
"jrd/jL/ieyd
ri

vepl

old?

av

i^apxeiv, ttjv

ovk

elvai,Kal

S'

17

elvai

e^ei fiaXXov

"ireireia-/iai. Kal

fiopCtp,
marrep

rijv

Kara

oZaa, p/tjBev
avrr}
7repi^epr]";

eavrtS

e')(pv aKXivh

rolvvv, e^,

ecrrCv

pJqireaelv p.'^re
aXXi;? dvdyKr]^/j,'r)Befua

IffoppoTTiav'
KToppoTTOV
redev

BirfyrjaacrOai,
a
y

6 'S.ip.fiUi'},
Kal ravra
'AW', e(f"r)

ovpavm
to

ireLdei.

ce

Xififiia,
ov'x, ^

iyo) 'icrm^ ovS'

fiev

rov

Xeyeiv.

depo^ Trpo?

p,'qre

"
/xivTOi,

elvai

rrj^ 7^5

rot

ravra,

jievroi

'AWa

dpKel. HeTreKTfiairoivw,
eariv

avrrj

;8i'os/iot BoKel 6 ifuxs,


Tfiriardp/qv,
o

eiijv,dfia Be, el Kal

ovBev

ireplyap
"ZcaKpare^;
;

BoKel
ri'xvri

T"j(vr]v, Kal

Y*XavKov

Kal

roiroi,

dX7]6rj,
fj
j^aXeTrcorepov
/loi (padverat

fievrot

rov

-rrepl
yrjiieladorav
d %Lfip,M"i,
IIw?
Tre-Treia/jiai,. Kai

aKovaai/jLi.

p,oi,

co/";i;"re

rv^ova-a,

t"v

viro

Bt) dxi^Koa, oil

iroXXd

avToi;

TXavKOV

109

yevwvTai,

xpovoi

dav/iaaToXt^? 7^?

So^d^erat

oarj

Xeyeiv,

"ffBemi
av

Se TrXavarai

irpocrriKOVTa.

Et(rt Se TToWol

ovre

fiiovSie^eXdovaa,
rov
/jteTpieo^

koI

KaOapS)^re

tottov
avrf} eKdcrri]

tt)?

Sj? ri,ve";

av

kul

^eperai el"sTrjv avrfj irpeirovaav


i^eXOovTcovi/tt'dvdyKr)"i

KoL

Kal

yiyvecrOai,
avrr)

iOeXei

Tfyefiav

rvy^dveiovra,

epya

vireKTpeirerai,

Kai,

re

eo)?
irda-f)
diropia,
I'xpp.ht]

oiKTia-iV

a
elpyaa-fiiprfv,

Toiavra

arra

aZeK(^S)V
"^v^"v

koX

oSeTi^dre

TOVTOJv

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

80

ye,
avro,

(lev

rolvvv, ?) S'

os,

6
"Ert
e"f"T)
'Zifi/ila^.
koI

r)na"i oiKetv

4"tto-tSo?ei*

tov";

a-fUKpoirivi

reX/ia /ivpfirjKai; fj /3aTpd')(^ov"i,


Treplrijv

THE
which

is

impure, having

deeds which

Sonls

eschew, and

none

she wandereth
been

PHAEDO

that

shed

in

her

blood,

companion

fit for her.

is she

But

wherefore

guide ;

o"

constrained

the Soul

like

do, her all flee and

to

use

done

or

great stress,until certain

accomplished; then

habitation

81

innocent

her like

are

will be

alone

MYTH

to

which

times

have

go unto
lived aU

hath

the
her

days in purity and sobrietyhath given unto her Grods to be


her companions and guides,and she maketh
her habitation in
the placemeet
for her.
The Earth hath many
and wondrous
and it is of a
places,
fashion and greatnesswhereof those who use to tell concerning
have
the Earth
is one
who
hath
true
no
opinion. There
persuadedme of this."
Socrates,"quoth Simmias, how sayest thou this ? for I
also have
heard
things concerning the Earth, but not
many
this of which
I would gladly
thou art persuaded. Wherefore
"

"

"

hear it."

Well, Simmias," quoth he,

"

skill of Glaucus
the

truth

Glaucus
unto

to

forth

set

to

find

haply

out,

if I knew

nay,

methinks

that

thereof, which

"

wot

which
it

be

not

life is too

it,my

I have

not

the

heard; but
skill of

surpasseththe

should

it needeth

able

attain

to

far spent, methinks,

for the

length of the discourse which should declare it : but


and the placesit hath
my persuasionas touching the Earth
nothing hindereth me from declaringunto thee."
That
is enough,"said Simmias.
I am
persuaded,then," said he, of this first that if the
Earth, being a globe,is in the middle of the Heaven, it hath
to keep it from
need of air or any other like constraint
no
is of one
but 'tis sufficient to hold it that the Heaven
falling,
substance throughout,and that itself is equallybalanced : for
that which
is itself equallybalanced and set in the midst of
"

"

"

"

that which

hath

one

substance, will

have

no

cause

any side, but will continue


Of this first I am
inclination.

all of

at

incliningtowards

the

remain

persuaded."

without

"

And

"

Moreover,

and

that

the

river

or

said
rightly,"

we

who

Phasis

frogs round

am

Simmias.

persuadedthat

inhabit

dwell
about

imto

in
a

and

same

the

small

the Earth
Pillars

is very

great,

of Hercules

part thereof,like

pool, dwelling round

from

unto

this Sea ;
G

ants

and

OaKarrav

oiKovvrav,

roiovTOK

ToiroK

TToWd.

oiipavS,
C

he

avrrjv

elvai

Kal

oiKovvTa"s

iv

v-rroaTadfiTivravra
^/uaf

7^?.

ovv

Kal

okadak

T"5

wO/jLevi

olKeiv

Kal

darpa

ttjv

7^?

t^?

Bia

6BaTo"i

rov

Tvyj(avei,

e'ir}rov

etopaKoroi.

olKelv, Kal
6vro";
E

Kal

veiav

eV

oi

evOdSe,
iKavr)
o

OaXdrrr)^

av

ovrm"i

Kal

ivddSe

^Be

pev

eari,

t)

Sie^Oappkva

rrj daXarrr/
Xoyov

yap

iv

roiovrov

^op^opoi

eia-tv,

Bk
oirov

"v

iirdvto

airov

ixei

Kal

oi

ovpavov

eX6oi

aKpa

dvaKV'^avra,

on

av,

dppa"s
Kal

Kal

Kal

oiire
w?

aairep

f) "j}V(rK

eKeivo^

iariv

to?

dXijdm

dira"s 6

7r/30?

roirois

mavep

(jiveraiovBev

TrrjXo^

yrj rj, Kal

el

17

Itto?

rj

opSxri rd

KariSeiv, Kal

Kara^e^papeva,
reXeiov,

dtrde-

"^pd^ Bie^eXOetv
iir

av

XlOoi

avrrji

vir

aX7j6S)"; "}"mi Kal

yrj Kal

Kal

clkt^kook

rovrov

elvai

re

rit

rd

rrj daXdrrr), oiire

aripafyye":

Kal

elvai

tj)? dXp/r)^' Kal

vrro

KadaptuTepov

i^6ve"! dvaKvirrovre^

ro

iarl

t^?

oXeaOai

etrj dve-^feaOaiBetopovaa, yv"vai

dXrfOSit: ovpavov

yfj.

Kal

riva

dvaKiri}ra"iex

mt

dvdirroiro, KariSelv

ri]v

^aXam;?

t^?

Bid

oiov"s

depa' eirei, et

rov

eK

Be

ro

ovj^

fipaovr^rd

irenovdevai'
"f)pa";

Kal

rovro

KaXeZv,

ovpavov

^(eopovvra.

yevopevo"s

evddSe

Sri

KolXip t^? 7^?

rivi

^paSvrrjro^

ea-^arov

rrrTjvoi

110

darpa

ra

koI

aXXa

ra

p/r/BeaXXov
a-tfjicri,

rrapa

rairov

depa

rov

Be

aKpa

oam

roirov,

rov

av

ev

yap

Kal

^\iov

rov

etrj, iKBv";

ivOdBe

rov

KaXXiav

oiKovvrai

op"v

pAatf)

iv

tk

iirl tj}? daXaTTTji

re

p/qBeiruyiroreiirl rk

a^irffievof p,T)Be eapaKO}^


e^?

ototTO

ei

av

"^yoiTO ovpavbv elvai, Sia

OdXarrav

OaXaTTTji;

mairep

oiKeiv,

-ireXdyovi;oIk"v

Tov

daOeveiav

Kol

Te

iirl

avto

t^s

avrrji} XeXTjBevai

koCKok

rot?

Bij

o5

KolXa

ra

et?

reS

ovo/Ma^eiv

Xeyeiv

ael

^vppeiv

rov

Keia-Oai,

Si) aidepa

eladormv

roiavra

fieyedrj,

Kal
op.ij^Krfv

Kudapm

ev

ov

atrrpa,

trepX ra

T"v

TToWov?

Toii?

rh

eari

tA

koX

lSea";

t^v

vSap koL
yfjv KaBaphv

"iroWoii

irepl t^v y^v

iravrayri

t^?

koX

iu

"n'o\\ov"i

re

to

rrjv

(Swep

iv

yhp

elvai

iravrohava

Kal

^weppwiKevcu

aepa'

aXXoBt

aXkovi

oUeiv.

KoTXa

eis

koX

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

82

rd

ev

d^iov

elTreiv, ovSev

dpi]y(avo"i Kal
rd

rrap

rjptv

THE

PHAEDO

that many
other men
all parts of the Earth

magnitude;
and

into

in many

83

other

hollows,many,

are

these

flow

and

water

lifted up clear in the


clear Heaven
This Heaven
is that which
those who

thi"k

We,

think

that

then,
dwell

we

his

dwellingdown

he

was

the

on

the

water
the

above

surface

mounted

up

head, and
excelleth
neither
it.

looked

wherein

had

This

that

is

Earth,

think

Air

we

call Heaven,

are

the

that

colluvies which

the

hollows

hollows,being ignorant,
he who
had
Earth, even
as
of the

would

sea

of the

courses

think

the

being sluggish and


of

that

the

sea,

the

upon

think
stars

he

weak,

and

put

Earth

it is that

that

whereas, by

never

his

far

it

beauty,
had

hollow

of

itself;and

reason

be

forth

who

Heaven

the

to

sea

how
place,and saw
place in purity and

our

the

the

conceit

at

and

of

stars, would

dwell

we

stars.

of these

speak

things of his own


heard concerning it from
another
for we,
our
case
:
dwelling in a

the

the

are

to

use

itself is

beholding through

surface

out

Earth

air,

thereof, and

as,

the

to

the

bottom

the

heaven, inasmuch

in

on

the

at

and

sun

dwell

who

places; for in
in shape and

clouds and

the

things call the Aether, whose sediment is


is alway being gathered together into
Earth.

like

various

gathered together; but

therein

are

dwell

MYTH

seen

the
the

wherein

of weakness

and

cannot
we
sluggishness,
go forth out of the Air : but if
could journey to the edge thereof, or having
a
man
gotten
could
it
would
that
fishes
to pass
come
even
as
flyup,
wings
the things here, he,
here which
rise out of the sea do behold
if his
behold
the
looking out, would
things there, and
strength could endure the sight thereof,would see that there
and
the True Heaven
the True Light and the True Earth.
are
For

the

Earth

here, with

the

thereof, and

stones

the

whole

corrupted and eaten away, after the


there
is
of things in the sea
manner
by the salt wherein
brought forth nothing either goodly or perfectat all,but only
and
hollow rocks, and sand, and clay without
measure,
miry
also
earth
wheresoever
not
there is
things
worthy at
sloughs
all to be compared with
the things here that are
fair,albeit
excel the thingshere in beauty.
the thingsbeyond do much
more
place where

are,

we

is

"

"

Wherefore,

of the

Heaven."

Things

if ye

that

desire of
be

me

beyond

upon

Tale, hearken
the

Earth

to the Tale

under

the

e^

lir)v,

Sw/tpare?,17/tiet?
a"
tiftfiMVi,

av
fivdov"f/Sim'!

ISeiv,et

avTi)

Be

Kal

ix

T"v

Kal

"irKeioviov

tA

ravra

avra

dXKeov

'x^pat/MaToav voiKiXua,

ma-re

Be
ev
"}iavrd^e(T0ai.
dtvofievaAvetrOai, BevBpa

TTOiKiXov

rd
Kal

rd

av

\6yOv

avrov

tou?

\Cdov"i eyfeiv

rov"i

ypoifiara KoXXio)' "v Kal rd evOdBe XidiBia


xal
IdamBaf
rd dyarrdyfieva
/juopia, a-dpBid re
Bov; Kal
elvai
on

rrdvra

Kol

en

ixel

roiavra'

KaWico.

rovrtov

oi

eKeivoi

rd

Xidoi

el"rl

Be ovBev
B'

to

xaOapol

Kapirov^dva
rov

Kal

ov

elvai

ov

roiovrov

elvai,

rovrov

KareBTjSea/iivoi
Kal
trrjireBovoi

ol
evddBe
vtto
Bie^dapfievoimairep
d Kal \i0oi^
Bevpo ^vveppvijKoriov,
aKfvt]"ivirb r"v
Kal
Kal Totv
aWot?
^moi? re Kal "f"vroK aXa-^rj
re

KoX

r^v Be

yrjv

avrrjv

rovroK
KeKocrfiijadai

re

y(pv(7m

jieydXa Kal rroXKa-^^ovTJ;? 7^?,


6ear"v.
^a"a B' err
deafia evBaifioveov

eoTi

voaovf

diraai

mare

avrrjv

ISeiv elvat

out^? elvai dWa

re

Kal

"TToWd

ovaa";'

yy

kuI

Kal

rovf

re

Kal

dWoit
roil
av
dpyvpcp Kal roil
rrolCKd rfKriQei
ydp aird Tre^vxivai,
avra
eK"f)avrj

en

roiovroK.

T0U9

ravra

afiapdy-

Kal

ri

atnov

ovBe

7rape')(ei,

Xoyov

Kal rd
rijv Biatf)dvetav

Xeiorrira Kal

re

rrjv

dvOt) Kai,

koI

re

fwej^e?

dvd

rotavry

ovcrrj

tmv

ttj

ev

avTrji; elBof

ri

ev

ravrj)

koX

m(Tavra""s

opri

Se

Tr/v

eapdicafiev.koI y^p
Kal
re
depoi efiirXea

anX^ovTa
irape-)(ea6ak

eZSos

ti

ij/iets

o"ra

avTrji, t/Saros

KoTXa

"ypm/iaro'i

ovra,

"x^pafia.Tav

KaXKiovtov

AcaWo?,

yvylrov rj '^i.6vo"sXevKorepav,
icaX en
^vyKeifievTjv
waavroK,

XevKT]

oa-q

aKKoiv

davfuurrijvto

icaX

elvai

yhp aXovpyfj

^pvffoeiBfj,
TtjV

roiavri)

al SioSeKda-Kvroi,

dearro, axrirep

avmdev

tk

eivai

fiev

irpmrov

eraipe,

evddSe
^v
'''*
*"'
a-^aipat,nroiKiXrj,
"x^pmnain Siet\ij/ifievv"
icara0I9 S^ ol ypa^eK
elvai jfpwfiara
Beir/fiara,
mairep
elvai, Ka\
Be iraaav
Toiovrtov
r^v yfjv sk
e/cet
j(^pS)VTai.
iroXii ert, e'/e 'KafiTrporepmv koX Kadaptorepmv ^ tovtcov
tt)v
/i"V

tov

tovtov

76

aKOvaaifiev.

Aeyerai roivvv,e^,
17 717

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

84

Be
Be

roiis fiev ev
fiecroyaiaoiKovvrav,
dv6pmrrov";,
irepl rov
dipa (txrirep rjiiei"s ireplrr}V OdXarrav^
ev
rov
dipa, tt/so? t" rjireip^
vrjaoit;, as
rrepippeiv

Kal

evl Xoyy,

7r/oo9 rrjv

oirep

rjiierepav

o
drjp,eKeivoK
rjiiiv

rov

rjfuv

ro

vBap

jf^peiav,
rovro

aidepa. rd"; Be

Kal

"^ ddXarrd

depa, o Be
"pa"!avroi^
Kpdaiv

eKei

rov

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

86

eKeivovt avotrov}
mcrre
ej(^eivroiavT7]v,
Kal
ivGdSe
^fjv iroXii trXeiio r"v
Hcal
6a"j"p'^"rei.^

aTToa-rdaet,"girep arjp
etvai, iv

oh

reS

S^'^eikoX

re

Kal lepa avToh


6eov"} elvai, Kal ^rjfiaire
olK7jTa"s

ovri,

eSr]'re

de"v

Kal
6e"v
aladri"Tei"it"v
fiavTeiai Kal
Kal top
avrov^'
7rpb"i
C^vvovaiaiiyiyveadai avTot?
Kal

Kal
ovra,

Tr)v

t7e\rjvi}vKal

ireplo\r)V

Tvyx^vei

^fiiv TOTTOV,
ivOdBe

iv

rjnel'soiKovfiev,

tp

elvai, Kal

frKaTinepov^.

"/roWa^, kuI

re
avvTerpfjaOai

aW";Xous

^dOei

rov

yrjv

arevoTepa

Kara

Ste^oSow? eyeiv, "" iroXii

Kal

evpvrepa,

trap

trdvra'i vtto

Se

tovtov^

0aav-

tow

e^eiv
^pay(yTepov^tc3

S' oft? Kal

eari

Se

tow?

eXaTTov

avTov"i

j(a,(rfia

to

dvaire-

roir? fj,ev ^a6vTepov"sKai

ttoWow?,

/laXKov ^

ovTa"i

Tepov"i

Kal

ola

avrmv

rjkiov

ye

aKoKovOov
eivai.
Tovrav
Tijv aWTjv evBaifioviav
Kai
ire^vKevaikoX ra irepi
oXtjv fiev Sri ttjv yfjv owtoj
S
iv avrjj elvai Kara
ra
eyKoCKa avri}^
yrjv TOTTov?

"jTTa/ievovi

et?

Inr

opaadai

aarpa

TOiavrai

Kal

kvk\^

Kal

aKoy

toiovtok

KadapoT-rfra.Kal SfjKal

7rpo9

re

y(povov

a^eaTuvai rrj avry


rifiStv
koX aldrjpdkpo"s
iJSaTO? d^ecrrrfKe

rolt

iravi,

Koi

eivai

vStoppeiv

fiev

devacov
eh KpaTr}pa";, Kai
i^ dXXijXeoveh aWijXou?
wairep
v-tto
fjueyeOr}
QeppMV vhdrav
dp/rij(ja.va
TTorapMV
rrjv ytjv Kal
Kal ylrvj(pS)v,
Be vvp
Kal ttv/jo? p^eydXov^ "jroranov'i,
iroXv
"7roXXov"; Be
E

trrepov,

TTOTa/iolKal

alcapavnvct

rov

irpo

B^ Kal

av

eKd(rT0i"i TV'^r)

av

Be
iv

evovaav

trdvra
ry

Kivelv

eKao'TOV^

aWw?

0X179 T^?

7?7S,

TOVTO

oirep

Be

dpa

Kal

aXXodi,

iKetvoi

Tdprapov KeKXr^Kaaiv.
re

irorapal

y'vyvovraiB\

eKaaroi

alna

peco(7iv
B

01

Travre?

irdvra

"

rf
ra

pevputra,

toiovtoi,

icrrl
on

tov

aXXoi

yap

Kal

avrrj

""Tirep
17 aidtpa
t^? 7^5

Biap/7repe";
reTp7)p,evov
elne, Xe7")v avro
"0/jLrjpo"s

Kal

eh

Karm

irepippor)

j(acrpMT"ov

vjrb ;^0ovds
TrjkefidX, gxi /SaOi/rrov
ecrri

h Kal

17

Kal

avca

tottow?

tov"!

eAcoffTOTe

eari

yy.

ttt/Xov peojrrev

pvaKOf

ev
Tt
twv
^vffiv TOidvBe Tivd.
bv Kal
T6
p,iytcTTov
rvy^fdvei

Bia

112

pva^'

ravra

yLyvop,evr].

Bi

%iKeX[a oi

ouTos

"v
irXrjpovo'dai,

0opl3op(oBe-

irrpuiv Kal KaOaparepov Kal

vypov
""Tirepiv

tovto

iK

tovtov

^epeOpov,

ttoXXoI
to

rrv6p.evaovk

ttoitjtcjv

")(dapxL
"Tvppeov"ri
trdXtv
iKpeowf

St' o'ia";av

iKpelvre

t"v

Kal

ivrevOev
ej^et ovBe

t^?

Kal

7^?

elarpelv

fidaiv

to

THE

Moreover,
them

not

their

distant

parts, are

Water, and

are

87

tempered

so

that

disease

smiteth

of
they live far beyond the measure
touching eyesight,and hearing and wisdom,

as

all such

seasons

MYTH

all,and

at

days, and

PHAEDO

Aether

from

is distant

as

Air

Air

in

purity.

stars

are

us

even

from

is distant

our

and
from

Also

they
Gods
-temples wherein
verilyare
groves
dwellers ; into whose
men
hearing their
come,
very presence
voices
and
their prophecies and
face to face.
seeing them

have

of the

Moreover,

the

truly; and,

men

is blessed.

The

Earth
the

whereof

in, and
shallower
channels

that

bowls,

under

bored

places,some
so

broader

and

much

some

clearer, some

fieryflood
these

time

waters

narrower

Earth

which

swayeth

There

is

mud,

and

upward

moved

are

like
in

cavern

swing.

the

also

telleth

about
than

that

and

this

and

some

to

one

another

in

it

Earth, which

into

as

the

fire floweth, and

rivers

of

place is

And

given

much

running mud,

filled

each.

fieryflood.
according as at
Now,

by that in
swayeth after
is the

before

run

the

cometh

unto

many

is

under

run

Sicilythere

then

downward

are

joined together,having

in

round

in

whole^girth,
place we dwell

mouth,

many
as

they

her

perennial rivers

even

floweth

stream

the

from

floods,therefore, each
the

parts that encompass

cold ; also

and

of

these

the

wide, whereby passage


into
from
another,
one

some

thicker,

rivers

of

are

great rivers of fire,and

are

each

floods of

hot

streams

there

With

open

floweth

water

measureless

and

Earth, and

the

and

state

seen

else

Tale

the

all these

the

narrow

the

more

with

deeper

are

as

places round

deeper and

are

there

things

But

hollow

many

some

all

fashioned.

are
some

in

itself,then, and

thus

Earth

and

moon

likewise

Earth

are

and

and

sun

are

"

Gods

all these
the

Earth

this wise.

greatest of them

pierceth right through the whole Earth,


whereof
off, where
Homer
maketh
mention, saying, 'Afar
in other
he
deepest undergroimd the Pit is digged,'which
Now, into
of the other
places,and' many
poets, call Tartarus.
it flow out again,and
all the rivers flow, and from
this cavern
all,and,

each

becometh

one

through.
is that

moreover,

The

such

cause

this flood hath

as

part of the Earth

is that

flowing out

of all streams
no

bottom

or

foundation.

and

it floweth

flowing in

Wherefore

it

ava"
Bf) koI KVfUiivei
altopelTai
ravrov
to
irepXavro
irvevfia

TOVTo.

vypov

6 ar)p

yhp

KoX

TO

avT"S

koI

ek

oTav

eK-TTvel

orav

iirl

to

koX

re

TaBe,

koI

piov

avairvei

iypm

opfirjffavu7roYft)p"jerj7
Ka\ovfievov,
Te

Kol

TrXifpotavTa

eKeWev

Be

TO,

ol

oTav

re

Stj Karca

etrainKovvref

otov

ts

evdaBe

av

irTuripol

opiJurjari,ra
Kal
Bia r"v
6-)(eT5"v

irXripadevTa pet

ow

t^? 7^? eirrpei

Be

Bevpo

ave/iov^

tov

Bia

ixel

xai

Tivav

tottov

pev/iara

to,

ael

ovtw

i^iov.

Koi

tov

et?

ma-nrep

avoTuirr},

fiev

aWK,

eKelva

kwt

tok

vBap

to

koX
6pfi'q"rg

avairveovTiov

Beivov^

el"ribv

koX

^vveTrerai

Troiei-

wevfia,

to

irvevfia

to

ical aiutj')(avov"iirapeyeTai

t"v

aairep

xai

Kara,

"ai

Trj(syfji

etrUetva

to

et?

t"b
^vvaitopovfievov

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

88

Sia

t^?

et?
ow
a"j"iKvov/ieva,
Kal Xlfivaii
6aXdTTa"!
Kai
eKdoTovi oBoiroielrai,
Te
iroTafiov;
Be ttoKiv
evrevdev
Kol
t^9 yfi"{,
BvojievaKara
Kpriva"; iroiel.

yfj9, Kal

eh

TO,

fiev

Be

eKaTTOVf

/jMKpoTepov;

Kal

ifi^aXXei, tA

fiev

oKi/yov' irdvTa

Be

eari

Kal

eh
E

KoiX

elapelt^?

viroKarcD

Ta

TapTapov
Be

Kara

fjuepo^'

aino

to

/ikv

evia

Kau

eKporif.

Be

rj ana^
trepieXdovTa,

kvkXm

irdXiv

Kadevra

Karto

o"f"eK,

01,

mairep

rj

ifi^aXXei. BvvaTov

Kadievai, iripa B' ov.


'""''
f'^XP''
f^ecrov
to
eKaTepaOev
TOt?
d/j,"jiOTepoi";
pevfiaai

eKaTepcaae

dvavTe";

TrXetow?,

eirrjvTXelro,to,

irepltijv yfjv
irepbeKi/^fOevTa

BvvaTov

iarlv

"TroXii KartoTepa

iravrdiraffi

tfKeovdKK
TO

irepieKdovraKal
tov
^pajfyTepovs,irdXiv et?
toitov;

e^eireaev,evia
elcrpet

KaTavTiKpi)y
Be

eKaara

tottov?

tov?

yap

ylryveTai
p.epo'i.

Xr.

Ta

fiev

ovv

Brj dXXa

"travToBa-ira pevfiaTa

fot?
Kal

TToWots

TovTov

113

Be

Te
ep'^fitov

Trjv

UTTa

peov

irepl KVKXtp
Kal

KaTavTiKpv
TOTTtov

pel

rpiTo^

Be

iroTafio"i

tovtwv

Tfj(;
eK^oXi]'}eKiriirreL

et?

to

tovtok

ev

fieyiffTOV

fiev

KoXovfievo'; 'Xl/ceavo? eaTi,

Kal

B^ Kal

K^^epcov,os
inro

yfjv

petov

'

ai
ov
Kj(epov"TidBa,
voXXmv
Kai
d(f)iKvovvTai

Kara
Toirov

fieaov
fieyav

fiaKpoTepovt,
t"v

^"a"v

Bi

eh
t"v

Trjv

i^v)(alt"v
ai fiev
fieivacrai,
ecfjMpfievov"! ")(p6vov";
ttoKiv
el"sTa?
^paj(yTepov";,
eKirep-irovTat
TeTeXevTrfKOTWv

ovra

evavTL(o"; peav

aXXmv

XlfiV7]v d^iKvelTai

"v

pevfiaTa,

fieydXa Kal

Kal

Te

Tvyj(dveiS' dpa

ea:Tf

TeTTap

i^wrdTco

iroXXd

Tiva"!

ai

Be

yevetreK.

eK^dXXei, Kal eyyi)^

irvplttoWw

Kao/ievov,

THE

PHAEDO

MYTH

89

swingeth and surgeth up and down, and the


with it ; for the wind
goeth with it when
further
and

Earth, and

side of the

with

air and

wind

surge
the

it rusheth

it returneth

to

hitherward

livingcreatures is driven forth and


in as
drawn
there also the wind,
stream
a
so
continually,
swinging with the flood,cometh in and goeth out, and causeth
terrible,
mighty tempests. Now, when the water rusheth back
into the place "beneath," as
men
speak, coming unto the
which
run
region of the streams
through that part of the
even

the breath

as

Earth, it floweth
reservoirs with
and

of

into

; but

pumps

it ebbs

when

hither, it fiUeth

rusheth

fiUeth

and

them

again

the

them,

as

again

from

fill

men

thence

here, which,

streams

being full,run through their conduits and through the Earth,


to those placeswhither
they are bound, and
coming severally
Thence
fountains.
make
and lakes and rivers and
they
seas
fetched
sink under the Earth
a
longer
again,and some, having
far
and some
a
shorter,fall again into Tartarus, some
compass
the
beneath
channel
into which
pumped up, and
they were
little way beneath ; but all flow into Tartarus
again
a
some
beneath

placesof

the

that, coming forth

their

Earth

of the

out

in at the contrary side ; and


the

side; and

same

Earth

and

times, like

the

far

as

as

low

is

side of the

other
there

"Now

These

down

as

at

flow
thereof,,

side

one

it

once

rivers
water

out

come

on

whole

the

yea, perchance,many
back
their waters
pour
"

can

in each

there be

waters

that go in and
be that go round

way, but
hill against the stream

the centre

Earth

about

serpents.

into Tartarus
as

wound

are

some

there

some

Some

outflowing.

Now, it

fall.

further

no

that

each

can

half of

from

floweth

fall

the

half.
are

many

great rivers of

divers

sorts, but

amongst these there are four chiefest : whereof that one which
is
is greatest,
and floweth round the outermost, is that which
called Ocean, and over
againsthim is Acheron, which floweth
contrary way, and flowingthrough desert placed and
Lake, whither
under the Earth, cometh
to the Acherusian
the

Souls

of

the

most

part of the

dead

do

river

part whence

issues

forth

betwixt

these, and,

it issues forth, falleth into

the

having
longer,some
and

come,

sojourned there certain appointed times, some


in the
shorter, are again led forth to be born
third

also

near

flesh.
unto

The
the

great place burning

Ka\

Be

ir7)\ov' evrevffev

Kol

kvk\"p do\epo";koX

xmpet

(uftiKveirai
^fifi,iov
\ifiv7}";,
Tfj"s A')(epovai,dho";

Se [ry yrj] aXXotre


TTijXwS?;?,
irepieXiTTo/jievoi:

Kal

Se itoXXukk
irepieXi'^del^
8'
rov
Taprdpov. ovro";

vSarf

T^

re

'

Trap' effj^ara

rfvvfievov

^eovaav
fieit^mt^? irap" rffitv6a\dTrr)"},

Tufivriviroiel

vSaroi

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

90

viro

yTJ"s

ea-rlv ov
ifi^aXXei Karanepo)
ol
koX
airoeTTovofid^ovaiJlvpi^XeyeOovra,ov
pvaKef
Be
av
(Tirda-fjMTa
oirrj
dva^v(rS"cnv,
rv^iocri, t^? 7^?. rovrov
i/cTrivTeiet? tottov
irp"rov Seivov
av
KaravTiKpi)6 Terapra
olov o
Kal
re
dypiov,a""; Xiyerai, j(p"/J.aBe e^ovra oXov
Srvyiov, Kal Ttjv XCfJ.vr]v,
rjv
Bt) e-irovofid^ovat
ov
Kvavoi,
6
S'
6 Trorafioi
evravoa
ifiirea-av
ifi^dXXav, ^rvya.
TTOiei
Kal Beiva'i Bvvd/ieK Xa^iov iv rm
vBari, Bv"i Kara
tt)? 7^?,

ei"avrio";

TrepieXiTTo/ievoi'Xcopei

rm

Xifivrj
i^
'A'^epovo'idBi

diravTO, iv ry

HvpKpXeyedovTi Kal
ivavTia";' Kal

ovBe

to

Kal
kvkXo)
outo?
vBcop ovBevl fiiyvvrai,dXXa
tov
Tdprapov evavrito"s rm
irepieXOoivifi^dXXei ew
ol "n-oiijTai
Be
icTTLV, a)?
rovrea
'n.vpi,"j"Xeye0ovTf
ovofia
TovTOv

Xiyovcri,Kw/curo?.
Be

TovTcov

TeTeXevri]Kore^

01
ire^VKOTcav,eireiBav di^uKoyvTai,
ol 0 BaificoveKacrTOv
Kop,i^ei,
tottov,

ovra
tov

ets

irpStTov/jLev BieBtKOffavTO o'i re


Kal

ol

eTrl
7ropevffevTe"}

tov

ia-Tiv, iirl
6y(i]fMiTd
Kal

iKei

oLKOvtyi

BtBovre^

St"a9

Kal

otrieo";
^icoaavTet

o'i

Kal

fii].

KaXai

re

So^qxti,fie(Ta""! ^e^itoKevai,
pAv av
Aj^epovTa,dva^dvTe"i a Brj airroK
tovtcov
dtpiKVovvraieh ttjv Xi/iv7)v,
Kal
tSsv
dSiKTj/idTcov
Te
KaOatpofievot

t"v
Te
"^BvKTjKe,
ot
B
eiiepyeaiaiv
rrjv d^iav eKaaro^'
Tifia"; tpepovTai Kara
r"v
Bo^eoaivdvidrco";e')(eiv Bia ra /leyedr)
av
dfiaprrjfidroDV
Kal
TToXXa?
fj lepoavXia"!
fieydXai;"^ (jjovovsdBiKOVi Kal
ttoXXov'}

irapavofiovi

Tuy^dvei ovra,
TOV

d-TroXvovTai, e'i

Tt

i^eipyaerfievoi,
rj SXKa
Be

rovrov^

Tdprapov, oOev

Tt?

ovvore

oaa

roiavra

ew
fiolpa pitrret
eK^alvovaiv, o'i S' av
Idaifia

17

irpoarjKovaa

olov wpo's
fjbeydXaBe Bo^atriv'^fiaprrjKevai
dp,aprijpMra,
vir
Kai,
rj p/qrepa
opyri"}0iatov ri
irpd^avre'i,
rrarepa
aXXov
^iov ^imaiv, rj dvBpo^ovoi
rov
p"erafie\ov avroK,

fiev,

114

roiovrm

rivl

fikv el"s rov


evtavrov

eKel

aXXm

rporro)

yevtovrai,

Be

tovtov;

Tdprapov dvdr/Kt},
e/jLirea-ovrai}
yevop,evov";

iK^dXXei

to

Be

kv/jm,

ejj/ireo'et

avTov"i
tow?

xal
p^ev

THE
with

much

fire,and

at last unto

not

with

the

Earth

This

it

is the

and

mud

muddy,

which

greater

than

it fetcheth

of the Acherusian
Then

they

Sea,

our
a

compass,
the Earth,

winding 'round

and

Lake, mixing

after many
windings under
lower
a
part of Tartarus.

itself into

poureth

91

thence

thereof.

river

lake

the coasts

the water

MYTH

maketh

seethingwith water
and going thick and
Cometh

PHAEBO

Pyriphlegethon,whereof
also the fieryfloods which
boil up
in divers places of the
Earth
derivations.
Over
the
fourth river
are
against him
issues forth, first into a fearful savage
place,they tell,which
hath wholly the colour of blue steel ; and
they call it the
his
with
Stygian place,and the Lake which the river maketh
flood they call Styx ; whereinto
this river fallingconceiveth
mighty virtues in his water, and afterward sinketh under the
Earth, and windeth
round, going contrary to Pyriphlegethon,
and

Cometh

neither
round

the

to

doth

Acherusian

his water

about, and
The

Lake

the

of

but

any;
Tartarus

into

name

from

with

mix

falleth

name

this

contrary side

also

he

goeth
against Pyriphlegetho

over

river, the

poets tell, is

Cocytus.
his
place whither
Familiar
bringeth each, first are they judged,and according
as
righteously,
they have lived righteous and godly lives, or lived unThereafter
all those who
are
are
they divided.
lived indifferently
well journey unto
deemed
to have
Acheron,
and go on board the vessels which
are
prepared for them, and
and
the Lake;
to
so
come
abiding there, get themselves
cleansed, and
paying the price of their evil deeds, are
acquittedfrom the guilt thereof; and for their good deeds
"

When

the

are

the reward

receive each
incurable

dead

by

temples,and those who


or
wrought other
appointed Angel doth
come

not

out

sins
entreated

at

all :

great but

father

or

the

is meet.

that

whoso

But

oftentimes

have

iniquitiesthat
cast

and

into
whoso

and

are

are

have

deemed

great, them

in wrath

thence

have

been

there

one

year,

the

surge

casts

them

mitted
com-

violently

repented them

days of their lives thereafter,or who in like


manslayers,they must needs fall into Tartarus, but

the

they

have

to

of

fully,
unlaw-

blood

Tartarus, and

curable, who

mother

shed

all the

have

deemed

are

greatness of their sins,robbers

of the

reason

unto

come

thereof

manner

when

are

they

forth, the

92

THE

avSpotjjovovi

Kara

fi7)rpaXoia"!
vot

Kal

T"

eK^rjvai

et?

"49

Kai

TavTa

ireLtTtocriv

TO

T"v

ev

oaiasi;

Tjj

iirl

t^?

Be

iKavAi!

Ka07)pdp"voi,

et?

eireiTa

TOV

a"f"iKvovvTai,
iv

To3

peTaaj(elv

a?

re

eh

Bo^coai,

av

TmvBe

t"v

BiaipepovTO)^
t"v

p,ev

tottcdv

"a*irep

oticijaiv
Be

d"jii,Kvovp.evoi
ol

avT"v

^"en

crmpATWV
olKrjaei';

eTt

ovTe

(piXocroipia
irapdvav

to

KoXXiovi;

TOVTav

Ixavb^

j(povo^

"

B^

TOVTiov

irav

av

vtto

airaWaTTop^voi

Kadapav

Brjk"aai,

paBiov

irpiv

Bikt)

rj

ol

tovtcov

Kal

ovTe

Br)

Ka\

re

dvev

"^povov,

Be

iroTap.ov'i,

tov?

iravovTai,

yap

elauv

Tr)v

et?

eit

^epovrai

p-r),

irapovTi,

AWa

2tippia,

oi

olxi^op^voi,

yrj^

iraXiv

Be

a^a^

"TreKTtuxnv,

fiev

el

KaK"v,

avTrj

eKevOepovp^voL
ava

iav

Koi

ot?

Be

iatrai

Beovrai,

irpoTepov

ovroC

^t"vai,

yfj

SeapiOTTipuuv,
leai

oi

eTci'^drj.

avToti

koX

KuKeiOev

rjBiKtjaav

oC)?

BiKaffT"v
irpo"i

t"v

wdayovTe^

"f"epofie-

aireKTeivav,

Be^aadai,

icaX

TdpTapov

TOV

Kav

ivravOa

'Aj(epovaidSa,

rrjv

oii";

/lev

Xi^yovcn

ical

re

hk

eireihav

iicerevovai,

XifiVTjv

irarpaXoiav

ol

oi
B'

ttjv

eK^aivovai

XifiVTjv

KaXovaiv,

KoXiaavre^

ij^piaav,

avdi"s

rijv

Kara

Se

tou?

UvpupXeyedovra-

tov

yevosvTai,

fio"ffi

K.q)kvt6v,

tov

Kara

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

dpeTr]";

maTe

voieiv,

KaXbv

evexa

yap

to

a"Xov

^(^pr]

koI
Kal

mv

BieXrjXvdapev,

(f"pov^aea"^
fj eXirX";

ev

peydXtj.

to*

"

j8t"i"

94

MYTHS

THE

Observations

OF

on

PLATO

Myth

Pbaedo

the

noting that Plato here, as elsewhere,


Myth by making it explain facts, or
I
1 what he accepts as facts,and bringing it,as far as possible,
Linto conformity with the modern science
of his day. The
{7actof the Earth's rotundityhad alreadybeen ascertained
'
or
guessed in Plato's day ; ^ and Ihe geographyof the Myth
is made
consistent with this fact,as well as with the supposed
fact
of the
Earth's
central position in the Cosmos
a
positionwhich it retains for a sufficient reason, which Plato
The Phaedo
sets forth
scientifically."
Myth, startingwith
of the Earth's
the
scientific truths
rotundity and central
it easy
position,gives a consistent geography,which makes
for the reader to localise the
and Tartarus,
Earthly Paradise
real places continuous
with
the part of the world which
as
inhabit.
men
Geography is treated in this Myth, as ancient
cally
romantihistorymay, or must, be treated accordingto Plato
: the
true to facts ;
general scheme is,as far as possible,
but blanks
filled in by fivdoXoyia.^The
line betvifeen
are
uncritical
science
and /MvdoXoytais difficult to draw, and

We

begin by
may
givesverisimilitude to

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

''

"

"

"

"

"

"

Plato
than

knows
that

how

to 'turn

the

to artistic,
and
difficulty

more

A sophistic
of the difficulty
use.
philosophic
use
he happily has no
temptation to make, because he holds no
brief obliginghim
for a largeamoimt
to contend
of literal
in
the
traditional
truth
myths which he borrows.
itself to the
Again, the Phaedo Myth recommends
tific
scienmind
the originof hot and cold springs,
by explaining
to

"

"

"

volcanic

action, winds, and, I think, the

Ocean.

The

'
^

too, that
suggestion,

See Zeller's Plato, Rugl. Transl.


See Jtepiiblic,
382 D, khI iv als

gems

tides of the Atlantic


"

objectswhich

have

pp. 379, 380.

Sij iXiyofievrais /iveoKoyiats,


SiA ri nil
TraKiuSiv,
itpoiioioSnTe!
^eCSos in
rifi iXriSeito
Kal iiiXa, J S' 8s. Cf. Legg. 682 ff.,
where
the
as
earlyhistoryof mankind
a myth, founded
on
fact,but embellished"
appears
/car' d^Beiav yiyyoixhuiv ^iv run
TToXXui'
Tu"i"
lal Moi)(rois ^^dTrrrroi
xi^P^t^t
vvy

dSivai

Sir-nT"krfBh (x^i irepltuiv


ItAXiara oIItu xpiio-i/toK
iroiovixev ;

exdurToTc ; and

cf.

Campbell'sPolUicus,Introd.

p. xxxi.

THE

always

PHAEDO

MYTH

95

been

regarded with wonder, as possessingmysterious


virtues
are
fragments which have found their way down to
this part of the world from the rocks of ^e
dise,"
Earthly Parais a touch of fine imaginationwhich
helps to bring the
two
dise
regions our part of the world and the
Earthly Parainto physical connection.^ Tartarus
and
the True
Surface
of the Earth, or Earthly Paradise, are
indeed
real
there are
real approaches for the
places to which
ghostly
travellers from
this olKov/iivrj.The
half
playful,
care,
half earnest, which
Plato
takes to prove
this scientifically
from
effects
observed
volcanoes,tides,precious stones
has
its parallelin the
and
other great
method of Dante
of
of Myth.
Skilful use
modern
masters
science
is indeed
Before
of the marks
of the great master.
one
referringto
for this,let me
first compare
Dante
Plato's delicate handling of
in the Phaedo
science
tainly
Myth with the work of one who is cerof Myth
the Cambridge Platonist,
not
a
great master
"r. Henry More ; but let me
with
few
a
prefacehis
Myth
science
which
words explanatoryof the
foundation
serves
as
to his
mythology."
The
Spiritof Nature, according to More and his school,
is an
incorporealsubstance, without sense, diffused through
the
whole
universe, exercising plastic power,
producing
be explained mechanically.^
those phenomena
which
cannot
This
plastic principle in nature
explains "sympathetic
bodies
astral
borrows
cures," the
(the phrase More
of witches, in which
from
the Paracelsians)
they appear as
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

hares, cats, weasels

(so

that

hare

or

other

to

be

animal

is

More
similarlywounded
firm
believer
in all that, and could give
scientific
a
was
the growth of plants and
for his belief),
reasons
embryos, and
instinct
of
the instincts of animals, such as the nest-building
The
Soul
birds, the cocoon-spinninginstinct of silk-worms.^
and by means
of it
of man
partakesin this plasticprinciple,
for herself a body terrestrial,
constructs
aerial, or aethereal
celestial),
(i.e.
accordingas the stage of her development has

wounded, the witch

is found

if the

"

"

"

'

Cf. Conv.

iv. 20, p. 323, Oxf. Dante


:
quale in noi slmilmente discende da somma
pietrada corpo nobllissimo celestiale.

la

More's

"'

More,

Immortality of the Soul, book


o.c.

ili. 13.

"

cosi
e

difinita

^uestanostra

come
Virtii,
spirituale

iii.eh. 12.

Bonta,

virtute in

96

Soul

As

"

aether.

the

is

that

earth,air,

of

part
see,"he says,^that the perceptive
"

we

vitallyaffected

has

which

that

with

that

there

be
may
modified,and that

of

life in it,

no

be

plastickpart thereof may


an
Harmony betwixt matter thus
that we call plastickthat
Power

it is reasonable

so

the vehicle

her into vital relation with

brought
or

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

the

too ;

so

and
is

thus

utterly

perception. And in this alone consists that which


either to be
call Vital Congruity in the prepared matter
we
mal."
organisedor alreadyshaped into the perfectform of an Ani^
axiome
that
there
He then lays it down
an
as
is a Triple Vital Congruity in the Soul, namely, Aethereal,
this is the
Aerial, and Terrestrial" ; and proceeds: "That
common
opinion of the Platonists, I have above intimated
(Immortality of the Soul, ii. 14). That this opinion is also
in itself,appears
Of the
from
the foregoing axiome.
true
be no
doubt ; and as little can
Terrestrial Congruity there can
of the other two is to be granted,
there be but that at least one
devoid

of all

"

"

else the

Soul
after

matter

would
Death.
with

least,to unite

be

released

Wherefore
Aire.

from
she

has

Aire

But

all vital

is

a
a

"

union

vital

with

at
aptitude,
receptacle

common

and

of bad

is of all sorts of men


good spirits(as the Harth
and beasts),
sort
nay, indeed, rather of those that are in some
other
bad, than of good,as it is upon Earth.
But the Soul
or
is capableof very high refinements,
of man
to a condition
even
whence
Eeason
will judge it fit,
and all Antiquity
purely angelical,
voted

has
a

due

pitch

of

it, that

the

souls

of

men

arrived

to

at

last

obtain

Celestial

purificationmust

such

vehicles."
The
vehicle

"

of
Soul, by means
earth, air, or aether

having been
body,

first habituated

her
to

"

to the

plasticpower,

moidds

the

she pleases;but
any form
human
trial
shape in the terres-

she

the aerial and


celestial
naturally moulds
vehicles to the same
shape. This is why ghosts (in whom
is a firm believer),^
More
being the Souls of the departed in
their aerial bodies,are easily
recognisedby their features,when
'

=
More, o.e. ii. 14.
More, o.c. iii. 28.
See Immortality of the Soul, ii. 16, for the wonderfully-weU-told
story of
Marsilius
Ficinus
appearing (by arrangement) on the day of his death to his
3

friend

Michael

Meroatus.

horse, saying, "Michael,


and
finds
window.

that

Marsilius

He

rides

Michael,vera
died

the

up
sunt
same

Michael's window
ilia." Michael sends

to

hour

his

on

to

white

Florence,

ghost appeared

at

the

THE

they

return

the

to

PHAEDO
of

scenes

MYTH

97

terrestrial life.^

their

Now, it

the effect of the Final Destruction


may be asked what
World
by Fire at the Last Day will be on the human
which

then

souls and

have

still only terrestrial bodies,and

of the
souls

the human

on

souls of Daemons

(or Angels) which have still only


aerial bodies.
These bodies,unless saved by a miracle, will be
burnt up, and their souls,having no vehicles,
will cease
to live
the life of active consciousness.^ Therefore,More argues,^
using
Stoical terms, an
and
o/iroKaTaaTao'i.'i
afterthe
iraXi/yyeveaia
avdaTacn"; and
soul whose

body
iraXiyyevealawould
different being.
a
had

and

to

means

Angels)
'

eKTrvpoia-i,'}would

been

rescue

the

the

time

at

Of. More's

burnt

souls
of

not

of

the

Poems,
Philosophical

their

meet

would

have

case

ceased

; for

to be

scious,
con-

sciousness
only bring it back to conIt wiU
require supernatural
and Daemons
men
good
(or

Final

p. 260

or
Conflagration,

(ed.1647) :

even

"

shape they walk much like to what they bore


Upon the Earth : for that lightOrb of Air
Which
they inact must yielden evermore
In

To

Phausie's beck,

To

their

So cloath'd and
The
Their

Of him

SimilarlyDante
Purgatory :

inward

when

so

selves alive

own

eyes

as

conversant
of Phansie

the Souls appear


once

they were,
a place,

in such

thither stear

glidingvehicle,that bears the face


that llv'd,that men
reade what
may
{Pwg.

Wight

it

was.

91-99) explainsthe aerial bodies of the sonls in

xxv.

"

quand' k ben piorno,


raggio che in s4 si riflette,
Di diversi color diventa
adomo,
Cosi r aer vicin quivi si mette
In quellaforma
che in lui suggella

1' aer,

come

Per

r altrui

Virtualmente

V alma

che ristette

poi alia fiammella


simigliante
Che

segue il foco li
alio spirtosua

Segue

'vunque si muta,
forma

novella.

See also More's Irrvmortality


of the Soul, iii. 1, " 8, p. 149, where it is stated
that the Soul, although she has a marvellous
power, by the "imperium of her will,
of changing the temper and shape of her aerial vehicle,and of solidifying
it so
her
that It reflects lightand becomes
visible,she has a much gi-eater
power over
of her
temper the solidity
to ascend
descend, and
or
"
"
looks forward
More
vortex
to another.
(Defence of the Moral
pass from one
oh.
ii.
Cabbala,
as the time
when, instead of occasional
p. 165) to the Millennium
communications
between
and aethereally
souls terrestrially
embodied, there will
aethereal vehicle.
The aethereally
embodied
soul
vehicle (see Immortality of the Soul, p. 233), so

be close and
2

"The

nature

actuating Body."

or

as

intercourse.

constant

very

can

"

it is a Soul, is an aptitudeof_
informing
as
Cabbala, ch. ii. p. 167,
Defence of the Moral

of the Soul,
More's

ed. 1662.
^

More, Im/mortality
of the Soul, iii.18.
H

before

spots recentlydiscovered by

his

by

of

miracle,survive such heat

Shiner

one

place.

takes

"

tion
the interven-

such cold.

or

^presaged

"

it is

But

only

agencies
affected by

that such destructive

universe

the

part of

in this lower

sun

could,without

aerial bodies

terrestrialnor

Neither

the

of

extinction

the

time, when

that

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

98

operate. The aethereal region will not be


reached
the stage of aethereal
have
them; and souls which
can

for the

So much
to the

the Bad
made

up

of Salt at

the

moulded

conceive

well

as

up
whether

form

and

it be done

by

Vehicles,

own

of

virtue

in is

than

Aire

compleatingin

wishes, but
capableof,which

some

humidities

that

they change into these


they have given them

forms

mere

in

moment,
such

that

no

storm

tempest

nor

be

it were, the full


the Element
as

of most

Orchards

ous

ponderosity

upper

engage
design of

they

are

parts of the Aire


the transparency of

colours

we

see

it is in

quiettill the heat

never

vitrified the
it will

fruits and

Earth

then

be
"

'into
very

part of the
put to no such

that
be

the

as

Regions,that
send
silently

delectable

lustre,as
particular

Ghymislsare

can

reach, need

the

to

and

inhabit

able in them

as

the Spirit
ofNature,may
Universe,
and

that

activity,and

her

SuperiourDaemons, which

may
the tranquillity
of those

and

of these
priviledge
to pierce
Imagination,

keen

as

such

of

the

be

matter

touch

small

some

such

is this crude
Aire ; whence
and vaporous
be very dilute and
a
nd
rather
a
flashie,
mockery
solid satisfaction and pleasure.

shifts,though they

in

must

any
But
those

shape

the
forbidding

power

the

first dabled

design,which

own

their food

that

hard to
is very
of Imagination

Viands, and then withdraw, when


with
a
colour,and consistency,
figure,
it
or
a
tincture; or whether
sapour
Aereal Creatures,
by a sharp Desire and
the Spiritof Nature, so as to awaken
her to the

them

dissolvingof

it
consistency,

of

their

"

all aqueous
hinderingtheir congelation.But how Aire

the fittest for their

are

their

from

Feasts,as

having a

into that

their

upon

giveplausibility

it

emptiness of

and

faintness

those

at

it

them,

substances,as
is

to

well caU

may

we

serves

whence
is to give a rational account
greatest difficulty
Genii have their food,in their execrable Feasts,so formally
of it is a vaporous Aire,
That
the materials
into dishes.

well from
as
appears
have been entertained
use

as

which

"

science

"

followingMyth,

The

unharmed.

will remain

celestial embodiment

or

other.

For

of the

Promus-Condus
forth whole

flowers

of

they grow
these

an

Gardens

equilibri-

in, to

Plants

precious stones.

in

whose

adde
may
the
And

of their

Fancy have calcined


crystalline
conceiting
pellucidity,

fine

thing indeed, and

More, Immortality of the Soul, iii. 19.

all that

then

THE

in

of it

out

grows

which

perfect
higherRegions of the
a

more

of this

offend

distinction

with

that

of such

they

if,for

the

with

Birds

and

of whose

accents

Fruits

whose

as

in th

will arise from


will recreate

natural

th
the;

juicewill vi

and

find

the

Quintessences. For such ce:


blood
of the Grape, the rubi(

Nectarines.

look

the

less like

Beasts

voices

ing of their notes


kindly to bring us

is discovered

of

compleatingof

tations,that they may


meet

thei

trace the very Roots


c
may
with their eyes, and
if it ma
Earth
through it,bounding the;

Extractions
there

Cherries,and

And

under

they

brightnessthat
Water; and if they

and

their noblest

coloured

Soifethen

very

faint

difference

taste

tainly will

the

opake
splendour as

white

of Land

palats,may

which

this

see

such

with

For

SuperiourParadise

them,

sightwith
Moon,

Aire.

spectacle
they may haply enjo
into thos
they are admitted

whenever

transparent,in

the Trees

MYTH

desirable

manner

shall be

not

PHAEDO

silent and

of curious

are

very
perfectmusical

pleasantnessof

hab

dead

the
solitude,
colours,the sing]
Ear, and the varj

shapesand
the

to
grateful

these

harmony ; they would doe ver


back of the certainty
of these things,
an
make
this more
than a Philosophical
Conjecture.
But
that
there
Food
be
and
Feastingin those hight
may
Aereal
Regions,is less doubted
by the Platonists;which mak(
Maximus
call
the
when
she has left the body, dpiiifi
Tyrius
Soul,
aWepiov; and the above-cited Oracle of Apollodescribes the Felicit
of that Chorus

togetherwith

word

of immortal

Lovers

the blessed

Genii

ocroil

that the Nectar

fable.

For
of

ment

such

the

God,
and

feastin

"

Keap

Ambrosia

Spiritof Natwe,

may

liquors,as

Daemons,

and

there,from

iv

OaXiycTLV

laivcTai.
ev(f"pO(rvvria-iv

aiev

So

he mentions

enrich

being

of the Poets

be
not
may
is the immediate

which

the fruits of these

received

into

the

it self
diffusing

Aereal

bodies

Paradises
of

mei

Instn

these

wit
pun

their

more

Vehicles,may cans
through
gratefulmotions
analogicalto our tast,and excite such
than ordinaryquicknessin their minds, and benign chearfu

ness,

that

such

it may

far transcend

the

most

delicate Refection

the

Earth ;
invent
greatest Epicures could ever
upon
without
with
all satiety,
them
burdensomeness, it filling
Devotion.^
but Divine
and
Love, Joy,
It

is very

the

to

difficult to

production of

disentanglethe

passage

like

this.

motives
We

and

tha
tha

nothin

which
should

g
sa

Tl
Immortality of the Soul, iii. 9, pp. 183, 184, ed. 1662.
Stoic mythology (
of More's
to the Platonic, and
"Myth"
For furthi
and human
tA ireplyrjv inhabited by Saifioves
souls, is obvious.
reference to that mythology see infra, pp. 437 ff.
1

More's

indebtedness

100

THE

without

hesitation

discourse
his

with

science

"

MYTHS

that

and

was,

writer

the
if

myth,

"

PLATO

OF

did

we

to

know

how

not

credulous

how

adorn

wished

he

in

was

his

uncritical

as
accepting,

described.
literally
true,thingsquiteas visionaryas those
In his Antidote againstAtheism
how
he shows
thoroughlyhe
believes current
stories about
the doings of witches and ghosts
Book
iii.chap.vii. of that work, for the story of
(seeespecially
Anne
Bodenham, a witch, who suffered at Salisburyin 1653),
here

and

how

valuable

holds

he

the

immortality of
FhilosophickalPoems

the

these stories to

Soul; indeed,

he

goes the
that stories of witchcraft and

wish

recorded

in every

parish,"for

of the best
prove one
disease of Sadducisme

Cudworth

Cudworth
and

dwells

and

the

not, like

while

credulity seemed
which

his age.
There

is

continued

course

that

on

makes

just one

be

believer in

for demoniacal

afforded

would

on

feel that

one

the

the
to

the

apparitions,
possession,

himself
in

was

I should
"

facts,as

More.

stories ; ^
occasion
when

an

present:

make

explanationafforded by

he

as

modern

by

required,^
expresses

general remark

of

credulous

so

preached

sermon

to

substantiation

not

cautious

taking leave of More for


scientific explanationis apt
scientific

"

"that

are

in

the

his

length of expressing the


publicly
apparitions were

Scriptureevidence

More,
in

Smith,

manner

Smith

be said to be

on

to

antidotes

and

may

Preface

the

for

evidence

as

against that earthlyand cold


and Atheisme
which
easilygrow
may
the
hazard
of all Eeligion and
prevented,to
of Philosophy." It is to be noted, however,

us, if not
upon
the best kinds

that

in

be

men

facts.

in

advance

of

like to make

That

of
facility

indifferent about
The

facilityof
hypothesisof plastick
"

it more
power" doubtless made
and
other
easy for More
Platonists
to
Cambridge
accept as sufficient the evidence
forthcoming for the actual appearance of ghosts and Daemons.
Facilityof scientific explanationis a danger which we have to
be on our
guard againstat the present day too.
the Phaedo
Myth is,indeed, moral and
Y^ The true_filyect^of
'

Intellectual

Discourse

System, vol. ii. p. 640 (ed. Mosheim).


10, 0/ a Christian's Conflictswith and Conquests over
Satan,
"delivered
in publickat Huntingdon, where one
of Queen's College,
in every
25, preached a Sermon againstWitchcraft,Diabolical Contracts,
year on March
etc." ;

see

Worthington'sPreface

to Smith's

Select Discourses.

MYTHS

THE

102

element

of

fire

aether, Dante

or

top of
rises up
The
owes

momitain

Earthly Paradise
of Purgatory

Mount

own

the

on

^which

"

Myth

Phaedo

the

and

Olympus;

at least its altitude

from

the

the

probably
Earthly

Commedia

of the Divina

belief and

of medieval

of fire.

of
"Earthly Paradise"
good deal to the Homeric

derived

have

his

"

into the element

Paradise

also, in agreement with

belief,places the

medieval

common

PLATO

OF

may
But

source.

same

bored right through the Earth,


of Tartarus
as
description
unique in Greek mythology,in no way countenanced by Virgil,
modelled
which is so largely
and yet reappearingin the Inferno,
this is surelya strange
the Sixth Book
of the Aeneid
on
The
Timaeus
coincidence.
(in the version of Chalcidius)was,
knew
Dante
of Plato which
it would
the only work
appear,
the

"

There
directly.-'

be
the

Latin

is

no

evidence

regardedas

evidence

version

the

of

century.^It

"

Phaedo

whatever
that

he

unless

"

acquaintedwith

was

which

this coincidence

was

made

the

in

however, but I hardly think


possible,
likely,that the passage in the Meteorologica(ii.2, 355 b,
in which
the Phaedo
of Tartarus is referred
3 2 ff.),
description
the idea of an
to, may have given Dante
antipodalexit from
Hell ; although it is to be noted that Aristotle,in criticising
the hydrostatics
of the Phaedo
Myth, curiouslyenough omits
Plato's emphatic hia^Treph
to quote, or paraphrase,
TeTprjfiivov;
does not make
and S. Thomas
mentary
good the omission in his comtwelfth

the

on

Aristotelian

readingthe

one

any
the

Phaedo,

is

I do not
passage.
Aristotelian passage, without

think

that

having

read

would

easilygather that the Tartarus of the


Phaedo
is bored
is
Aristotle
right through the Earth.
concerned
to show
that the theory of a central
almpa, or
oscillation,
gives a wrong explanationof the origin of seas
and rivers ; and, more
of
suo, he is careless in his description
the theory to which
he objects. Although the hydrostatics
of the Quaestio de Aqua et Terra^
with
agree in the main
'

See

Moore's

Dictionary,
"

s.v.

Studies

in

Dante, first series,p. 156, and

Toynbee'sDante

"Platone."

See Rashdall's

Universities of Europe in the Middle


Ages, i. 37, ii. 744,
Henrious Aristippus
PhilologischeStudien zu Plato, pp. 33, 34.
There
is a
(Archdeacon of Catania) translated the Phaedo and Meno in 1156.

and

Immisch,
of his

MS.
1423
'

see

With

in

translation

Corpus

Christi

College,Oxford

(243),written

in

Coxe, ii. 100.

regard to

Dante, second

the

of
authenticity

series,pp. 303 ff.

this

treatise

see

Moore's

Studies

in

THE

of

PHAEBO

MYTH

103

the Inferno is not


influenced
Meteorologica,
by the Meteorologica. The Inferno follows the traditional
risers, and, indeed,
mythology in supposing subterranean
of these rivers given in the Phaedo,
agrees with the account
to the extent, at least,of regarding them
as
forming a single
those

the

system

of

surface

of

view

the

Earth.

Brunetto

by

Plato

as

way
the

connected

waters

somehow

Dante

with

have

may

been

Latini, who

does, of

Earth, like blood

waters

speaks,very
in
waters
circulating
through the veins

helped

channels
of

the

this

to

in the

much

the

on

same

through
body, and

the Poet
these
how
uses
coming out in springs.^But mark
mere
hydrostatics how his genius transforms the physical
the livingworld
relation between
and Tartarus
into a moral
"

is the tears of this world

relation !

It

of Dante's

Hell.^

Let
Hell

me

with

close this passage


the remark
that an

the Mount

of

Purgatory,is
If

of the Commedia.
from
indirectly

or

such

the

that flow in the rivers

Plato's

on

and

Tartarus

antipodalexit

from

Dante's

Hell,

near

necessary to the movement


derived directly
exit
whether

almost
an

Phaedo,

"

from

obtained

or

some

other

Dante's
mythological
already exist among
have
been obligedto invent it,and
data,he would practically
offer some
explanationof it,such as that which he actually
the Fall of Lucifer (Inf.xxxiv.).
offers
Plato's "True
Now
to pass
to the parallelbetween
on
and Dante's
Surface
of the Earth
Earthly Paradise on the
of PurgaDante's Mount
of Purgatory :
tory
top of the Mount
source

"

did

not

"

"

"

It is an
island,
a
definitely
part of this Earth.
which
of the ocean
antipodal to Jerusalem, in the middle
the southern
covers
hemisphere. This island rises up, in a
series of circular terraces, into one
loftyheight on which is
first parents
situated
the
our
Earthly Paradise, where
been
have
the souls which
purifiedby
created, where
were
is

"

"

"

Schmidt,
Aqua et
Inferno,xiv.

See

I. Tail, de
*

in the
is

ilher Dantes
Terra

Stellung in
(1876), p. 7.

der

Geschichte

der

Kosmographie,

Dante
probably profited
by the crade fancy of predecessors
of the contents of the infernal rivers ; see Gary on Inf. xii. It
worth
noticinghere that Dante's River of Blood (/"/" xii.) has its

matter

perhaps

in
parallel

the Scottish
It

was

And

mirk

ballad
mirk

they waded

of Thomas

the

Rhymer

there was
night
through red bluid to
and

nae

"

stem-light,

the knee

a' the bluid that's shed on earth


Elf-land).
Rina through the springs o' that oountrie (i.e.
For

during their ascent


together,before they drink the

penance

the

twin

Mount

the

of

Eunofe,

and

translated into the

are

Purgatory is

That

Paradise.

gathered

are

of Lethe

waters

of this Paradise, and

streams

Heavenly

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

104

real

the

place,on

globe,which an adventuroiis voyager from our


is suggested
hemisphere might possiblyreach vrjifieXaivrj,
xxvi., where
in the Inferno, Canto
consummate
art
with
surface

of this

left and
and

Seville

south

on

the

over

"

through

months, till the

for five

ocean

Ceuta

with

last voyage
how,
he sailed out
his right,

his

Ulysses describes

the Straits,
of the

stars

hemisphere sank beneath the horizon, and


appeared in the sky, and he sighted

northern

stars

new

methought,
dim, loftiest,

Mountain

his

on

Of all I e'er beheld i"

and

the storm

then

Dante's

of

Mount

him.

overwhelmed

which

burst

that

for

Purgatory
"

land

the

was

loftymountain
dise;
belief placed the Earthly Paramedieval
the top of which
on
agination
imbut Dante
apparently drew entirelyon his own
its slopes.^This
when
he localised Purgatory on
of the Earthly Paradise
Mountain
rises, according to the
*
i.e. its upper
medieval
belief,as high as the Lunar Sphere
the

is identical with

Ulysses sighted

which

"

"

parts

above

are

of

Surface

the

the air,in the aether


Earth.

Earthly Paradise
further

remarks

in it ;

also,that

will not

he

that

Enoch

fire,like Plato's True

explains,the

S. Thomas

as

reached

not

was

by

and

flood.* S. Thomas

the

Elias

are

said

be

to

now

circvlo ; but
aeqwinoctiali
only expressinghis
position,

it is said to be sub

vouch

for its exact

^
The Arabians,
temperate clime."
geographicaltreatises,and epitomes of the Greek

belief that it must


whose

geographers,Dante
^

Gary'stranslation.

See
I

be in

knew

"

in

Latin

versions,"
spoke

of

great

Soartazzini (Companion to Dante, Bntler's


far

so

may,

Hence,

or

as

form

think,have

climbed

see

Transl. p. 419).
tory,
"PurgaIt
positiongo, is a creation quiteof the poet'sown."
the
hill
of
virtue
which
Stoics
to
the
relationship
steep
and

Lucian, Vera

"

"

Hist. ii. 18

"

no

Stoics

were

to be

seen

in

Island, because they were


climbing this hill: t"v Si ^tuikuv
tpdiov\i(j"ov.
Trapfjv In 7ctp iXiyovTO iva^alveiv Ti"v rrji "peT'ils
' See S. Thom.
Aqui. Summa, i. 102, 2.
*
Of. Schmidt, Cosmographiedes Dante, p. 23.
'

Summa,

'

See

i. 102, 2.
Lelewel, Eistoire de la GiograpMe, i. Ixxxv., and
Dictionary, arts. "Alfergano" and "Tolommeo^."

the

tunate
ForoiSdi

Toynbee's Dante

THE
mountain

in

the

Albertus/ and
India.^

The

Christian
is

PHAEBO

far south.

Mons

that

Schoolmen

Mons

by Eoger Bacon,
this

with

105

It is called

Malcus

view

MYTH

the

mountain,
seat

of the

Caldicus

by

who

placesit in
identified by the
Earthly Paradise,

island

in the middle
of the
antipodal to Jerusalem
Southern
Ocean
due entirely,
it would
{Purg. iv. 70), was
scientific imagination or "-mythopoeic
seem,'to Dante's own
faculty." According to the doctrine of Orosius, generally
accepted in Dante's time, there is no land at all in the
southern
land, its inhabitants
hemisphere. If there were
would be cut off from those of the orlis notus
the unity and
continuityof the human
race,
postulatedby the command,
Go ye into all the world
and preach the gospel to every
an

"

"

"

"

creature,"would

Empire (and

exist.

not

The

ideal of

Church

one

and

one

Aristotelian

Philosophy,as Dante adds in


the Conmvio, iv. 6) requiresthe geographicalcondition of one
continuous
Dante's
oiKov/jievri.*
antipodal island, however,
being peopled only by the souls of the departed,is in no way
inconsistent
with
the teleological
geography of Orosius
one

"

indeed,is made, with


the

which

cause

art, to corroborate

consummate

produced

the

island
solitary

of

it;

for

Purgatory in

'

Meteor, ii. 2. 7. Cf. Schmidt, Oosm. d. Dante, p. 23.


Op. Maj. pp. 192, 195, ed. princ.Jebb, London.
'
See Scartazzini's Companion to Dante, p. 419, Butler's Eng. Transl.
It is,
however, an island in the Exeter Book (an Anthology of Anglo-Saxon Poetry
given to the Library of Exeter Cathedral by Leofric, first Bishop of Exeter,
1050-1071): see Exeter Book, edited by Israel Gollancz for the Early English
Text Society,1895, poem
the " Phoenix,"pp. 200 ff.: " The Earthly Paradise
on
in
is
it is all plain
eastern
is an island.
There the door of
parts
^

...

Heaven's

Realm

...

is oft-times

It is green and flowery. There is no


rain there, nor
frost nor
fire. It is neither too hot nor too cold.
The
snow
nor
plain (which is quite smooth) is higher than any mountain
by 12 fathom
It escaped the flood.
It shall abide perenniallyblooming till
measures.
the Day of Judgment.
Water
falls not there, but rises from
the turf in the
midst
of the forest each month
of the year, and irrigates
the grove [we are

opened.

...

...

reminded

of Dante's
Lethe
and Eunoe]. The
beautiful grove is inhabited
by
"
the Phoenix
which the Poet then goes on to describe.
It ought to be mentioned
"the
that Claudian
i. 1. Phoenix) makes
{Idyll,
Earthly Paradise " an island :
"

"

Oceani
Trans

summo

lucus

circumfluus

Indos Eurumque

aequore
viret.
.

had any acquaintance


thinks it doubtful whether
Dante
"
da Imola, in his
Benvenuto
Dante
Diet.
art.
Claudianus
(see
").
Commentary on the Divina Commedia, quotes Claudian several times, describing
Mr. Toynbee'sliidex of Authors
as
him, erroneously,
quoted by
a Florentine
; see
Benv. da Imola
in his Commentary on the D. C. (Annual Report of the Dante
Mr.

Toynbee, however,

with

Claudian

Society,Cambridge,Mass., 1901).
*

Orosius,Eiit. adv. paganos, i. 2, "" 87-89 ; vi. 22, "


Studies in Damie, first series,pp. 279 ff.

of. Moore's

1 ; vii. 1 ; vii. 3, 4 ; and


v

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

106
.

hemisphere, simultaneouslyproduced the


of the northern
hemisphere. Lucifer fell on
olKovfievr]
southern
hemisphere (Inf.xxxiv.),and the shock of his

the

one

southern

the
fall

existed there, and caused


submerged the land which originally
hemisphere
of land in the northern
an
equivalent amount
of Purgatory,the only
to bulge up above the sea ; the Mount
in the southern
land
hemisphere, having been formed
now

extruded, as Lucifer, with

the material

by

bored

down

passage

Earth.

of the

to the centre

fall,

the force of his


Thus

does

give verisimilitude to his mythology of the abhorred


that boreth through the world"
(Inf. xxxiv. 108), by
worm
making it explain a physicalfact,or what the science of his
of
time, by means
day accepted as a fact ; and, at the same
so
the explanation,he brings the fact
important for the
clear coninto
nection
and
Church
doctrine
of one
one
Empire
with a vast system of belief alreadyaccepted. When
the rebel angels about a tenth part of the originalnumber
"

Dante

"

"

"

created
was
race
Heaven, the human
to make
good .the loss.^ The descent of the Prince of these
rebel angels produced,at one
blow, Hell, and Purgatory,and

created

lost to

were

"

the One

is the condition

which

Continent

civil unity of the human

and

"Science"
consistent

recommends

the ecclesiastical

All

race.

Myth,

of

and

hangs togetherclearly.
Myth "Science," in one

whole.

Again, in Furg. xxviii.,the distribution of plants in


is explained
centre of creation,
hemisphere,from a common
dise
the existence of an Earthly Parasuch a way as to make
the
only hypothesis consistent with "science."
appear

our

in

wind

The
of

the

from

which

Dante

the trees
among
is caused, he is told, by the rotation,

notices with

Earthly Paradise

east

to west, of the

primum

wonder

mobile,or crystalline
sphere

Conmvio, ii. 6 : " Dioo che di tutti questi Ordini si perderono alquanti
della decima
tosto oiie furono creati,forse in numero
parte ; alia qualerestaurare
So also Spenser {An Hymn
fu r umana
natura poi oreata.
of Heavenly Love) :
I

See

"

But

that eternal Fount

of Love

and

Grace,

Still showing forth his goodness unto aU,


Now
seeing left a waste and empty place
In his wide

Palace, through those Angels' Fall,

and to enstall
Cast to supply the same,
unknowen
Colonic therein,
A new
Whose

In

this

Paradise

Boot

from

Earth's base Ground-work

worked
the whole drama
Hymn
Regained is indicated in outline.

out

by

Milton

should

begin!

in Paradise

Lost

and

THE
the

PHAEDO

MYTH

107

ninth

sphere counted from that of


rotation of the primum
mobile carries round
air or aether
in which
the Earthly Paradiie
"

this aether

is

the

The

moon.

with

it the pure
is hathed ; and

the seeds of the trees of the

impregnatedwith

Earthly Paradise,and carries them round to our hemisphere,


where they germinate accordingas they find soils and climates
suitable to their various virtues.
Here
have a "Myth,"
we
in which
in the true
blended
Eaith, Fancy, and Science
are
Platonic

manner.

The

close

"

Earth

parallelbetween Plato's
Dante's
Earthly Paradise

and

I trust,by what
Surface

I have
"

of the Earth

connected

with

from

the

our

which,

we

domain

of "science"

of Dante's

elements

crass

men

sufficient altitude, aether

beneath

aether, air will be

the

inhabitants

of

and
vigorously,
in

the

been

mists

found

beside

souls of the virtuous

may
in

existence

elsewhere.

There

the

loftyterrestrial

Paradise

the

"

Islands

ireplyrjv

of the

of the

of
ovpav6";

the

virtuous, who
return, after
order
'

answer

.to

of

can

not

thousand

journey thence

our

With

its

aether

"

the

into

up

region

the

definitelyto
the

as

"

"

Er,

to believe that

live

longer,more
poor frogs,do, down
A placehas
hollow.

the
by science,"where
enjoyment of the rewards

be

in the

no

from

an

blessed

more

even

doubt, I think, that

Myth answers
GorgiasMyth, to the

Fhaedo

Myth,^ and

of

is distinguished

"

"

of the

Blessed

Myth

we,

preparationfor

Phaedrus

have

altitudes

live in the

virtue,and

as

physically

Purgatory,bathed

"science"

with

found

as

of their

or

True

"

aethereal

good

It

"

regionsof
have
direct experience. Given
will take the place of air, and
This is
water.
as
scientifically

the waters

as

of

Dante

happily,than

more

or

"

the

Plato's

its altitude.

of fire

and

It is also in accordance

true.

e-vident,

inhabit.

belonged

for Plato

air^^efwhich

made

been

air,it rises

and

element

the

of the

this world,

Island

of water

remember,

must

and

placein

real

Surface

latter.

the

region which we
by
regionessentially

region occupied by

water

is

has

the

foundation,like that
in

said about

True

"

to

which

"

the

to,

"

heaven

souls

the

to

or

of

the

course,
yet completed their purgatorial

years'sojourn,to the
to the plain of Lethe,

"

meadow,"

and

Pkaedrui, 257 A ; and cf. 248 B-249 A, where roipavoO ns


with t4 iiri yrjsin 257 A.
to ri ireplyijv,as contrasted

drink

rinros

seems

in

the
to

river,and

of the

water

"Islands

The

Hesiod

Pindar

and

be

Ocean;
aerial,not

them

singularin making

is

Plato,in the Phaedo,

rounded
sur-

sense,

Western

the

out- in

by water, somewhere

ordinary

the

in

by
.pictured

doubtless

were

islands

as

terrestrialbodies.

in

again

born

Blessed"

the

of

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

108

charming, he not only gives


for believingin the existence of his
direct
scientific reasons
of
aethereal altitudes of the Earth's surface (the configuration
deep hollows of
the Earth in its envelopesof air and aether
naturally
its surface being compensated for by loftyheights
With

oceanic.

that

art

an

is

"

"

"

"

how
to
but he also knows
produces such blessed altitudes),
of
science,"
add the authorityof the poets to the reasons
by making his descriptionof these altitudes recall,not only
"

Olympus,*but

Homeric

the

by Hesiod and Pindar.


in Greek
originalconception,

described
The

of Islands

of the Blessed

somewhere
which

the

on

also

surface

certain

that of

was

elect

of

Islands

the

as

in Celtic ^

an

Elysium

mythology,
or

Paradise,
translated

been

have

heroes, who

as

by gods,in

Earth, inhabited

of the

Blessed

the

ception
flesh eternal felicity.This is the conthe
in Homer,* Hesiod, Pindar, and
which
meets
us
of
Harmodius
and
to
Aristogeiton. But in course
Hymn
modified
in the interest of
time this originalconceptionwas
morality and religion,
especiallythe religionof the Orphic

thither, enjoy in

cult,and

the

of the

the Islands

the abode

of the

sovls of

is acquiescedin in the

Blessed

the virtuous

where
Gorgias,

suppose
to the
1

that

virtuous

Islands

Hesiod, 0.

of the

et D.

Tots

Zeis

167

souls which
Blessed

regardedas

generally.

This

view

indeed appears as
sojournfor the majorityof
Tartarus

Purgatory or placeof temporary


the souls which
go thither after judgment

be

to

came

; but

go at once
remain
there

we

after

are

left to

judgment

thenceforth

for

:"

Si Six' ivBpilnriov
pioTov xaX ijBc'67ri"raas
KpovlSiisKwrivaisae irar^p is ireipara70(1)5.

Kal Toi ftiv valovaiv

6vn6v ^ovrej
i.K'^Sca
liUKipuv v-fjaouTi
Tap' '(ixeaviv fiaBuSb/riv,
Toiaiv
8X/3ioiijpuies,
fie\ir]Sia
Kapvbv
rpU Ireos BiXKovra
^ipu ^eiSmposApovpa.
iy

See Thiemann, die Platonische EschoMogie in ihrer genetiscJien


Entwiekelwiq
(1892), p. 20.
'
See Myer and Nutt's Voyage of Bran, i. 329.
* See
Rohde, Pri/che,i. 69.

THE

no

It is

certainlyimportant

the souls

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

the

that

note

to

go in the three Platonic Myths


Islands of the Blessed," True Surface of the

of the virtuous

variouslycalled

"

"

"

"

Heaven
ovpav6"s,

Earth," and

"

is, for

"

some

least,a temporary abode,a stage in their

at

just as Tartarus
incorrigible.
"

the Blessed
Phaedo
that

"

even

allow

are

not

all

the

of the True
say ; but
from
our

of these

souls

purgatorial
course,
except the

Platonic

"

utterly

Islands

Surface -of the Earth


we

are

allowed

of
"

to suppose

in another
olicovfievq,
Perhaps Plato, in writing the Fhaedo
for them.
We
imagine a definite locality
for this possibility,
but, in doing so, we

far away

did not
to

world

the

does

Myth
they are

for

Purgatory

Altitudes

world.

bound

are

or

the

part of

Myth,

is

part of

In what

The

place to which

evidence
which
be
scruple to consider some
may
thought to .pointto the conclusion that he did localise them
where Dante's Mount
of Purgatory
and that, in the antipodes,
stands.
The Axiochus, a pseudo-Platonic
identifies
Dialogue,^
the antipodalhemiwith
the world of the departeddefinitely
sphere.
of the Axiochus
The
author
probably thought that
in accordance
the identification was
with
the geography and
cosmography of Plato ; at any rate, those who accepted the
have
We
pieceas written by Plato must
thought so.
may
safelygo the length of saying that the identification would
not be impossiblefor Plato,so far as his view of the position
and
He
holds, with the
shape of the Earth is concerned.
the
writer of
Axiochus, that the Earth is a spherein the centre
need

not

"

of the

Cosmos.

(371

: Tr}v
ff.)

Tov
fiicra
fih"erepov

'

in

passage

VTToyetov

the Axiochus

is

as

foUows

iv rj ^aclXeia TlXovTOivo';,
oUrjO-iv,

'^'o? avXTji;,
rd,
are
rrji;fiev yfj^ iypvarj';
Be ttoXow
6vto"; "r^aipo"Lhov";'
ov
to
/cocriJiov, tov

V'^''''" '''V^ ''""^

o^X

and

The

deal e\aj(pvovpdvtoi,
Be
rjpLia^aipiov
to

ol

eTepov

See Thiemann, Plat. Eschat. p. 26, and Rohde, Psyche,i. 314


; ii. 247, n. 1,
Rohde
hardly be earlier than the third century B.C.
says that it can

422.

It is

\6yos containingexpressionswhich
irapafi,v6riTi.Kbs
of Orphic teachingand
practice. Axiochus

fluence
point to the direct inis described (371 d) as

and therefore {rvyY^viis


yevv-^ristCiv ffeuiv i.e. as /le/ivri/i^vos,
dcQv
/card t^jk
tuv
which
wolriaiv by adoption, with
iiir)aiswas
For
identified.
commonly
yevoiuTrisin Philebus, 30 D (a passage on which, I think, Plut. de gen. Soe. 22
where iiovdsis said to be priorto voSs
throws
light),
yew^ris, I think,ought
"

"

"

"

to be read

Ehein.

; but

Mus.

"

coCs, by

R. G. Bury's note
ad loc.
see
Apelt (zu Platans
vol. 55, 1. p. IS; 1900) suggests that yevoiarrismeans
punning derivation !

Philebus

in

"parent

of

THE

virevepOevi.e.the

PHAEBO

Palace

"

"

MYTH

of

111

in

Pluto,"

addition

to its subterranean,

properly "infernal"
parts, includes the whole
antipodal hemisphere of the Earth, with its sky lighted by
the sun, when
it is night in our
hemisphere, rola-i Xdfiirei
ivddhe vvktu
aekiov
rav
Karco
(Pindar,/ra^'Wi.
jM"v fieva
129),
aii
8e
7ralBa";ev "^pcoecra-i
AriToyeve";,
(fivKdaaot'i,
evcre^eav
alel "x"pov iirep'xpiievo'i
(Kaibel, ep. lap. 228 b 7, 8).^ To
this
under
the
world
dead
are
go to be judged. Some
sent into the subterranean parts, while others enjoy the light
of day, in a land
of flowers and
streams, apparentlystill in
the hemisphere of ol virevepOev
of the antipodalgods,
Oeoi
call them.
as we
it is distinctly
Among these blessed ones
may
or

"

"

"

"

"

stated
Tot?

the

we

Plato's

say

this

with

judgment-seat in
"

and
Heaven
iugs of
the region across
which
of light; and so (as I
"

river of Lethe.^
of the
be

"

in

again

suggest,up

the

from

D.

is

"

of

Earth

the

Axiochus.

But

two

points:

First,

mention
of

the

"

Er, between

Tartarus, is above
the

towards

pilgrimstravel
in

all

Greek

the

souls

plain of Lethe, on the


shoot up
(dvco,Hep. 621
bodies

"

that

is,

lower, antipodalhemisphere
or

the

of

cave

Earth,

pillar

accounts) is

the

Secondly, the hollow


right through the globe of

as

to

surface

b)

to
to

sphere.
hemi-

our

extends

have

we

the

venture

Tartarus

Bi' oXrj^ rijs7^? (Phaedo,


Bia/ji'Trepei
reTpTjfiivov
has

in

the openground, and so is

terrestrial

the

evTavOa

"

nothing
positionof the

and

Myth

believe

the

precedence

there

world
to

It is from

Earth, that

born

under

I venture

more

take

371
irpoeSpia,

Tt?

safely say
of the
shape

may
doctrine

inconsistent

"

that

we

Platonic

initiated

"

/iefiVTjfievoi"! icrri

Now,

can

that

111

seen

e)
"

"

i.e.

opening in the lower hemisphere as well as in this.


Without
going the length of supposing that Plato's unseen
world is mapped out with the definiteness of Dante's, we
may
his
take it that
with
of
Plato,
visualisation,
poet'sfaculty
clear mental
must
have formed
a
pictureof the opening of
Tartarus in the
lower
or
antipodalhemisphere,and of the
one
comes
on
issuingfrom it. The anticountry into which
an

"

"

^
^

Quoted by Rohde, Psyche,ii. 210, n. 1.


I shall
Thiemann, Plat. Esch. p. 18.

See

observations
Dante

on

follows

the
the

surface of the Earth.

Myth

of Er.

universal

Greek

VirgU's Lethe
tradition

in

return

to

this

is of uncertain

making

Lethe

subject in
position;
a

river

my
but

of the

112

MYTHS

THE

podal opening was


vain.

Those

not,

imaginedby

assume,

Plato

in

which, after being judged (whether above

souls

but probably
appear in the Fhaedo
to the Islands of the Blessed,but down

ground does
underground),go, not
or

may

we

PLATO

OF

under

not

"

(which is certainly
subterranean),have entered the infernal regions,we
may
fairlysuppose, by the opening in our hemisphere, and will
the antipodal
come
out, after their penance, by the other
opening,and will start thence on their journey always above
Plato actuallythought
That
ground to the river of Lethe.
of the souls as going into Tartarus, and coming out of it,by
know
distinct openings,we
from the Myth of Er.
But while
the entrance
and
exit are
placed in the Phaedo
antipodally
takes careful account
of cosmographical and
Myth, which
geologicalconditions, in the Myth of Er the pvirpose of
pictorial
composition is served by placingthem side by side,
Meadow,"
oppositethe entrance and exit of Heaven
; the
the place of judgment and
at once
the starting-place
for the
Tartarus
and
Heaven."
It
plain of Lethe, lying between
be easy to give examples,from
would
Greek
of
vase-painting,
similar compressionin pictorial
composition. I call attention
the Phaedo
to this discrepancybetween
Myth and the Myth
the river

to the

Acheron

Acherusian

Lake

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

of

Er,

to

show

one

topographicalscheme
rigidas the one scheme

Myths,
in

as

the

however,
shall

absurd

Divina

is

that,

I say
far
so
"

the

in

how

Commedia.
in

probably

?
"

it is not

other

somewhere, but

to

to which

What

Myth,
thinking of

to

is

venture

to

is

so

the

ful
faith-

suggest,

possibly

the world

or

"

of the

subterranean,or celestial,
as
of

struct
con-

Eschatological

Dante

Plato

dream, in which

for

attempt

for Plato's

hemisphere

in

as

be

the Phaedo
"

as

it would

terrestrial

parted,
de-

where
some-

globe,

inconsistencies

"

are

"True
Surface of the Earth,"
accepted as natural;
in the antipodalhemisphere,beneath
though somewhere
us,
is yet a region above us, whence
have
found their way
gems
down

to

our

I have

hollow
dwelt

on

the

the

parallelbetween

the

geography of

the

Myth and that of the Divina


Commedia
with
the
of
not
view,
clearingup particulardifficultiesin mythological
geography,but of suggestinga method
by which the function
of Myth in the Platonic
philosophymay be better understood
Phaedo

THE

"

the

method

Myth

of

great

master

one

PEAEDO

MYTH

113

of

sealingthe impressionmade on us by the


by study of the Myth of another
great master
with
whom
we
happe* to be in closer
may
The
service which
Myth, and poeticaltreatment

sympathy.
render
can
to the faith on which
generally,
conduct and science
ultimatelyrest is,I think, more
easilyand finelyappreciated
by us in Dante than in Plato ; for we live,though in late days,
in the same
Christian epoch with the medieval
poet.

Ill
Let

close these

me

observations

Socrates
callingattention to what
narrative
(114 d), that, while it

in

the

that all about

the

at

says
would

"

maintain

the Fhaedo

on

Soul and

the

end

be

not

the next

Myth

by

of

the

sensible

world

to'

contained

is

Myth

absolutelytrue, yet, since the Soul is plainly


immortal, one
ought to hazard the pious belief that, if not
other
like it,is not
far
absolutelytrue, this Myth, or some
from being true, and
an
sing it over oneself as if it were
"

"

enchanter's
B'xeiv,

(B?

fievTot,
Kol

song

to

/lev

ovv

ecrrlv rj

ravT

KoX

Bua-'^vpl.a-acrOai
ovrco^

ravra

roiavr

irpeireiv

fiot BoKei

ical

e^^ovn

avSpC'on

Treplrai; "\]rv'x^a';
"^fiaiv

arra

aOdvarov
0t/cjyff6t?, iireoirep

Ta"i

TovTO

"

BieXip^vda,oil irpiireo
vovv

67a)

r)

76

oficra,
^ ''|''i'%^
cf"aiveTai,

d^iov KivBvvevcrai olo/jbivo)

ey(^eiv KaXoii yap o kIvSvvo";'xal ')(prjra Toiavra


wcnrep
iiraBeiv eavrS, Sto Sy eycoye Koi irakai
rbv
fivdov.
p/t)Ki)V(c
The distinction between
and
is
i
nsisted
Dogma
Myth
carefully
ouTWS

on

here, and

of moral

value of Myth as an expression


practical
feeling. Myth, it is suggested
religious
^may_be_
^t
will
rpup.t favpnrablyon
tbp. fpf^Hng
form. tiba"-.

also the

and

_"iit_mtosuch
expressed, and
reaction

the
as

man

is

of
"

make

it

expressionon
is

matter

apparent from

surer

that which

about
his

guide

which

whole

to

what

is_-g.Qfld.

it expresses
Plato

scheme

had
of

"

of

reflected

The

styleon
deeply,

education, mental,

of
physical,in the Bepublic. If, then, the sense
of being a continuously
and the attendant
sense
responsibility,
existent Self,naturallyexpress
themselves, as Plato holds, Bia
in visions of an
immortal
it follows
life,
fivdoXoyla";,
pictorially,
from the general law of the reaction of expression
on
feeling,
shall be able to
and ennobling fivdoXoyia,
we
that, by refining

moral,

and

MYTHS

THE

lU

refine

and

which

fivOo'i

young

children,

models

the

like

of

in

pictorial
and

fresco
of

fiiyedoi

together

In

PAaec^oMytE

responsibility

is
other

among

TO,

pictured

be
of

the

is

'

true,"

Buskin's

iverroes

"

et

so

one

Mornings
I'Averrolsme,

Self

Penance,

taken

eTraSeiv

mairep

Toiavra

not

be

deeply
is

able

in
pp.

in

pictured

"

Florence,
245,

in

answer

chap,
246.

its

place

proper

attaches

moral

terms

of

by
iv., "The

"

Ke-incarnation
dwelt

charm

of

Vaulted

as

if

'

{")(^pr]

on

it

touches

"

uninitiated

acting

the

Pre-existence,

be

to

the

the

bility
responsi-

representing

but

till

continuously

the
"

Choice,

as

Myth

Free

when

that,
to

literally,
eavrm),

terms,

explained,

be

cannot

responsible

to

not

deeply

it

Judgment,

Myth

one

if

Myths.
moral

responsibility

phenomena

the

responsibility

into

moral

all

of

subject

But

Eeminiscence,
a

for

his
taken

scientific

put

in

poetry

"

Moral

in

being

by

and

has

his^ece.

explained

be

the

Self.

continuity

of

motif

As

all

in

in

highest

his

at

whole,

together

philosophy

are

on

noble

most

Italy."

in

poet -philosopher

explained

to

may

"

the

so

fresco

"

blended

as

poetry,

the

the

"

are

seen

"

is

phenomena;

immediately
existing

Plato

"the

knows,

phenomenon

Td^i"i

koI

where

as

he

cannot,

is

great

like

divinity

composition

philosophy

blended
the

and

of

use

Chapel

as

conversations

"

"

of

readers

own

painting,

great

Spanish

the

pictorial
the

its

of

or

the

to

use

mature

to

"

"

education

the

their

is

philosophy

"

beauty

This

things.

of

offered

mould

may

in

only

not

dialogues

they

wall

philosophy
that

but

Plato,

Gommedia,

left-hand

piece

by

highest

Dante's

the

put

which

on

about

is

the

is

This

faith.

and

morals

ennoble

PLATO

OF

"

say
it

Book";

it

true.

were

of.

Benan,

THE

GOBGIAS

MYTH

Context

GoRGiAS,

the

disciple Polus,
Athenian

What
Polus

Truth

to

igrwres

the

wish
"

the

on

Knowledge

true

an

ence
differand

the

It

well

as

think

they

best

Good

after the

To

seek

it is better

to

sufferevil

than

better

him

evil, it

is

for

is

tinction
dis-

"

itselftestifies for
"

and

Good,

bad

what

for themselves, do

to do.

Good

the

nature

the

It

of Flattery.

and

human

wishes

believe, without

to

Art

the

Art

the

Art

the

nor

answers

of Justice,

wish

is

good, wish

as

Socrates

and

Pleasure

between

Gorgias

Professor of

themselves

Justice.

or

Neither
;

the

realityof which

bad

what

done

young

of Callicles,

Simulation

what

they

distinction

to the

all men,

of

his

turns

asks.

the

as

believe

to

believe, and

regard

doing

Socrates

by describing it

to

Way

intelligibleansvjer

an

of getting people
them

Rhetoric

give

them

for

house

conversation

the

and

of Life.
is

can

and

the

at

the

and

Rhetoric

Conduct

true

meet

Rhetoric,

of

Socrates

gentleman

ietween

teacher

famous

they

of the

very

essence

and

if

to

do

evil ;

to

be

chastised

in

men,

do

not

of Life
has

man

than

to

escape

chastisement.
Here

Oallicles,speaking

this

distinction

Good.

that

mv"h

there

Rhetoric

holding
Good

as

up

its

kinds

in

the

before them

view,

Bay

will

there

Pretence

will

avail.

only

issue will
With

the

not
be

Myth

Is

There

this

of

be

the

the

points

out

that

which

that

"

uses

them,

deceives

which,

keeping

the

better.

Myth

the

which

of Judgment,

declares,

and

them

makes

Socrates

Socrates

flatterspeople,and

and

and

Right.

silenced, and

is

the

up

recognise

not

Pleasure

of Statesmanship

instrument,

Pleasure

always
At

two

are

is

takes

does

between

Might

Callicles

talk

world,

the

Statesmanship

Good.

is the

of

man

Socrates

by

drawn

Pleasure

After

that

maintains

and

argument,

as

place for

mo

will

be

no

the

side

told

now

of Flattery.

Art
issues

then.

man

righteous or

is he

wicked

Bay

of Judgment

the

Gorgias

115

by
The

?
ends.

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

116

Gorgias 523a-527c
"A.Kove Sj?,"\)aaL,
fidXa

e23

fivOov,m?

olfMh iyo) Be \6yov

67a)

Xefft)a

(701

eVt

aXv^V

a"";

ijyjfo-et
o"'^"

7"P

eTreihav TeXevTijary,e?

^Lov

tov

deoi";,t"v

ev

eanv

en

vvv

ZiKaCw;

fiev

fi-ev

oSe ireplavOpmiriov
v6fio"!

otiv

Kol

ael

Kol

Kpovov,

tov
avOpayirasv

ap^VV

irapeXa^ov. ^v

"jraTpoi

ffv

Xiyeiv. "ilaTrepyhp "O/M7/30?Xeyei,


Zeixi ical 6 UXovTmy, eireihi]
irapa
o

fieXKa

hieveifiavro
rrjv
Tov

\6yov, ov

koKov

Kol

hieXdovTa

oiKelv

diriovTa

vrj"ov^
Cixaicdpaiv

offtws,
ev

dOeax}
Be dSt"o)9 Koi
evSaifioviae'/tro? KaK"v, tov
"n-dajj
b Bi)japTapov
koX Blicrj'i
eh TO
re
Bea-fiCDT^piov,
T7j"; TLaetof
^

livai.

KoXovcnv,

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TOV

e/ceLvrj

Tfi rjpApa BiKa^ovTe^,y

ai

XriToi

6
eieplvovTO.

BUat,
01

ex

fiuKapcov

Zevi, 'Aw'
at

KaKW

yap

o'i,

KoXa

Kol

yevrj

koX

ol

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tov

ovv

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fiev

vvv

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Kai, hreiBav

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rj

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fidpTvpe^p,apTvp'q"TOVTe"i, cbs Bixaitof

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re

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dfiire'xpfievoi,
Kai "Ta xal oXov
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aSifia irpoKeKaB^

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vvv

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ydp, 6^17,ol

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^e^mKaaiv.
Kai

BUai

KaK"9

tt/jo?

dvd^ioi,

tovto

^mvTOJV,

etal acofiaTdre
i/ru^a?irovqpd^e-ypvTe's '^/j,(f)ieer/j,evoi

ep^ovTai

TO,

lovTei eXeyov

vrjawv

kuI

UXovtcov

o5v

ert

Kai

rjaav

KpivovTai'^"VTe";yhp KpivovTai,ttoWoi

Kpivo/jLevot

B'

re

iravam
ecjii],

67(",

Kpovov

TeXevTav.

p,eWoiev

dvOpcoTTOi
t7"j"tv
eKaTepaere
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iirl

dp'^r}v
e')(pvTO"; ^"vTe^

vetBo-Tt

ovv

TTjv

BiKacrTal

Be

tovtcdv

av

to,

tS"v

eirl'irpoadev
yvyveTai,

tovto

fjiev oZv

-rravcrT) avT"v.

irp"Tovfiev

Kpivofievmv.

irpoeiSoTa^avTov"i
xal

eireiTa

TedveS)Ta"i yhp Set

Kai

tov

ddvaTov

t"
Bij eipr)Tat

yvp,voii"i
KpiTeov

KpLveadai.koX

tov

MYTHS

THE

118

elvai, redvetoTU, air's T17

Set yvfivov

KpiTrjv

PLATO

OF

"^v^V

dirodav6vT0"s
"^V'xrjv ffewpovvra i^aitjjvt}^
trdvTtav

t"v

ixeivov

TOP

efiavTov,
824

Se

eva

iic rrji;'Affta?, Miveo

/lev

iie

rrj'i

6S(o,

Tft"
"f)ipeTOv
-./"^ rdprapov. Kol

tow?

iyo"

iravTa

/lev

Tfj rpioBq),i^
B'

v^aoviiir)
/laKtipcov

eh

fjLev

7)

vieii;

o?iv, iireiSav

ovroi,

Xei/i"vi, iv

reS

iv

o?)v

fiev

'FaBdfiavdvv,

Koi

re

EupwTTi;?, AlaKov.

reXevrija-axn,SiKaa-ovaiv
17?

eprjfiop

t^? 7^?

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rj

ttjv

rj vfieli iirovqaap/qv Bixaara^

wpore/sos

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kKOUTTOv,

eVt

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'iva

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koX

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et?

rfji 'Ao-ta? '^aBdfiavOvi Kptvel,

ex

Mt'i/m Be irpea^ela Bcoaio


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iv

-nj?

Kal

Tavra

TeXevTi^Tainov

'^ovov

Bt]

'^vyrjv elvai, "


ttj

eireiBav
"\jrv)(rj,

Kal
^iJo-eo)?

to,

iraQrujbaTa

"TrpdyfiaTO'}
e"ryev

iv

rrj

THE

GORGIAS

MYTH

119

The Judge also must


be naked, dead, withjrery
judged dead.
Soul beholdingthe very Soul of each,as
sqgn afe he is dead,
bereft of all his

adornment

he

kindred, having left

had

there.

So shall

the

upon

earth

all the

the

judgment be just. I
therefore,having considered all these things before that ye
unto
have
made
came
me,
sons
Judges two from Asia,
my
Minos
and
from
Ehadamanthys, and one
Europe, Aeacus.
These, when
they are dead, shall sit in judgment in the
Meadow
at the Parting of the Ways, whence
the two Ways
"

lead

the

"

And

Tartarus.

the Isles of the Blessed,and

unto

one

of Asia

those

shall

the other unto

Ehadamanthys

of

those

judge,and
appoint t^e

But unto Minos


will I
Europe, Aeacus.
chief place,
that he may givejudgment at the last,if the other
be in doubt
Thus
shall the
two
as
touching any matter.
judgments concerningthe Passage of Men be most just.
These
I have
the things,0 Callicles,
heard ;
which
are
and I believe that they are
therefrom
I contrue ; moreover,
clude
this,to wit : IDeath is only the separationof two things.
and
Soul
When
Body, from each other.
they have been
is well
separatedfrom each other, the state of each of them
it was
while the man
lived. The Body keepeth
nigh the same
the natural
fashion it had, and
the marks
plain of all the
that was
taken for it and
of all that happened unto it.
care
For if any man
while he lived was
great of body, by nature,
"

or

nurture,
if

and

also, if

hair;

he

man

wore

if any

man

body

the

scars

of other

prints of
woimds

his
"

see

great when

is fat when

long hair, his corpse


a
was
whipped cur,
made
beatings scars
while

he

and

by

same

he

; and

is dead

he

is

dead;

hath

long

if any
he

lived,when

bore
the

on

man

his

whip, or

is dead

he

lived,when

he

also

"

his corpse with the


and disjoint
broken
while

mayest
limbs

also is

corpse

fat,his corpse also

was

any

and

both, his

or

had

is dead

thou
his
also

soever
of the whole
matter
is,that whatplain. The sum
hath
conditions of Body a man
while he Bveth, these
while.
are
plain when he is dead, all or most, for some
that which
Now, O Callicles,
happeneth unto the Body,
happeneth,methinks, unto the Soul likewise,to wit, there are
plain in the Soul, after she hath been strippedof the Body, her
in
conditions and those affections which, through use
natural
the

any

same

is

matter,

man

hath

gotten

in his

Soul,

yltVYJ)6
E

rfj'j'Atrta?

Ik

fiev

a"j)l,K(OVTai
irapa

oZv

avSpcoTTOv.'^veiSav

ol
ScKatrrijv,

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

120

etcdtrrov

dedrai
'PaSd/MvOvi iKeivovi i-n-ia-rrja-a';

etSo)9

ovK

dWov

/Sao-tXew? eVtXaySo/i.ei'os
tj
Bwdarov

ovX"v

aStKia?, "

eKdartp

yfrvy^v,Kol

irdvra

oiSev

evOi)

Bid

ffKoKid

koX
i^ova-iaiKal Tpvi^rj'i
Kol
re
dcrvp,fi"Tpi,a"!

IScov Be

fieWei

i^at/iop^aTOet?

rrjv

kol
ilreuSou?koX dXa^ovei,a"i

v-jro

koX dKpana";
v^peeo";

Kai,

inro

irpd^ecav

t"v

iravTi

t?}? "f"povpa^,ol

ev6v
dTreTre/jLiJrev

TrpdarjKOvra irddrj.

dvarKfjvai rd

TlpoaijKeiBe

/cat

eiruopKiwv

yifwva-av ttjv yjrv^rjvelSev.


aia--)(p6r7iTO";

dTifJLa"";
ravrriv
eXOovaa

'^^JCI'^'oXXa

dXrjOeia'ireOpa^uai'

dvev

rb

/8ao-t\eo"? rj

viro

fiecnrjv

nrpd^i^ avrov

r)

rov

t^?

ov

"^Irv^vv,
/leydXov

ttjv

orovovv

vyiki

ovSev

KareiSev

Koi
Stafiefiaarnycofievrjv
525

iroXXdKii

ia-riv, dWa

oTov

'TaSdfiavOvv, 6

rov

irapa

top

iv

rm

dWov

vtt

ovti

Ttfitopia

fj
"^ ^eXriovi 'yiyvea'BaiKal ovLvaaOai
aXKoi
aWot?
yiyvecrOai, iv
"jrapaBeiy/juiTi
rot?
opwvTe"}
dv
a
^o^ovfievoi /SeXTt'ou?yiyvcovrai.
Trda-j(pvra
7rdcry(j)
opOStf Tifiwpovfieva)

6e5"v
koI
BIkijvBiBovrei vtto
re
axfieXovfievoi
Kal
ol
av
ido'ifia afiaprrj/jLara
re
dvOpmirwv ovroi,
Kal
oBvvwv
Bk
St'
yLyverai
dXyTjBovwv
dfidpTtoaiv o/MOf

elal Be

avTOL'i

re

ol /lev

ri

axpeXeui

rd

rovTcov

Bid

iv "AcBov

Kal

o'i B

ol

rd

roiavra

oiiBev, are

rovrovi;

opeovre?

Bid

ov

rd

dv

Kal

dviaroi

e"T')(aTa
yevcovrai,

avrol

ovtoi

dXXoi

ovret;,

olov

yap

dBiKT^fiaradviaroi

TrapaBeOy/jbaTa
yiyverai,

ovivavrai

ovKeri
rai

ev9dBe

dXXa)"! dBiKiat; dTraXXdrreffdai'

Kal
dBiKija'ioirt
eK

Kal

rd
rd"; dfiapria";

Be

fiev

ov'ivav-

fieyKrra

Kal

del
rov
oBwTjporara Kal (^o^epmrara irdOr) Trdaj^ovrat;
iv AiSov
eKei
y^povov, dre^i/w? irapaBeiyfiaradvTjprTjfievovf
iv
r"v
del
dBiKcov
rS
SeafjieoTTipia),
tow
d^iKvov/ievoi^
Kal
lav
Kal
vovderrffiara.
Oedfiara
eva
iyeo "fyr)fii
Ap'^eXaov
'

eaeaOai,
roiovro^
rov"i

ei

dXrjdi] Xeyei Tl"Xo";, koI


olfiai Be Kal
j],
rvpavvo";

rovrcov

Kal

Bvvaar"v

ovroi

yap

rS)v

rd
rr/v

r"v

troXecov

i^ovaiav

dv

o"rTt?

ttoWou?

rov?

eK
irapaBeiy/jidrofv
rvpdvvav

koI
Bia

dXXov

Kal

eivai

^aaiXemv

irpai^dvrav yeyov6ra";'

pAyiara

Be
dfiaprrjaaradfiaprdvovcri.
p,aprvpei
Bvvdara";
^a"nXea"s ydp Kal
eKeivoi

Kal

dvoaianara

Kal'

0/j,ripo";'
iv
TrerroiijKerov";

rovroii

THE

Wherefore,

GORGIAS

when

they
Ehadamanthys

of
presence
stand, and looketh
Soul

from

Asia

their

Soul

121

are

soundness, but

no

is seamed

the

them

to

knowing

hold
or

before

causeth

each, n9t

of

perchance having gotten


other
King, or of some
King

that it hath

come

Judge, he

it is ; but
Great

the

the

at

MYTH

of the

whose

Soul

of

Euler, pereeiveth

with

the

marks

of

and full of the scars


of perjuries
and unrighteousstripes,
ness,
according as the doings of each have stamped on his
Soul their signs; and all therein is crooked by reason
of falsehood
and
boasting,and nothing straight,because he hath
without
been bred
truth ; and
of pride and
by reason
up
and
luxury and wantonness
incontinencyin his life,his Soul
is altogether
and
deformed
This Soul then
the Judge
foul/^
dishonour
seeth, and having seen, sendefh with
straightway
the
whither
it
endure
the
and
unto
ments
tormust
prison,
go
appointed for it. Now, it is appointedfor every one
who
is punished, if he be punished righteously
by another,

many

either

to become

forth for

example

an

fear and

may

become

they pay unto


sins
are
they whose
pains there cometh
of

But

Hades

better.

they

Gods
may
unto

who

Now, they

have

to be set

who

the
profited

are

penalty of their sins,


be cured.
Through afflictions and
them
profitboth here and in the
and

Men

otherwise

; for

receive benefit,or

others,that they,seeinghis torments,

unto

while

House

himself

better and

sinned

the

can

to

the

no

man

rid

be

utmost, and

of

righteousness.
un-

by reason
examples

beyond cure, they are the


be benefited,
whereof
I spake ; for now
they cannot themselves
inasmuch
are
benefited,
as
they are beyond cure, but other men
of their sins suffering
when
torments
they see them by reason
being verilyexamples
exceedinggreat and terrible for evermore,
for a
of Hades, in the
prison-house,
hung up in the House
cometh.
unto
spectacleand admonition
every sinner which
forth
for
be
that
Of
these
set
examples I say that
will be, if Polus
Archelaus
speaketh truly; and any other
of their

that

Prince

and

by

great sins

Kings
reason

other

men.

they which

are

is like unto
and

Eulers

and

him.

Chief

Most, methinks,
Men
do

of the

tormented

in the

House

Princes

in their cities ; for


sin

more
they have,
power
is witness, in that
Homer
Whereof

are

were

of Hades

they,
heinouslythan
he

telleth that
for

evermore

E"At8ou

Tov

Kul

TtTVOv.

526

oi

aWo?

n";

810

olfiai,
i^rjvavrm'

'yap,

KaWi'/eXet?,

"

yap,

Kal

iccoXvei

p.r)v

iv

Kal

XaXeTTOv yap, " KaWUXeK,


dZiKelv
fieydXr/e^ova-iatov
oi

oXCyoi Se yCyvovTat
Xodi

olfiaihe Kal

yeyovaaiv,

rrjv

dpeTrjV,
rr)v

eh

Be

Kal

irdw

tS"v

eirel Kal

eXXoyifioi

6
"RXXtjvat,'Api"TTeiSTj"!
Avaip.d'xpv.oi
KaKol

apicTTe,

"Oirep
ToiovTov

ovd'

ovd'

oaTti;

KaTiBwv

^e^iasKvlav

TO,

Kal

Kal

Bixd^ei.

Be

Be

iroKKoi,,

otBev ovSev,

ovk

kov

Tit'

irovrjpoi

tovto

B'

fiev

e?

KlaKotMtyto?

oil

oXXtjv elcriBmv

oaLwt

iv
TroXvirpayp.ovriaavTot

t"J

Taina
vijcovtd-jretrep.-"^e.

fiaKapcov

eKdTepot Be
iirKTKOirav

pd^Bov

tovtcov

KdQriTai,fiovot
6

eyjiov
e')(a"v

IBelv
'Op,rjpov

depicrnvovTaveKvaviv.

(TKrjirTpov
exovTO,

odv, "

d"f"iKOfievoi

6"eto"e

""; "^r)aiv'OBvaaevt
a-KrJTTTpov,

\pv"TiOV

Eyo)

Be

aXXov"{

" KaXXt/cXet?, ^iXoao^ov


(fyrjfii,

eycoye

TTpd^avTOt Kal

avTov

'xpvaovv

Toiii

dXTjdeia";,
dvBpot IBiairov rj dXXov

p^T

Kal
yStm, rjydcrdrj
re

oti

evioTe
"Trday^ei,

fidXiaTa p,ev,

TavTa

vepl aiiTOv

fiev

mvnveov,

eiriTpe'sry

'TaSdfiavOv'; eKelvot

dviarot BoKjj elvai' 6 Be

re

"TrpoarjKOVTa

Tivot,

aXKo

Tit

eit Tdprapov eirio'ijfjLrjvd/j.evo';,


re
eav
dTreirefiyJrev

edv
ld(Tifio";
TO,

eXeyov, eireiBav

Xd^rj,

Tvva

aX-

Kat,

Bvvaa-T"v.

yiyvovTai t"v

ovv

iv

KoryadolTavTTjv
eli

Kal

yeyove

d^tov

evoaoe

koXoI

ecroVTai

yiyvo/jsvav

St/cottB? Sia^i"vai.

StAcatoj?Bia^eipL^eiv
av
a

tov

apaptoiroi'

eiraivov

iroXXov

yevofievov

Toiovrof

t"v

e/e

dyadoix; avSpat eyyl-

TOVTOi"s

a^iov ayacrOai
a-(f"6Spa
ye

yvea-dai,Kal

evoaifiove-

Kau

elffl Kal ol a^oBpa nrovripoX


Bvvafiivcov
yiyvo/JLevoi
ovSev

el

Tjv rj 0I9 e^jji'.dXXa

"Trepo"i

2,urv^ov

irovqpixi
r)v
fieydXai";Ti,/juopiat"!
"n-eiroirjKe
awexofievov
koX

Se,
"ep(ri,TT)v

dvioTov

koI

niMopovfievovi}, TdvraXov

aei vpovov

ovBeU
IStwTTi^,
"B?

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

122

KaXXiKXeit,

utto

"TreTreiaftai, koI

aKoirS), ottw?

vyiea'TdT7}v
ttjv

ovv
'^vj(r)v.^(alpeiv

t"v

tovtwv

aTTo^avovp-ai tw
idaat

Tat

Xoycov

KpiTrj w?
Tip"h";
Tat

THE

GOROIAS

MYTH

123

Kings and Eulers,to wit, Tantalus, and Sisyphus,and Tityus.

are

But

of
no

Thersites,or any other Commoner


poet hath told that he is held

which

was

an

doer,
evil-

^reattorments

in

as

being beyond cure : nay, methinks, such an one had not the
also he was
opportunity to sin greatly. Wherefore
happier
than
those who
had
0
Callicles,'tis
opportunity. Verily,
from

those

among

who

have

that

power

the

greatest sinners

arise ;
notwithstandingeven among these may good men
when
whom,
they are found, it is most meet to reverence,
for 'tis a hard
and worthy of all praise,
thing, 0 Callicles,
for a man,
who
hath great opportunityto do injustice,
to live
found ;
justlyall his days. Few such are found ; yet are some
come,

for both
will

and

here

arise

of

again,men

of whom

was

all Greece

throughout

there

of these

one

noble

but

in cities the

power
When

have

tell thee. Sir, of

most

part

alway

are

he

is

be

he

that

suffereth that

place,there

can

perchance the Judge

fBut
holiness

and

of

other

some

truth
; but

Callicles,who

busybody

in
and

In

like

; it may
in most

his life.
he

manner

which
seeth

his
Soul

it away

Aeacus

also

told,
else

nought

whose

but

son,

mark

only

no

him

upon

and

to

he, coming

to

is due.

Soul

Soul

of

hath

that

Common

likelihood,say I, of

That

sendeth

or

be, the

minded

hath

perceivingthis,sendeth

; and

cured

signifywhether

that

evil.

knoweth

Tartarus, having put

unto

away

of the wicked

one

them

therefore,standeth, as

evil men,

Ehadamanthys the Judge, he


he is nor
concerning him, neither who
him

and

virtue

before

this,that

arisen,and, methinks,

just conduct in
whereof
charge at any time is given unto them :
famous
Aristides,the son of Lysimachus, a man

those matters

have

elsewhere

own

pleaseththe
to the

And

"

or

no

manthys,
Ehada-

of

eye

BlessedJ
of these

each

judgment holding a rod in his hand.


seated as president over
them ; and he alone
his Odysseus telleth,that
sceptre, as Homer
with
a
giving
golden sceptre in his hand
sitteth in

Man

been

Islands of the

judgeth.

in

Philosopher,

and

matters

lived

Minos

But

is

hath

golden

he

saw

him

laws

unto

the

Dead."
I

am

told

are

Soul

most

persuaded,0

Callicles,that

things

these
I

shall

consider

how

faultless before the

Judge.

I will take

true.

Wherefore

my

that

show

^
are

my

farewell

THE

124

T"
E

avOpayircav,

TToW"v

rmv

ovTi

aTrodvrii7K(o, airo6vr]"TKeiv.

iirl

avriTrapaKoXco

Ati/jli avrl

iyd

ov

ovetSi^a
r)

""

aoi

Kal

hiKaaTrjv

TjTTOv
iirl

ivOdSe

iym

7}

fiv66";

Kal

ei

o'nrep cro"f)d"TaToiecrre
Kal

Vopyla's,

^rjv
ev

edv
TovTO

Kal
Tr)v

Kal

elvai
Ti"!

BevTepov

Kal

BiBovai
Kal

eavTov

irepl

'X^prjO'Teov,

TTpd^ei.

fieTa

em

ttoWou?,
to

dvSpl
Kal

yiyvrjTai,
to

BiKr)v
ttjv

to

elvat

to

KaKb";

ti

dyadov

KoXa^o/j,evov

irepl

dXXd

dryadov,
KaTd

earl

fidXXov

7ravT0"}

elvai
Kal

irepl

HcoXos

Kai

^lov

Tiva

(rvfi"f)epa"v,dXX'

dStKeiv

Kal

Bi^fioaia-

KoXaKeiav

Kal

Kal.

Trj
ttj

to

Kal

yLyveadat

to

aXXov";,

tou?

ov

icrri,

KoXa"TTeo";

irdaav

dei,

koI

BcKaiov,

fi

jjLaXXov

fieXeTijTeov
IBia

(pevKTeov

BtKaiov

re

dXKov

Bel

vfiel"!,

iXey^ofiivcov fj,6vo";oSto?

evXa^TjTeov

to?

dSiKeicrdai,

6Xiyov";
ovToa

X0709,

KOTa-

Kal

ovTei

crv

i^aiveTai

dXXcov

ovv

peKTim

Tpei"s

to?

xat,

KaTa"f)poveiv

avT"v

oti

eKetae

t"v

Xoyoi^

Be

Kal

Kal

ypao";,

'EiXXrjvcov,

vvv

ovBev

rt?

Tdy^a

BavfiaaTov

opa^,

dnroBel^ai,,

oairep

TocrovToi";

SoKeiv

t"v

e^ere

tovtov,

T]

TJpefiel
TO

ovk

Se

vvv

aWa

ejreiSdv

TvirTrjaei,

mairep

rjv

Kai

ekeyov,

TrpoTrrfKaKiei.

ei'^o/jLev

^rjTOvvTe?

Try

eivai,

tXtr/yidaei';

iaa)":

"re

av

tovtov,

Alyivi]"; vlov,
Kal

Xiyetrffai,

ovSev

d'kridea'Tepa evpelv

Kai

irdvTfO';

SoKei

croc

"l"pov6i";avT"v.
TOVTtov,

Kal

aTl/MO';

Kopprj^

TavTa

cri) ixet,

ae

j3or]6'rja'ai,
orav

Btj iym

t^?

tov

kui

or)

aycovcov

vvv

aXKov;

ay"va

tov

aavrw

dyrj, ^aafjuqcrei,

iiriXa^o/ievQi}

erov

ecrei,

rjv

KpLcn";

rj

tov

trapa

t'

eTreiSav

tov";

koI

ivdaoe

t"v

olo?

ov^

Kal

^lov

top

irdvToov

on,

"roi,

BiKr]

iXOmv
527

tovtov

Kal

Be

Zvvafiai,

ocrov

ireipaa-ofiai,

^fjv Kal,

Kal

a)V

"TrapaicaXai

KaS"

avdpayirov;,

Trai/ra?

crKoir"v

aXrjdeiav

rrjv

^eKTi(TTO";

Swcofiai

av

a)9

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

koX

irepl

prjTopiKy

oKXri

irdcrri

Observations

Here, again,as
which

continuityof
"It

is in
of

cause

that
'

the

Self

"

for

"

Consciousness

of

praise and

takes

he

of

conscious

first becomes

experience.

Eesponsibilityof being

of

which

Self

active

an

"

as
a

Self, is formally prior to consciousness

sensitive. Self

realised

the

as

life-stages.

its

series of

the

through

consciousness

actions

man

moral

the

Myth, it is Besyonsibilitv
picture a pictureportrayingthe

Phaedo

the

representsin

Plato

Myth

Gorgias

the

on

in

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

126

one

mirror

blame

the
"

in

constant

or
responsible,
of a passive,

in

which

sense-

Thus, the Gorgias


successivelyreflected.
impressions are
Myth gives a strictlynatural representationof the Idea of
it sets forth, in a vision of Judgment, Penance,
Soul, when
of the active,as
and
Purification,the continuityand sameness
distinguishedfrom the passive -of the responsibleor moral,
as
distinguishedfrom the sensitive Self. \ It is only in vision
that
and not scientifically,
the Idea of Soul, or
in Myth
held up
be represented,
to contemplation as
or
Subject,can
that
is,in the
an
Object at all ;jand it is best represented,
most
suitable,not only to our consciousness of responmanner
sibility,
is
and
if
it
but to our
fear,
hope
representedin a
"

"

"

vision of

Judgment and Penance and Purification,where the


departedare not the passive victims of vengeance, Tifitopia,
but

activelydevelop their

native

of correction,"o\afft?.^ In

under
the. discipline
powers
vision it is consciousness
a

such

done and fear (that fear mentioned


of wrong
by Cephalus in
^ which
the Bepublic)
conjureup the spectacleof punishment ;
but
the

hope,springingfrom the sense of personalendeavour


good,speaks comfortablyto the heart,and says,
"

after
If

only

^
What
call sin
we
I could believe a painful opening out
Of paths for ampler virtue.

Clouoh, Dipsychus.
0 felix culpa, quae talem au
Meruit habere Kedemptorem
Easter hymn

tantum
!

quoted by Leibniz, ThSodicSe, p. 507, ed. Erdmann.


'

"

380 E.

THE

will strive

man

life,and

very
good, for

so

we

Plato's
This

which

the

past which
home

bring
Kadapa-Ks Pardon
a
thought which
Pardon

is not

Science

describes.

It

received

under

ourselves

to

only chill,but

Toiavra

iiraSeiv

oxrvep

Besides

man

still be

Pardon

deeper meaning
in

in the realm

which

the end.

can

forth

by

the

comes

by

Myth

may

of

which

It is

Nature

"Paith"

of

way

of God."

that

of

Punishment.

of Nature

Grace

dispensationthan

this

his ultimate

undone."

set

of the

comes

in

which

the

be

cannot

which

ra

him

is thusinvolved

dispensationunder
can

be

passionsin

hi for

future

cannot

found

"

another

Science

evil

overcome

punishment regards the


may

Science.

127

he fears will

"

is

MYTH

lives,all will be well with

punishment

modified,not
for

to
steadfastly

in future

The

OOBGIAS

"

Faith

"

confirm.) Xpr]

eavra.

this

notable
containing
theory of Punishment
and Pardon, the Gorgias Myth is remarkable
for its powerful
of
the
wonder
with
imaginative rendering
which
man
death
which
is best taken
a
side by side
regards
rendering
with
another
given in the Cratylus,403, 4. Hades, Ai'Si;?,
the God of Death, Socrates says in the Cratylus,
is not called,
most
as
people in their fear suppose, airo
aetSoOs he is
rov
terrible
Unseen
not the
One, who
keeps the Dead in Hell,
against their will,bound in the fetters of necessity. He is
"

"

rather

called

All-wise,

rod

-iravra

desire

disembodied

in

which;

necessity the desire of


Hades
as
disciplescleave

wisest

his

of

men

/ the Sirens-^
"

'

see

go

to

companionship.

The

Chthonian
Miss

Monuments

elBevai

"

he

Philosopher,who, indeed, holds the


not againsttheir will ; for his fetters are

so

that

to

learn
He

souls,

is

knowledge. (The

"

'

KcCKa

ra

the

but
fetters,
that

airo

great
of him,

charms

they

master

and

the

will not

is

the

Dead

in

those

stronger

Dead

than

cleave

of wisdom.

will not

charmers

leave him.

from

themselves
is

to

The

return

He

of

"

rightly

Sirens, although they became eventuallysimply Sluses,were


originally
deities,and as such are sculpturedon tombs and painted on lekythi^
Harrison's
Myths of the Odyssey, pp. 156-166
Mythology aTid
; her
ff.
and
Ancient
582
her
article
in J. U.S.
vol. vi.
Athens,
of
;
pp.

and
the
Sirens
Dionysiac Boat-races
Cylix of
pp. 19 ff. ("Odysseus
"As
Nicosthenes
monuments
on
"), 1885.
tombs, the Sirens," writes ilisa
filled a double
to have
Harrison
(Myth, and Mom.
p. 584), "seem
functiojj;
to
fit
be
the
set
of
sweet
on
singers,
they were
poet or orator,and tliey
grave
for the beauty of youth and maiden.
to lament
It is somewhat
mourners
were
"

curious
makes

"

that they are never


sculpturedon Attic tombs in the
their relation to death clearlyintelligiblei.e. that of
"

one

function

that

death-angels.The

called
we

MYTHS

THE

128

have

wonder

deep

which

with

traditional

cultus

into his

go down
oracles than
who

livingwho

sleepin

his

disembodied

Lebadia.^

at

learner

declares

all and

leave

call it

may
the

of

the

Tov

are

occurs

blindness
and

through

the

"

a-mfiaToi

souls, without
souls

appears
and
Myth

or

naked
also

It

is at

this

the

point

^for
GratylusMyth
The judges
Gorgias Myth.
souls (the phrase rj ^jrvx^i
in Gratylus,
403
b) naked
"

"

bias of the
and

through,

makes

soul.Hades

Philosopher.
between

which

disembodied

true

the

bodily
knowledge,

In this,that

with

Gorgias Myth

yvfivr}

them

of the

Teacher.

his

to

the^

for only [
dialectic,

desire

only

converse

himself

cleave

the

to

only with

the distractions

soul,freed from

that the connection

in

his

invincible

he will hold

we

It is

truer

"

sends

experiencethat
which
hidkeKriKriis vain,
6/3Q)s without

that
the

hold

will

Hades

can
passions,

death

sleepthe sleep of
which
Trophonius

cave

soul that

oracles to those

true

to

cave

dreams

those

disembodied
the

"

Plato

returns.

of

communicates

Hades

traveller

the

etymology" in support
suggest, also appeals tacitlyto

would

"

of

undiscovered

that

regards
no

Here

wisdom.

"

satisfaction

in

offered

"science

appeals openly to the


of his
myth," and, I

riches

true

man

bourn

whose

country from

the

reallya Myth

is

what

has

he

Pluto, because

PLATO

OF

flesh,which
true

pass

naked

see

judgment

upon

"

There

must

dead

The

be wisdom
shall look

,The wondering thought, that


/"enigmaof life, has

/than

in these

Dead

Judges

twin

never

Myths

with

death

been
of

Great

thro' aud

me

the

Death

thro'.

perhaps solve the


more
impressivelyrendered
PhilosopherDeath and the
may

of the Dead.

Siren of the Attic graves must


connected
with
surelybe somehow
angels that appear on the Harpy toinb, but her function as such
been usurped for Attica by the male angels Death
and Sleep."
Eriuna's epitaph

the bird deathseems

to have

"

Kal Seip^Kcs eiial,


Kai tt^vBiikKpuaai,
(7Ttt\ai,
StTTii ^X^'s 'AtSa rd.v iX"7ay o-jroSiiv
"

brings the

Sirens

and

Hades

into

connection

just as

OrcU. 403

does

"

did, TavrH

o65ii/a deSpo iSfKijiraL


iireXBeiv t"3k eKciBeii,
oiSi aiirds
ipa (^S/uv, Si 'Ep/iiyeves,
xal Tois "\\ovt
exdvas
rds Seip^xas, iXKi. KaTaKeK\rj"rffai
Tt
Trivras- offrw KoXois
date
Tixos, lis loiKev,eTrioTttToi X670US Xiyar o "AiSijs.Accoiding to Mr. J. P. PostExamination
of the
{Journal of Philology, ix. pp. 109 S., "A Philological
Myth of the Sirens"), they are singingbirds = souls winged for flighthence.
1
Cf. Rohde, Psyche, i. 115 ff.

THE

GOBGIAS

MYTH

129

II

Another
of the
because

point,and
Gorgias Myth.
I know

that

I have
I

with

the

to

have

anxious

am

the

done

"

Philosophy

"

done

with

it,

"

too easily
Philosophy of a Myth
becomes
the dogmatic teachingwhich
it covertlyconveys
;
but I trust that in the foregoingremarks
I have avoided, and
in the followingremarks
shall continue
to avoid, the error
of
an
Allegory. The point is this.
treatinga Myth as if it were
The
who
suffer eternal
incurably wicked
punishment are
and
like Archelaua
had
Tantalus, who
mostly tyrants men
the opportunityof committing the greatest crimes, and used
had the opportunity and did
it. All praise to the few who
it.
But
not
use
Thersites, a mere
private offender,no poet
He
had not the
has ever
condemned
to eternal pimishment.
opportunityof committing the greatest crimes, and in this is
Here a mystery is set
happier than those offenders who had.
The
forth.
who
has the opportunityof committing the
man
greatestcrimes, and yieldsto the specialtemptation to which
is
he is exposed,is held worthy of eternal damnation, which
escaped by the offender who has it not in his power, and has
such crimes.
been
First,
never
effectively
tempted,to commit
"

"

"

"

the

crime

greatness of the

quantitystanding in
and

then

the

quantity of

no

crime

to the

relation

quality

the

is estimated

of
so

the

as

if it

were

qualityof

the

mere

agent

agent is determined
vice

that

with

by the
large opportunity

than
vice with
worse
narrow
infinitely
tunity,
"opporthe former
receivingeternal punishment, the latter
This mystery of
correction only for a limited time.
suffering
vice with largeopportunityand
the infinite difference between
.vice with narrow
opportunity the mystery which is set forth
this mystery is set forth
in
lead us not into temptation
any
by Plato in the Gorgias Myth as a mystery, without
do
not
Men
born
to great power
attempt at explanation:
comes

out

as

"

"

"

"

"

start

with

the

same

chance

of ultimate

salvation

as

born

men

Gorgias Myth leaves us.


but
In the Vision
of Er, however, an
explanationis offered
less than the mystery to be explained,
still the explanation,
no
but
the understandiug,
not
is mythicallyset forth
to satisfy
to

With

privatestations."

that

the

"

"

as

be

of fact does choose, its station in life

matter

the

"

that

this way

the

it

whether

large opportunity of doing


of a privateperson with narrow
opportunity. In
mystery of the Gorgias Myth is explained
of

station

evil,or

the Soul, before

limits,to choose, aid

certain

incarnation,is free,within

each

is that

of Er

Vision

in the

The

imaginative expression.

feeling in

give relief to
explanationoffered
to

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

130

tyrant with

"

"

"

Myth.
so
So
Philosophy of the GorgiasMyth
add a
let me
for the great problems raised in it. Now
of
other points,for the better appreciation
notes
on
some
Myth itself as concrete product of creative imagination.
another

explainedby

for the

much

much

few
the

"

"

"

Ill
The

judged

marked

are

"incorrigible."So,
those

to Heaven

sent

tablets

Tartarus
sentences

from

dead

the

of

with
he

which

Purgatory

"

was

of tablets

idea
of

custom

placing in

See

letter that denotes the inward

been

graves

taken

and

of
the

times
stain

When

entered,that

thou

wash

"

these

point
Look," he cried,
scars
away." ^

judgment-seat of Minos, Ehadamanthys, and Aeacus


Xeifi"vi,ev rr} Tptohip,
e| ?i"}(jiepeTov
tw
oSp, t)

rm

Comparetti,J.
of

Thurii

and

H.

S. ill.Ill, and
Dieterich,Nekyia, 85, on the gold
of. p. 156 ff. infra.
The
Orphic custom

Petelia ; and

have
Itself may
from Egypt, where
come
texts from
buried with the corpse.
The Book
of the Dead was
from
the body and
Double, which is apt to wander
IrUrodiiction to the Sistory of
Tales, second series,
p. 124.
^

have

"

with the blunted


on
forehead,
my
Of his drawn sword, inscribed.
And

tablets

the

and

deeds

journey through the other world.^


enters
Purgatory the Angel at the Gate
sins {peccata)
seven
P's,to denote the seven
in
be cleansed
his passage
to
through

He

is iv

be

to

way

Seven

The

may

to

"

The

"

their

sent

the

on

Dante

him

The

which

on

describingthe

be done

Before

behind,

Orphic

the

tablets

things to
marks

fixed

b) as "corrigible"or
of Er
(Bep. 614 c)

tablets fixed in front, those

have

recorded.

are

derived

too, in

(Gorg.526
the
Myth

Purg. ix. 101,

and

see

Beligion,p. 323, and

Gary'snote

ad loc.

the Sook
a

of the Dead

guide-book for

were

the Ka, or
See Jevons'

lose its way.


Flinders Petrie's Egyptian

THE

GORGIAS

17 B
/jutKaprnv v^crovi;,
topography of this passage

649

fiev
Thfe

614

also the

judgment-seat is
from

their

131

Tdprapov {Qorg. 524

et?

correspondswith
that^the

it is added

where, however,
ff.,

MYTH

in

spot

which

the

that of

A).
Bep.

Xeifuov of the
souls, returned

thousand

years'sojourn in Tartarus and Heaven


the Islands of the Blessed),
(i.e.
meet, and rest,before going
lives before
to the place where
on
they choose their new
of Lethe.
In the Gorgias the two
drinking of the water
mentioned
are
(1) that to Tartarus,and (2) that to the
ways
the Xetficovof judgment is "at
Islands of the Blessed; and
the parting of the ways
iv t^ rpioSip,no reference being
made
to a third way
leading to the throne of Necessity,and
of Lethe.
In
in
the parallelpassage
thence
to the Plain
"

"

Bejo. 614

they

three

are

Heaven,

ff. the

and

"

(3)

divergingfrom
The
to

"

Tartarus,

the surface

are

not
to

the

way

the

way

to

mentioned

Plain

of Lethe

in the

indicated

the

the

third

lean

Abide,

Oh

rest a

show

is the

upon my
little space,
you ferlies three.

in the

Though
And

not

see

lies

That

is the

in

Ehymer

the
:
"

Thomas,
:

road,
and

briars ?

ye that braid braid


the lilyleven ?

Though

road,

And

not

path of wickedness,
call it the road

ye

That

winds

That

is the road
thou

that

about

and

to Heaven.

bonny road,

the fernie brae ?


to fair

Elf-land,

I this

night maun

See Dieterich,Nekyia, 89, 90, and

gae.

Rohde, Fsy.
especially

of

literature

across

some

see

(a river

appear

the

one

"

path of righteousness,
few inquires.

after it but

That

true

knee

see
ye not yon narrow
thick beset wi' thorns

Where

'

now,

head

your

and

I wiU

That

all three

of Er,

Lethe

to

"

Light down, lightdown

So

to

way

"

Myth

Earth), constantlyoccur
which
reflects Orphic influence.^ They even
folk-lore representedby the story of Thomas

And

the

Tartarus, (2)

the

Heaven, and

to

And

three; but

as

XeifiMv.

"Ways,"as

one

of

ways

(1)
the

Three

"

ii. 221, note.

132

The
the

three

main,

the

is

alien

especially

as

greatest
its

matter

the

doctrine

the

come

of

the

noble

such

Hebrew

spirit,

Platonic

doctrine

of

imaginative

and

to

came

of

the

Kd6apa-i,";
"

reflecting
We

to

from

mainly

Myths

gives

in

doctrine

theological

The

Dante

correspond,

Commedia

Divina

Ways."

Three

"

which

to

the

PLATO

OF

"

expressiiSh,
Church

of

parts

to

Purgatory,

of

MYTHS

THE

Orphic
to

now

Plato's

or

found

See

Eschatological

teaching.^
the

Myth

Eschatological
the

in

expression

of

Er

Myths,

splendour

of

Thompson's

note

its

on

form

Gorg.

(Bep.
whether
be

525

614

the

considered.

B.

ff.),

the

fulness

MYTHS

THE

134

PLATO

OF

Republic 613e-621d
*A
614

re

ToLvvv, ?iv S'

fiev

Kal

avOptowmv

7r/90s

eKeivoi"irots

avvT),

TOiavT

av

irpo's eKecva,

Xva

aKovcrai,

vov

fiKrOolKoi

Aeyot? dv, e^t),"a?


oil fievroi

diroXoyov ipS),dXK!

aXKifiov

TO
'Ap/ieviov,
yevo"i Tla/i^vKov

TTjo-ai,

dvaipeOevTwvBeKaraicav

fievcov,

vyirj^

aoi,

fiev
nrore

0?

t"v

Tff

ixel iBoi.

ttoWcI

ov

dvSpo^,'Hpo?
iv

tow

iro\efi(preXev-

^St; Sie"j)0ap-

vexp"v

irvpa

rov

oixaBe

/leWcav

Keifievo^dve^ito,

ov
""pr)Be, iTreiBr)

eK^fjvai

rfjvyjrvx^qv,
fierd iroKKoav, Kal d"f"iKveia'6ai
iropeveaQai,
cr"j"ai
645

TOirov

Tiva

Saifioviov,
ev
9)

ey(pfjieva"aWrjXoiv
KaravTiKpv,

Kai

tov

ttj?

re

ovpavov

BiKarrra^ Be

7^9 Sv* elvai '^da-fiare


aZ

Trjv

el"iBe^idv re

r"v
"yfravrai
rrjv

61?

oiria-Qev

Kal

dvea Bid

iv rm
BeBiKaa-fievcov

dpiarepdv re

Kal

ai}fielairdvrmv

dovro"} elirelv,
on

Beoi

iv

fiera^v rovrmv

Toii'ifiev BiKaiov^
BiaBi,Katreiav,
eTreiBr)

fieyeOei

^v B' iym, 'AXki-

B'
dvgpeBr],K0fii,a6ei"i

ddirreadai,, B(oBeKaralo"i eirX

jSe^aia.

Kai

tA vtto
d7r6tX'ij"jyjj

A\X'

dva^iovt B' e\eyev

re

irepifiivei.
^(pr] S" avra

avr"v
e/cdrepo'i

fiev

yiyverat

ovSe
irXrjdei,

itrri

TeXevrrjcravraeKarepov
reXeo)?

S"pa

aiirr}irapel'^eTo
17 Sixaio-

iyco,ovSev

^8102;aKOvovTi.
ye

Kal

kclSA
fiaX',e(pr),

eii). Kal

dKova'ai,
6"j)eiK6/ieva

X070U
aW'

re

ayaOoli oh

roivvv, fjv 8

Tavra

adXd

de"v

Sixalipirapa

^rnvri to*

eyw,

Kara,

"v
avrov

rov

tS

dveo

aXKa

KaOrjaOai, ovf,
KeXeveiv

ovpavov,

airjfieia

irpotrBev,
tov?
e'xpvra"; Kal

eirpa^av, eavrov

tropeveffdai

irepid-

Be dSiKOV!

rovrov}

Be

ev

rm

irpocreX-

dyyeXov dvOpmiroi's
yeveaOai

THE

MYTH

OF

EE

135

Translation
"

Of such

giftswhich
Gods

sort, then,

the

and

just man

Men,

spake which

Justice

Yea, in truth

"

prizesand

receiveth,while

and

over

the

are

"

above

the wages and the


he is yet alive,from

those

good thingswhereof I
herself provideth."
goodly gifts,"
quoth he, and exceeding
"

sure."

"Well,"
and

said, "they

are

even

as

greatness,in comparison with

each

the

of

when

he

them

may

oweth

two,

to

wit, the

is dead.
have

him

to

be

Of

just

these

full payment
said

those

and

man

thou
of

nothing, for
things which

must

that

the

await

unjust

hear, that
which

number

this

man,

each

of

Discourse

concerninghim."

Say on," quoth he, there is little else I would hear


more
gladly."
Nay," said I, but it is not a Tale of Alcinous I wiU tell
thee, but the story of a mighty man, Er, the son of Armenius,
of the nation of the Pamphylians.
"

"

"

"

"

It

to

came

taken

pass that he
the

fell in

battle ; and

when

the

day alreadystinking,he
taken
sound ; and when
was
they had carried him home
up
and were
about
the twelfth
to bury him, on
day, being laid
the pyre, he came
to life again ; and
on
began to tell of the
things which he saw there.
"He
said that when
his Soul
went
out, it journeyed
certain
unto
a
togetherwith a great company, and they came
Mouths
of the Earth
two
ghostly place wherein were
open
hard by each other,and also above, two Mouths
of the Heaven,
seated between
over
these,
against them : and Judges were
who, when
they had given their judgments,bade the righteous
take the road which
and up through
leadeth to the right hand
Heaven
in front, signifying
; and they fastened tablets on them
the judgments ; but the unjust they sent by the road
which
leadeth to the left hand
and
down, and they also had
all that they had
tablets fastened on them
behind, signifying
done.
he himself
But
when
before the Judges they
came
corpses

said

were

unto

him

the

up

on

that he must

things there, and

be

tenth

for

they

unto men
cerning
conmessenger
that
charged him straitly

ixei

Twv

"jravra

to,

Kal
iv

^dafia

TO

totto).

Tov

aviivat e'"

Be
E

Kal

del

Tcbf

^aiveaOat

o"rai,

615

Kal

yvmpifiai,

Kal

XBoiev iv

Tr}v

rrope'iav
j^tXter^
"

6ea"s

rrj

iK

av

voWov

oa-ov";

BeKdxt^

"

^Lov
ay;
piBa "Kd(rTi]V,
ro

davdrwv

oirive^ TToW"v
Kal
(TrparorreBa

eh

KaKovy(_ia"s
/leratrioi,
inrep

eKdarov

ravTct

TTjv

eh

Be

o5v
B

Biijy^aaadai' to
ircoirore

^BUrjaav

riva

iv p.epei,

eKarovraer'q-

Karci

dvdpioirivov

rov

"

Kol

^
^aav aXrioi,"rjTroXet? irpoBovre^

SouXet'a? i/i/Se/SXrjKorei;,
ij rivof
trdvrwv

BiKaiot

Kal
Kal

Kal

aXKij"!

BeKa-rrKaa-ia';
dT^rjBova^

rovrtov

eX

av

oaioi

^lovvrcov irept, dXXa

6eovi! dcre^eia"ire

avToj^eipa^

fiev

iKrivoiev
dBiKi^fiaroi

rov

d^iav KOfii^oivro,r"v

oKlrfov^povov

r^

KdXXo"s.

rocrovrov

ovto";

einra0eui"}

ovpavov

S" elvai

rovro

KOfiiaaivro,

Kal

evepyeT7]K0Tei

fiev

rai

BlktjvBeBtOKevai

diravroov

eKTicrfia

7^5

ovpavov

rov

a.Wj;\a(9

j(povov

Kal

vrrep

t^9

eK

eK

rai

rov

roBe elvai.Sera
Ke"j}dXai,ov
e"j"7i
sKaa-rot,

re

"

o?iv

BeKairXdo'iov

tropeua'i

755? rropeia elvai, Be

vrro

rb
dfirj'^dvov^

TXavKav,

eKdcrrov

KaOapd^.

Kai
oaa
re
dvap.i/ji,V7](rK0fj,eva";,

B'

ra"s

"

Xva

Kal

eKel

ra

K\aov"Ta"i,

irddotev koX

vrrep
B

rdi

rrvvOdveadai

ereptov

ola

TToXXa,

eK

"Keifi"vaairiovaais

"

Kal
Bi/riyeladai,

fiev

Koveo)"s,

ttoW^s

rov

"Trap'iKeivai";, Bir)yeL"r9aiBk

re
oBvpo[ieva";

eV

Kal dffird^eo'dak
re
dXKriKaracrKrjvda-Oai,

fjKovaa^ rrapkrmv
ra

Kal

ovpavov

eK

eh
daiJLeva";

Kal

rfKeiv,

ra?

erepco

rw

rov

e"

eKurepov

aviovaai

re

avj(^fiov

fiearai

d^iKvovp.eva"!
mairep

olov iv "Travrjyvpei
Xa?

7^?

irepov Kara^aiveip ere/sa?

TOV

Be

Kara
BiKaffQeli],

ttj?

Kad

fiev

tj}? 7^?

Kal

re

ovpavov

Oedtraai

koI

re

aKoveiv

Bri ravry

opav

avrah
eTreiBij
""^vj(a"!,
TOV

oi

BiaKeXevoivro

r^

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

136

riva^

elev, Karh

yeyovore^

Be

evOin;

ekeyev

yevo/ievrnv

ovk

eiae^ela"sKal

en
^ovov fiel,^ov";
tow?

evepyeaiai:

a^ia

Kal

iivrjfi/q's.

yovia^

Kal

fiia-0ov"s
BiTjyeiTO.e^V

THE
he

should

MYTH

give diligenceto

EE

OF

hear

and

137

all the

see

things in

the

place.
^
"

Now, he told how


of the Mouths

that he beheld
of Heaven, and

the Souls

some
departing,

by oneof the Mouths


of Earth, when
judgment had been given unto them ; also
how
that he beheld Souls returningby the other two Mouths,
covered with
some
coming up from the Earth travel-stained,
dust,and some
coming down from Heaven, pure. And he said
that all,as they came,
belike from a long journey,
being come
and
turned aside with
joy into the Meadow
encamped there
in a Congregation
as
they that were
acquaintances
; and
another
and
greetedone another,
they
they questioned one
that were
from
the Earth
come
questioned them that were
from
Heaven
come
concerning the things there, and in like
Heaven
from
manner
come
questioned the
they that were
others
concerningthe things that had happened unto them.
So they discoursed with one
of them
another
some
groaning
and weeping when
they called to mind all the terrible things
they had suffered and seen in their journey under the Earth
he said that their journey was
for a thousand
years ; and
by

one

some

"

"

"

"

others of them, to wit, those

tellingof blessingsand
"

but

Time

the

thereof

sum

of the wrongs
of them
whom

which

their' course,

ten

he

years that he
lifetime of a

this

each

so

each:

is it

if any

just

and

rewards.
were

have

said that

thus

as

years

other

are

lived

or

casting men
iniquity,they are

not

for those

worth
and
that

short

were

men,

while,

and

there

As

those

murderers,

died

he

who

pensed
recom-

things;

have

and

receive

measure

remembering.

Parents,

of these

one

other

but

into

and

for each

torments

for the

counted

are

to

armies,

or

hundred

it is every

now,

all in

pass that the price of


if certain caused
the death

done

Gods
and

"

good unto
religious,
they in the same
that
Also concerninginfants

born,

the number
the number

done, and

ever

brought

by betraying cities
bondage, or taking part of
but

accordingto

hundred

of many

with

"

hath

for

is paid tenfold :
evil-doing

tenfold

That

man

payeth,for
:

sights.

wronged, he payeth penalty for

times

man

Heaven,

0 Glaucon, to relate all that he said,

was

hath

from

come

were

fair

marvellous

fail me,

would

which

as

soon

were

for those

their

they
things he
as

who

honoured

spake of

been

honoured
dis-

them,

their wages

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

138

irepov,oirov
rfkp Bri irapayevea-Oai
epcoTafievtp hepq} viro
6 Se 'ApSialo";
t^? Ila/i^v\ia"s
ovto";
o
elr)'ApSiato?
/liya';.
ev

iroXei

rivi

eKelvov
D

yipovrd

ypovov,

TOP

rjSt)^iXioarov

eyeyovet,

Tvpavvo";

KaX
dSe\(f)6v,
irpeff^vrepov

Zrj iroWd

akXa

ovv
iXeyero. e"jyr)
co?
elpyaa-fievo"i,

TjKei,, ^avai, ovS"

OvT^

ideaa-d/jueda
yap

eKelvov
ireirovQoTet;,

aKkov";

o-yeBovTi

Be

IBiMrai

koX

fj fir)

616

avrSsv

oiroTe

t"v

Tt?

aW

arofiiov,
ets

ovi

Trovqpiav

Brj

evTavda

Koi
KaraIBeiv, TrapearuTei
Bia/jrvpoi,
avSpei,e(jyr],
aypioi,
Be
to
tov^
liav9dvovTe";
"f)diyfJM,
p"ev BvaXa^ovre's ^yov, tov
Kal TroSa?
Kol
ciX\.ov"scrvfjuiroBia-avTe';
re
')(elpd";
'ApBialov
elKKOv
Kal Kei^aXr)v,
Kara^aXovTet; koX eKBeipavTe^,
irapa

oBov

rrjv

a-rjfiaivovTe'i,

el";

OTi

virep^dXXeivtov

TovTov

ore
"p9eyp.a,

dva^rjvai.

yevoivTo,

Kal

Tavra

TravToBair"v

"f"o^ov,p,r)

Kal

rot?

p^v Br) Si/ca? re

ra?
av

tiS

ev

Belv

Kal

ovpavov

pdXiaTa

ry

7JJ9

Toiamai
Tip.(opLa"i

dvTiaTpo"jiOV'!
eirTCL

Trj oyBorj

Kadopav

TeTap.evov

to

"TiyTi(ravT0"i

Xeip,S)Vi eKaaToi';

dvaa-Tdvra'i evTevOev

TOV

eKdaTtp

yevoiTO

Kal

Br)

evOa

"r^t"rtyeyovoTtov

ravTai"!
evepyeaia'i

to,^

d"piKvela-0ai
TerapTaiov;oOev

7rai/T09

dyoivTO.

aei

Kal

virofievoiev

dva^aivoi,Kal da-p,eveaTaTa
eKacTTOv

Kal
Ttv^? eXiiai,

iiretB^ Be

Te

ep.treaovp.evoi,

Kal

(jio^cov,
e^Tj, TToXX"v

Kiova,

eveKa

wv

TdpTapov

TOV

KvdirTOVTe'i,KciX toIm

dairaKdQwv

eir

ckto?

"jTapiovat

eBeyeroto

avievat.
BiKr)veiri,')(eipo'l

SeSw/ew?

iKava)";

irXeicrrov^ rvpawovi'

dvidrco^ e-^ovTcov

ovT(o"i

Kat,

/leydka rifiapTrjKortov

t"v

rivef

avievai

KareiBofievi^ai^vq'i

re

tow

rjBrjdva^rjaeaOai,ovk
oio/ievov";
e/iVKaro,

avoaia

dea/iarcav.

Betv"v

t"v

aTOfiLov^fiev /ieWovTe?

ToKKa

'^aav

koX

re

eLireiv,
ipoorcofievov

tov

tovto

tov

Kot

Br) koI

iveiBr) iyyv";
iravTa

Kat

rj^etBevpo.

av

ovv

aTTOKTetvav

irarepa

re

et?

ero?

r)p.epav

iropeveadai,

dvcoOev

"/)w? ev6v,

ipiBi irpocfipepr),
Xapirporepov

Bk

Biob
olov
Kat

oBov,
KaOapmrepov. el";o d^iKea-daivpoeXBovTa'}r)p.epr)aiav
C

Kal

IBeiv avTodi

Kara

p.eaov

Tavra

to

"j}"^e/e

inro/iivoiev
om.

rov

ovpavov

tu

THE

as

another

inquired,Where

Ardiaeus

had

thousand

years
his

father,and

made

evil deeds, as

ever

tell.

made

stood beside
the

He

Great

of whom

one

Now

was.

this

beheld

said,then, that

the

is not

saying,He

for

"

in

King

answered

hither

come

139

cityof Pamphylia just a


before that time, having slain the old man
his
elder brother, and having wrought many
other

men

inquirywas

he

Ardiaeus

himself

EE

OF

greater; for he said that

eveu

he

MYTH

this,indeed, was

come

whom

will

nor

of the terrible

one

nigh unto the Mouth,


and about to go up after all our
the sudden
we
sufferings
; on
in sight of him, and
of them
others, most
came
kings,but
also privatemen
of those that had
sinned greatly
there were
alreadyabout
amongst them : these, thinking that they were

things that

we

to

the

go up,
belloweth

like unto

cure

priceof
^

men

upon
took

"

of

him

of every

that

hath

up.

In

go

for

wicked

are

full

paid
place he

that

it

beyond
the

not

said

Voice

his

great joy did


Of such

each

be
one

they

fear

go up

kind, then,

placeapart by the
thorns, signifying
taken, and

were

the

that

said,there

he

came

he

the

feared lest

of them

one

when

when

were

on

neck, and

greater than all the fears

before ; for each


for himself

Then,

Tartarus.

companions

they had

should

wherefore

into

be cast

to

; but

away

foot and

and

them

there carded

them

carried

and

arms

they bound hand


flayed,and dragged

passed by

and
sort

their

and

way,

they should

"

one

any

others

down, and

all that

the

in

some

and

side of the

upon

these, or

of those that

one

any

bellowed

not, but

received

"

Ardiaeus

to

were

standing by savage men, as coals of fire to look


who, hearing and understandingthe Voice of the Mouth,

hold

threw

as

we

sins,essayeth to

his

were

Mouth

often

as

when

of

one

went

up

and

with

kept silence.

Voice

judgments and

the

ments
punish-

blessingsthat answered unto them.


been
both companies had
seven
days in the
Now, when
constrained, on the eighth
Meadow, Er said that they were
the fourth day
on
day, to arise and journey thence, and came
tended
to a place whence
they could behold a Straight Light ex; and

there

were

"

from
it

were

through

the

colour

most

for
pillar,

brighter and
gone
the

above

forward

purer.
a

Unto

whole

which

like

unto

they

came

day'sjourney,and there, at

Light,beheld

extended

from

the

and

Heaven

Heaven

the

Earth,

rainbow,

when

as

but

they had

the middle
the ends

part of
of the

^vvBeafiovrov

olov

ovpavov,

^m?

to

tovto

vTro^oyfiaraTtav

ra

rpii^pcov,
t5"v axpcov

Se

^weyov rrjv irepi^opdv'e"


Bi oil
eincrTpe^eadai
irava's
'Avdr/Krj"i
rerafievov
arpaKTOv,
Kol ro
re
arfKiarpov
Ta"s
irepKpopdv ov ttjv /msv fj'KaKa.Trjv
re
rovrov
Be
elvai i^ dhdixavTO"i,
e/c
rov
cr"f"6vBvXov
fiiKTov
Be
Koi
^vaiv eivai
rov
aXXajv
a-"j"ovSvXov
yev"v.
rrjv
ovreo

Tera/iiva'etvai yhp
Se"rfiS"v

r"v

avTov

aKpa

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

140

"jraaav

ToidvBe-

r/

a-y(r]fui oiairep

fiev

TO

ev6dBe'

tov

Be

vorja-ai

el ev
evl
elvat,,matrep
av
i^ "v ekeye ToiovBe avrov
aXKo";
Bia/iirepei
KolXip koX i^ey\vfifievq"
/leydXtpa-"f"ovBvXM
iX^TTcov
KaOdirep ol xdBoi oi
iyKeoiTO dpixoTTCov,
TotouTO?
Kal ovtco
Kai
eh dWij\ov"; dpiMorrovTe'i'
Btj TpuTOv aWov
Bet

Kal

Teraprov

aWov"!

avtodev

Tci

v"tov
^aivovTa";,
y(eL\7]

cwej^e?

Kal

TrXarvTOTOv
e^toTaTO)a-"f"6vBvXov

ey(^eiv,

Be

tov

tov

Be

epoo/iov,

be

eKTOv

tov

tov

tov

tov

tov

fieaov

irp"Tov

re

"^eiXovi;kvkXov
Be

oyBoov, TrefiiTTov Be
irep/irTOV,

tov

a^ovBvXov
Bia

ovv

BevTepov,Tpirov

cktov

Terdprov,TerapTov

fiev

kvkXov^

evo?

eKeivrjvBe

ireplrijv rjKaKdTt^v
direpya^ofievov;
eXrjXdcrdai. tov
oySoov Biafiirepe^
tov

tov?

eivai

dXKrfKoi,';
eyxeifievov^,

ev
^v/iiravTa's
cr^ovBv\ov";,

yhp

oktw

TerTapa^.

epoofiov

oe

tov
tov
tov

tov
tov
tov

tov
oyBoov Be tov
tov
BevTepov Kal tov
/lev
Be tov
e^Bo/iov Xafi/irpoTarov,tov
fieyla-TovttoikLXov,tov
Be TOV
e^Bofiov e)(ei,v irpoa-tov
oyBoov to
airo
"x^pci/ia
Be tov
XdfiTTOvTOi;,
TOV
Bevrepovkoi
irapairXria-La
irefiirTOV
Be XevKOTaTov
aKKrjXoi";,^avdoTepa eKeivcov,TpiTOv
'x^p"fia

TpuTOV,

617

Be

virepvOpov,BevTepov Be XevKorrjTi tov


Be
6KT0V
Btj aTpe^ofievov tov
virep^dXXeiv. KVKXelaOai,
Be
oXov
oXa"
ev
rm
tf)opdv,
TTjv
avTTjv
fiev
CLTpaKTOv
ey(eiv, TerapTov

roii?
Trepi"f)epo/ieva)

fiev

evT09

e-TTTa

kvkXov";

ttjv

evavriav

Be tovtcov
avTwv
6X"p rjpefjM irepufiepea-Oat,
raj^to-ra /ttev
levai TOV
Be Kal ajjui dWjJXot? tov
oyBoov, BevTepov";
T6
Kal "jrifiTrTov
Be (f"opalivai,
tov
e^Bofwv Kal BKTOv
TpuTOv
ft)9
crtpiai ^aiveaOai, eiravaKVKXovjjLevov tov
TeTaprov
Be
Kal
tov
tov
Bevrepov
irepmrov
TerapTOV
TptTov
Be avrov
itrl
ev
roif
a-rpe"f"eff6a(,
t^? ^AvdyKri";yovacriv.
Tea

'

Be

dvto6ev

^e^-rjKevai
ecf) eKdarov
rovov
%eipfjva
^covrjvfiLav ielaav, eva
a-vfirrepL^epofievTjv,
eK

Tosv

iracmv

kvkXcov

Bk

okto)

avrov

ova"v

dXXa(;
fiiavdpfioviav^viM"f"(oveiv.

Bk

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

142

KaOrjfieva'!
irepi^ Bt'

Opovw eKda-rijv,

T/set?, iv

'iffov

Mol,pa";,
a-re/jifiara
Xevxeitiovovcra";,
dvyarepa^tjj? ^AvdyKrj"s,
iirl T"v
"

A.dyeo'iv
i'vpvaa'i,

KeAaX"v

Arpoirov,Vfivecv
rd

fiev

fiiWovra,

koX

rd

Be

T^\co6a"

yeyovora,

fiev KXw^cb

ttjv

KXwaoj

icai

Kai,

Aa')(e"nv
2"eiprivmvdpfiovi,av,

t"v

Tr/ao? ttjv

re

"ArpoTrov Be

ovra,

Be^ia

T17

rd

ii^aTrrofievrfv

xeipi

rov
drpuKTOV r^v e^co vrepi^opav,BidKei,(Tvve'iria'Tpe"\"etv

irovcrav

aS

wcrauTft)?'

Be

rrjv

'xpovov,

Ad^^eenviv

Be

ttjv

"Arpoirovtt} dpitrrepara?

evrof

eKaripatt}

/J-epet eKarepa^

e^diTTeaOai.
'Xeipi
ev6v"; Betv
dtpiKeo'dai,,
a"^d";oSv, eireiBr]
oZv
Ad'^ecriv.irpo^rjTr)v

nvd

'iirena Xa^ovra
Biaarrjaai,,

KXrfpovf Te

Kal

er"pdiirpSiTOVfiev iv rd^ei

davaTT]"j)opov.
ov'^

Ti/MMV

Kal

alna

eXofievov

dn/Ma^av

TrdvTai; Toi)^

BrjXov elvai,

tov
KXijpov;,

ov'

Be
Be

yrjv, ttoXv

Tr]v

^mmv

ydp

Te

diravTa's.

Kal

TrXeto)

irdvrwv

t"v

Be

^vyd";Kal

Kal

eh

to

ydp

Be

tovto

dveXofievtp
aWi^

Td

delvai

iiri

elvat Be "jravToBaird'

Bt) koI
iv

exaa-Tov

Be

irpoadev a^"v

irapovTwv.

phh-ai iirl

irea-ovTa

t^

e^ei.

e/eao-TO?

elirovTa

edv

ovk

dBecirorov, fjv

avTrj^

irap'avTov

filov;koI

TvpavviBai;Te

BiaTeXeli,ra?

eXuTTOV

elXij'^eiv
fieTa

oiroaro^

v/iei^

alpei"T9a)
Xaj^oivirpS)TO";

Kal

eh
/3io)VirapaBeiy/jiaTa

T"v

Te

irXeov

yevov"s

Bai/Mov X'^^eTai, dW'

v/m"!

Beo'; dvairi,o"i.TavTa

ttXtjv
dvaipeia-Bat,
"18

Aa^eceo)?Xoyo^,

i^ dvdyKT]^. dpeTrjBe

iTweaTai

^rj/ui

Ti

aXXr)"! TrepioBov dvrjTov

Balfiova aiprjo-etrde,
irp"TO'iB
a)

t^? Aaj^eaeeo^yovdrmv

t"v

eK

Amy/ciy? 6vyaTpo";Kopij^

"^v^al e^rjfiepoi,
dp^r/

^Lov,

irpo's rrjv

^i(ov TrapaBeij/jbaTa,
dvafidvTa iiri

elirelv
{jyfrTjXov

levai

tovi

dvOpmirivov;

aiTOi"s elvai, Td";

fiev

p^Ta^v Bia"f"deipo/u,eva^
Kal et? irevia^
TTTwp^eia?

BoKLfiasv
dvBp"v ^iovi, tov"s

fiev

reXeuToJo-a?

elvai

Be Kal

iiri eiBea-i Kal

KUTd

koXXt)

"

THE

Eound

"

about

MYTH

OF

three

others

EE

143

seated

equal distances
apart,each upon a throne : these be the Daughters of Necessity,
the Fates, Lachesis, and
Clotho, and Atr"pos. They are
clothed in white raiment
and have
garlandson their heads ;
and they chant to the melody of the Sirens ; Lachesis chant.eth
of the things that have been, and
Clotho of the things that
with
are, and Atropos of the things that shall be : and Clotho
her right hand
and anon
taketh
hold of the outer round
ever
of the spindle,
and helpeth to turn it ; and Atropos with her
doeth

left hand

either

with

the

hand

Now

"

are

with

same

taketh

the inner

hold

of outer

said that when

he

Lachesis.

unto

first marshal

in order ; and

go
them

of the

earthlylife which
not

lots,to get

cast

Life

the

Virtue

hath

"

threw

the

beside

he

shall

shall

him,

save

As

them

Prophet

having

taken

did

lots out

you shall choose his


first turn, first choose

the
bound

of

necessity.

honoureth

man

of her

more

for it.
the

of

one

be

have

he

answer

lots unto

each

shall

master.

no

said that when

Er

it behoved

Wherefore

faUeth

to whom

her, so

chosen

but

you,

which

unto

honoureth
hath

him

Let

Angel.

alternately.^

inner

come,

then

Lachesis

Ensamples of Lives, went up into a


saith
: Thus
Necessity's
Daughter, Maid
of a day, now
of
course
beginneth another
For
bringethdeath.
you
your Angels will

Souls

"

and

; and

and

lap of Lachesis
high pulpitand said
Lachesis

rounds

they were

straightwayto

at

God

her

and

is not

and

less.

But
dis-

He

who

answerable.

Prophet had spoken these words, he

all,and

took

each

only himself;

for the

up

lot which

the

Prophet

fell

suffered

him

not.
"

Now

number

when

he

ground

had

each

had

taken

Now
persons there.
there were
Lives of all kinds

that

some

to

of

men

lasted for

downfall,and

Also

there

were

for
a

there

whole

were

of

men

plain what

was

laid

Prophet

of creatures, and

more

of

and

renowned,

some

on

flightand
some

the

on

than
all

of

for

sorts

of all

moreover

kingships among

lifetime,and

ending with poverty


Lives

the

lot,it

Ensamples of Lives, far


these Ensamples were

the

the

conditions

his

Thereafter

gotten.

before them

up

them,
the

way

beggary.

them^or

explains (note on 617 c, r), she lays hold of outer (the


I.e.,as Mr. Adam
Same) and inner (the circle of the Other) in turn, using her j'ight
haud
for the former, and her left for the latter.
1

circle of the

MYTHS

THE

144

KaX
Kol

trpoyovcov

he

re
Icr'^vv

aXKriv

Trjv

8' dWa

voaoi'i,

dWiyXotv

Sij, "?

evda

KoX
dvOpanTtp,
C

Sid

Kal

re

dXXwv

jjLWTOii Kal

Kal fjMdr}rr}"!
^rjrrjTTj^
ecrrai,

Kal

i^evpeiv,rl^

^eXrico

TOP

Svvar"v

t"v

eK

r"v

roiavra

^vvride/iepa
eyet,

kal

fjuerdttomis
tL

dr/adov ipyd^erai,Kal

-q

Kal
ei/fiaOiai,

Kal
SvafjLadiai,
Kal

elvai

rh

iravra

r"v

eiriKTr\Tmv

i^

diravTav

avWoyiffd/ievov aipeladai,irpit's
Tt]v

fitov,'^elpto
fiev KaXovvTa,

o?

t"

^ei/aa)

avTtjv

eKeicre

Kal

tov

a^ei,et?

Se oaTi^
d/ieivco
yiyvea-6ai,
dSiKooTepav
to
et?
SiKatOTepav,
Se dXka
irdvTa
idv
j^aipeiv
iapaKafiepyap, oti ^avri

TO

Td

Kal

Si) Sei
ri

KaKov

^vaei "Trepl
y^v)(r)vovrcov

SwaTov

afieiva

alpeladai,

iravra'^^ov

ttKovt^ xpadev Kal

d-TToffKeTTOVTa,
tov
'^vj(fi";
cjivo'iv

T^S

619

rj

Kal

Siaytyvdaa-Kovra

"aTe
^vyKepavvvfJxva
irpo'i dWrfKa ipyd^eTai,

avT"v

re

Svvarov

Kal ISieoreiai Kal dpval Kal tVywe?


Sv"ryiveiai

dcrdeveiai Kal

Kai,

TL

Kal

del

fia^rj-

ol6";t

trodev

iroirjcrei,

irovripov

exaaroi

rov

St} ptjOevraKal

vvv

m-evia

e^ew?
"\jtvy(TJ"!

evyeveiai

kIvSwo^

7ra?

Siatpovfieva
irpoi dperr/vfiiovttw?

elSevat, tL /caWo?
Tti/05

Kal

avrov

")(pr]a-TovKal

dvaXoyi^ofievovTrdvra rd
aWjyXot?

a/^teXjfo-a?
rovrov
fiaOrffidTosv

iirta-Ti^fiova,
^Lov Kal

tovtcov,

fieaovv

idv

to

yirfueaQaf

fidXiara iirifieXrjreov,
ottq)?

Tavra

Tjfi"vT"v

fiaOelv

Kat,

TXavKtav,

^t\e

oia

Se
ireviai,"i,
ra

KaX

Se

uxravrai}

ivelvai

ovk

irXovToii

rd
/le/U'^Oai,
"

eoiKev,

ravrd,

Kara
aSoKifiasv

eXofievqv ^iov dXKoiav

Se vyieiaK

TO,

8' iirl yeveai

tov?

aycovuiv,

Se rd^iv
"\^vy(i]";

dvajKaiO)^ e')(etv aXKov


TO,

Kol

koI
dperai';,

yvvaiK"v

Kol

PLATO

OF

Kal

KaK"v,

TeXevTi^aavTi
TavTrjv

eKel

Kal

ttjv

So^av

KpaTia-TT)
ey^ovTa

viro
dveKTrXrjKTO'i

fiev

aipe(ri"s.

el"s"AiSov

itXovtcov

t6

Kal

dSafiavTivto^

levai,otto)?
t"v

TvpawCSat Kal aWa?


Kal
ipydanrirai
dvijKea-TaKaKa,

fiT} e/Mirea-mv

irpd^eK!TToWa
avTOf

avTn)

fiei^o)
TraOy, aXXa

et?

yvw

Kal ^evyeiv ra
^iov aipeia-6ai

tov

p.e"Tov del t"v

civ

Toiovrav

rotawTO?
eri

Se

toiovtodv

VTrep^dXKovTaeKaTepaxre

Kal

comeliness

and

THE

MYTH

beauty,or

for

OF

EE

145

strengthand

for
prowess, some
birth and the virtues of their forefathers ; likewise also there
Lives of men
of no such renown.
Theft were
were
also Lives
of

But

women.

the

Ensamples ;
chosen

conditions

certain Life

all other

thingsboth

riches and

"

whereof

reason

of the Soul

not

were

is this,that

amongst the

Soul

which

hath

is of

necessitychanged accordingly
; but
good and evil were there mixed together

poverty,and

health

and

disease,and

also states

these.

between

'^^"Theie,
methinks,
Wherefore

let each

dear

Glaucon, is man's

of

heed

great peril.

how
to
give
chiefly,
that, taking no thought for the knowledge of other things,he
shall seek after the knowledge of one
thing,if peradventure

he may
learn and
and wise, so that

one

find out
he may

us

who

this

it is that shall make

discern

the

good

him

Life from

able

the evil,

and, according to his ability,


alway and everywhere choose
the better Life, and reckoning how all the things that have
been

the
concern
togetherand severally,
Virtuous
understand
what
Life, may
good or evil,for what
state of the Soul, beauty joinedwith poverty or riches worketh,
and what
good or evil noble birth, and base birth, and private
and rule in the city,and
station,
strength,and weakness, and
quicknessof wit, and slowness, and the other native qualities
of the Soul like unto
which
the Soul
these, and the qualities
with
do work, accordingas they are mixed
variously
acquireth,
of all these,
another
one
; to the end that, having taken count
of his
he may
be able to choose, havingregard to the nature
and the better Life,callingthat the
Soul, between the worse
which will lead his Soul to become
worse
more
unrighteous,
and

said,both

now

taken

the better which

callingthat

will lead it to become

else will he let go by ; for we


this is the best choice for a man,

righteous. All
know

that

liveth and
as

when

adamant

he is dead.

within

him,

must

also he may
be amazed
not
and may not fall into the
such

evil-doer, and

remedy, and
discern
eschew

to

the

himself
choose
extremes

suffer

on

With

both

and

seen

whilst

he

this doctrine,then, as hard

there
go unto Hades, so that
at riches and such like trumpery,
he

Life of

work

alway

have

more

tyrant

or

of

and
iniquities
many
still worse
things; but

the

either

Life

between

hand,

both

such

other

some

without

all

rather may
states, and

in this Life,as
L

far

"v

TwSe

/8tp Kara

TtB

Kal

Srj oZv

Koi

Tore

^"vti

eXofievM,avvTovco^
6

fiijre

ev6v"s iiriovTa

fiio";arjairiyrof;,ov

Keirai,

oKX'

aXKa

T"v

avTov

e/c

tov

irpoTepo)

Ta

Be

Kal

aXiaKop-evov^

dvd'

ehrelv, ovk

tov?

re

awTov?

6"

dyvfivdoTovi' t"v

"jrovwv

iK

tow

Kal

KXrjpoi

TTOpeiav
Xeiav

aWa

deav
620

dXXd
ovk

re

Kal
av

Kal

Te
fiiovs'iXeeivjjv

KaTci

Tr)v

ovk
ktopaKOTa';,

Te

Bf/

Bio

koI

iroXXai^

rat?

rots

are

i^

fieTafioXrjv

t"v

iirel el

""^v')(jS
Tii

TeXevTaioK

ydp

ivdivBe

j^QovtavKal

ovpavlav.

awrjQeiav

alpeladai, IBeiv

iroXXov!,

aTrayyeXXofiivtov
ov

d^tav elvai IBeiv,d)?

fflav.

iroXiTeia

del,

Kal
fiiov d(j)iKvotTO,
vyi""} (fnXoffO^ol

iKeWev

t"v

evBai/iovelvdv,
iraXiv

elvai Be

are
rJKOvTai;,

tou?

Trj"!alpea-eayi;
fir) iv

avTtS

KivBvvevei iK

Tvy(r]v

elvai iv

ovpavov

KXi^povTvj(riv

tov

ttjv

ivddBe

el"i tov

oTTore

dyaO"v

T"v

Kal Bia
ylr/ve"Tdai
E

ttjv

irpo-

dXXa

TeTayfievrj

Tij"!777?

aXXov";

ireirovqKOTa'i

KaK"v

tov

eavTov,

eXaxTOU?

i'inBpop,rj"i
Ta?
alpeaeifTroieiadat,
T"v

oBvpeaOai

KaK"v,

t"v

KUTa

edei dvev (j)tXo"ro^iai


film fiefiuoKOTa,
aperrj^

p^TeiXri^oTa. "?
TOiovTOK

eireiSrjoe

iv
"f^KovTtov,

ovpavov

eifiapfiePTjv

Kal

Kal irdvTa fiaXXov


Bal,/JLOva"i

Kal

vtto

avaaKeifra-

evovffav

re

MTiaa-Oai

eavTov

KaKO";,

Kai,

vtto
nrpopp'qOela'iv

i/ifievovTa
rots
yap

tKav"f

Kaica'

KOTTTeadai
(TKey^aadai,

ovie
atpetriv,
"fy^Tovov

vm

reXevr"v

fiijre

travTa

\a6elv

avTov

tov

irp"TOV \a')(pvTa e"f)Ti

tov

Tavra

^pwaei"iicaX

avTOv

"^yyeW^

iTriovri,^vv

reKevTaia

ov
XaifiapyicK

Kol

eXiadai,

a"voXriv

eireira'

rm

/jLeyLaTTjv
TVpavviSaeKeadai,

ttjv

re
a^poa-vvrjf;

TraiScov

ayyeXos

a/ieXeiTco
alpeaea)"i
cip-)(0)v

elirovTO'iSe
advfieirca.

C fievov

ixetdep

elirelv,kal

ovrm^
irpodiriTrfv

fi"V

iv

iv iravrX

Kal

Buvarov

to

dydptoirois.
'^'i/yverai,
ryhpevhai,fiove"TTaTO"i

ovTU)

Te

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

146

eKaaTai

TavTijv

al

IBeiv elvai Kal


yap

fJ.ev yap

tov

iriTTTOt,

ivOdSe

fiovov

Kal

eKelae

Bevpo

Tpaj^elav iropeveadai,
B^, e(f"r),
Trp)

yap

'"^v')(al
ypovvTO
yeXoiav

irpoTepov

Kal

ffiov ra

""^vf(rjv
e(f"r)
ti]V

iroTe

Toix;

6avp,airoXXd

'Op"f"60"s

MYTH

THE

as

he

is

man's

able,and

chief

"

Now

went

happiness.
Messenger who

the
and

on

for him

said

whose

that

the

Life

EE

147

hereafter

for in this lieth

brought this Tal8 from that place


Prophet then spake thus : Even
"

last,if he hath

cometh

turn

chosen

with

standing,
under-

is

there

bear
prepared a Life, which, if only a man
Neither
let him
not wretched.
manfully,is tolerable,

himself
who

in all the

OF

cometh

cometh

end

careless of his choice ;


be downcast.

that

when

first be

at the

He

who

Prophet had spoken these words,


the one
that had
he came
as
gotten the first place,as soon
of
forward, chose the greatest kingship there ; and by reason
follyand greedinesslooked not well enough into all before he
not
that therein it was
chose it,and marked
appointedof Fate
"

said

let him

nor

that he should

When

befall him.

began

to

eat

of the

himself.

than

had

bewail

Ill-Luck,
he

Now,

that other evils should

looked

for he did not


and

of them

was

city,and
Knowledge
least
had

they

that

part, belike, of

not

from

virtuous

become

under

endured

labours,

choice

luck

of the

that

had

and

hastily. For
lot,a change

this cause,
of

good

and

so

fall that

he

is not

of

were

the

come

well-ordered

without
were

most

as

True

the

not

for

they

part of those

of evil befalleth

whenever
if any man,
part of the Souls ;Cfor
heart
his whole
this life,seek alway with
if the lot

thing

they themselves
enduring, made
well as through

as

others

seen

self
him-

any

caught thus;

were

inasmuch

Heaven

labours ; but

with

Earth,

the

their

them

Custom

from

come

were

exercised

been

through

blame

that

life in

leisure,he

abiding by

Gods, and

Heaven, having spent his former

from

at it at

his choice, not

Prophet ;

evils, but

for these

he

and

his breast

beat

children,and

own

therefore

the commandment

rather

his

the

he

cometh

after wisdom,

had
not

the

most

into
and

last to choose, there

is

the
Messenger said, not only that he
good hope, from what
to
will have happiness here, but also that the journey hence
that place and back again hither will not be under the ground
and
and rough, but smooth
heavenly.
Truly it was a sightworth lookingat,he said, to see how
chose
their lives
sight,and
the Souls severally
yea, a pitiful
as
and a wonderful
they chose mostly
; inasmuch
a laughable,
"

"

after the custom

of their

former

life ; for

he

told

how

he

saw

yevo/jLevTjv

/litreirov
j3iov aipovfjkipTjv,

kvkvov

Bia

yevov"!

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

148

rbv

iiceivoiv Odvarov

vir

"a/ivpov a7]Bovo":

e\ofihn}vIBeiv

fiera^aXXovra eii avdpumivov

Be ical

Koi
^Lov a'Cpeaiv,

kvkvov

fwa

aXKa

Te\afuovlov, ^evyovaav

XeovTov

Ka\

BiaWd^ai ^iov.

iv

IBeiv

TavTTjv

iovaav

yvvaiico"i

Be

livai' /ivrj/ij) Be r"v

^ryrelvnrepuovaav

Kvlav

koX
dvpdr/fiovo^,

dXXofv, Koi

T"v

uTTo

fioyii} evpeiv

Kal irpmri]

dBiKa

fiev

el"! t^

rd^ei
eiXero

vpocrievai

BaLfwva,

xal

irov

rd

ori

t"v
dvowXr)pa)Tr)v

T'^? TOV
TavT7)"i

rd

Be

irapijfieXrjfjii

avrd
koX

KXw^o)

el"s aXXijXa,
elv rd

irp"rov

t^v iKeivrji
X^^P^

aZdi,"ieirX
i"f)ay^dfievov

ra
vfjatv,dfjberdarpo^a

rjfiepa

rjv

'''^

fiev
*"'

oiv

eXa^ov, iv
eKoar^

rov
(fyvXaxa ^vfi'jri/JLTreiv
^lov

drpaKTOV BlvTi"i,
Kvpovvra
8'

eKeLvT]VS"

Kdyeaw

aipeOivTOJV.ov
vtro

eirpa^e

tS)v a\Xa";"

eK

kcu

Slxaia

av

fii^enpiyvvaOat. eTeiBrj8'

irpo"i Tr)v
tovtov

tuj^ijv

IBvatrov
^iov dv8po"s

^pfja-Bai,
"^v^A? Tois /Si'ov?
mtytrep

ra?

TTpixs
rriv

Kara

t^v

iroXirv

eXeaOai.
dafievijv

fiera^aXXovra,Kal vdaai
Traffas

IBelv

^iXoTifiCa^
XeXatfyri-

xeifievov

ar/pia,

re'xyiicrji

vaTdroK

Br] d'qpimvdxravrm'; el"s dvOpmirov;levai


rd

et?

Be

iroveav

elveiv ISovaav,

k"u
Xa-^ovtra,

nerd

vardr-qv,alpija-o/ievfi

traa-mv

^(povov

Xa'^ovtrav

Xafieiv.

8' iv

irpoTepwv

rointo

fieyd\a"irifia^ affX-^rov

evBvopivqv
@ep"TiroviriOrjKOv

'OSva-ffieois,
Xaj(pvaav

TTjv

iirl

Be

HavoTriiai!

rov

"})V"nv troppw

yeXasToirotov

Tov

'ETretoi)

rrjv

fieaoi^

dXXd
irapeXdelv,

Bvvacrdai

ttjv

avOpeamvov yevovi

rov

ravrriv

Be

avdpoyirovyeve"r6at,

KpL"reai";.
rTjv

o'/rXtov

KartBovaav
rifv'AraXavrr}^-^uj^iji/,

dvSpo^, oil

elvai

^iov

A|"H'To? rov

irdBr}derov

elKoart)v

waavTox;.

eketrOai
"^frvyfijv

ra

rrjv

/lovaiKa

Be 'Kayovffap

Bia

eV

ISeiv Se

'Ayafi,efivovo"!'
e'^dpaBe

iOeKovaav

ovk

yeveadaf
yvvaiKlyewTiOeia-av

fjLefivrmivTjv
t^? t"v

yvvaiKeiov

ov

kcu

dyeiv avriiv
iiriarpo^TfV

Xay(a"vetXero fwipav

tt/v

eiriKXaxrdevTa

t'^? ^Arpoirov
ayeiv
iroioOvTa'

ivTevOev

Se

621

S^

Kal

Bi

sKeLvov

nropeveffdai,
T6

Koi

re

Koi,

eh

(TKrjvaadai

oiv

vaph,

tov

'Afii\i)Ta

troTapLOv,

elvai

dvaiyKalov
iriveiv

TrXeov

eTreiBt)

eiTtXavQdveadai.

yeve"r0ai,

^povT-qv
dWov

i^airlvr/^
Tovra^

"Trielv

owr)

elBivai,

Keip,evov

eirl

eamOri

Kal

Kal

dddvaTOv

dve')(ea6ai.,

irdvra

Xva
H

Kal

warrep

y(^tXieTet

Be

dr/add,

^povqffeo)^

^iXoc

Kal

tjv

'

Kal

rrj^

"p,ev
Ta

avco

etodev

dv

ip.ol

del

T0t9

dQXa

eiJ

TreiOcop^da,
p^v

KaK"t

Kal

e^op^da

Oeoi^,
auTTj?

xal

irei0"o-

eiriTtjBevaopxv,

Tpoirta

Kal

pvdo";

BiafiTja-opsOa

irdvTa
oBov

ovk

avTov

dv

e5

Bwar^v

irepiajeipopevoi,

BieXTjXvffap^v,

o^ikolto,

aaxreiev,

dXX

aT-

KcaXvd'^vai

TXavKcav,

troTapov

iravTi

eireiBhv

viKr]i}"6pqi

Tropeia,

Ai^0rj"s

"^jrv^riv

avTol"s

evddBe,
ol

tij?

dv

"qp^'s

ivrev6ev

vBarov

at

ovt(o";,

vvKra"i

yeveiriv,

IBeiv

p,iav97}a6p"da'

peTa

ripiv

pAvovTe"i

tov

ov

vop^l^ovre^

BiKaio"Tvvi]v

Kal

dirmkeTO,

ovk

y^v^rjv

TTjv

Kal

irdvrmv

Kal

acop^

dvapKef^af

irvpa.

Ty

to

(ra^op.e-

p.r)

p,e"ra"i

rrjv

p^v

tov

et?

07r""?

i^ai"}"vr]^

aiiTa,

psOa

Kal

p,evToi

Be

avro?

et?

voaro?

iriovTa

yeveffdai,

dvco

^epeaQai

darepa^.

dXV

Kal

dWy

marrep

treKTp,6v

Kal

re

tov

Kal

KOip/ijdrjvai

Be

vSap

to

ti

dei

Se

eaTrepav

ov

"f"povTj(rei

tov

p-eTpov

tov

hevBpav

rjOTj

ovv

Se

tov?

irieiv,

Kav/taro^

Kevov

cr^ai

pjev

p,eTpov

(TTeyeiv.

oifjkOov,

Sia

avro

"f"vei.

ovSev

vov"s

elvai

yhp

dpovov,

aXKoL

ireBlov

yrj

6"Ta

TTcia-iv

ol

Koi

Aiy^ij?

t^s
Kal

Seivov'

irvirfov"i

ayyeiov

iireiSi]

to

Uvai

^AvSyKr)"s

t^?

tov

Sie^eXOovra,

airavTa"{

yvyvofiivrji

tnrb

dfieraarpeirrl

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

150

evBoBe

TrpdTTcop,ev.

avTov

Te

Kopi^wpsBa,
Kal

ev

t"

THE

"

straight

on

even

journeyed
and

under

the

beside

said

the

holdeth.
of

wisdom

and

midnight

and

of

born

in

was

how

he

the

he

said

flew

drink

of
his

unto

his

and

eyes,

each,

all

together

burning

or

heat

herb

any

that

that

when

thence

the

and

he

body

knew

not

was

and

means

but

be

to

himself

what

and

morning,

was

parts

he

by

yet

asleep

earthquake,

an

But

meteors.

water:

fallen

divers

unto

by

drank,

man

had

they

certain

preserved

each

as

pitcher

no

drink
not

thunder

was

like

should

and

that

whereof

were

measure

up

lo ! it

all

already evening,

was

water

that

there

flesh, shooting
to

when

went

he

suddenly

he

lying

was

on

pyre.

and

Thus,

"

it

Glaucon,

will

"This

is

immortal,

always

ourselves

and

when

receive

the

both

told,

Games

here,
we

may

with

the

the

which
and

in

fare

Gods,

prizes
go

the

well."

of

ill

about

journey

may

so

perishing,

shall

Souls

good,

we

be
we

the

Soul

and

their

thousand

friends

wages
years

is

let

both

sojourn
unto

pass

undefiled.

practise justice

justice, like

gathering
of

all

whilst

both

from

that

and
and

we

our

our

believe

way,
that

it ;

in

keep

us

all

bear

understanding,

with

we

let

upward

the

preserved

believe

we

counsel:
to

Tale

safely, and

Lethe

able
to

if

us

my

and

keep

things

of

the

was

preserve

Eiver

the

over

at

the

it

the

they

than

they

came

opened

but

come,

sudden
the

trees

when

necessary

Then

suffered

not

was

more

all.

forgot

and

terrible

without

back,

it, they

through

Forgetfulness,

water;

drank

through

Lethe,
is

turning

Necessity,

they encamped,

it

the

of
out

Plain

of

Now,

measure

of

151

without

man,

come

EE

forth.

that

Eiver

OF

throne

was

this

bringeth

He

each

Plain

the

and

earth
"

last,

to

frost

he

said,

the

unto

the

Er

Thence,

MYTH

in

us

all

with

here, and

Conquerors
;
of

and
which

that

Observations

Let

the

Myth

the

on

begin with

us

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

152

Er

of

geographyand

cosmographyof

the

Myth.
Judgment-seat,between the two openings
and
the
two
the
and
side,
of Tartarus
one
out) on
(in
the other side,is also
on
openings of Heaven
corresponding
from
their
return
the
meeting-place of the Souls which
From
the
thousand
years'sojourn in Tartarus and Heaven.
to
Meadow
they journey,always above ground,till they come
"rainbow-coloured
a
light,straight like a pillar,extended
This
and
the Earth."
from
on
high throughout the Heaven
Light is the axis, I take it, on which the whole heavenly
Meadow

The

of the

system revolves,the

Earth

fixed

in

the

of the

centre

system

being a globe on the line of the axis. The destination of the


Pilgrim Souls is that part of the surface of the globe at
which, in the hemisphere where they are, the axis enters on
its imaginary course
through the centre of the Earth, in order
sphere.
out again at the antipodalpoint in the other hemito come
The
Souls, arrived at the very point where, in the
hemisphere where they are, the axis of the Cosmos enters the
in the place of all placeswhere
which
the Law
Earth, are
controls all things is intuitively
plain they see the Pillar
of Light as the Spindle of Necessity. Then, suddenly, the
outlook presented to us in the Myth changes like the scene
in a dream.
It is no longer such a view
of the Cosmos
from
"

within

as

had,

we

Pilgrims on
of Light in

the

sky :

we

if it

were

outside,as

cups
her

rings; and
lap,and the three
or

mounted
Souls

are

on

are

while

stood

we

Earth, lookingup

looking at

now

at

with

the

the Pillar
from

the Cosmos

of concentric
a model
orrery
Necessityherself is holdingthe model in

eight cups,

on

an

"

Fates

are

seated

each

of

which,

round, and
its

on

keep

edge,a

ing
turn-

Siren is

singsin tune with her sisters. But the Pilgrim


standing near, lookingon at this spectacla They

who

their way, we
Lethe, both placeson

are

ago,

the surface of the

the

the

moment

know, from
the

surface

the Meadow
of the

the Plain of

to

Earth

it is

on

the

MYTH

THE

Earth

then, after all,that

OF

the

EE

153

is

throne

placed

which

on

Necessity sits holding in her lap the model, which, like a


the great Cosmos
and
true dream-thing,is both a little model
of Necessity on
itseK.^ In this place,in the presence
her
throne, the Pilgrim Souls are addressed by the Prophet from
his pulpit; then choose,in the turns which the lots determine,
of

lives

images
1

Let

men

at

beasts

or

their

feet ;

scattered, it would
then

of the

illustrate this characteristic

me

Book

in the Fifth

before

go

of "WV"rdsworth'sPrelude
and
poletry

On

three

the

little

as

seem,

Fates, who

"dream-thing" from

the Dream

:"

geometric truth,

their high privilegeof lastinglife,


all internal injuryexempt,
From
these chiefly: and at length,
I mused
; upon

And

yieldingto the sultryair,


My senses
seized
Sleep
me, and I passed into a dream.
stretched a boundless plain
I saw
before me
Of sandy wilderness, all black and void,
And

as

around, distress and

I looked

when

Came

fear

side,
shape appeared
high.
at my

creeping over me,


side,an uncouth
Upon a dromedary, mounted
Close at my

tribes
seemed an Arab of the Bedouin
arm
lance he bore, and underneath
one
A stone, and in the oppositehand a shell

He

Of

surpassingbrightness.
,

******

Was

told

The Arab
"Euclid's

that the stone


"
; and "This," said he,
worth " ; and at the word

me

Elements

"

Is something of more
Stretched forth the shell,so beautiful in shape,
In colour so resplendent,with command
I did so,
That I should hold it to my ear.
that instant

heard

And

in

unknown

an

tongue.

yet I understood, articulate sounds,


loud prophetic blast of harmony ;
Ode, in passion uttered.

Which
A
An

******

this

While

I wondered

'

to be

The

one

Nor

doubted

Having

uttering,strange as it may
not, although I plainly saw

a
once

stone, the other a shell ;


but that they both were

perfectfaith

in all that

that Plato may have borrowed


and
images of trades and callings,

I think

votive

or

horses,pigs,doves),were,

first-fruits of

least

hunting. Seferringto

probablethat

successful

here from
ptiovirapaSelyfuiTa
"The
:
Argive Heraeum,"
298), "yielded hundreds of animals
oxherds,goats, sheep,cocks, ducks,

Rouse

Mr.

human

huntsman,

These
supposes,

discovered

in the tomb

of "Aristotle

"

found

either

may

be

sacrificialvictims

p. 79, "It is at
artist, craftsman, trader, would

I remember

(to which

animals

he
figures

for
figure,in character, as a thank-ofiering
that
little
as
a
recognised
figure,
rightly,

dedicate

books.

passed.

his ret t"v


of animals

{Greek Votive Offerings,p.


says Mr. House
and
and clay : bulls,cows, oxen
in bronze
and other birds, including perhaps a swan."
added

seem,

was

near

says,

in his

success

of

Chalcis

"

some

calling."If

Philosopher,"was
years

ago.

ratify the

Necessity; and thence


dusty region,till they come
no
thing grows, and to
green
When
no
pitchercan hold.

the throne
a

hot

where
which

pass severallyunder
travel together,
through

each; then

of

doom

chosen

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

154

of

to

the

Lethe,

Eiver

the

water

of

Souls

have

drunk

of

the
the

of

Plain

asleep; but at
midnight there is an earthquake and thunder, and suddenly,
like meteors, they shoot up to be born
again,in terrestrial
this

water

bodies, in

foolish,too

the

"

much

they

"

fall

part of the Earth.

our

in accordance
given by Plato here is strictly
river entirely
Lethe
makes
with
the popular belief,which
a
the rivers of Tartarus.^
it among
above ground, never
counts
in Aen. vi. 705, 714, may
be thought to placeit under
Virgil,
pression
ground; but his descriptionsuffers in clearness from comit is not
likely that he willinglydeserts
; and
of such importance as the
traditional authority in a matter
His vexvia,
whole, is derived from a
as
a
positionof Lethe.
source
(considered
by Eohde and Dieterich to be the /eoraySao-t?
with
ek A'lSov)common
to himself
Pindar, Plato, Plutarch,
does
Lucian, and (accordingto Dieterich,though here Eohde
^
the writers of certain sepulchralinscripnot agree with him)
tions
The

account

which
Lethe

shall describe
in

appears
as

appears

one

about
of

to

his

by
be

Lethe

born

has

the next

section; and where

I believe,
any of these authors, it never,
of the infernal, or
subterranean, rivers.

Indeed, all reasonable


be barred

in

doubt

statement

again

its

own

above

are
sun

to
Virgil's
orthodoxy seems
that the plain in which
Souls
the banks
gathered togethernear
{Aen. vi. 641). It is evidently
as

to

the writer of the Axiochus


ground somewhere
perhaps say in the antipodalhemisphere of the Earth.
"

would

11"
The

object of

this

twin-streams, Eunofe and

xxviii.)
"

'

in which

See Thiemann,
Dieterich,Nek.

section

is to

point

to

detail

the

"

Lethe, of the EarthlyParadise

Dante's

vision

of

{Pwrg.
Purgatoryreproduces I
"

Platonische

Eschatologie,
p. 18.
128 f.,135, and Bohde,
ii. 217.
' It
be
mentioned
that
this
section
to
was
ought
written,and the substance
of it read in the course
of a publiclecture,and also to a privatesociety,
before
the appearance
of Miss Harrison's
Prolegomena to the Sttulyof Greek Beligion,
^

and

her

"

Query

"

in The

Psy.

Classical Beview, Feb.

1903, p. S8.

THE

think, independently
"

ritual and

mythology

his account

of the

and

MYTH

to

Soul's

EE

OF

distinctive
which

155

feature

Plato

is

as
Kd6ap"n";

of

that

Orphic

largelyindebted

for

of

forgetting
transmigrationsthrough
process

remembering as a series of
sins of the flesh,
which
the particulars
of sense, the evils and
scured,
are
forgottenor left behind, and the universal Ideas, long obremembered
that they can
never
are, at last,so clearly
be forgottenany more,
but become
the everlasting
possession
disembodied
of the Soul, finally
and returned to its own
star.
the literarysources
It is easy to account, from
open to
of
of rivers, and
more
Dante, for the presence
particularly
On the one hand, the descripLethe, in his Earthly Paradise.
tion
of Eden
in Genesis would
suggest the general idea of
the other
rivers girding the Earthly Paradise;^ while, on
hand, the proximity of Purgatory to the Earthly Paradise
"

makes

it natural

should

that Lethe

first reached

that

by one coming
Lethe, according to

be

one

from

up

of

rivers

these

Purgatory.

"

The

vi. and
the current
Aen.
drinking of
a
period of purgatorial
mythology, is the act with which
about
to pass
is closed by those Souls which
are
discipline
again into the flesh. In placing the Earthly Paradise on the
Dante
followed
a
prevalentmedieval
top of a loftymountain
drawn
his own
on
to have
belief; and, although he seems
the
slopes of this
imagination in placing Purgatory on

mountain, it

natural, and

was

in

the current

accordanot^with

mythology, that he should place it there, close


Paradise or Elysium ; for the Lethe of Aen. vi.
the same
region as Elysium,

Earthly
evidentlyin

to the
is

"

nemus

et

Lethaeumque

domos

Seclusum

The
Dante's
the

to

presence,

then, of Lethe, the

of Eunofe, the

of

stream

of

does

not

it
Forgetfulness,

in this way.
1

virgultasonantia aylvis,
placidas
qui praenatatamnem.^
stream,
purgatorial

Earthly Paradise is easilyaccounted for by


But
mythological authorities open to him.

association
stream

in valle reducta

videt Aeneas

Interea

The

See Vernon's

Earthly Paradise
"
Virg, Am.

on

on

the

on

reference

account

alone.

Lethe

the side of Heaven.

for the

Lethe, the

possibleto

Purgaiorio,ii. 285-293.

the side of Earth, Eunofe

vi. 703.

seem

mythology gives Lethe

common

headings

Memory, with

in

It

girdsthe

is not
and

likelythat
Mnemosyne

of evidence

absence

Orphic cult;

the

of

"

heard of the twin

had

Dante

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

156

Lethe

"

the

rate, in

any

heard of them, it

had

that he

at

streams

better

seems

of Memory
that the very natural pictureof a stream
occurred to him
of Forgetfulness
stream
the
taneously,
spon-

to suppose

beside

it had

as

occurred

himself,were

others,who, Uke

to

expressionfor their hope of KaOaptri'}.


resemble
of the Orphic cult which
For the twin streams
to the
turn
must
Eunofe
and
Lethe
we
Dante's
so
closely,
last
of the
end
the
at
sepulchralinscriptionsmentioned
These are certain directions for the ghostlyjourney
section.
to find

deeplyconcerned

made

to be

by

initiated

gold tablets
South
Italy,and

on

written

persons,
in

found

Thurii

at

graves

in hexameter

verse

Petelia in

and

preserved in the British Museum.


described
tablets were
These
by Comparetti in the Jowrnal
and are printedby Kaibel
of Hellenic Stvdies, iii.p. Ill fif.,
to
Kaibel
in his Insc. Gr. Sic. et It. p. 157.
assignsthem
the third

I shall quote the


century B.c.
Petelia.^ It gives directions to an

fourth

or

found

was

now

at

that

one

initiated

hopes to get out of the Cycle of Incarnations


ab \Y\^aikoX avairvevo'ai
kvkXov
having been
t
KaKorr/TO';
completely purified. Such a person, the verses
say, must
who

person

"

"

avoid

fountain

the

growing

left hand

it, evidentlythe

near

tablet does not

name

it.

with

white

of Lethe,

water

It is to the

cypress

although

right that

the

the

purified

of the /ivoTT]^ must


turn, to the cool water of Mnemosyne.
guardiansof the well he must address in set form of words,

Soul
The

thus

"
"

the child

am

well

of

drink

dwell

of Earth

and

Heaven

am

parched

perish; give me cool water to drink from the


And
the guardians will give him
water
Memory."
he will be translated to
from
the holy well, and

with

thirst ; I

to

the

on

for

with

ever

the Heroes

"

6' 'AtSao Sofuavor'- dpicrrepa


eip^orets
KprfVTjV,
S'
Trap' avrg A.cuk^vItrnj/cviav
KVTrapurvov.
(r)^fShv
"/tjr"A,a"r"ios
TavTtjS rrjsKpr/vrj^ firjSi
'

For

Ornament

further

description of the Petelia Tablet


Table-case

Boom,

Eleuthemae
consult

Tablet
Miss

may
with
pp. 573 ff.,
'
See Lobeck,

H)

and

other

(in the

from Crete, in the National


Museum,
Harrison's
Prolegomena to the Study

Appendix by

Mr.

Aglaoph. p.

800.

G. G. A.

Brit

Orphic golden

Murray, pp.

660

Museum, Gold
{e.g. the

tablets

Athens),
of Oreek
ff.

the

reader

Religion,

Sins

the sinner does


the

on
as

tabula

rasa

sets

thought

avdfwriffKrests.
Philosopherin the

virtue

working
mysteries

the

TrpcK!

eKsivoK

yap

"

as
purification

deiof ia-rf

6eo"; wv
ola-irep
"7rpb"i

devotee

of

^iKoaoi^ov
Svva/itv,

Si} roiovroi^

Se

rot?

dvrfp

del reXexA? TeXou/xevo?,

TeXeov"s
'xpcofievo';,

vtro/jivijfiaa-ivopdw

the

its sins, that

/lovrj

"

Sidvoia-

the Platonic doctrine

irTepovrai, ^ rov
del ia-ri fi'^f^V
"o"

"

"

true

which

flesh,with

his

out

clearer memory,

good

forgets; but of the things of


he gains always clearer and

Fhaedrus

of truth and

"

Here

actions.

of his

on

It is the

of

the mind

not

he retains

memory
forth the

sinned ; but,

has

he

begin his heavenly existence


served
continuityof his conscious life is pre-

the

"

fullypardoned,that

so

that

remember

even

the

by
Dante

not

hand, he does

other

and

after penance,

wiped out

are

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

158

yiyverat,
{Phaedrvs,249 c). The parallel
the
between
philosopher who "always, as far as he can,
to those
cleaves in memory
things by cleavingto which the
Deity is divine,"^ and the purified/ivarrji who finallydrinks
is plainlyin Plato's mind
here, as
of the well of fivij/jLoa-vvr},
Dieterich
{Nekyia,pp. 113, 122) and others have noticed.^
iKav"i}
in the Phaedo, 114
c, he says oi "j)i,\offo"f"ia
Similarly,
dvev atdiidrmv^"cri,speaking of those who
are
KaOripd/jievoi
Celestial Paradise, i.e.
the Earthly to the
translated from
6vrw"; fiovof

TeXeo";

Surface

True

the

from

of the

en
Blessed, to olKrjaei";

Earth,

the

or

Islands

of the

KaXKiovi.

rovriov

iKflvms.
See Thompson's note on the construction
irpbs
"Platons
then
stimmen
in allem, was
Dieterich
122)
{Nek. p.
My
says:
Thurioi
Beste zu kontroliren uns
die erhalteneu
gestatten, zu den Tafelchen ron
und Petelia : in diesen uud in jenen der himmlisohe
Ursprung der Seeleu,der
'

'^

Eingehen

alter Siinden, das


wegen
tritt
Seligkeit(Persephone
allerdingsbei Platon
Rechten
wie
in
Platons
gehen
Bepublik so nach den

Ereislauf,das Abbiissen

schmerzenvoUe
in

Gefilde

die

ztiriick)
giinzlich
;

zur

luschriften die
Lethe in beiden

Belohnenden

Platon
Lehre

und

Linke

zur

Sollten
Uberliefeningen.

als rAew
reKerai ? Es ist
in Besitz der /ixiJAH?
gewesen

abstrakt

symbolisch
in

ihrer

SoUte

es

gesagt,
soil.

sein

die
nun

Strafenden,links

nicht

die

ist die

Anspielungenbei

was

der

Quell

(s.bes. Laert. Diog. viii. 4). Dort ist


Mneme
konkret, mythisch, uud

der

Wiedererinnerungan

Die

das, was

die

Seele einst aali

gbttlicbeuHeimat, hilft sie edbsen ; wer sie empfangt, ist erlbSt.


kiihn
noch
sein, in jener ofifenbar viel alteren Vorstellungder
zu
Mysterien, die

unteritaliscben

spiiter durch
Lehre

wii-

seligenPhilosophen-seelen,
TrpJsyi.piKtlvois
unmittelbar
daneben
die Bezeichnung der
dasselbe,wenn
von
Pythagoras gesagt wird, er

vou

sei immer
nur

Schuld

der
der M'"i/'"J
249
(Phaid.
c), und
iJ-viii-T)

verstehen

6,el ijTi

zii

der

der

von

diese
der

Tafelchen

ivd/mrins

zu

fiir

nun
ans

Rnden

dass
herausstellen,

erst urn
Platons Zeit oder etwas
treten, eine QneUe der platonischen

uns

Licht
Das

kaun

hier

nur

angedeutetwerden,

viel
diese Mysterienlehreiiberhauptvon
sonst
die
auf
die
EInflusse
Ideenlehre
ja
ganze Psyohologie,
gewesen
grosserem
ganze
hatte'annehmen
kbnnen."
sind, als man
wiirde

sioh

MYTH

THE

OF

I may
perhaps be allowed to
curious
between
point of contact
effected through
as
Kciffapa-i^
Dante's

representationof
of

terrace

Plato

says

drink

of

the

Mount

that

the

of

here, in passing,a
Plato's representationof
of

and
aietempsychoses,

Souls

In

to Lethe

come

from

ascent

an

Purgatory.

water, and

the

as

159

notice

series

it

ER

fall

terrace

to

the

Myth of Er
in the evening,and
at midnight there

asleep; and
is thunder
and an earthquake,and they shoot up like meteors
born
to be
tells us
again in the flesh. Similarly,Dante
Soul passes
a
to
a
{Purg. XX. and xxL) that when
higher
of its purification,
the Mount
terrace in the course
of Purgatory
is shaken, and
of the
there is a great shout
spiritspraising
The
God.
Soul of the poet Statius, which
had just passed
to a higher terrace, thus explainsthe matter
to Dante
(Purg.
"

xxi. 5 8

The

:
ff.)
"

it says,

Mountain,

Trembles

when

any

feels
spirit

itself

that it may
rise,or move
purified,
For rising; and such loud acclaim ensues.
So

*****

And

I, who

Five

hundred

years

Free

wish

happierclime.

The

in this

for

punishment
and

but

more,

lain
have

now

Therefore

; and

felt

thou

felt'st

devout
spirits
all
its
utter
Heard'st,over
limits,
praise
To the Liege Lord, whom
I entreat
their joy

earthquake
of the

passage

bring
song

forth

both
of

is
the

Souls
a

of

and

from

terrace

of

by

Eyes

Dante
to

series of re-incarnations
of

or

when
of

the

An

shouting
"

the
of

the

in Plato's

are

and

with

pared
com-

to
"

the

earthquake and
associated

thus

The

birth.

new

births, and

of

Mount

in

answers

ascent

Purgatory
Dante

to

tion
representamythological

KaOapati.

Orphic mythology of
Mnemosyne in the world of

That

Heaven,"

the

"couched

Latona

field."

with

terrace

spiritualnew

of the doctrine

and

of Delos

thunder

Plato

series

the

shouting which attended


to a higher terrace
are

Bethlehem's

in

"

of

Statius

twin-born

first heard

by

of

shaking

the

great sound

sound

and

Soul

the

with

mountain

hasten.^

To

The

tremble

had

the two
the

fountains

departed

Pwrg. xxi. 58 ff.,Gary'sTranslation.

"

of Lethe

vouched

for

by

goldtablet

the

consulted

in
originated

"

of

oracles

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

160

ritual

probable by

dead, is rendered

the

those who

by
practised

be

supposed
of consulting Trothe method
have
to
known), in which
phonius at Lebadeia is described. The priestsof Trophonius,
lead him
to
before they take the applicantto the fiavTelov,
are
certain fountains,Lethe and Mnemosyne, which
very close
in

passage

each

to

drink

must

of

other

Be

of Lethe

before;

have

ai

"

he

then

given

power
down

him

forgetall that he thought


Mnemosyne that he may

he

may
drink of

must

he

what

remember

to

First, he

eltrcv aXXijXtov.

eyyvTaTo,

that

cannot

(which Dante

ix. 39

Pausanias

into the Cave of Trophonius.


goes
the mythology of
between
connection
a

when

sees

There

is

evidently
into

Descent

the

that of

practiceof consultingoracles of the dead


Trophonius. It is to consult his father Anchises

Aeneas

goes

Dante's

Inferno(forinstance, Farinata, Inf. x.)have

and

Hades

power.
To

the

down

the results

summarise

mythologicaldata

to

Elysium

near,

but

is

there

the

or

no

"

like
that

inmates

the

even

far reached

so

of

prophetic

Dante

true

was

disposalin placing Lethe in, or


Earthly Paradise, and making it a
his

subterranean, but

not

stream,

at

and

Avernus;

into

he

evidence

the

on

to show

that

surface
he

had

of the
any

Earth

knowledge

have it
we
as
Orphic mythology of the twin-streams
in the Petelia inscription.Nor
can
we
suppose that he knew
of the streams
and
of Lethe
of Pausanias'
(ix.39) mention
Mnemosyne at the entrance of the Cave of Trophonius.'The
is to allow that Dante, taking the generalidea
safest course
of streams
encirclingthe Earthly Paradise from Genesis,and
of

the

the

idea

of Lethe

as

one

of these

have

hit, quiteindependentlyof

very

natural

stream

of

of Eimo^
and

idea of

Neo-Platonic

It is

from

Aen.

stream

the

with

the

of

in which
the
passages
that of avd/ivria-Ki.

that
possible

he

may

have

seen

vL, may

tradition,
on
mythological

Memory to contrast
of the
Oblivion, althoughhis description
of Memory
stream
as
certainlyresembles

is identified with
'

streams

Pliny,S.

process

iV. xxxi.

of

15.

attributes
Platonic

Kddapin"s

For

Dante's

Plinius,"and his
acquaintancewith Pliny,see Toynbee'sDante Dictionary,art.
Index
da Imola in, his Commentary on the D. C,
of Authors quotedby Benvenvio
published as Annual
Report of the Dante Society(Cambridge,Mass.), 1900,
"

art. "Plinius."

THE
With

regard to the
appropriateto the stream
make,

to

perhaps
it may

MYTH

not

of

be worth,

suggestionis

as

that

connection

the

Dante's

obviously

name

have

suggestion

direction at

right

all,

I offer it, however, for what

very
contribution

with

in

161

(not a

Memory)

far.

go

EE

Eunoe

name

which, if it goes
does

OF

to

of the

use

difficult subject. My
Euno^

name

have

may

the idea of

which apparently
refrigerium,
found its way into Christian literature ^ from the earlyChristian
epitaphswhich reproducethe yfrvx,pov
vSwp of the pagan
ing
epitaphs. Thus, we have such pagan epitaphsas the followpublishedby Kaibel, and referred to by Dieterich in his
in his Psyche: ^jrvxpovvBap hoir]a-ot,
Nehyia and Eohde
kuI
ava^ evepmv 'Ai'Soji/eus
(Kaibel, /. G., 1842)
evyjrvy^ei
hoit)croi 6 "Ocripi';
to
vBap (Kaibel,I. G., 1488)
yfrv^^pov
some

"

"

D.M.

IVLIA

HYDOE

POLITICE

DOESE
in Via

found
(inscription

I. G.,

1705;

cf.

OSIEIS

Dieterich, Nek.

TO

PSYCEON

Nomentana,

Eome

and

such

Christian

p.

95);

epitaphs(quotedby Dieterich, Nek. p. 95,


ii. 391) as in refrigerio
anima
et pace
tua
spiritumtuum Dominus
refrigeret.

and

Eohde, Psyche,

Deus

"

Kaibel,

refrigeret

te

"

I
was

"

from

suggest,then, that the


chosen

by Dante,
he

whom

rather

or

borrowed

Euno^

name

it,

to

by

"

an

benevolentia

evvoia,

unknown

indicate

that

authority
a

boon

was

bestowed
graciously
by God through the water of this stream
of refrigerium "^v')(^pov
the boon
ava^
vSeop Soir)aot
Eunofe
te refrigeret.Dante's
ivepcov'A'cStovev'iDominus
thus
the
would
Stream
of the Loving-kindnessand
mean
"

"

"

Grace

of God.

Consideringthe probable descent

of

the

Christian

re-

itself felt in the lines


frigeriwm (the idea of which makes
from
the
with which
the Pwrgatorioends),through epitaphs,
it is to
that
inclined to think
Orphic -^v^pov vBmp, I am
Christian
ought to go for the more
epitaphs that we
immediate
there

in

connection

confidence

some

of Dante's

source

that

with
it had

Eunofe.

If the

word

found

were

we
might infer with
refrigerium,
occurred in Orphic epitaphs.^

Tertullian,Apologeticus,
xxxix., speakingof the Lord's Supper,says, "inopes
isto
jiivamus"; and Dante, Par. xiv. 27, has "Lo refrigerio-refrigerio
quosque
1

dell' eterna
^
In the

ploia."
"Query"

in the Classical Review, Feb. 1903, p. 58, referred to on


154
Miss
Harrison
conjecturedI^iv\olasin Kaibel, I.G.S.I. 642. In
p.
supra,
"
"
1903,
in the Classical Review, March
The Source of Dante's Euno"
a note on
M

MYTHS

THE

162

OF

PLATO

III
Dante's
to

the

in Plato's

Tartarus,

top

eVl yrji

mansions

Lethe,

Earth."

of the

Surface

True

aethereal

the

the

described

places are

these

as

Earthly Paradise on
to the
Purgatory answers

of

the

"on

to

to
eirl yfjii,

mansions

Blessed, or

The

Myths.

of the Mount

Purgatory has characteristics belonging

of the

Islands

of Lethe, and

Plain

"

of

Mount

well

as

as

Purgatory; and the


punishment undergone by those not incorrigibly
disciplinary
is

Eunoe,

wicked,

Plato's

in

Tartarus,

of

Mount

top of the

the

on

in

answers

the

to

part

penance
of Dante's

terraces
cornices or
undergone on the various
Purgatory. Looking at the compositionof the Myth of Er as
have
the
sketch
in this Myth we
a
whole, we may
say that
of a Divina
Commedia, completewith its three parts Inferno,
The
Inferno is paintedwith a few
Purgatorio,and Faradiso.
"

touches,

the

where

Purgatorio is given in
to

what

those

who

these Souls

to the

Lives, and

new

of

out

come

also in

throne

further

only

Tartarus

in the

Necessity,and
journey on to the
of

reference

suffered

have

the account

The

described.

are

detail,not

more

imprisonment,but

their

of Ardiaeus

torments

of the

during

march

of

their

choosing of

water

of Lethe:

Harrison's
"Until
Miss
"Query," I wrote:
pp. 117, 118, in reply to Miss
Harrison's E[to]o(as has been proved to belong to the originaltext of Kaibel,
I. O.S.I. 642, and the reference in that inscriptionhas been shown
to belong
"

the Orphic Kp'/ivri


it will
Myrnioaiinis,
certainly.to
Orphic writer in the third century B.c. might

enough to admit that an


very naturally speak of the
of Memory
of the Well
cSyot towards
those liicrrai,
whom
as
(pffkaKes
on
they
bestowed
rb ^vxP^" ^Sup, or refrigerium, and
that he might very naturally
describe that well itself as "Eivolas Kp^vri the Fountain
of Loving-kindness."
I have been reminded
Since writing the above
reference in Dieterich's
a
by
be

"

Mithraslitwgie (1903), p. 74, n. 1, that Plutarch, in his Is. et Osir. ch. 47,
made
six gods, the first of whom
is the God of
says that the Persian god Ormuzd
d ii.h'Qpo/idfijs
(k toO KaSapuTirov ifi"ovs
6 S' 'Apa/idvios
eivoia.
ix rod ^6"j"ov
dXX'^Xois"Kal 6 fi^v ^^ deoiK ^Trot7}aej
rbv fiJkv
evvoias
troXefiovirtv
yeyovojs
irpwroy
rbv 5k rpirov eivofiiat,
rbv S^ Se"r^pov dXrideiaSj
dk XotTrwy rbp fiiv (ro^faf,
Twy
Mne

"

Si irXoirov, rbv 5k twv


iwl rdis xaXou
iiS4uv Sri/uovpybv 6 dk TO"rovs
Sxrwep ivnTix''ovs tirovs rbv ipiBfibv. Here, I take it, rbv iih" vpQrrov is the

rbv

first counted

Ormuzd

himself

of eilcoiawould
be the last
; so that the God
of the initiated person on its way up the Mithraio
It is a strange coincidence
that the last stage in Dante's
KXt/iaik-irTirvKos.
of purificationthe Mount
of Purgatory shoidd also be WIvoia, having
/cXf/ial
from

reached by the ascending Soul


"

passedwhich

"

his /i6a-nis
is
Puro

dispostoa salire alle stelle.

Harrison
(Prolegomena, p. 584) refers to tomb-inscriptions,
with
civolat
I take it, "in
affectionate remembrance,"
/iv/ifiris
x^P''"- This only means,

Miss
Kal

and

can

hardly give the

clue to the

problem

of Dante's

Eunoe

Mnemosyne.

THE

MYTH

EK

OF

163

these

experiences,leadingup, as they do, to yev"ai"s in the


flesh,are all parts of a purgatorialdiscipline.Lastly,
have
we
the Paradiso
of the Myth of Er in the visiqjpi
of the orrery
the little model
of the great Universe, by means
of which
the
astronomical
theory of Plato's age^essentiaUy the same
as
that of Dante's
is
illustrated
and
presented in a form
age
which
appealsto poeticalfancy,and yet so Plato thought
is scientifically
This ancient astronomy, first poetised
correct.
by Plato, has indeed played a notable part in the historyof
poetry. Dante's Paradiso is dominated
by it renders it into
and Milton, although he
poetry,and yet leaves it "scientific";
was
acquainted with the Copernican system, adheres, in
"

"

"

"

"

the

old

spheresrevolving round

the

Paradise

Dante's

Lost,
Paradiso

dominated
the
must

touched

Earth.-'

the

into poetry

by

when

concentric

we

that

say

of all

"

"

poetry and

forgetthat

But

its

Eschatological
Myths
astronomy, renders its theory

ancient

into

with

astronomy

the noblest

"

the

by

heavens
not

to

still leaves

theory

down

came

influence

an

it

"

is
of

scientific,"^we

to Dante

already

considered

commonly
rendering owes

not

much
of
to which, however, Dante's
poetical,
its poetical
effect. I refer to the influence of Aristotle.
He
he explained the revolutions
put poetry into astronomy when
of the spheresas actuated by the attraction
of God
the Best
all things unto
with
draws
Himself
Beloved, Who
strong
desire (see Met. A
*7; de Coelo, ii. 2 ; and Mr. A. J. Butler's
Paradise
note, The
of Dante, p. 8). It is Aristotle who
"

dictates the

first line of the

gloriadi

La

and

it is

Paradiso

Colui

muove

doctrine

or

"

poetry
"

that

"

All' alta fantasia

Si

qui maac6

possa :
disiro e '1

velle,
gi4volgevail mio
che igualmentei mossa,
ruota

Ma

come

L' Amor
^

"

che tutto

Aristotle's

with

ends

Paradiso

che

muove

Milton's

See Masson's

U Sole

Poetical

1' altre stelle.^

Works, vol. i. pp. 89 ff.


things are moved.

His

glory by whose

Here

vigour failed the towering fantasy ;


yet the will rolled onward, like a wheel

might

all

Cakt.

But
In

even

That

motion, by the Love


moves

the

Sun

in Heaven

impelled
and

all the Stars.


Caby.

the

164

THE

The

Aristotelian

forth

fullyin

There
is

follows

as

doctrine

the

are
:

MYTHS

poetry

or

"

PLATO

OF

Convivio,ii. 44

lines

of these

"

is set

nine

moving heavens, and

The

first that is reckoned

the order

of their

position

of the Moon

is that

; the

; the

fourth,the
second,that in which Mercury is; the third,Venus
the
the
the
seventh, Saturn;
Sun;
fifth,Mars;
sixth, Jupiter;

eighthis that of the Stars ; the ninth is that which can only
is called
be perceivedby the movement
above
mentioned, which
But
the crystalline
outside
or
diaphanous,or wholly transparent.
of these,Catholics suppose
the Empyrean Heaven, which is as much
the

as

the

to say

this to be

Heaven

immovable,

part, that which


the

of

primum

the fervent

since

its matter

longingwhich

that

with

it

this

requires.
rapid movement
part

is the

that

by

of

joined to

Heaven, it
is,as
velocity

its

why

reason

be

to

of every

reason

because

of it has

motionless

desire

great

so

they suppose

has, in itself,in respect

every
divine

most

; and

the luminous

or

And

mobile has most

part of that

every
within

Flame,

revolves

it were,
is
peaceful Heaven

incomprehensible. And this motionless and


the placeof that Supreme Deity which
alone fullybeholds
itself.
This is the place of the blessed spirits,
accordingas Holy Church,
which
will
have
it
and
this
cannot
to whoso
stands
underlie,
Aristotle,
;
him aright,seems
in the first book de Coelo.^
to mean,
This
in

is

ii.

human

reason

To

surface
of the
the

he

says that
things, little can be

formed

to another

orrery
rov

of

emerge

in

Hence, it is inferred,the

they

assembled

choose

known,

yet that

little which

delectation

more

than

all the

new

"

of

ovpavov

sphere

outermost

are

Spindle of ITecessity
Dante
sufficiently
recognisesin
although,as regards the truth

point: The vSsrov,or continuous


edges or lipsof the concentric whorls
e),has been identified by some
with

by the
{Bep. 616

Chariot-Souls

Er

has

the

sense.

now

pass

v5)Tov

know

can

certainties of

the

of Er ; which

3, where

these

of

"

Vision

the

Gonv.

as
fjLv6o";
truly/tv0o?as

before
Lives

Phaedrus, 247

the

sensible

"

Cosmos,

the
on

outside
which

of
the

sight of the Super-sensibleForms.


placewhere the Souls of the Myth of
the

before

throne

of

and
where
Necessity,
they journeyon to the Plain of

view here advanced"


that Aristotle'sdoctrine of God is "
poetry
consult
an
article on "The
interesting
may
Conceptionoi iviiryeia
dKivrialas,"
hy Mr. P. C. S. Schiller,in Mind, Oct. 1900, republishedin revised and
expanded form, under the title of Adivity and Sulstcmce,
as
xii. in Mr.
1

"the

Againstthe

"

reader

Essay

Schiller's Hiimumism
"

(1903).

A. J. Butler's Translation

of Soartazzini's

Companion to Dante,

p. 420.

166

Er

the Souls

again

to be born

about

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

do

vSrrov ovpavov.
Be this as
described

it may, the region of the v"tov


the Phaedrus, is either the actual

in

close touch

with

the

{Tim.

stars

remember"

"always
from

the

Earth," as

of the

Surface

abode,or

we

in

actual

the

Mnemosyne,

have

as

ovpavov,

are

of

who
"philosophers,"

"

True

"

drunk

have

who

abodes,of the purifiedones

b),which

42

the

actuallyvisit

not

been

and

lated
trans-

read

in the

avev
re
iKavSi^ Ka0T)pdiievoi
(114 C): ol (jii,Xoa-o"f)ia
'inreira j(povov icaX eif
eh tov
fwo-t to irapdirav
aca/idtcav
ovre
KoXKiovf oufyiKVovvrai
a?
tovtwv
olKriaei's
en
paoiov
abode of
6 "^povo^ iKavb^ ev rm
SfjX"aai ovre
irapovTi. The
these purified
region,
ones, in or within sightof the super-sensible
of Dante,
correspondsto the Empyrean or motionless Heaven
the blessed really
the tenth and outermost
Heaven, in which
dwell, although they appear, eV elBdoKov eiBei,in all the nine
moving Spheres to the poet as he ascends.^

Phaedo

I wish

Myth
Mr.

of Er

Adam

observations

this section of my
about
the
few words

to conclude

with

in his note

Bep. 617

on

'AvdyK-qsyovaa-iv.

Plato

B, 11

the

on

maintained

view

by

:
"

imagineNecessityas
notion
is probably
Pythagorean ; for Parmenides,who attaches himself to the Pythagoreans
i. p. 572),speaks of a
in this part of his system (Zeller,^
central 'Ava-yKij
the cause
of all movement
and
as
birth; see
Diels, Dox. Gr. 335. 12 S. tQv Se trvfifuyiov
(so.a-re^avQv)tt/v
djrocrats
Kot
TOKea
fieo'aiTa.TTjv
ttootjs Kivqartoi's
"yevecreojs mdp^eiv,
Kol
koI kX.-qSov)(ov
iirovofid^"i
"ijvTiva Sat/iovaKvlSepvrJTiv
SiK-qvkoI
and
I.e.
this
3
identifies
Zeller,
(Zeller
dvayK-qv;
p. 577, n.
'AvdyKTjwith the central fire of the Pythagoreans). The same
seated

in

the

centre

"

of the

means

to

us

The

Universe.

"

school

of
'AvdyKrj

external

it is

thinking
'

Par.

Sphere is
or

that

which

Plato

quiteclear

that

Plato's

here

Zeller

avails

himself

is in
'AvdyKTj

rejectingZeUer's
Plato

is
'Avd/yKT)

here
in

holds

it is this

(I.e.
p. 434,
the middle.

view

avails

the

and

thinks

that it is

himself,and

middle.

But

in

of a certain Saint in a certain moving


The
appearance
in
his
her
of
or
position the gradedhierarchyof the Empyrean,
sign
A Saint who
Heaven, in which all the Saints have their real abode.

iv. 28-39.
a

Unmoved

appears

surrounds
'AvdyKr/

that Plato's

in
I agree with Mr. Adam
external 'AvdyKT)of which

the

in

But

3).

n.

held

together(Diels,I.e.321),and

world

the

also to have

seem

to Dante

Empyrean

than

in the Lunar
one

who

Sphere, for example, has a lower


in the Sphereof Jupiter.

appears

positionin

the

THE
what

middle

which

Not

is not

the

MYTH

in the

with,

Earth, but the Central

maintains
"

If the

616b,

is in

venture

the

of the

Fftre.

either

much

the

on

Earth.

'

No

other

natural

of the

middle

or

the Earth

of the

surface

is

in

light will be
interpretationof Kara
'

It would

easy.

throne

seem,

Mr.

for

light is straightlike a pillar,'he


stretches 'through all the
13), "and

Universe,

within

or

"

as

The

on

regard

'

Universe,the

end

167

of his Universe.

it is within, not

Earth,'it follows that

either

Plato

middle

think, too

to

that

EE

Pythagorean middle

is certainlyplaced by
'AvaryKT]

Earth, which

OF

the

Adam,

aKpt^oXoyla,
of, the Earth.

writes

(note on

Heaven

the

of

and

middle

at the

of

centre

fiia-ov
to

therefore,that

the

the

of the

(f"m
at

is

the

fourth

the Souls are


day after leaving the Meadow
of the Universe
and of the Earth, as
at the central point both
is maintained
others,Schneider and Donaldson
by, among
; and
this view is also in harmony with some
of the most
important
features of the remaining part of the narrative."
My view is that the throne of Necessityis on the surface
of the Earth, at that spot where
the pillarof light the axis
which the Cosmos
revolves
on
was
seen, by the Pilgrim Souls
the
as
ground, seen, luith the
they approached, to touch
of dream-experience)
accompanying knowledge(so characteristic
that it goes through the Earth and comes
out at the antipodal
spot. I do not think that we ought to press the phrase Kara
Mr. Adam
does.
as
Apart from the fact that
fiea-ov TO
^S)"i,
in
the Pythagorean or Parmenidean
not
central ^Kvar^icr)
was
and
the centre
of the Myth
of the Earth, the whole
scenery
its generalfidelity
to me
to be
to mythological tradition seem
does,
againstputting Plato's throne of Necessity,as Mr. Adam
in the centre of the Earth.
The
Myth begins by tellingus
"

"

"

that the
them

Souls

down

certainlyon

came,

from
the

"

of them

some

Heaven,"

to

surface of the

the

out

of the

The

Meadow.

Earth.

Their

some

of

Meadow

is

Earth,

journey thence

to

Necessity is evidentlyon the surface of the


Earth, they have the sky above them ; they see the pillarof
lightin the sky before them for a whole day, the fourth day
of
is no suggestion
There
of their march, as they approach it.
their going down
that day into Tartarus in order to reach
on
Those
of the light at the centre of the Earth.
the
middle
the

throne

of

"

"

"

of them

who

came

out

of Tartarus

are

still out

of it,and

are

described

with
Mr.
c,

the

"

Adam

"

n.),that
the

in

Myth

both

view, were

or

of Lethe

infernal

is

are

Eiver

of Lethe, eh

appear in the list of the


^
the
given in the Phaedo ;

rivers

"

which

Trjv

(citingAen.

Souls,justbefore
to me,

on

re-incarnation,are

subterranean

under-world
the

"

(pepeaOai

(621 b),from

".) infers that the


underground,"seems
"

contrary,entirelyin accordance

the

with

the

view

face
they are on the surof the Earth, under
the open
sky, up into which they
in various
directions like meteors,
surelyan inappropriate
in a cavern
down
somewhere
at the
pictureif they were

that, encamped
shoot

their

vi. 748

The

mythological
seen) places it

SaTrep acrTepai

aTT0VTa";

yevecrtv

Adam

Mr.

yevea-iv.

does not

(observedeven by Dante, as we have


under the open sky
probably the sky of the
And
the antipodalhemisphere of the Earth.
6t?

this

the
Xecfimv was
equallyleft when
Third
now
journeying along the
the
sky, by the throne of
open

tradition

ava"

him

"

Souls

The

leads, under
Way," which
and then by the
Necessity,
Kiver

by
apparentlyalong

as

the

The

reached.

it

Xei/imv

described

of -the Earth

Surface

Phaedo, and

the

of the

thinks
probability

in view of the
Souls progress imtil they come
accordTrue
Surface of the Earth and Tartarus, ing

surface that

to my

all

the True

on

light."

in

Plato

"

somewhere
in

out

came

"

if

Hence,

of the

region
Heaven," are still out of that region.
as
ovpavo^,
of the Bep.
I am
right in identifyingthe ovpav6";
of the Phaedo
Myth,
Surface
of the Earth
True
11
he
(of.614
be rightwhen
cannot
says, 616 B,
those who

into it. And

goingback

not

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

168

near

the Eiver

of Lethe,

"

of the Earth.

centre

The

whole

movement,

in

short,of the

Myth

of

Er, from

companies of Souls at the Meadow


afar
onwards, is above ground, under the open sky. From
they see a pillarof light reaching down through the sky to
the

of the

meeting

two

'

Olympiodorus,Schol. in .Phaedonem, connects the list of infernal rivers with


iroTafiolKarh t^v 'Op^ius "jrapABociv
T4(r(rapes
Orphic tradition oi irapaSt.Sdfiei'ot.
"

iiroyeioLSdvaXoyovat 5' aroix^ioLSre Kal K^VTpois /caxA 5i5o dvTi64(reLS, 6


Tt^ irvpl Kal r^ dj/aroX^,6 5^ Ku/ci;t6s ry y^ Kal rg
fikv yiip Jlvpupiey^dojv
6
roirovs
8i
Kal fie"rTifi,pplg,.
Te
d^P'
iiiv 'Op^eis oOt-u Stdrafer,
'Ax^pw
dicra,
of
airrbs S^ rbv ^ClKeavhvrQ Hdari KoX t^ "pKT(fiirpoff'otKeioi. Here
the River

Tots

Lethe

does not

appear.

of Lethe:
(art. " Lethe ") gives the followingmentions
Simonides,
184
Spig.
(Bergk) this is the first mention, but the authorshipis doubtful ;
Aristoph.Manae, 186 ; Plato, Hep. 621 ; Plutarch, Cims. ad Apoll. oh. 15, in
quotation from a dramatic writer ; Virg.Aen. vi. 705, 715 ; Lucian, de luctu,
Dial. 13. 6, 23. 2 ; Ovid, Ep. ex Pant. 2, 4, 23.
"" 2-9 ; MoH.
Roscher

"

THE

MYTH

OF

EE

169

Earth; and, because Plato, the Dreamer


this pillaras the axis of the Cosmos
recognises
the

the

the

"

Myth,
of

cause

its necessary

revolutions

foot of

it is no
pillar,
longer a pillarreaching down
sky that they see, but Necessityherself sittingon

the

through the

"

her throne, with

Earth, on
her

lo ! when

of

the Souls

model

of the

are

Cosmos

to the

come

revolvingin

lap.
There

is

differ from

another

Mr.

Adam.

c),"that

616

point

the

the Universe, but

"It

lightnot
also,since

which

feel

obliged to
he says (note on Bep.
is clear,"
only passes through the centre of
it holds the heavens
togetherlike
on

undergirdersof men-of-war, round the outer surface of the


i.e.the ends of the lightwhich passes round
heavenlysphere
surface are
the outer
brought inside the sphere,and, being
to
to me
joinedin the middle, form the pillar. This seems
make
of the man-of-war, or trireme.
It is enough
too much
to take Plato to say that the pillar
(which alone is mentioned)
the
holds
Universe
together in its particularway, as the
in their particular
vTro^a"fiaTa,
way, hold the trireme together.
And
if there is a lightpassed round
surface of the
the outer
Heaven, as weU
as
one
forming its axis,why do the Pilgrim
Souls see only the latter ?
The Heavens
are
diaphanous. The
Pilgrimsought,if Mr. Adam's view is correct, to see not only
the

"

"

of lightrisingvertically
from the horizon at a certain
pillar
which
fixed point towards
they journey,but also another band
of light that which
surrounds
the outside of the Universe
fixed
of the sphere of the
travellinground with the motion
the

"

"

stars from

to West.

East

IV
I shall

of Er

with

raised in it.
Will
The
with
stand

the

with

Pilgrim Souls
their

the

are

the

the

axis

working

on

which

revolutions

axis of the

what

conducted

eyes, the

own

beside

clearlythat
that

Myth
the great philosophical
few words
question
on
to reconcile Free
I mean
the questionof How
afi"rmed in the Myth.
Both
are
Eeign of Law.
conclude

now

Cosmos

"

have

to

to

spot

of the

the

cannot

is the

at

which

Universal

Cosmos

the

about

say

they

Law

they

"

revolves,and

be otherwise."

spindle of

see,

see

They see
'AvdyKT]: and.
"

behold

! there sits

herself
'AvarfKrf

very

stand, the
words

are

of

accordingto the law of 'AvayKi?.Yet, within


in which
they
precinctsof the court of 'Kvol'^kt]
in
the
Pilgrim Souls hear the Prophet tellingthem
Lachesis, that
they are free to choose, and will be

of

"

held

for
responsible

Idea

of Freedom

of choice

prenatalact

carefuUy noted,

the choice, it is to be

"

of

the form

mythicallyunder

presents the

here

Plato

choice."

their

of ticular
parof
choice

not

"

the prenatal
things,but of a Whole Life
in which particular
whole complex of circumstances
things
in this earthlylife. Each
chosen
Soul, according to its
"

"

that
are

itself in

nature, clothes

has

certain

circumstances

which

is,in circumstances

"

it

forcing it, or dominating


without, but as being the environment

regarded not
from

as

its freedom

exhibits

natural

or

of

the circumstances

Among

Soul

the

itself,we

character
Life

"

told, is

are

as

which

not

to

are

it
be

mechanically
in

it

which

livingcreature.^

chosen,"

into,

comes

"

circumstances

in

earthlylife

goes through,this
itself chosen
that

and

of

there

in time

events

the

her throne, and

on

ritual,ordering the succession

solemn

three Fates, with

the

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

170

fixed character

included

"

Se
-^^vyfit

the Soul is modified


ivelvai {Rep. 618 b), because
TOL^ivovK
This means
that the Soul,
by the Life which it chooses.
itself
choosing the circumstances, or Life, chooses, or makes
character,as afterwards modified,and
responsiblefor,its own
In other
modified, by the circumstances, or Life.
necessarily
is responsible
for actions prohere on Earth
words, a man
ceeding
"

from

with

accordance

character

connate

the circumstances

which
of

is modified

generalscheme

here

in

of life

unalterable

by Necessityand the Fates before he was


born
^iov S a-vvea-rai,
i^ avdyKiji;(Mep. 617 e).
alpeio'Oo)
In presentingMoral
Freedom
under
the Eeign of Natural
Choice
made
irrevocable
Law
mythically, as Prenatal
by
the
'AvdyKT},Plato lays stress, as he does elsewhere, on
unbroken
continuity of the responsibleSelf evolving its
made

"

character
before
^

It

in

the

was

may

throne

of

It is the choice made


life-changes.
'AvdyKTjwhich dominates the behaviour

order to express this relation between livingcreature and


his theory of Pre-established Harmony.
Leibniz formulated
he says himself
of Leibniz's theory what
of Plato's doctrine of

that
say

ivd/ivrins that
"

series of

in
chiefly

environment
We

"myth"
Erdmann).

it is

propos, p. 19(5 b, ed.

"

"

toute

fabuleuse"

{Nouveatix Essais,

Avant-

THE
of the
but

Soul

the

itself

has

the

choice
a

on

chooses

in

OF

bodily life

made

the

formed
disposition

in

made

it, but
dvev

been

operari}

in

To

be

virtuous

the

who

man

as

soon

in

he

as

previous
had
been
merely
consciouslyrealised

virtue

upon
thus

to enter

"AvayKj)
depended

of

his choice

rues

foundation
"customary," without
principle(Bep. 619 c). Plato
in esse, not

it is about

previouslife ;

his

"

171

throne

tyrant, and
too late, had

^ikoao"j)M^

ER

which

on

before

the life of

life. Wet

MYTH

makes

free is to

Freedom
be

reside

continuously
afi"rming,environment
-choosing personality,
manifesting itself in actions which
proceed, according to
itself as
for
law, from
all in the
necessary
placed once
existing, self

environment

which

the

"

It

of the

power

liberum

the

chosen

which

is vain

its

"

is the

to look

natural

own

counterpart

for freedom

of the

ment
environof

its

will in

own
some

personalitywhereby it may interfere with the


accordingto which character, as modified
up to

necessary law
date,manifests
a

it has

environment

character.

itself in

ariitrium

therefore

Self.

"noumenal,"

actions.

Such

would
indifferentiae,

continuity,and
of the

certain

with

be

the

It is,in other

with

inconsistent

freedom

words,

such

power,

the

and
freedom

sibility,
responof

the

distinguishedfrom the "phenomenal" Self,


which
Plato presents as the
prenatal choice of a Life
such
a
mythically; which is,indeed, the only way in which
transcendental
idea can
be legitimatelypresented, alpetadoi
A
^lov (p avvearab
e^ avay/cijs' 17 8 aperr) aSeairorov,
as

"

"

"

certain

all

Life, with

character, when
the

none

In

chosen,

once

less,it is

mistress."

its fortunes

being

is

and

all its

of Virtue

on

irrevocably.^ But,

chosen

life of freedom, for


conscious

influences

"

"

Virtue

that

is her

is,of

own

Self

as

For the distinction,see Schopenhauer, Parerga wnd Paralipoinena, ii." 117 ;


als Wille -a. Vorstellung, vol. ii. pp. 364, 365 ; and Die Grundlage der
tinction
In the last of these passages
Moral, " 10.
Schopenhauer (explainingthe disbetween
the "intelligible"
and the "empirical" character, the latter of
Die

Welt

operari sequitur esse)quotes


yd.p SKov ^oiXri/iatoioCt' (oikcv
tl\dT(ijvos^X"^ M^^ "^^ a^e|oiJ(rtoi'
tAs
elvai Tov
^uxo^s Tpii' els (r(6/iaraKal
rbv ^iov sK^adai
eU rb fj tovtov
^ "KKov,
fiiovsdia^dpovs ifiTreffeiv,
^
"
tion-myth
is a " foundaafterwards
irremovable,"
Hobbes'
Sovereign,once chosen, ever
which

is related

to

the

Porphyry (in Stobaeus,

"

accounted

; the

for

social

former
Eel.

order

which

"mythically" by

They
out of it.

willed
A

"

operari is

as

8. "" 37-40)

themselves

to

esse

constrains

prehistoricact

into

the

"

rb

individuals
of

choice

to

conformity is
viduals.
by indi-

exercised

not will themselves


social order, and may
"
them
to act as social
is laid upon

categorical
imperative

172

after

striving
of

its

in

of

with
it

Though

admitted

were

is

if

as

practical

to

true.

not

were

of

opinion

this

that

it

Butler

As

reality.

applicable

not

them

to

respect

logical faculty

the

necessity

speculatively

were

The
in

other

made

of

use

life,

man's

whole

that

so

done

in

which

Its

is

It

the

governing
by

they

are,

which
so

if

as

to

crisis

comes,

but

"

in

to

The

liberal

class,

is
rather

education

distinguished

as

workmen

are

the

fitted

for

slaves.

'

Analogy,

i. 6.

of
in

than

to

the

crisis
and

the

will

any

difficulty
given

of

to

special
free

technical
routine

to

kind.

this

impart

suitable

from

be

to

the

of

training

"

does

thing

very

education

his

in

crises

nature

training

them.

faculties
"

the

trustworthy

KaWtVoXt?

Plato's

speak,

for
"

chief

The

preparation

the

be

to

dominate

and

these

The
of

were,

become

they

for

man

be

to

have

afterwards.

rightly.
it

have

decisions

irrevocable,

describes

Plato
which

acts

Er

of

Myth

the

which

conduct

decide
as

with

Great

are

prepare

rehearsal,

is

life.

made,

cultivate

to

knowledge.

like

presented

be

may

aim

of

to

which

by

(j}v\aKe's of

the

pattern

and

anticipated,

judgment

choice

once

may

the

be

cannot

of

natural

is
he

when

is

it

practice

to

done

have

act

career

education

consist

not

the

life, which,

man's

the

is

in

in

prenatal

Myth

performed

regard

with

yet

and

point

momentary
this

true,

false."

were

One

of

is

necessity

the

for

evidence

of

its

involved

freedom,"

"

better

against

is

of

of

inability

the

is conscious

Soul

the
"

is

"Virtue,"

than

notion
i.e.

subjects,

it

consciousness

freedom

The

"

This
of

freedom

understand

says,

self-realisation

consciousness

reality
to

or

good

freedom.

own

the

the

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

men

tion
instrucof

which

(Pol.2*72d)

7ei'os

God
of

and

"

the

of

age

Cronus

destroyedall

the

Then

in

its

God, and
from

bad

men,

now

to

due

time

he

destruction

helm

Cosmos.

evil, and

and

good
which

lack

of

government
he

and

"

of the

Such,

in

as

man

Then

God

this
at

be

deals

influences

of power
hardly matters
differs from those which we
have

have

"

the

with

free to

once

"

of the

do

over

from

himseK, whether

non-use

or

Zeus

will

one

cosmic

by
Creator

the

of
by means
Hephaestus.

brief,is the Myth

creature

determined

even

volving
re-

struggling

that of

"

Changing World-periodsin the Politicus.


the
Like
Myths already examined,
God's

and

present period

of the Dead.

Eesurrection

animals.

while, though

will close the

by again taking the

and

men

the arts of Athena

and

fire of Prometheus

the

for

longer earth-born, from

no

few

saved
goodness,

; till God, of his

worse

God's, yet remembered


afterwards
forgot him, and went

well ; but

fared

direction

the

in

direction,not

own

end:

an

accompanied by great

down, and

calmed

Cosmos

but

to

came

changed

the Cosmos
let go the helm, and
its revolution, the change being

earthquakeswhich

In

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

174

control.

no

examined
in not
Myth
It is told by an
Eleatic
being told by Socrates himself.
is present
Socrates, who
Stranger,who says that the younger
with the elder,will appreciatea /juvdo's,
or
story. Similarly,
he
tells (Prot. 320 c)
Protagorasprefacesthe Myth which
by saying that it will suit Socrates and the others
younger
The

"

men

himself

than

Eleatic

The

Stranger in the Politicus tells his Myth


to the
that
ostensiblyin order to bring it home
company
kingship too absolutely as if the king
they have defined
and
not a human
were
a god,
being. Gods directlyappointed
kings on this Earth in a former period;
by the great God were
but in the period in which
live men
we
now
the only
are
be conceived
now
kings. Kingship must
naturalistically
and
human
a
as
like
product of human
society;
societyitself,
"

"

"

"

"

"

the whole
"

Cosmos

of which
"

naturalisticallyas

divine
of

guidanceab

it

followingits

extra.

we

introduced

shall see, above


to

serve.

intrinsic

own
a

"

the

law

naturalistic

objectof the

Myth

argument which

conceived

be

part, must

To enforce

kingship is the ostensible

high, as

is

"

estimate

; but

it is

without

it

soars

ostensibly

THE

POLITIGUS

MYTH

175

Context
"

the

subject of

the

The

best

of government,

rule

of

form

better

far

because

than

the

could

he

But

could

before

Statesman

True

the

if

it

distinguish
in

order

we

laws

is

ruled

the

hut

Gods

and

were

It

their
is

and

with

the

of

lieutenants

by

which

to

to

eyes

an

instrumentality
and

Earth,

the

try

to

to

the

lived

this,

judge

the

the

personal

form,ulate

Golden

of

do

standard

higher

even

and

Art,

of

for
loe

in

and

on

King,

administration

before

"

men;

the

through
his

were

o%vr

try

substitute

as

his

must

the

of

make

to

we

whose

had,

accept

raise

us

Ruler

not

men,

to

standard

Statesman,

True

True

and

good

let

standard,

God

it

the

of

and
"

were

initiative.

define

to

only
as

nature

like

try

we

would

rulers

the

of

art

made

unlimited

should

we

arts

get

siu)h

with

the

"

laws

"

he
and

initiative

exactly

before

other

obliged

are

initiative
this

all

rulers,

we

and

may

"

trusted

whom

from

that

work-a-day
"

him

find

could

we

because

would

knew

possessed

of

determine

to

who

personal

and

it,

get

man,

and

People,

be

man

"

wise

administration

not

try

we

Statesman.

could

we

and

found,

he

True

unlimited

best

not

available

actually

His

the

if

his

of

them.

for

is

good

Good

Chief

it

securing

eminently

one

the

desired

he

Politicus

The

human

Age

he

rulers,

among

men,

Kings.
this

Golden

present

age,

and

Age,
and

the

the
cause

difference

great

of

the

between

difference,

that

the

Myth

Theodorus
concerned.

told
the

to

the

elder

mathematician,

and

'the

by

the

younger

Stranger

Socrates,

and

to

from

Mea,

is

THE

176

MYTHS

PLATO

OF

PoUticus, 268E-274E

SE.

268 E

hi] Tw

'AX\a

^v6(p

ol TratSes* vavra';
KaQa/irep

irai8ia"ierr},
eK"jievy"i"i

irdKKa

ov

vovv,

Sfl. A^7ot9 av.

NE.

SE.
TToWa

irpocre'xe rbv

jJLOV irdvv

'Hv

Toivvv

@veaTov

irdXai

tSuv

earai

en

hrj KaX

KaX

oKKa

re

Koi

re
'AT/sew?

ireplrr/v

to

"KeyQevTWD

\ej(6e'iaav
epiv ^dcTfia. dxi^icoa'}
yap

koi

xal

irov

6 (fiacri,
dirofiVTifioveveK
yeveadav Tore.
NE.

Sn.

To

irepX t^?

ypv"yri"i

dpvo"; I'cro)?{rrjfielov

^pd^eii.
SE.

269

Kal
/j.ev

aWa
OuSa/[tft)9,

dvaTciXrj^r)\iovkoI
avareWet

dvereXKe

eic

oKKcdv

tcov

eh

vvv,

hvae(o"sre
ireplTrj"; fieTa^oKri";

to

rovrov

evavriov.

tov

0eb"} Arpet fiere^aXevavrb


NE.

HE.

Sn.

Aiyerai

Kal

fir]

NE.

zX2.

SE.

Ti

aS

p,r]v

TToW"v
K.povo"i,

rbv

Tore

Be

Tore

iirl rb

Kal

vvv

ttjv

oOev

ehvero,

roirov

Stj fiapTupria-a"s dpa 6

Si) koI

ovv

dpa

eo?

(Tvrifia.
tovto.

^a"7t\eiav, rjv rjp^e

ye

dKtjKoafiev.
Tl'KeLcTTcovfiev
Se

Toiis efiirpocrdev
koI
(f"vea-0ai,
yr)yevet"i

TO

ovv.

e^ dXX'^Xcovyevvacrdai;
NE.

SE.

ZiD,. K.al

tovto

Trpa

Be

Ta
dire(T^r}Ke,

vvv
e'iprjKe,

Be

eari

fivpia Kal

erepa
'X^povov

Trdcri

to

rai/TOV

fiev

%""/3t9

aiTiov

ex

rovrcav

ttXtjOo'srd

tovtol^

Brj XeKTeov

Xe^x^devTcav.

^vfiTravra

fiev

Siea-Trap/ieva
eiprjTai

S' earl
Be

TroXat

tmv

tovtok

Bid
0av/J,a"TTOTepa,

dXXriXav.

ev

to'lvvv

Tavra

Trddov}, Kal

yap

acrrpeov,

eTt

avT"v

eKoa-Ta

irdQo's,ovBeh

el";

yap

koI

Xeye /irjBkv
eXXeiTrav.

ttjv

tov

^aaiXem'i

diroBec^iv
prjOev.
irpe-^ei
NE.

So.

YidXXia-T

etire?,

dir

THE

POLITIGUS

MYTH

177

Translation
Here

Stranger.
child,and

"

beginneth my

listen ! for indeed

wonderful

far art

not

thou

Tale !

Be

gotten

from

as

the

years of childish things.


Socrates}
Let us hear it.

Stranger. Well, of
old

time, there

those

thingswhich

have

been told from

which
shall yet
to pass, and
came
many
I count
the Sign which
to pass : whereof
again come
appeared
that Strife the Old Story telleth of was
when
between
Atreus
and

be

Thyestes; for,methinks,
then

came

to pass, and

thou

heard

what

they say

it well.

rememberest

of the Golden

Is it of the marvel

Socrates.

hast

Lamb

that thou

speakest?
Stranger. Not of that, but of the change in the setting
and stars ; for the story goes that in the
and risingof the sun
rise in that did they then set, rising
quarter whence they now
from the oppositequarter ; but that God, bearing witness for
keep.
Atreus,changed them into the way which they now
Socrates.

story also

That

Stranger.

of

And

I know.

kingshipof Cronus, too, have

the

we

heard

tell.
many
Socrates.
Yea, very

Stranger. And,
first grew

do

moreover,

of the

out

many.

earth, and

they not

tell of how

not

were

at

men

begotten of

their

kind?
also is

That

Socrates.

Stranger. Well,

all

of

vanished, and

each, as

of

that

things. But

the

of

man

hath

spoken.

hath

been

set

rest

which

of that

these

hath

which

of the old stories.

things one

thingsalso
by reason

other
yea, of innumerable
than these things; but
are

one

is

which

thing is
are

more

cause

ful
wonder-

lengthof time most


of
is made
mention
separately
no
fellowshipwith the other
the cause
of all these things no

Let it therefore

forth,it will help to

of

now
our

be told ; for when

it

proof concerning the

King.
Socrates.
'
Socrates
translated.

the

Good

Younger

Go
is the

on,

and

leave out

interlocutor

nothing.

throughout

the

whole

passage
N

HE.

dv.

'Akouoi?

at

koX

aiiTO

dpya?.

Kar

6^

Sn.

He.

To

Aia

avrm

koL

TavTa

Svcrii

TavT7]"i

irpocri^Kei
novoi"s,

Tm

oQev

BvvaTOV
Kivelv

Be

Be

avro

itKtjv
TOVTO)

Tive

9ea"

OTrep

apTi

^povovvTe

tov

ivavTta";

eaurot?

koI
eppridi]

fiovov

KaTcl

eaffai
Kai

levai.

Kaipov

ttoWA?

B'

rfyovfievw.

ivavTieo"; ov

del

q\ov

6eov

v'tto

Bvo

av

aW

erTpe"f)et,v
avTov,
Tore

^rjv

/jiev

"iraXLv

eavTov

""7Te

Bid
irepioBcov
/ivpidBa";
eiri

Kivr)a-ea)";

fii^Te aiiTov "^pr/

eirKTKevaaTrjv

d"f"edevTatoiovtov,

KToppoircoTaTov

ev

dva-

ttjv

irepiayayd'i,
fjurjT

dvedfj,Bi

OTav

Bio

"jravTCOV

a5

Xoivov,

Xa/jLJ3avovTa ddavacrLav

TOTe
Brjfiiovpyov,

fiaKiffTa

Ti

at"di"! Be

evavTia

0eLa"s alTia"},to
i7Vfj/7roBrjyei(T6at,
Koi

Koafiov

del, firiT

koi

ov

aWto"s,

tovtcov

aTpe"l"eiveavTov
(f"avai,

270

koi

"TTpe"^eivdeX a'yeBovovBevl

fiev

Brj

aTpe^eaOai Bitto,^

tov

ye

Trj"!avTOv

Kivovfievtov

Tore

0e/ii";.eie TrdvTwv

KeKOivcovriKe

firjv

trfUKpoTaTTjv
eavTo

t5)V

Tm

Se

Kotrfiov

-irapa

"f"opdvKiveiTUf

fiiav

6 Tt
e'LK7j')(ev,

irapaXKa^iv.

kui,

ovpavov

Br)

ovv

Tairrov

trcofjMToi

jiaKapicav

Bvvafiiv ye

KUTO,

TavTCL

KaTo,

kvkKt](ti,v

oia

fieTa^o\rj";afioipa yiyveaOat Bia

avTm

dBvvaTov,

aiiTm

Be

Koi

/j,ev

yevvijffavTO";
(leTeLKrj^ev,
aTap

TTfiH/To?

Levai

ael kuI

e^eiv

ov
t^s Td^eei)";.

ttoXX"v
iirmvofiaKafiev,

avairaXiv

to

axravTox;

deioTuToi^

iravTosv

tTa}fiaTO"i.

a-vvapfioa-avTO"{

S^ ;

TToiov

TO

kuto,

elvai Tot"i
ov

Be

tovto

irepia-

efitftVTOv
yeyovev.

avayxt}^

NE.

ravavTia

ei5

avTopMTOV

avrjKev,

ei\rj"f"u)(T

fierpov

iic rov
^povijaivelKrjjf^b';

^S"ov bv xal

yerai,

To8'

iToXiv

S"

avyKVKXel, Tore

avTo";

fxev

Tore

airm
7rpocriJKOVTO"!

tow
irepiohoi

V^V XP^^""'''"" ^^
D

ToSe

irav

yap

TO

Oeot ^v/iiroSrjyet
iropevofievov
orav

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

178

crfjuKpoTaTov

inr

aWi;?

iiriKTOifievov
tov

irapa

ievai,

avTov

dvdiraXiv
to

iropev-

fieyiaTov

^atvov

ov

ttoSos

POLITIGUS

THE

Stranger.
time, God

Hearken

himself

then,

179

Universe, for

certain space of
propelin the circular

help to guide and

thereof; and

motion

This

doth

MYTH

the

when

cycles of

the

time

it have

he letteth
accomplished their measure,
Then
doth it begin to go round in the contrary direction,
it go.
of itself,being a living creature
which
hath
gotten
understanding from him who fashioned it in the beginning.
This circuit in the contrary direction
belongeth of necessityto

appointedunto

of the

the nature

Socrates.

Stranger.
alway, and to
which

that to

be

same,

the

of this order.

belongeth only

which

that

in the

be constant

divine of all ; but

Now,

"

Because

the most

are

of what

Because

of this

because

Universe

the

to

call Heaven

we

those
of

nature

state

same

things
is not

Body

and

Universe

begat it,partakerof many


this well. Body also is of the
blessed possessions
; but, mark
Wherefore
it is not possiblethat it should
portionthereof.
it
be wholly set free from change,albeit,as far as is possible,
motion : for
in the same
revolveth
place,with one uniform
made, through him

hath

been

this

reason,

motion

in

the

of

be

to

are

moved

again
that

we

him

who

that

say
in

now

the

again

alway, or
one

all

From

not.

is

direction

must

must

nor

hold

remaineth,

to

by

this

Universe

wit, that

which
at

one

was

time

the power
of God
it, and receiveth

supervening,and
immortality from

then,

time, when

at

another

smallest

it

alway wholly
and

then

it.
possible
im-

things which
and

foUoweth

either

of

itself

moved

in the

we

that

the

direction

this

in

now

circular

is, methinks,

all the

ruleth

itseK

belongeth unto

self-motion

them

may

is

say that there be two


it so to
contrariouslyminded, do cause

direction ;

we

not

must

to revolve

being

in

move

he

that

itself

moveth

God

and

in

alway

only with

save

unto

which

motion

the

constant

took

direction, which

contrary

possiblealteration
Now,

changed,it

it

when

who

by

contrary

Gods

which,

revolve ; but

said and alone


just now
it is holpen and guided by
hath
the

more

life added

Creator

unto

afresh ; and

self,
of itit is let go, it moveth
opportunely released that thereafter it

having been so
able,
journeyethin the contrary direction throughout ages innumering
being so great of bulk, and so evenly balanced, and turnon
so fine a point.

NE.

'Zil. ^aiverai

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

180

Br) kuI fiaXa

yovv

eiprjcdai

et/coTO)?

iravff' o"ra

BieXifKvda^,
SE.
Aoyiadfievot Br) ^vworjaafji^vro
etvai
XevOevTwv, o
iravrwv
vvv
e"f)afi"v
oiv Br) tovt
a'iTiov. eari
avro.
yap
2f2. To

NE.

SE.

To

Tr)v

Sn.

(popav

iravTcx!

tov

S' eTrl

rare

C ovpavov

i(j)a

fiev

vvv

ravavria.

Br);
Bei
Tavrr)v Tr)v )iera^o\r)vfjyeicrOai,
eivai
rpoir"v iraawv
yiyvofievtov

HE,

dav/iaa-r"v

t"v

^epecdai,rare

KVKXeirai

NE.

irolov

vd6o"i iic r"v

Hw?

irepltov

t"v

/j.eyia'Trjv

km

T"\e(0Tar7)V Tpoirrfv,

Sil. "Eot/ce

NE.

yovv.

yieyiaTaistoLvvv koX fi"ra^o\a"! ^pr)


Toi"; eVro? r)fi,ivoIkovciv avrov.
yiyveadaiTore
HE.

2fi. Kat

NE.

HE.

elKoi;.

TOVT

MeraySoXa?

iravToia^

Be

koX TroWa?
/cat
fjisydXa";
ia/j,6v
Tr)v tS)v ^cotov^vaiv

ap' ovk
avfj^epofievai;

OTi

j^aXe-

;
dvi'xeTat

TTws

Sn.

NE.

HE.
D

vofiL^eiv

^dopal

T"v

vovat

B" oii ;

Hw?

aXKmv

Te

^Vfi^ai/jiiyterTai,

i^ dvdyKr)^ TOTe
^camv, Kal Br) koI

TOivvv

oXiyov tl TrepiKeiireTai.irepXBe
koI
BavfuuTTa koI
Trad'qpLaTaTroXXa
Be ToBe Kai
^vveTTOfievov
Ttj tov
/leyiaTov
yevo"!

TOTe

OTav

t^9

r)

dvOpdiTriitv

t"v

to

aXXa

tovtous

^vp/irLvTei,
dveOd^ei,

xaivci
iravTO^

KaOecrTr)KVM"s evavria

vvv

re

ylr/vrjTai

TpOTrr).

NE.

:Sn. To
'Hi/

HE.
/lev

effTT)

trolov

sKaaTov
rjXiiciav

TrdvTtov, koI

t"v
ely(e

iiravaaTo

irdv

^coeov,axnr)
oaov

r)v

6vt)t6veVl

IBeiv Tropevofievov, /ieTaj3dWov Be irdXtv


yepaiTepov
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Te

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271

Tore

'XP^^'P

'"''''

tr"fiaTavra

vexpov

aZrjKov ev

iradrjiJMraBia Ta^ovs

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

182

ravra

tratrypv

^fiepaiiSie^Sei-

oXiyat?

pero.

2n.

NE.

Sif

rei/""rts Se

Kal riva rpovov


eyevv"vro;
i^ aWvKav
3E.
to
on
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rare

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01

inrb

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tov

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to

iari
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yap

t"3

t"v
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eic

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ov

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koI dyeKa^
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oiire

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olv

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KaTaKoa-fi-qvew;

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eirofieva,

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6
,

av
/j,vpC

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oaa

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ovk

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ayptov

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to

^v

S' oZv

e\nia"aKVK\oviiilvrit.

ecTi

t"v

THE
wise

the

POLITICUS

of them

that

MYTH
have

died

after

the

183

by violence at this
time go through the same
changes quickly,and in a few days
dissolved and gone clean out of sight. *
are
But
how
Socrates.
then
creatures
were
brought forth,
and after what
manner
were
they begotten of their kind ?
then
Stranger. It is manifest, O Socrates,that none
was
naturallybegotten of his kind, but that the earth-born kind
they tell of was that which came
again from the earth in
up
those days, whereof
first forefathers
had
remembrance
our
corpses

lived

who

in

the

time

Period, being born


From

their
down

unto

but

herein

they

the old

After

the

their turn

graves ; these
elements, and

err

which

who

go

who

men

motion,

he

earth-born

God

whom

in

time

cometh

For

to

tell

But

true
some

me

and

the

were

name

portion.

did

whole

revolution, and
were

divided

God

life thou

all the

amongst

their
their
in

of those

sayest

Period

that

in

or

which
led

men

thou

this ?

speakest in
happen in each.

falleth to

control

in

which

that

from

the

argument
the

That

"

before ; for then

"

necessity,

all,save

foUoweth

whereof

them

of

men,

other

in

of

of earth-born

Stranger. Well hast thou followed


thus :
thy question is to be answered
all things came
forth spontaneous for
grueth not with this present motion,
was

next

contrary to the former

of them

the

sun

each

name

it
reigned,was
'tis plain that the change
of the stars

is

Thus

this

"

Cronus

course

foUoweth

unto

motion

days,and

is the

believed ;

not

already dead and lying in


to be compacted anew
out of

Yea, indeed, this

before.

when

to

the dead.

translated

Socrates.
went

those

received

have

we

riseth from

is

childhood,there follow

cycleof generationwhose

the

of

back

are

his

former

the

consider

begin therein
when

of

many
what

for

end

beginning of this present one.


word
concerning these things

hath
us

men

the

at

mouth

come

next

the

with

of

use

with

but

his

parts of the

age

the

; and
when

man

con-

that

which

providencethe

Universe

gods appointedto rule

over

where
every-

them,

certain places; and, moreover,


living\
gods rule over
assigned unto angels,
creatures, accordingto their kinds, were
cient
flocks unto divine shepherds,each angel being wholly suffias
then
in all things for his own
flock,so that there was
sedition
or
no
devouring of one another, no war
savagery, no

as

now

avdptoTrmvXej(dh avrofidrov
0"o"! evefiev avroi)^

eip7)Tai.

bv

^"ov
avdpcairoi,
avr"u
272

airriv nrdvTa, Kapirov'i

fj^fivrj/ievoi

Kal

dffTpwToidvpavXovvrei

dtpSsvavT0i";

aKvrrov

eK
dva"f"vop,evr]^

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S'

Kpivai

ave^iaxTKOvro

oix

ra

Ato?

vvvi, irapmv

TovBe

yaOtjaai.

avTOi

Bvvaio

av

ecy(pv

^lov,

orj
"

evBai/ioveffTepov
ap

tov

avToiv

tov

eivai,

yap

to

evva"s

K.p6pov

iirl

re

yvp,vol

eve/jLOvro'

Se
/j,a\aKd"{

t"v

p-ev

yea"pyia"!

vtto

d"f)66vov.rov

tov

p.ev

rjaav

diro
el-)(pv
a(f)d6vov";

nroXKa

tol

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iroat

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ov

ovk

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t^? 7^?.
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KaOairepvvv

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oiSev

roiovBe

to

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erepov

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Be Kal

Sia

0iov

yap
yvvaiK"v koX "rratSeov iic yfj'i

ovSe KTrjaeif

SevSpmv

-irepi

avTO"i

vep.ovro'i Se

vofievova-i.

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

184

Te

Kai

edeXriaeia^
;
tn.

NE.

SE.

OvBafi""i.

BouXet

NE.

Sfl.

SE.

Et
ovTO)

avTot?

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p,ev

fiev

Toivvv

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;

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7ra/"ou"ri/?

Tpo^ip-oitov

01

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(Tj(okfj(;
nrpof

p,6vov dvdpcinroKdXXa
C

aoi

Kal

BijpioK Bid

Xorfcov Bvvaadai

Kal /ter*dXKrfXcov 6fiiXovvTe"s,


Kal
dTjpiasv

vofievot

e'i
irapd 7rdt77)^^v"Te"o";

ej(pvcra

rjadeTo

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ti

t^povqaeo)^,evKpnov,

otl

t"v

Tivd

dXXiav

vvv

01

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t(9

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Bri Kal
KaTd
op.w"i

Ta

Trjv

S' oZv

vvv

eprjv
TavTa

ireplavT"v

XeyovTai, Kal

d^"p,ev,eia?

dv

dBrjv Kal

ola
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Kal
Bo^av diro^rfvaadai,
p.ev

Bvvap.iv

p.vpitptt/jo?

tot"

Ta

irvvda-

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et?

evBaifioviav
Bieipepov.el Be ip/jmrXdfievoiariTtov
iroT"v

fir]

^vp.vatTiverrl (j"iXo(T0(j)i

tovtoii
^vyyiyvea-Oai,
KaTejf^p"vTo

fieTd Te

to

tovto,

/idX'

w?

ye

evKpuTov.

"qpZv p.rjvvTrj'i

tk

THE
at all

nay, time

POLITIGUS

would

MYTH

185

fail to tell of all the

of

consequences

dispensation.

that

therefore,hearken, and

Now,
is in the

old

spontaneous.
of men,

Tale

of the

time

God

himself

was

even

as

which

creatures

now

God

all

then

the

as

him, is the

Shepherd

truth

that
forth

things came

the Overseer

being

our

was

ded!are

when

man,

beneath

are

When

tribes.

I will

and

herd
Shep-

god amongst the


shepherd of their

there

was

civil

no

had not wives and children, but all came


government,and men
of
into life again from
the Earth, without
remembrance
up
aught before. Instead of these thingsthey had in abundance,
without
from
other plants,fruits which
the Earth
trees and
husbandry brought forth spontaneous. For the most part they
lived without
for the
beds

seasons

had

and

raiment

without

tempered

were

couches,
do them

to

they

in the grass which

have

I told

sprang

no

in

air ;

the open
hurt ; and

soft

abundantly from

the

Earth.
Ifow

Cronus

reigned;

is under
what

it is.

these two

for the life which

as

the rule

thee,Socrates, of

of Zeus, thou

Canst

thou, and

lives is the

now

here

art

wilt

the

life which

is,which

thyselfand

thou, determine

when

was

they say
knowest

of

which

happier?

I cannot.

Socrates.

Stranger.

Shall

I then

Prithee

do.

"Well

then,

this for thee after

determine

some

sort?

Socrates.

Stranger.
so

facultyof

great leisure and

with

but with

men

nurslingsof Cronus, having


joining in discourse not only
of their opportunityall
use

if the

beasts,made

getting of wisdom, conversing with beasts and one


if haply any
with another, and inquiringeverywhere of Nature
better
and
perceived,
peculiarfaculty,
part thereof had some
than another part, aught which
might be of advantage for the
ingatheringof true knowledge, if this,I say, was their manner
hard matter
our
question:
to determine
of life,'twould be no
for

the

"

they were

thousand

if,after they had

be

and

eaten

tellingtales one to
to this day are
even

time
as

times

easy

to

determine

happier than

another

"

And

are.

even

fill,
they passed the

to the beasts

and

told of them,

our

their

drunken

we

"

such

tales

I declare,
'twould still,

question; nevertheless,let

us

put

THE

186

ol
iroripas^
"})avy,

iKavoi;

OF

PLATO

Ta"s

eiTi,6vfiia"s
ei^ov

MYTHS

Tore

ical Trj"!rSiv "Koyuv


iirKTTTjfi"v

fiv6ov 'ff/eipafiev,
rovro
\"kt"ov,

iva

ttcLv avqXwTO
yrjivov rjBr]
Ta?

eh

ToaavTa

fjiev

yrjv airipiuiTa
"jretrovarj^,

KaTa

dp^rj^ t"

aeiafwv

iroXvv

a^ieaav av
Se

to,

iv

Se

Kal

TO

oZv

p^TS'Xpv

irapa

fiev

avTrn

aiiTm

iraXai,

Koi
rfir)Trav6fievo";

eiwdoTa

tov

tt/v

tov

i^ iKelvq';ovto?

ivavepyd^eTai,

iieTo.
afiiKpa

hrjfuovpyov

Bvvaiiiv.

koo-ijlov

koXcl

Se

KaT

dp,^Xv-

oiv

fiev

re

tov

d"f"iKe(T0ai

e^et, Kal

tov

irapa

iv

ovpavw

rot?

Kv/Sepv^Tovto,

(j)Xavpa,
fieydXa Be

Be iKeivov
dryadd- '^a"pi^6fievo"s

'/roXXij^

iceKTrjTaf

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j(aXe'rra

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ylrfveTai,

aiiTm

vvv

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fiev

t"v

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^vvTpoAov,OTt

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efiirpoaOev

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yhp

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am/jMToeiBe^Trj^ avyKpdaem^

to

iroTe

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re

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aKpi^eaTepovdireTeXei,TeXevT"v
Be

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?iv

a5

eh
dvofiVTjfiovevwv
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iv

t"v

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KaTaKoa-fiovp,evo"s

avTO"s

Tr/v

ofli/

tov

op/iT/v

irotSiV,aXKr)v

eavTa

Oopv^tov Te

iraTpo^

aiTiov,

nravTo^

ttoXip

fieprj

ical T"\evTrj"sevavTtav

drreipydaaTO.p-era

eavTov

Kal

tov

koI
fiETaaTpe^ofievo^

el'?re
aeifffi"v,
yaXrivr)";iirCKa^op^voi}

ej(wv

yfrvxTJii

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^dWcov,

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koI

re

6
eTrifiekeiai;.

ttJ?-avT"v

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"7

tot"

to

to3 /MeyiffTO)
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Baifiovi6eoL,

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yv6vTe";rjZr}
to

tov

koI

irpoaTajfdev,

eKaaTy

hrj Koa/MOV

8e

tov

Trepicoirrjv aire"TT7i,

aTpe(f)ev
eifiapfievT)

273

fjv

to

j^povo?

otov "irrjBaXiav
o'laKOf a^e/i"vo";,
et?
Kv^epvqTT)!;,

avTov

oi

tovtcov

TravTcov

irdaai; eKdffTrf"s
Trj"!

yevo^,

aTroBeSeoKviai;,otra

yeveaei^

rov

ei?

fieTa^oXrjVeSei yiyveadai ical Br}

eTeXecidrjkoI
E

evexa

rovTo

fiera

to

'ETretS^yap
nrpoffdev
irepaiva"/j"v.

oii

'^peca^'

"rrepi, re

iyyvraTa

fwot?
fwa

iveTiKTev

"ypovov

del

THE
it away,

until

of

knowledge

for the
of

some

crediblywhich

us

sake

POLITICUS

When

whereof

this Tale

change
rendered

and

come,

of the Earth

out

arose

needs

must

let

was

appointed for

her

did the Governor

to

fall and

be

left,and

sown

part

the
upon

the

let go, as
watch-tower, and

the

them

every
number

of the Universe

and

that

the next

generationof

her tale of births, accordingto

regard
of

and
fulfilled,

was

none

in

speak

us

show

to

inclined

were

men

of the

there

is able

started,that

was

go forward.
of all these

time

187

who

appear
ancients

way these
discourse : meanwhile

and

the

shall

one

argument may

our

MYTH

that

Soul

had

of times

Earth, then
it were, the tiller,

Fate
and inborn
depart into his own
backwards
the Universe
to revolve
Impulse began to cause
again. Straightway all the gods which, in their several
they
places,bore rule together with the Great God, when
what
knew
done, likewise left their provinceswithout
was
shaken
with
the Universe
a
was
as
oversight. Then
great
of
of
the
concussion
his
depths by reason
earthquakethrough
the

reversed

revolution

motions

and

the

the

one

whereof

beginning; whereby was


of every
livingcreatures
Universe

last

at

the

wherein

course

due

and

time

trary
con-

other

destruction

of

into

it useth

confusion

and

calm, and

accomplished,the

was

tumults

from

being set

to go, therein

superintendencyand dominion
callingto mind alway, as it
Maker

the

and

fresh

two

kind.

ceased

and coming
earthquakes,

ending

was

wrought

the

Thereafter, when

the

strife betwixt

and

in order for

went, itself

having

that in it is,

over

itself and

aU

was

able, the

teaching of

the

of all.

Father

more
things which it brought forth were
roughly: the cause
perfectlywrought, but at last more
the
in
mixed
the
whereof
was
was
corporeal part which
full of confusion
of things,the which
was
originalnature

At

before

first the

that

composed
from

it

Universe

it the

the former

the

unto

came

state

present order.

unrighteous which

in

the creatures

it fashioneth.

which

itself

the

Governor, the evil

and

the

good

were

in

Him

who

things fair and good ; but


all the things difficult and
come
it hath, and bringeth to pass in

hath

thereof

From

creatures

abundance

all

Therefore
it

brought

; but

when

when

forth
it

was

it

was

were

with

few,

separated

TtJ?

iv avra
\q0r}"!iyyiyvofievrj"i

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iTTevei

i^avdei rov

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ijBri

re

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iva

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iv yy

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avTov

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av

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tov

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vir

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Kal

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o5 Se
t^s ofj.oia"i
dyoi)yrj"!.
aiiTm

fiev

yevvrjaeoi';

avTOKpdTopa

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re

^"ov,
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o"Tov

to,

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B

Kal

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av
t^? "fp\.iKia";

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e"

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to

eiprjTaf

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iradrifiaTi,

i^v

to

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koi

aTravTcov

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yij? veoyevri

6"

diroOv^aicovTaet?
274

avrov

drrreSiSov

Tavavna

a/iiKpoTriTOf

TO,
7)v^dveT0,

oSbv

StaXu^et?

voaijaavTa koi

a-TpetjidevTOf
yap

yeveaiv

diropiai^

irepioSa "rTpe-\Jra"

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TOV

tov
\6yov.
dtrTojjLevoiis

Tr)v

reXo?

iv

or)

Bvri,iraXiv

to,

irpoTepa

oiv

oio

tottov

iiravopd"v dOdvaTOV

direpyd^eTai.tovto
i-rrl Ttfv

ovTa

rrjv

Sia"f"$opd"i

Tapayri";

irtiSaXitov
yir/vofLevoi,
KaS"

Ty

Se

avrm.

KaOop"v

viro
fiij"yeifiaa-del's

t"v

iv

iv

rS)v

KO(T/j,i]a-a';avTov,

r^? dvofioioTTjTOf
airecpov

Tov

e^eZpof avTov
E

xal
d"j"iicveiTai

avTov

TOT

iirl
iireyKepavvvfievoi;

Kpaaiv

KivSvvov

elf

Swa-

k"u

rdyaffd,iroWrjv

cr/MiKpa fiev

koi

^(^povov

ivavTitov

ovTa,

fiaXXov

rov

iradot, reXewroii/TO? Se
T^? "rraXatd^ dvap/j,oarrla"i

TO

rS)v

Sidiyei,
irpoiovro';Se

irdvra

KoiKKtara
dtfteffecoi

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

188

/cat

ev"Ka

iafievfjBr).ireplfiev

dWav

T"v

yap

yiyvoiTO,

"v

rov

yap

Kal

d(j)v\aKToi
Kal

d/iij'^avoi
are

ovK

Trj'i

i-maTdfievoL

66ev

Br)

sTreiSr)

fiev

to

eTriXiirev

Bt)
TTjOO?

avT0v";

^vfj,/j,ifiovp,evoi Kal

fMvOov

tov

KaTiSeiv,

TO

/SaaiKiKov

T6\o9

re

Kai

cOCKxav

Trap

Bi

eK

avT"v

^vveirofievoi

e')(eTm,

6(Tov
ttoXitikov

del

yeyovev,

rffidpTOfiev

Be

i7ri/j,e\ela"!

ttji;

Biaytoyijv
0X09

avTov

Kal

fiev

to

/j,ev

Troirjaofieda

d'jro"j)j]vdfjievoi,

trpoaOev

Kal

Kocrfj.o';,

vvv

y^povov

"j"v6fjje0a.

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re

Trjv

tov

Kal

re

ev

OTrotra

tovtwp

Kaddirep

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irap

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av

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kr

Kai

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Teyvai

Se

airep/iara

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\ej(6evra

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ev

"^a\eira

avr"v,

vir

Trpdyrovi

jj/qhefiiav

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dvayKaia"i

fiST

to

tovtcov

-Trdkai

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D

Sid

-mo

ix

Toii';

a-nrept)-

oaa

da-0evei"i

Se

airol

Tpo(f"rji iiriKeXonrvta';,

avTOfidTi}"!

fiev

Orjpicav,

Btrjpird^ovTo

Kara

are-xyoi

dvayKd^eiv.

Tai

yeyov6re"s,

irpoarjKovTa.

'^fiai Sat/iovo?

av

airaypitoOevreov,

^v,

fiera^e^XriKe-

fioXXov

km,

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fiaKpa

alriai

vifiovroi

Kal
t"v

Kol

^?

Si"

^payvTepa

eVt/ieXeta?,

^vtreit

"v

Koi

KeKrrj/ievov

ra?

PLATO

OF

iroXKa

sKaa-ra

avdponraiv

fji-mdevre^

dtjpieov

e'f

Se

Trepl
T^?

MYTHS

THE

190

"Koytp.

tov

THE

As

for

the

they

causes

proper

gotten

were

to

keep
of

more

and

; for

arts

and

the

aforetime

need

By

of

reason

old

the

and

time

just

life

the

watch

when

failed

now,

ourselves,
must

alway

and

Statesman

in

Before
I will

go

also

of
in

after

that

on

the
the

to

; the

set

we

former

our

supplement

translation
appears

live

Myth
Laws.

; and
have

the

said

as

lives

whole

up,

grow

from

since

our

by

Universe

and

following

now

after

imitating

and

the

this

manner.

whereof

use

the

be

will

the

of

nature

to

make

King

and

Discourse.

offer

the

forth

ever

spend
the

as

we

do

Tale

our

even

with

which

Gods,

the

to

us

which

the

again

wrongly

behoved

whereof

mate

things

by

us

over

fore
where-

wit, fire
his

forth,

brought

ourselves;

all ages

then

endeth

how

it

itself;

for

Here
see

for

throughout

manner,

kept

all

yea,

thus

were

and

us,

caring

care

others

that

Gods

to

and

Hephaestos

the

provision.

together

needful;

of

because

the

us,

over,
more-

lacking,

straits

sore

from

upon

were

from

arts

from

man's

Gifts

bestowed
which

in

men

were

those

were

the

herbs

furnished

that

training

Prometheus,
and

things

pass
tell

and

teaching

seeds

all these

aid

make

to

weak

now

food,

us

were

and,

was

provide

to

nature,

the

spontaneous

had

become

without

constrained

not

by

them

by

our

because

pass,

were

harried

how

to

fierce

but

which

god

it

came

what

by

suf"ce.

the

ourselves

grew

yet

had

stories

of

helpless, and

which

and

story Vill

care

we
were

were

to

came

we

not

the

how

long story;

beasts, being
and

that

food

knew

we

it

wild

first, we

at

tend, then

savage,

defenceless,

shorter

of

and

be

191

tell

field, to

would

bereft

we

MYTH

the

and

is man,

us

become

of

changed

were

multitude

the

us

beasts

concern

When

POLITIGUS

observations

foregoing
of

the

on

translation
Golden

Politicus

the

Age

of
of

it

Myth,

by giving

Cronus

as

it

THE

192

MYTHS

712E-714

Laws

712

A".

"OvTioi; yap,

Se wvofiMKafiev
713

Kal
re
Secrwo^o/ievcov
SeaTTOTOv

rov

tov
e'lirep

Be

T"v
aK7)6S"";

elal

eKaarr)

ttoXiv

tov

eBei

olierjaei,
Ttai,

^'j

to
iirovofia^eaOai,

i'^ovTWv Bea7ro^ovTO";0eov

vovv

to

Kpdro"i.XPV^

Trpoa-ayopeverai

ttjv

Se

iavT"v

fiepeatv

a?

fieTej(eTe'

iroXireiai,,TroXecov

BovXevovaaiv

roiovrov

dpiaroi,iroXiTeimv

ovk

vvv,

PLATO

OF

tov

ovofia

XeyeaOai.
KA.

Tt'? S'

A".

'Ap'

^"09;

oZv

fivQtp (TfiiKpd
y

p,eXXofi,evc/x/ieXw?
ovKovv

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A@.

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dp')(r)

vvv

epwTcop^evov

ovv.

p.ev

Sr] TroXeiov, wv

yap

6T4
SirjXdofiev,

o-6t?

to

hpav ;

'X,pv TavTf)

KA.

SriXwaai

ttw?

el
-Trpoa-y^prja-Teov,

en

eVt

yeyovevai

ijsfibfjLTjfia e-xpvadiaTiv, ^rt? t"v

^vvoikij-

Trdfj/iroXv
XeyeTai

tovtcov

irpoTepa

ical oiKTjcni;

efivpoaOevTa5

rt?

K.p6vovfidX^evBai/jLcov,
vvv

dpta-TaolieeiTai.

******

713

ToLvvv
"j"'r]fJi7]v

d^6ovd

CO?
^(ofj"!,
TOVTCOV

iKavT)

Ta

T6
v^pea)"!

re

KaX

7y/iet?

rt?-

yiyvaxricmv

fiaKapiai

tots

irdvT

avTOfiaTa

XeyeTai ToidBe

aiiTM

Kaddvep

vapaBeBeyfieBaTrji;t5)v

etvev.

Kpoz/o?dpa,

BteXrjfXvdafiev,
""?
ovBe fiia
dvOpcoTreia
^v(ri";

dvdpwirivaBioiKovca avTOKpdTcopirdvTa
Kal

Be

dBiKia"i peaTovadai,

^aaiXeaii
e"f)ia-T7i

t6

Kal

apy(^ovTa";

TavT

o5i/

Tat?

-rroXeaiv

dXXd
dvdpdiTTOv^,

yevov";

Baifiova^-olov

"^fiel'i
BpS"p,ev
rot?

vvv

deioTepov

re

Kal

iirt

ovv

Biavoovfievo";
rjfiwv

ovk

dfieivovo'i,

Kal
iroifivioia-i

oaiov

THE

MYTH

OF

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

Athenian

Stranger. The cities whereof we just now


spake
but
true
not polities,
are
or
the
cities,
mere
dwelling-places,
inhabitants
whereof
slaves in subjection
certain ones
unto
are
each
themselves
of these dwelling-places
is
one
; and
among
called
be

the

"

therein

masters

called

after

God, who

her

Aih.

the

masters,

And

over

who

convenient

True
of

men

such," after

of

that

cityshould

be

after

little while,

answering

that

them

City will be called


understanding.

is this God

for
still,

must

and

if it is meet

but,

verilyruleth

Gleinias.

more

of such

government

Fable

use

for

what

thy inquiry
"

the

thinkest

thou?

Gleinias.
Ath.

whereof
"

was

Before

and

best is

in

Settlement

former

when

of that

part

inhabitation
of

this

it is told that

"

Cronus

great, and

was

image

an

the

the

were,

before these

time

long

blessedness

ordered

cities

those
forth

set

yea, very
Government
the

Fable.

"

that

have

we

whereof
now

Yea

was

whichsoever

course
Dis-

there

King ;
city is

exemplar.

******

This, then, is the Tale which


the blessed
that
the
that

life of the

had

they

thereof

cause

Human

become

thought
and

of the

rulers

excellent

the

received

have

lived in those

who

men

concerning
It telleth

days :

stint,spontaneous, and that


Cronus, saith the Tale, knowing

things,without
this

was

in

could

Nature

authorityin
not

all

we

no

with

sole

and

set

and
yet
things human
took
insolencyand injustice,
our
cities,to be kings
over

men,

but

those

filled with

matter,

thereof, not

left

of all

administration

vessel

be

wise

sort, to wit. Daemons

;
193

just as

of
we

more

divine

ourselves

and

do with
0

THE

194

elaiv

^/jiepoi
ap'^ovrai;

ayekat,'

evBuLfiova
Kal

"jToXecov

ovBe

oieTat

714

Brjfioa-ia

Tr]v

TOV

Kal

vov

tov

aOavaai,a";

r]fuv

IBia

sttI

Tdi

Biavofiijv

Kal

eveaTi,

oiKija-ei^

i'irovop,d^ovTa";

Kal

vofiov.

alSai

Xeyei

yevr).

ocrcov

to?

av

KaK"v

ecrTi

Beiv

Xeyofievov

"^fid"s
fiiov,

ireiOofiivovi

TO'VTip

ra?

i"picrTr)

KaX

re

ovk

"ip6vov

tov

deo^

patrTcovr}';,

fj,i/j,eia0ai

oKXa

avr"v

dcrTacrlaaTa

'^pa"p,evo";,

SvrjTot;,

aiywv

rjfi"v

elprjvqv

direipyd^eTO

^PXV

rts

St]

irape'XPfievov,

akrjdela

dvdfj)v^i"S'

firj'^avy

ev

"qp."v,
SCk7]";

\oyo";

dXXd

ttoviov

iraarj

bcrov

dea

fir)

avToli;

Kat,

ouTOS

avTol^

fiev

dvOpajirmv

t"v

ij/xetv

dfieovov

ttoW^v

oA^Ooviav

to,

vvv

Bta

alya^

ravTov

yevo"s

to

eTTifieXovfievov

Kal

evvo/jbuav

Kol

Br)

-^filv

dWa

yevo"s.

av

ovBe

^o"v

nva";,

sKeivcov

Saifiovcov,

7roX.\^9
Kol

aiirolai

^i\dv0pa)'7ro";

T"v

TO

/Sou?

a/jueivov

[koI]

PLATO

OF

ov

trotovixev

Beairo^ofiev,

apa

MYTHS

TroXet?

BioiKeiv,

THE

cattle

our

and

POLITICUS

flocks

^for

goats,

over

of

than

which

Daemons,
their

great

own

for

providing

us

peaceable
This

and

happy.

Tale,

then,

ruler,

make

dwelleth
all

in

of

Myth,
Daemons

This
but

be

obedient

and

which,

must

the

all

when

Immortal
thereof

voice

in

households

our

interpreted,

being

by

was

is

govern

fore,
where-

we

which

for

man,

which

that

and

public,
Law,

to

Tale,

unto

signifieth

it

troubles

life

as

mankind

is

the

Reason}

Myth

ought

with
set

far

so

the

to
and

us,

mortal

and

the

unto

in

we

private

of

like

and

according

cities

Award

;
must

us,

doings

our

and

King

was

evils

admonition

life

our

from

they,

of

as

but

of

government,

nations

God,

say,

race

for

good

race

they

and

inasmuch

truth,

not

escape

the

to

it

hath

of

way

no

according

Cronus

in

city

hath

means

hath

and

the

caring

the

of

us

ours

ours,

made

being

over

goats

or

God,

than

modesty,

stint,

oxen,

manner

set

to

and

peace,

whichsoever

that

and

without

justice

like

men,

content

over

thejp,

excellent

more

195

oxen

over

In

toward

is

not

rule

theirs.

loving-kindness

his

and

ourselves

we

excellent

more

set

we

"

but

MYTH

the
forth

to

Discourse
in

that

be

taken
of
Discourse

in

close

Diotima,
;

connection
in

for

which

the

not

and

Symposium,
see

pp.

with

only

434

if.

the
the

infra.

Politicus
doctrine

of

Observations

Introduction

Politicus

remarks, indeed, leave

admirable

for

Myth to Jowett's
of Plato),where his
(Dialogues

Statesman

the

to

refer the reader

than

outset

of the

general characteristics

the

Myth

Politicus

the

on

do better at the

I cannot

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

196

little to

be

added.

The

Myth, it will be gathered from


' Jowett's
of the
tions
distincremarks, consists in its presentation
God causing and permitting evil,and between
between
of the

philosophicalimport

"

his

immediate

less

or

more

of

government

the

world."

Interestingobservations will also be found on the art with


which
Plato givesverisimilitude to his own
Myth
by adopting
received traditions (as the tradition about the sun
having
and that about
the 'yrjyeveZ';)
risen in the West
originally
he pretends to find an
traditions of which
explanationin his
own
largerconceptions." "We have had instances of this art
in the Platonic Myths alreadyexamined, which
have found
we
securing credit to themselves
by explaining not only old
traditional Myths, but the facts and
doctrines of
modern
have
found
science
the same
we
art
employed by
; and
"

"

"

"

Dante.

referred

Having
of this

view

Myth,

to

Introduction^ for

Jowett's

I will

add

now

some

observations

on

general
special

points.
doctrine

The
or

survivors
in the

versal
uniperiodicalterrestrial catastrophes,"
each
occasion
few
scattered
local, leaving on
a
to build up societyafresh,mythologically
explained

Politicus,was

afterwards

was

It
the

was

note
2

'

also

a
"

of the

I would

part

of the

scientific

"

"

tenet
in

also refer to

It

"

science
of the

of Plato's

Peripatetics.*

is

day to explain at least


phenomena as caused by the
thus that the phenomena of

Grote's Plato, ii. 480, note s


to the Foliticiis.
"

long and

Prolegomena
on

day,^and

Plato's

of terrestrial

Heavens.

to Stallbaum's
Laws, iii. 676 ff.
See Newman's
notes

; and

"

prominent

generalcourse

motion
'

of

Arist. Pol. ii, 5. 1269

5 and

6.

instructive

198

MYTHS

THE

sometimes
on

smaller

in

him

represents

scale and

more

ought

intermittent

be

to

not

anthropomorphicallythe
mythical. And
imagination,
"

forgottenthat

the

suppositionof God's

in

the

Politicus

is advanced

agency

shut

(stm

in

his eyes

to

order

Plato

to

does

he supposes
government the fact

the

in

even

in

which

fact

of course)the
explain (mythologically,
not

outlines,sometimes

cosmic

immense

representationis always for the


it

PLATO

OF

Timaeus,

where

continuityof God's
of the existence
of evil, both physicaland moral, in a world
ence
In maintaining the existsupposed to be governed by God.
of evil Plato is certainly in earnest."
It is worth
noting that the representationgiven by the
Politicus Myth of the oppositionbetween
and
Matter
God
to the
good and evil as an oppositionof motions is common
the
Myth with the astronomy of Plato's day ; but whereas
Politicus Myth
in God's
direction alternate
makes
motion
with
in the world's
motion
direction, astronomical
theory
makes
the two
i.e.
motions
for ever
simultaneously,
go on
Myth)

the

"

"

"

"

the

eternal

motion

carries round
from

West
For

the

the inner

Cosmos

whole

whose
spheres,

from

East

take

motions

own

to West

place

to East.
a

full discussion

I would

Myth

of

of

astronomy of the Politicus

the

refer the reader

vol. ii.
Republic,
295 if. Mr. Adam's
view is that the two
cycles(the motion
in God's direction,
and
that in the oppositedirection)
of
are
equal length,and that each of them represents a Great Year
the Great Year being 36,000
years.
to Mr.

Adam's

"

Ill

To
The

"

'^'qlvovijSrjirav
Eesurrection
"

may

be

"

of

avrjXmTo
the

regardedas

successive
in

(Politicus,272 d).

Politicus

Myth and
chosis
Metempsyparallelproducts of imagination.

a fixed
Metempsychosis assumes
for all and continuingalways in

created; the souls which

'"/evo'i

"

of soiils created

number

existence.

animate

generation are always


former
generations.

the

bodies

souls
In

New

which

of

souls

are

men

in

had

been

Rep. 611a,

Plato

once

not

each
carnate
inex-

THE

POLITICUS

down

presslylays it
always the same

MYTH

that the number

199

of souls in existence

augmentation or diminution.^
in
involved
tenet
Metempsychosis Plato, shares with
Messrs. Spencer and Gillen say
aboriginesof Australia.
The

idea is

of intercourse^
were,

without

"

prepares

firmlyheld

child
spirit

In

native

objectslodged
do not

in

with,

cave

the

Alcheringa ancestors, with


When

the

that

fact

has gone
then
that

result,been

born,

makes

of

store

old

it

already

an

centres.

each

of

one

which

them

is

intimately
of

and

child

is the

the

it is endowed.

of which

woman,

women

of, one
representative
a

wooden

Churinga(stoneor

livingchild

is

the

has, as

re-incarnation

of

there

The

store

upon ; but the store of adult


the Politicus Myth is at last
when

in its

away.
One

might develop

vanished

infants

which

the

body

the

which

Plato's

reappear

each

dead, grows

of

myth,

infant

an

and

after the

as

say
manner

new

it is drawn

Eesurrection

"

for

is

chosis
by Metempsy-

fast

as

bodies in the

exhausted,

There

life.

one

is of souls,upon
of souls assumed

it rises from

turn

till it becomes

smaller

than

exhausted, being recruited

never

Eesurrection

soul, so

same

more

as

bodies,

generationdraws.

birth of

storehouse,near

into

Metempsychosis makes
the same
body, serve

As

result

particularspiritindividual.*

that

^
:

merely,as

local totem

attributes

spiritpart

the

the

the

This

direct

this,which

of the
the

other

or

the

receptionand

of

is indeed

and

without

one

value

the

pass)lies in

associated

inhabits

who

mind

child is not

the

that it may
come
the mother
for the

formed
the

that

is

adult
smaller
and

"

of

body,
and

vanishes

that it is these
of

ordinary

Psyche,ii. 279.

Cf. Rohde,
The Native

Tribes of Central Australia, p. 266.


ception,
Cf. Myer and Nutt's
V"yyage of Bran, ii. 82, on the widespreadidea of conin a drink, or
male
without
intervention, through swallowing a worm
.

other means.
through some
*
Spencer and GiUen's
going to press I have not
GiUen's
the

book, The

new

followingsentences

"These

tribes

ancestor
marked

of

believe

Native
had

Northern
from

of Cerdral Australia, p. 138.

opportunityof
Tribes

notice

Before
and

seeing Messrs. Spencer

of Central Australia, but

I transcribe

(July 9, 1904) :
mythical Alcheringa
the places,
souls haunt

of it in the Athenaeum
child the soul of a

"

in every
These totem
is re-incarnated.
into the ground.' There
'went
ancestors
the
where
tree
or rock,
by a
of a type familiar in Europe and America
left stone amulets
the dying ancestors
his ancestral churinga is -sought,and
child is bom
When
a

given

totem

styledchuringa.
often is found

the

"articles

that

Tribes
an

Are
placewhere the totem spiritentered his mother.'
to
450
infra,
parallel
referred
to
p.
belonging to the deceased,"
near

these Australian

the

amulets

200

birth,and grow
the
the

Cosmos

of

of

"

"

soul

the custom

That

the

"

body

one

who

into

the

is

"

enters

of

the

from

mother.
of

the

The

procreation
mother,

not

obvious.

course

of Eesurrection, then, recommends

notion

real

tinguished
hardly dis-

"

returns

of the nature

view

"

child

the

that

counting kinship through

of

father,is

the

through

afid

such

between
relationship
and

ehUd

as

by Messrs.

is after all not

iutercourse

departedand

of the

primitiveminds

such

to

aborigines,observed

Australian

birth

as

world

confined

with

accordance

in

be

would

of

revolution

the

size,when

This

Gillen, that

of the

PLATO

OF

adult

into

means

no

the

Spencer and
cause

back

is reversed.

belief,
by

those

the

MYTHS

THE

itself

of
the same
imagination in much
way as the notion
Metempsychosis is what I wish to suggest to the student of
the Politicus Myth.
notions
The
two
are
closelyallied and,
to the

indeed, tend

body

is

coalesce.

to

hard

for the

one

distinction

between

soul

imagination to

maintain

; thus

The

is very
imperfectlymaintained
The Jesuits relate that among

the Hurons

ceremonies

who

in

"

months

for

little children

old; their

bodies

cemeteries, but buried


the

"

died

less

at

put in

not

than

the

ultimate

two

cofi"ns in

pathway in order
passingwoman
body of some
is practically
given up in the
on

it

following instance:
there were
special

the

upon

might enter
born again; ^ and it
Eschatology which insists
with its risen body.
into

were

the

and

union

that
and

the

they
so

be

Christian

of the

soul

IV

My
the

remarks

in this section

will

serve

as

introduction

to

Creation

Myths," which we shall examine next.


The Politicus Myth may
be distinguishedas Aetiological
from
the EschatologicalMyths
which
examined
have
we
in the Phaedo,
Gorgias,and Republic. The Eschatological
Myths are concerned immediatelywith the Ideas of Eeason.
They set forth the Idea of Soul as subjectof God's govern'

The

"

J. E.

King

on

souls of infants

ii. 411-413,

on

"Infant
seem

Supoi, and

Burial," in
always to have

caused

Adam's

Rep.

SKlyov XP^""" ptoivruv vipi

fiWa

note

on

Classical

Review,

Feb.

1903, p. 83.

difficulty
; see Bohde, Psyche,

615 c,

twv

8i ei6it

IXtyev oix ft|iajiviiiaji.

xoi
ytvo^vav

THE
in

ment

the

POLITIGUS

MYTH

201

Cosmos, by depictingthe future

the

of

not,
"^v)(ri,

without

course,

reference

to

vicissitudes

of

its past out

of

which

its future grows.


The Aetiological
Myth,
Keason
forth
either
Ideas
of
set
hand, may
or

on

the

other

Categoriesof

the

Understanding. Thus the Timaevs


(which is one
great
Aetiological
Myth) sets forth the Ideas of Soul and Cosmos,
by tracing their imaginatively constructed
objectsback to
which

causes

unfolded

are

and
"^uj^j?

of the

sets forth

the

material

in

of the Creation

account

an

world.

The

Phaedrus

Forms

in

of the

Myth, again,
Understanding aetiologically,
priori conditions of our knowledge of
abiding mental impressionscaused by

Categoriesof the

by showing that the a


sensible phenomena are
a
prenatal vision of the

Eternal

the

virepovpdvio^

myths which cannot be called either


but
are
merely Expository
Aetiologicalor Eschatological,
of the Understanding
of Categories
either of Ideas of Eeason
or
thus
Diotima's
Myth is an imaginative expositionof the
and
of Truth
Idea
of Soul
Love
as
Immortality, while
described
of
the functions
the
natively
imagiUnderstanding are
There

TOTTo?.

are

other

"

in

the

Timaeus

as

like

revolutions

those

of

the

Cosmos.
The

Politicus

Myth, settingforth

as

it does

the

Idea

of

logical
subjectof God's government in the Cosmos, is Aetioexists in the
for the Evil which
in supplying a cause
world and man's life under God's government.
think
that we
How
does Plato
are
helped out of the
logical
about
the
existence of Evil by an Aetioprofound difficulty
if we
Myth of Changing World -periods? The answer,
be a complete theory of the influence
could give it, would
of man.
the mind
which
AetiologicalMyths exercise over
Here is the greatestdifficulty
of morals ; and it is easilysolved
by a fantastic story of the origin of the thing which makes
!
the difficulty
to attach such
Let me
try to explain how Plato comes
value to this Aetiological
First, Plato thinks that the
Myth.
as
is best illustrated in this way
immensity of the difficulty
the tragicimport of a great crisis on the stage or in real life
behaviour
comment
is sometimes
illustrated by the trifling
or
Soul

as

"

of

some

his

one

Myth,

it may
its childish

present
"

with

be

of

child.

unconsciousness

Plato thinks
of

that

is
difficulty,

valuable

enhancingour

as

and

helping

so

which
difficulty

it

real

cause

know

the

have

got

it.

can

under
we

which

try

to

"

"

tions,
by particularexplanaonce
Plato's Myth puts the difficulty
But
versal
place exhibits it,in its immensity, as uni-

for all in its true

Xoyia-fia
"

"

moral

the

the

the

in

it atVta?

nostra.

; and

we

of the system
very nature
it puzzlesus, and paralysesus the more

live

remove

more

we

about
difficulty
with
difficulty
particular
universal difficulty
a

solution,but

inherent

we

very

When

immense.

grip of

of

sort

of Evil ; for it is not

contradiction

culty,
diffi-

of detail
difficulty
particular
and can
generallyovercome
were,

it

get this

"

more

appear

particulardiscoverable

remove

of any

never

the existence
a

makes

grip of it,as

We

to

immensity of the
the difficulty the

of the

sense

us

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

202

You

is
"

particulardifficulty.Do
it is !
Put it by

cannot

not

try

you solve
immense
See how

solve it

to do

so.

as

"

"

"

The

cloud

Others
But

This
to

ofier

we

are

to

who,
first

is the
the

helped

out

destiny,

of mortal

will front it
like

him,

fearlessly
"

will put it

part of the

by

which

answer

venture

Plato
think
that
does
question. How
of a profound difficulty
by a childish

Myth?
second

The

part

of

the

venture

to

state

as

"

impossibleunless
has
one
enough merely to fancy that one
is
which
one
somehow, at least partly,solved the difficulty
asked to "put by." An
or
attempt to solve a fundamental
universal
difficulty
logically,
by a thin process of reasoning,
ing,
can
only end in a sense of failure ; but a childish Myth, touchit is apt to do, a vast complex of latent sensibilities,
as
awaken
a
feelingof vague satisfaction. A childish Myth
may
to solve a fundamental
thus, after all,seem
so
difficulty,
may
in
far as to warrant
the
one
one
important
puttingit by
thing being that we should
put it by," and act, not think
follows

It is very
fancies
it is
:

hard

answer

to

"

put it by

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

about

the

it and

hesitate.

suggest,then, that

his

Myth is due to
Aetiological
many-sided genius with this

of

human

"

nature, which

the

instinctive

shall I

finds,amid

Plato's

and

of

sympathy

call it weakness

doubts

of

love

"

difficulties.

THE

US

POLITIC

satisfaction in fantastic

some

this

weakness, with

which

MYTH

203

Let

explanation.

Plato

suggest that

illustrate

me

is in artistic

sympathy, by an instance of the use of tha"Aetiological


Myth
in Finnish
Birth
Iron
in
of
mythology
by the Story of the
"

the Kalewala.
Kalewala

by

The
about

But

seventy years
had

been,

as

popular Laujola,or
of

Finnish

the

Epic, the Kalewala, was piecedtogether


Cantos
of Eunes
out
or
ago by Lonnrot
they still are, sung separatelyby the
Minstrels.

The

poetry, and

AetiologicalMyth

about

say a few words


to this story.

me

of introduction

way

great Finnish

which

unit

first let

be

may

growing

Eune,

of

out

or

is the

Canto,

fairlydescribed as an
the
magician's charm-

formula.
chief

The

the

in

personages

Kalewala

national

not

are

but great magicians; and


epics,
the interest of the poem, or poems, is connected
mainly with
their power
the manner
in which
these great magicians show
and
Men.
over
Nature, and Spirits,
According to the Finnish
the simplest thing done
belief,everything done in life,even
by the most
ordinary person, has its appropriate charmformula
is successfully
done in virtue of the accompaniment

kings and warriors, as

in other

"

of the suitable word

laying the

words

or

keel of

e.g. there

"

is

another

boat, and

for

word

for

fully
success-

fixingthe ribs,

of the
ordinary acts depend on the utterance
do the extraordinaryacts of great
more
proper words, much
the
chief magician-hero of the
magicians. Wainamoinen,
Kalewala
he was
Eunes, when
building his magic boat forgot
and

so

If

on.

three necessary words, and


at last found his way into

wandered

over

"World

the

Earth, and

the whole

of the

Dead,

in his search

mighty words, which are the


wielded by the magician-hero,are mighty in that they
arms
he exercises his power.
of the thing on which
contain the cause
ous
He is confronted
with difficulties and dangers in his adventurit is by tellinga difficult or dangerous thing
and
career,
for these lost words.

its

these

he conquers
it.
Birth
of Iron
that

originthat

it is the
relate
has

Now

to

(Kai. ix.
overcome

29
he

it

If it is

wound

magician

the
is

If

must

first tell the

must

monstrous

".).

story

to

of

cured

know

and
he

bear

that

the

Origin

of

he

to

{Kal. xlvi. 355). If it is a disease that


only do that by tellingthe disease
exorcise,he can
the Bear

be

has

its hidden

name,

and

which

it

came

healed,he
Thus,

place from which


{Kal. xlv. 23).

the

the

know

must

If it is

the

and

it came,
a

Ancestry of Snakes

snake-bite

to

be

695).

xxvi.

{Kd.

by

way

Aetio-

the
magician-hero

of the

of the charm-formula

out

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

204

the singer of the Eune,


when
logicalMyth arises especially
himself, as he often does, with his magician-hero,
identifying
"

the first person.

uses

is

Kalewala

The

collection of Cantos,

looselyconnected

the weapons,
magicians are the heroes, and charms
the charms
being words which reveal the nature and origin
overcome
of the things or persons
magic words which the
Eune -singers expanded into elaborate Aetiological
Finnish
it is the prayer
at the sacrifice
Myths. Among other races
as
or
Comparetti^ observes, which is developed into
offering,
the
then into the Myth ; it is only among
the Hymn, and
is so developed. Sorcery,not
that
the charm-formula
Finns

in

which

"

ritual

elsewhere

as

and

is

custom,

here

the

of

Iron^

of

germ

the

Aetiological
Myth.

The

Story
with

Wainamoinen,

of

streamingfrom a wound
buildinga boat, hurries

blood

by his axe when he was


place in his sledge,asking if

made
to

which will heal the


last he
old

to

comes

calls

streams,

tamed

three

of

out

his
A

house.
were

soon

him

to

"Wilder

by

in

sledge
silver
full

and

High

crossed
and

a
cup
of blood, and

'

Der

from

Kalewala,

fireside

this

Creator."

the

golden

knows

little

them.

sledgeat
have

ere

tion,
ques-

door

the

been

now

Wainamoinen

rose

entered

the

brought and

were

overflowing.The

At

grey-bearded

Wainamoinen's

courtyardand
tankard

place

from

little old

man

Speak, who art thou amongst men,


of what people and
nation, that already seven
great basins and
filled
with
blood
All
tubs
?
are
thy
magic words I know,
eight

cried out

the

his

in

than

is

in his knee

mighty words

the

one

to

answer

sits

rivers

of the

there

in

he

as

greater

words

any

which

who,
fireside,

out

knows

one

outrage." No

Iron's

house

the

by

man

"

Birth

the

oder

die

"

traditionelle

Poesie

der

Finnen,

p. 169

(German

edition,1892).
I liave translated this story (with considerable
compression and omission)
of the Kalewala
Hermann
version
the German
by
Paul, published at
the
fiftieth
commemorate
in
1885
to
of the first publianniversary
Helsinglors
cation
of the Finnish Epic.
^

from

and

the

on

his bellows.

He

look

to

near

forth

went

morrow
saw

seek

to

wet

place for

; he

morass

went

smithy and put

his

he built him

there

and

smithy

pieceof fenland, a

it ; and

at

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

206

up

his bellows.
Soon

"

the

matked

he

Bear

fen, and

the

on

discovered

the

in

of
footprints

the

track

the

of

Steel,

Bear's

the

in
footprints,

broad

Wolf's

the

found

rusty Iron,

the

saw

and

the Wolf

great

track.
Then

"

spake

happened
Bear

What

would

Iron, when

and

of

that
the

thou

clumsy

to

himself;

Fire, into

the

of death

the

took

hold

of

said : ' Fear


up his voice, and
his brother.
If thou
enterest
in

the

the

not,
into

furnace,thou

shalt become

Iron, and

stirred

day

take

shalt

sharp sword

for

for women.'

instrument

and

whispered
into the

of Fire.

name

beautiful,thou

first

day,

not

fear

layest thyselfdown

Smith
the

on

second

lifted

hurteth

again more

The

"

and

the Iron

the

the terrible

Smith

the

useful

it,if I cast

anguish of

the

poor Iron ; Fire


the smithy, and

men,

track

the

is

'

it heard

But

rise up

of

come

did

Then

"

heavy feet, in

bethought him,

he

sparklingglow
"

What

'

"Thereafter
'

'

What

Wolf's

the

unhappy Iron !
unworthy place is this

Smith

thee !

unto

under

hast,

the

cast

the

up

the third.

it

on

the

ilame, and

the

glowing hearth,
yet again on

the

Slowly
was
melted,
l
ike
leavened
spread itself,
up
dough,
within the flames of the mighty Fire.
cried the
Iron
Then
in anguish:
0
passion
Smith, have comtake
of
the
out
me
me
;
burning Fire,out of the hot
upon
!
flamingglow
and

boiled

in

glowing Iron

bubbles, and

"

'

'

"

answered

Then

the

Smith

'

If I take

thee

now

out

of the

Fire,thou

mightestgrow up to be evil,and all too dangerous;


mightestmurder thy nearest-of-kin,
regardingnot thine own

thou

brother.'
Then

"

said

break

Iron

There

'

are

lifted up his voice,and


swore
still trees enough to fell,
and

will I hurt

great oath, and

stones

enough

to

do

harm unto
brother,or
my
my nearestfairer and
honourable 'tis to live as
more
of man,
to be his friend,
the weapon
of
companion and servant
the
than
be
to
of one's kinsman,the
his hand,
of
enemy
never

Better

of-kin.

and

destroyer

one's brother.'
"

Iron

Then
out

till it

was

took
of the
bent

Ilmarinen

Fire, and
to

use

the
laid

; and

Smith, the famous Smith, the


it on
the anvil,and
hammered
therefrom

he made

implementsof every sort.


somethingwas still lackingto the

poor
it

sharp tools,axes

swords,and

and
"

Yet

Iron,the Steel

still

THE
needed

something.

lacked

the

unless

Water

"The
and

due

he

and

made

and

the blue

hardness,his

could

the

be

not

bethought him

little ash

what

mouth

forgedhard,

he
and

Water,

upon
bath, for

should

do;

dissolved

hardness

give

to

it
the

to

Steel.

he prove the Water


with his
is not yet made
fit to harden

Water

tongue,
the

and

then

rusty metal

glancingSteel.'

Behold

"

Iron

"

pungent

strengthto

The

'

207

it.

sprinkled a

said

The

Smith

Carefullydid

"

MYTH

Iron's tongue lacked

sharpness.

wetted

therein, and
Iron

The

renowned

then

POLITIGUS

Bee

flyingover the grass, sportinghigh and


low on brightwings,flitting
and humming round
him.
Then
the
renowned
Smith
Here !
spake
:
Busy Bee !
hither
the
noble
Bring me honey on thy wing, bring
juice,suck it
from
the cups
of the flowers,to give the right hardness
to the
Iron, to give strengthto the Steel.'
"Hiisi's
evil bird, the
the
Wasp, overheard
talk, as she
down
from
the
roof.
She
heed
peeped
secretlyto all,she
gave
the rusty metal
she
the
saw
saw
prepared,
glancingSteel brought
a

came

"

'

forth.
"In

haste
Hiisi's

together

serpent, and

flew the
away
horrors ; she

Wasp from thence, and


brought the black venom

gathered
of

the

the

deadly poison of the adder, and the bitter froth


of worms,
and the corrodingliquorof the toad, to give hardness
to
the Iron and strengthto the Steel.
Ilmarinen,the cunning workman, the renowned
Smith, thought
that the Busy Bee
had
him
had
brought
honey,
given him the
noble
juice; and he said : Now is the bath right to harden the
rusty metal, to give strengthto the blue Steel.'
In the bath he dipped the Iron,without
heed he cast the metal
"

'

"

therein,when

he had

drawn

of the

it out

Fire, out

of the

glowing

forge.
Then

"

Honour
which
him

came
even

he sware, and murdered


with sharp mouth, and

it out

foaming

in

The

little old

head

to and

now

I know

Iron !

for this

it

thy

into
brother,and bit wounds
opened paths for the blood, and poured
own

stream."
man

the

at

fireside cried

aloud, and

rocked

his

I know
the Beginning of Iron,
fro,and sang : Oh, now
who
unto
thee,thou luckless
draye it to evil. Woe
deceitful
Steel
Poor
!
unto
metal, taken
thee, thou
witchcraft

reason

mastery ?
"
Who

his

"

woe

captive by

Was

as

it to pass that Iron was


made
hurtful,and did rend
rendeth
and
broke
the sacred
oath
a
flesh,
dog

Is it thence

that thou

moved
Father

thee
or

to

thy

art

become

that
a

terror

wickedness, who
Mother

Was

thou

art

and

drave

thy

?
sprung
hast too

thee

to

Is it

great

treason

eldest Brother

guilty

208

MYTHS

THE

of this ?

Was

it

thee and
Neither

"

Sister

nor

done

this

thy youngest Sister,or

turned

Father

Mother

nor

gave

eldest Brother

nor

thee

Friend,

some

who

selled
coun-

evil deed ?

to the

thee

Friend

any

PLATO

OF

thou

accomplishedthe bloody

thou

hast
wickedness, thyself

youngest

nor

Thyself hast

this counsel.

deed.
Look

"Iron!
I go

at this wound

sorrow

turneth

himself

complaint
woman
thy

to evil and

Leave

"

off,and
spout forth

course,

head

and

the
Stand

run

more,

in

more

Stand

the

like

hast done

the evil thou

thy

to

ere

Mother.

The

if her

is increased

Mother

doeth

no

no

breast !

sedge by

Heal

against thee

in anger
with
of the old

child

wickedness.

foaming blood ! hold in thy


long-curved bow, bespattering
my
thou

wall

immovable,

like

fence,like

side,like the grass in the slimy fen !


the firm earth,like the cliffin the raging

water's

like the rocks upon


!

storm

If thou

"

hither

that

hot the red

the

earth

these

not

I call Hiisi's Kettle

do

to make

heedest

purple

gore

foaming

stream

nor

to

run

the

over

if power
be withheld
become
of the
master
flood,to
there

liveth

God

Father, a

will

the

not

devise

other

foaming

drop

down

And

"

seethe

that

juice,so
shall

words, I

means

blood

shall

flow away,

thereinto,and

wet

ground.

from

myself to stay the

me

wild

stream, know

dwellingabove

the

endless

that in Heaven

clouds, who

"

is the

hear

I call unto

thy

fingerwhich

thee

in time

so

the

not

mightiestleech for the closing-upof bleedingwounds.


of Heaven,
Ukko, High Creator, EverlastingGod
when

therein,

of need

bringethhealing,on

me

Lay thy soothinghand,

the

and

wound,

be

as

sure

lock to close it.

Take, 0 Lord, a healing


leaf to cover
leaf,
spreada water-lily
the
of
the
opening,stay
blood, so that it stain
strong current
"

my

cheeks

nor

Therewith
the swift

stream

over

the old

course

of the

my
shut

man

the
not

garments."
the

mouth

blood; then

sent

of the

he his

son

wound, stayed
into the

finest threads of the


a salve of the
prepare
grass, of
herbs
of the field,
of the flowers whence
honey,
to

smithy

thousand

healing balm,

droppeth.
boy brought the salve
strong healing salve, able to
The

his

to

cement

Father,saying:
Here is
stones
together into one
"

rock."
Father

The

therewith

and

by

power

own

my

proved
he

it with

anointed
do

his

the

this,but

tongue,

wounded

and
man,

found

it

saying :

only through the

power

good;
"

Not

of the

Highest."
the
bound
up
silk
of
the
Eternal
the

Then
"

May

he

wound

with

silken

Father,the bands

bands, saying:
of the

Almighty

THE

Creator,bind
look

down

wound

did

this wound.

help,put
the

end

an

Myth

209

gracious,0

Heavenly Father,

the bitter

unto

anguish,heal

this

sharpnessof pain."

Wainamoinen,

like this of

embellished

MYTH

Be

on

thereafter the wound

soon

and

and

without

Then
and

up

POLITIGUS

by

feel uiat

he

and
together,

was

sudden,

grew

the Birth

value

closed.^

of Iron,

indeed,
amplified,
originally
inspiredby the

poeticalart, but

childish belief in the

healed

was

of words

which

set

forth the

cause,

Plato's employment of the


helps us, I think, to understand
Aetiological
Myth. Confronted
by some
profound difficulty,
he laysit,or
it
of
of
fanciful
account
a
puts
by,"by means
the originof the state of things which presents the difficulty.
He seems
to feel that an
Aetiological
Myth is a comfortable
^
when
is hard
to conjure with
one
thing," and a charm
pressed.
The
have now
transition is easy from
the point which
we
his Aetiological
reached
Creation
to Plato's
Myths
Myths
These
the
Timaeus
are
(which is one great
]par excellence.
and Epimetheus in the
Myth) and the Myth of Prometheus
Protagoras(320 c ffi).
In distinguishing
from
the
these Myths as Aetiological
strictly
Myths of the Phaedo, Gorgias,and the
Eschatological
Republic,I do not ignorethe eschatological
prospect which is
in the Timaeus
presented in them, especially
; but aetiological
It is the
retrospectis wh'at is reallycharacteristic of them.
originof the Universe, and of Man, Soul and Body, not the
future life of Man's
Soul, that these Myths are
properly
Ideas
of
with.
Eeason, Soul,
concerned,
They set forth the
in a Vision
of Creation ; and
Cosmos, and God, aetiologicaUy
of the
deduction of Categories
a mythological
supply,moreover,
Understanding and Moral Virtues, which lies outside the scope
of the strictly
Myths ; i.e.they deduce Categories
Eschatological
"

"

"

and

Virtues

make

of

from

the

their

Cosmos

in

causes

the

nature

and

of God

the

they picture for the imagination the


and
of nature
as
expressingthe wisdom
explain always for the imagination
"

orderlyconstitution
goodnessof God, and
the
harmony subsistingbetween

"

"

faculties of
1

the

8 and
Ealewala, Kunes
Paul (Helsingfors,
1886).
^

"

Prisms

are

Thus

Soul.

in

Timaeus

9, vol. i. pp. 96-124, German

also comfortable

"

things (Bacon,

and

constitution

that

Nat.

40 E-42
version
Hist. cent.

the

the

by

Hermann

x.

960).
P

MYTHS

THE

210

PLATO

OF

standing
the Underprioriconditions of thought,the modes in which
of sense-experience,
brings order into the manifold
set forth as due to impressionsreceived by the Soul in its
are
its
it rode
on
speculativejourney round the Heavens, when
and
star-chariot,
learned

to

eternal

the

saw

Universe, and

the

thought,similar

in orbits of rational

move

of

laws

those

to

rule the stars.

which

begin our study of the Creation


It is on a small scale,and
ProtagorasMyth.
first the eye of imagination may
perhaps be
Although
contemplationof the vast Timaeus.

It will be convenient

Myths with the


by lookingat it
prepared for the
it is only a small part
allow

work

reader

Ideas

the

of

shapes for
Soul

"

of the

whole

that

Timaeus

to translate and

me

regard the

to

to

comment

book

as

God

wonder

the

our

World

"

and

Soul

Human

Soul

great

Created

Creator,

the

to

"

in

of the

relation

the

in which

forth

set

are

Soul
the

ask

the

Human

Body, the Origin


other
of Evil, the Hope of Salvation, and
cern
conthings which
Timaeus
visible. The
is a Myth, not
our
peace, are made
its fortune from
the very
scientific treatise,although it was
a
relation

Human

I would

great Myth

one

Soul, Cosmos, and


in which

on,

of this

limits

the

of the

treated

first to be

Plato's

if it

as

to

the latter.

were

read and

much

other

work

of

in

and
antiquity,
throughout the Middle Age, as the Timaeus; and that chiefly
because
it was
regarded as a compendium of natural
science,
so

was

all the

valuable

more

commented

No

because

its

"

on

natural

but
presentedas something apart by itself,
setting." Aristotle,of course, treats

lettre}

With

Christian

the

scientific and

Dante's

believe, all

to passages

reader

The

passages

"

it

the

Plato's

to

contained

test the

may

quoted in

references

Index

in the

justice of
Arist.

s.v.

this

au

took

with

actual

not

was

framed
it

theologicalauthority along

Genesis.^

'

Platonists

"

science

in

logical
theo-

pied

de

la

as

rank
the
text

Book

of

are,

Timaeus.^

statement

by referringto

"Ti/naiosPlatonis dialogus": and

the
see

Zeller,Plaio, p. 344, Eng. Transl.


2

the Platonist

"Numenius

is Plato but Moses


ed. 1662.)
Atticus."
remarks
See

was

Jowett
on

posterityis
'

It

speaks out plainlyconcerning his master : What


(Henry Here's ConjecturaCabbalistica,
Preface,p. 3 ;
author of the Timaeus
as
that Plato was
practically
"Moses
of Plato, Introd. to Timaeus) has some
(Dialogtces
interesting

Atticus ? "

the

text
partlydue

Moore's

Dictionary,arts.

"

"

to

The

Studies
"

influence

which

the Timaeus

has

exercised

upon

"

Platone

misunderstanding.

in
"

Dante, first series,pp. 156 ff.,


and
and

"

Timeo'."

Toynbee's Danie

THE

Like

the

Politicus

by

Eleatic

Stranger

Socrates

himself,

from
and

the

in

MYTH

Myth,
and

Socrates,

spoken

well

FOZITICUS

the

an

others

the

Protagoras

Protagoras,
Politicus,

older

man

present.

211

says

the
that

addressing

Myth
speaker,

Fable

younger

is

not

like
will

the

come

men

"

MYTH

PROTAGOBAS

THE

Context

The

of

scene

Protagoras is
gentleman,to which

the

house

the

of Gallias, a
takes his friend

Socrates
wealthyAthenian
him
introduce
that he may
to the celebrated teacher
Hippocrates,
the Art of gettingon in Life Protagoras,who
or
of Mhetoric
happens to he staying with Gallias. Besides Protagoras they
find two other Sophistsof repute there,Hippias and Prodicus,
also Gritias and
Alcibiades.
Hippocrateswishes to become a
pupil of Protagoras; and Socrates, aftercommunicating his
"

"

friend'swish

to

the great man,

of Hippocrates?
wiser

"

man

"

that

"

asks him,

and

Protagoras

is,he

will

teach

"

he will make

What
"

answers,

how

him

better and

to

do

the

right

public life. Socrates expresses


virtue
the science of right conduct, or
to whether
doubt
as
privateand politicalfor that is what Protagorasprofesses to be
able to teach
can
reallybe taught. The Athenians, as a body,
apparentlydo not think that it can be taught,
for they do not
it of their politicians;
do the wisest and
best
demand
nor
that it can
be taught,
citizens think
for they never attempt to
impart it to their sons.
with
it is a part)
the Lecture of which
The Myth (together
which
is the answer
Protagoras now
gives to the difficulties
The
raised by Socrates.
objectof the Myth and Lecture is
to
or
rather, the virtues,for Protagoras
show, that virtue
env/merates
holiness,courage
five: wisdom, temperance,justice,
be taught.
can
When
Protagoras has finished his Myth and Lecture, conversation
thing always

in

private and
"

"

"

"

is resumed

making

it

plain

that

between
the

him

and

five virtues
212

Socrates,and
must

be reduced

results in
to

one

"

214

THE

MYTHS

PLATO

OF

c-323

Protagoras320
320

'Hi;

C
D

yevi)

eTreiSi)Se

^v.

ovK

"ifiapfievo"! yevea-eo)'},
Kal

iTreiBijS'

KaX
Tipop/q6e2
eKa(rroi,"!

avTo";
E

to?

S' aotfKov

Se

avrd

avTm

Se

avrd
dfi"l)ievvv"!

rovvrevdev

Se

Ato?

e/c

eve

dpi^l

re

Kal

Kal

SSeoKev

Se
elvai

Tjv^e

iiravKrav

ovTeo"s

yevoi

"rrepeol"s
Bepfuwiv,

avrd

Kal

eKdarp'
avro(^vrf"i

dpt^l

Se

fiev

T^p/iri-

evfidpeuivi/ji/t)y(av

eopa?

viro

koI

Kavfiara,

Kal

a-rptufivt

ravra

iroSStv rd

fiev

Kal dvatfioi"i
Sepfiatri
"rrepeo2";
aWa?

e^eiropi^e,
rots

SevSpeovKapirow,
rpotp^v ^aav

fikv oKiyoyovCav Trpoaijyjre,


Tot?
rovrav

a-fiiKporriTi

Bia^tfyd"}
dWi]Xo"f)0opiS)v

rd
virdpjfpi

ottw?

rpo^d"!dXXoi";

^ordvrjv,dWoK
S" oh

avr"v

rdj^pv^

ifirfx^avaro

avTOi"i

SvvaToi"} Se
dfivvai ")(eifiS)va,

Kal

oTrXat?, rd

tiv

oiKrjaiv

avroi^

irvKvalf

el"i evvd"i lovo'iv


re

dXKrjv

ovtio

Be wTrXtfe,

rd

eiiXd^eiav e')(a"v,firj
ifj/rj'^avaTo

rd"!

eirripKeae, irpof

dvev
Iff^iiv

ecrco^e-Kal rSXXa

dltTTwQei'q.eireiSri8e

olKeLa

Sin/dfieii

veiftai

daOevearepa rdjfeteKoafiev
SiSoiii ^vaiv

ravra

fiev

Kal

fiev

(jivyrjv
rj Kardyetov

rmSe
fieyedei,,

iKuvoK

tok

a
a-turrjpCav.
fiev ykp

"T')(e,"TTTfjvov

eve/j,e.

"^(S? e/ieWov, irpotrera^av

ttjoo?

vefieou

S'

7179

Kepavvvrai.

717

Kal
S' i/iov,
Net/iai/ro?
e^, iiricrKey^at,

vei/jtai'

irpoaryrrre, tA

Z21

irvpl koI

oca

eic

Sk irapaiTeirai
'^irifj/tjOev
Upofj/tjOea

irpeiret.

Svvafiivei?

yfj^ evSov

oe

fi\6ev

^(povot;

6eol

'^TrifitjOei
Kocr/iijaal
re

TreCa-a? ve/iei.

Toct

?i"Tav,
ovrjTa

fiev

tovtok

avrh

rmv

avra

ayetv

Koi

rvTrova-iv

/M^avTe";Kal

TTvpo^

deal

ore
y^p6vo";,

lydp irore

iroXvyoviav,crarrjplav
rq"

rot?

dWtov
S'

Se

fji^v
eK
pi^av

^opdv.

xal

7^?
eari

rots

dvaXia-KOfievoKviro

yevet,

tropl^wv. are

Si)

THE

PROTAGORAS

MYTH

215

Translation
Time
after

when

was

their

kind

unto

these

there

Now

not.

were

also

Gods, but

were

when

mortal

the

creatures

appointed time
born, the gods

that

they should be
fashioned them
under
the Earth, compounding them-of
earth,
and of fire,
and of whatsoever
is made
of
the
fire
by
mingling
and
earth.
when
Now
to
they were
ready to bring them
Prometheus
unto
and
light,they gave commandment
Epi-

came

metheus
that

to adorn

But

meet.

were

to let him
"

them, and

whether

see

When

"

I have

it is done

each

unto

entreated

Epimetheus

distribute.

do thou

distribute

the

of Prometheus

distributed,"quoth he,

well."

So he

prevailedwith him, and distributed : and


strengthwithout swiftness,but the weaker

he gave
with swiftness
whom

unto

of

he

safety;

he

he

of

them

which

appointed winged

ground ; and
safetywhich

those

unto

cometh

he

some

adorned

he

those

unto

unto

for those
; and
gave weapons
other
he contrived
means
weapons

not

gave

wit,

to

smaUness

others

; unto

powers

escape, or
he increased

which

therefrom.

he

clothed with

habitation

with

under

bigness,the

this fashion, then, did

After

distribute,ever

making one giftequal unto another.


should be
contrived, lest perchance any race

things he
But

when

he

destruction

had

from

defence
with

thick

of winter
couches
went

against the
the

unto

lairs.

he

that

hairs

appointed unto
of the

the

trees, unto

others

roots ; and

he

appointed

for

ordained

that

others, which

might

be

food

the

they should
were

devoured

preserved.

shod
thick

them

earth,
ilesh

unto

some

skin

venient
con-

there

blood.
of food:

these, many,

fruits

the

were

beasts.

young,

with

them

without

others

of other

bring forth
of

of

some

different kinds

them

herbs

some

for

escaping

of the year,

and

the

unto

contrived

Moreover, he

with

for

means

off.

cut

clothingthem
sufficient to keep off the cold
might also be for
; the which
each one, of them, when
they

hides

native

their

others

stout

heat

and

with

seasons

burning

proper

hoofs,and

them

another, he

one

hairs and

and

to

After

furnished

These

some

that

unto

of

which

And

few,
their

he
and
race

ovv

Trdw

oil

Karava\a)iTa";

Swa/xet? eh

ra?

eVt

aKoa-firjTov

'ETTt/x^^ev?eXadev

6
av
"ro"j)b";

TV

Be
^p^a-aiTO.airopovvTi
i7riaKeylr6fj,6vo";
rrjv
vop,r)v, KaX
nrdvTmv
ififjieX"i;

e'x^ovra,

dvvTToBrjTovKoX

a(7TpcoTov

"^w?.

Ilpo/i7j0ev"
^(oa

aWa

Be

rpr}

e^opsvoi

re

/cat

Kai

rj

e^ievateic
avOpatirov

eBei Kal

rjvriva
Upop/qdevf,

Kal
'Htfyaicrrov
dv6pa)ira"evpoi, KKemei
'A^T/vasr^v evre'yyov ao^iav a-iiv irvpi
rjv
ap,T)')(avov yap
dvev "jrvpb'!
Kai
yeveadai
kttjT'^vT"p rj '^p7)a-lfir)v
avTrjv
vepX rov ^lov
ovra
Bt) Bcapeirai
dvdpd)'iT(p.
rtjv
/lev oZv

amTqpiav

aoirXov.

or)

rjiropei

avOpeoTTOVyvfivov

KaX

ovv

airopia

Koi

fiev

ra

opa

avrov

Xotirov

epxerai

avrm

Be

rov

iv
el/jLapfjAvt)
rffjiepaTrapijv,

dXoya.

"ra

avffpcaveov
'yevoi,

fjv to

avrm

Ti

eh
"yfj";

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

216

rm

"

"

ea-'^e, Tf)v Be

ao^lav dv6pwKo"iravrr)
?]V yap
iroXiv

TTjOo? Be
E

Ato9

rov

rrjv

ai

KaX

Ad-

rm

irapa

'A07jva";KoX

Ato?

rm

eli
llpo/ii]6ei

Be

322

ei')(ev'

tiji/ aKpo-

eiaekOelvive'^oopei
eh Be to rij?
(fto^epaX
(fyvKaxaX
rjcrav

tov

/St'oi'
yiyveTai,Tipop.ijOeaBe

tt/v

oXKtjv

"S

ev

koivov,

xaX
K\e\}ra"!ttjv
ela'epj(eTai,

koX
'HcftaiaTov
BiBtocriv dv9pa)ir(p
KaX 6"
tovtov
Trjv

fiev

ovk

ovKeri,

oiKrjcriv

o'iKripMto
'iltf"at(7Tov

Te'XPeiTTjv, Xa^wi'
Te'xvrjv

voXitiktjv

re

ttjv

i"f)t\o-

ep/jrvpov

Adrjvd'i

ttj?

tov
eviropiap.ev dvOpcoirtp

Bi

JSiirifirjOea
vaTepov,

yvep

XeyeTai, kXotttj?Bikt]p,eTfjX6ev.
6eia"; fji"Tea'')(e
"EiretBrjBe 6 dvOpanro";
fioipai,
irpGsTov
p.ev

Kal

Bid

TOV

0eov

^cavrjvKaX

6vop.aTa

ra^w

KaX eadrjTa';koI
olK'^crei'i

ra?

eK

yrj";Tpo(f"a"s
evpero.

dp')(a^dvdpcoiroi u)kovv
ovv

virb

17

Tevyy,

KaX
"7Tpa"p,vd";

Btj irapeo'Kevaap.evoi,

dijpiwvBtd

t"v

Se

ovk

kut

Tjaav.

TravTayj)avTwv
Br]p,iovpyiKr}
Te')(vri avToh
"7rpo"}

Uavrj ^07)do";^v,
Tpo"f"rjv

iroXiTiKrjv yap
TroXep.ov evBeri";'
p,epo"i

Trj
BiifpOpaxraTO

viroBeaei';KaX

ovtco

ivofiure,

dydXp.aTa dewv

^roXet?
"r7ropdBr]v,

elvai, KaX
daOevecTTepoi
fiev

6eov"i

p.ovov

IBpveaOai,KaX

KaX

diratXKvvTo

^axov

a-vyyeveoav

^copov"; re
eve'xelpei

eireiTa

TT/v

TToXeiiiKri. e^rjTOvv Br/

irpo^

to

Be

Tej(y7)v

tov

t"v

ovirw

d"poi^eadai KaX

Bripiav

elyov, ij?

a-a"^e"r6at

THE

PMOTAGOBAS

Now, inasmuch
lo ! mankind
what

not

look

he should

concerningthem.

him
cometh
unto
to
yet doubteth, Prometheus
his distribution; and
perceiveth that all other

creatures

and

furnished

duly

are

without

the

come

do

not

was

he

into

naked

the

217

wittingly
very wise, he unhad upon the brutes ; and
him
and he knew
unadSrned,

still left unto

was

While

Epimetheus
he
qualities

as

spent all

MYTH

shoes

or

appointed day

forth from

the

earth

in

on

all

things,but

bed

or

the

which

weapons

that

and

is

man

now

was

also should

man

go

into the

light.
Wherefore
Prometheus, being brought to his wits' end to
devise any
of safety for man,
stealeth the cunning
means
workman's
wisdom
of Hephaestus and Athena, togetherwith
fire

for without

"

and

this he
Thus

bare

it

giveth as

did

had

none

get this wisdom

can

giftunto

the wisdom

not, for it

with

Zeus

longer permitted to
dwelling-placeof Zeus ; moreover,
was

it ;

use

no

needful

wisdom

is needful

which

was

or

man.

get the mechanic

man

life ; but
he

fire

; and
into

enter

for

the

unto
the

for his

life

tical
poli-

Prometheus

citadel,the

guards of Zeus were


into
the
terrible ; but
and
common
dwelling of Athena
Hephaestus,wherein they pliedtheir craft,he secretlyentered,
and stole the fieryart of Hephaestus,and also Athena's art,
and
them
convenient
unto
Whence
man.
came
living
gave
afterwards arraigned
unto
man
; but as for Prometheus, he was
for theft because of Epimetheus, as the story telleth.
Now
having been made a partaker of the divine lot,
man,
of his kinshipwith the Godhead, alone among
by reason
living
believed in Gods, and
creatures
began to take it in hand to
Then
them
and make
set up altars unto
graven images of them.
articulate speech and
with cunning device did he frame
soon
names,

put

invented

and

on, and

Thus

there

wild

the beasts,and
food

enough, but

wild

beasts ; for

the art of warfare

Wherefore

craftsman's

was

they
is

were

art

scattered

shoes

earth.

abroad,

altogetherweaker
could help them

sufficient for

had

not

yet the

their
art

to

and

continually

were

men

not

part.

and

raiment

the fruits of the

first dwelt

beasts, for they

their

in,and

food from

at

cities.

no

by

to dwell

beds for rest,and

furnished, men

were

devoured

houses

the

war

than
to

with

get
the

whereof
political,

KTi^ovrei
are

iroXeii;.

ovk

or

airoXoiTo

alS"

"j"iKia";avvayayol,-

laTpiKrjv

e)(mv

Brj/iiovpyoL
D

avOpairoi'i,
Koi

oXiyoi
ye

de";

trap'

Kreiveiv

Bi,a

o'l

ravra

Trepl dper'!]";reKrovLKfi";
oiovrai

0X170*9
E

r"v

TO)?,

323

oKiyav
tB?

Xoyo"!

crvfi^ovXevri,
eyd)

elKorax;
craxjipocrvvT]';,

"Trpoa-fJKOv

ravrri"s

Bia

Be

aWr]";

rivof

edv

el";

/xere'^etv

ta?

KciX
koI

Adrjvacoi,

Zev"},
ei

vofiov

BiKr)"i

ZitoKparef,
orav

t{?

trii

eKro"i

^j;?'

fiev

levai

rraaav

dperr}";,

rj

Stv
elKO-

TroXiriKTJ^

dvBpo"i dvi'X^ovrai,""?
rfji

TOty

Br/fiiovpyiKrjiy

crvfi^ovXrjv

BiKaioavvi]";

onravro'i

ye

ol

dve')(pvrai,

ovk

"f)rj/jLf orav
Bel

Kal

iv

TroXet?,

Brj, Si

"Tvp.^ovXrj";, Kal

fieretvai

dperrji; 'iaxriv, fjv

iroXei'}.

aXKok

re

el"t
aWot

etfyq

alBov"i

Ovrm

7ro\ea)S.

voaov

a)?

65)

reyyoiV.

fii] Bvvdfievov

rov

efiov

"Be-

ot

yevoivro

aXKwv

matrep

iJ,ere')(pi,ev

Kol

-rravra^,

av

yap

re^vai

at,

Be

ovrto

'Etti

vei/ica;

7rdvra";

fjLerej(^6vrcavov

avrmv

fiere^etv

Kal

rj eVl

rpoTrov

ow

vevefirjvrai

alBS)

Kal

BiKfjv Brj

Seafwl

Kol

tt"9

lBtcoTat";,

Ikuvcx;

TroWot?

Kol

"7rdvre";

vel,/ia";

ravra^

tj/imv,

avOpumovi

riva

-rroTepov

triceoav-

yevei

re

KOfffioi

avOptoiroK.

Koi

ovrto

vevefi7]VTai,

rco

eh

'^pfirif Aia,

ohi

ipcora
alSS)

Koi

iroKemv

aX\7;\ow?,

traXiv

irepl

Set"ra?

ovv

elev

Xv

hUrfv,

BoiT) Bi,Kr)v

Zevi

Sxttc

Teyvrfv,

'Epfirjv irifiirei dyovra

irav,

koI

re

aOpoia-Oeiev, rfhlKOVv

iroXiTiKrjv

8ie"pdeipovTo.

PLATO

OF

ovv

Tr)v

eypvTei;

vvfievoi

fiTj

MYTHS

THE

218

fit)

Kak

iravrl
etvatr

THE

Wherefore
and

Now

they

scattered

again
But

mandeth
for

Hermes

and

distributed

be

to

distributed

after

other

some

Shall

of

who

death,
For

they

if

consult

will

have

'tis but
into

enter

virtue

with

reasonable

which

man

partake

of

this

and
as

those

thrust

they

needs

counsellor,
else

the
few

there

skill

and

let
of

not
or

all

the

be

arts,
he

that

me,

be

to

put

they,

of

walk

thou

in

all

city.

And

they
unto

path

the
do

that
no

when

pertain

reason

and

advise,

to

sayest.

that

considering
be

carpenter

enough,

But

alway

with

the

are

this.

when

others,

forward

things

could

or

thus,

shall

advisers

do

then

it

and

himself

those

have

from

Athenians

should

physic,

city.

do

Thus

him.

are

of

as

justice

the

that

law

and

think

must

virtue,

it

he,

quoth

men
"

partakers

need

temperance,
a

Zeus,

the

concerning

political,

any

of

none

counsel

righteousness

of

not

all," said

into

which

things

is

among

modesty

Socrates,

who

shall

which

art

modesty

were

he

the

the

gether
to-

men

these,"

many

make

plague

handicraftsman,
who

say

of

reason,

few

Also

bringeth

about

one

any

they

he

this

other

or

arise.

partake

for

and

if

Por

unto

Unto

"

hath

com-

justice,

how

distributed,

man

sufficient

"

them.
not

cannot

one

"

justice
all ?

imto

would

cities

is

distribute

partakers.

wise

and

art,

them

give

this

and

Zeus

"Are

are

utterly,

joining

of

they

so

destroyed.

modesty

bonds

men.

arts

be

to

perish

inquireth

unto

the

be

to

Hermes

as

like

bearing

wronged

political

art

should

race

men

modesty

the

were

cities, and

friendship.

give justice

and

unto

go

togeth*fer,
they

not

our

together,

cities.

had

lest

of

ordering

the
in

"

to

themselves

assembled

abroad,

fearing

Zeus,

building

they

219

assemble

to

were

because

another,

were

by

when

MYTH

sought

they

themselves

save

one

PBOTAGOBAS

they
men

of

bear
must

Observations

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

220

Myth

Protagoras

the

on

important pointsin this


critics
Myth, I must allude to a view maintained by some
that it is not a Platonic
Myth at all,but only a Sophistic
Choice
of
Apologue, or Illustrative Story, like Prodicus's
Hercides.
This view is stated,and objectedto, by Grote in
the followingpassage : ^
Before

callingattention

to

some

"

"

The

speech is

by

and

fable with
which

poeticalornament

prolix.

But

to

free from
argument, exceedingly
which
it opens presents,of

full of matter
The

critics as

some

rhetoric.

seems

the

censured

that

belongsto

of

manner

fluous
supercourse,

handling.

is, however, fully equal, in point of perspicuityas


charm, in my judgment, it is even
superior,to any

well

as

fable

in

It

"

"

it

me

Plato.
When

the

harangue,lecture,or

Sokrates
admits
as

both

the conclusion

well

it

"

"

be made

can

continuous

out

Schleiermacher

commentators.

will

counted

of

cluded,
con-

it,and

made

out,

exposition.

of the

Platonic
principal
allow
the
mythus of

not

Platonic
Protagoras
myths. He says
among
that it is composed in the styleof Protagoras,
and perhapscopied
real composition of that Sophist. He
from
finds in it
some
but
die
ilber die
a
grobmaterialistiche
nothing
Denkungsart,
sinnliche Erfahrung nicht hinaus
philosophirt {EinleUwng zwm
to

be

Protagorasis

expresses his profound admiration


that virtue is teachable
to be

by any
indeed,is the sentiment
Very diflferent,
as

of

sermon

the

"

"

Protagoras,vol.
To
what

i. pp. 233, 234).


like purpose
Ast
{Plat.Leb. p.
is expressedin the mythus is," The
the

and

manner

both

of

arts and

thought of

the social union

necessity."Apparently these
proof of

himself

Sokrates

derivingthe
ii. 369
K.

persons.

does

entire

from human
itself,
w
hen
critics,
they treat

have
vulgarity,

exactly the

social union

forgottenthat
thing in

same

from

human

wants

this

and
as

the Platonic

the

Eepublic

necessities

"

{Repvil.

o).
F.

Hermann

is

hardly less

the Protagorean
severe
upon
der
Plat.
Phil. p. 460).
Syst.
I
take
view
a
altogether
part,
opposed to these learned

und
(Gesch.

discourse
For

and

meanness

the

71),who tells us that


ment
sentivulgarand mean
Sophist; for it deduces everything,

my
I

think

the

discourse
'

Flat. ii.pp.

one

of

46, 47.

the

most

strikingand

MYTHS

THE

222

comic

PLATO

OF

the Myth put


similarly,

vein ;

the

None
and confused.
pompous
contend, and the other non-Socratic

is somewhat

these, I would

tagoras
of Pro-

into the mouth

Myths

less,
are

who,
always Plato the Dramatist
of Aristophanes,or
Protagoras,or the
through the mouth
Eleatic Stranger,sets forth for the Imagination the Universal
the SciejitificUnderstanding can
of which
give no account.
Platonic

true

It is

Myths.

II
second

The

that

is

Myth

Mechanical
and

its

I have

observation
it

and

the

"

the

on

Protagoras
the
is

Xant

which

with

distinction

the

between

explanationsof
Teleological

the

parts

make

distinction

the

forth

sets

to

world

occupied

Urtheilskraft According to Kant, the


minant
antinomy between these two explanationsexists for the DeterJudgment (the Judgment which, given the Universal,
it) but not for the Eeflective
brings the Particular under
Judgment (theJudgment which, given the Particular,finds a
Universal
by which to explainit). The Universal of Teleology
which
aU
or
a
things in the
Purpose, to serve
o-K07ro9,
is a Principle,
world
are
or
designed by a Personal God
Universal, which may be positedby the Eeflective Judgment,
without
contradiction,by the side of the mechanical
principle
of explanation indeed,must
be posited,
for without
the guidance
in

his

Kritik

der

"

"

"

it affords

for all that,we

we

could

understand

not

warranted

the world

at

all; but,

in

assuming that it is a principle


objectively
existingand operativein the world. Natural
understand
we
can
objectswhich
only as results of purpose
mechanism.
Purposiveness
may
very well be due to mere
is a concept which
has its origin solely in the
Eeflective
^
which
think
we
Judgment ; i.e. it is a Universal
of, which
find useful ; but it does not, therefore,
exist independently
we
of our
thought,as a real cause.
are

not

"

"

What^

in the

Does

it prove

only

proves

'

end

does

.that there
that

the

is such

accordingto

Bernard's

Transl.

of the

p. 18.
^
Bernard's

Transl.

of the

most

Kritik

an

the
der

complete teleologyprove?

Intelligent
Being 1
constitution

of

our

No.

It

cognitive

of Judgment),
Urtheilskraft
(Critique

Critiqueof Judgment,

pp.

311, 312, and

260, 261.

THE
faculties

we

...

of such

Supreme Cause
we

in

should

form

can

world

PROTAGORAS

thereof.
...

"

There

say,

223

absolutelyno concept of the possibility


save
by thinkinga designedly
working
If we
expressed ourselves dogmatically,

this

as

MYTH

"

so
saying is, Things
i.e. we
cannot
God";
are

is

God."

But

all

constituted
internally
otherwise

think

we
as

are.

justified

if there

were

that

purposiveness
cognitionof the internal
of many
natural
things,than by representing
possibility
it,and
the world in general,
Cause
as a product of an
a God.
Intelligent
based
on
an
Now, if this proposition,
inevitablynecessary maxim
of our
from
hwman
Judgment, is completely satisfactory,
every
of
for
both
the
and
of
view,
use
our
point
speculative
practical
lose by not being able to
what
we
Beason, I should like to know
it as also valid for higher beings,from
objectivegrounds
prove
It is,indeed,
faculties).
(which are unfortunatelybeyond our
less
cannot
adequately cognise,much
quite certain that we
explain,organisedbeingsand their internal possibility,
according
mechanical
of nature
to mere
can
principles
; and, we
say boldly,

which

must

lie at

the

bottom

of

our

"

it is alike

certain

it is absurd

that

for

such
any
will arise in the future,
to

men

make

hope that another Newton


who shall make
comprehensibleby us the productionof a blade of
We
laws which
to natural
no
designhas ordered.
grass according
But
must
then, how do we
absolutelydeny this insightto men.^
could penetrate to the principleby
know
that in nature, if we
which
laws known
to us, there cannot lie
it specifies
the universal
suflScient
hidden
its
mere
ground of the posmechanism) a
(in
sibility
in
their
of organisedbeings,without
design
supposing any
to say
it not be judged by us presumptuous
production1 Would

attempt,

or

to

this!
Probabilities

here

are

of

no

account, when

we

have

to

do

with

Reason; we
cannot, therefore,judge
judgments of the Pure
either affirmatively
or
concerningthe pronegatively,
objectively,
position
lie
the
at
to
Does
a
design,
:
Being, acting according
of the
basis of what
we
rightlycall natural purposes, as the cause
act
The
teleological
world, and consequentlyas its author ?
of judgment is rightlybrought to bear, at least problematically,
of nature, but only in order to bring it
the investigation
upon
and
under
inquiry according to the
principlesof observation
pretence to
analogy with the causalityof purpose, without
any
explainit thereby. It belongs,therefore,to the Reflective and not
and
to the Determinant
Judgment. The concept of combinations
.

forms

of nature

in accordance

with

purposes

for bringing its phenomena


more
principle
laws of simply mechanical
causalitydo not
in a teleological
ground, when we attribute
1

Is Kant

righthere

This

is the

is then
under

at

For

in
causality
of

we

one

the

rules where

suffice.

great Question

least

bring

respect of

Pliilosophy.

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

224

in
to be found
Objectto the concept of an Object,as if it were
rather
when
selves
we
nature
or
represent to our(not in ourselves),^
the possibility
of the Object after the analogy of that
causalitywhich we experiencein ourselves, and consequently
think nature
as
through a specialfaculty. If,on the
technically
an

other

hand,

did

we

causalitywould
on

the

have

be

to

supply to

contrary,we

of

method

action,its
blind mechanism.
If,
as
represented

ascribe

not

it such

to

nature

and
actingdesignedly,

causes

not
merelyas a regulative
consequentlyplaceat its basis teleology,
for the mere
can
judging of phenomena, to which nature
principle
be thought as subject in its particular
laws, but as a constitutive
derivation
of
its
products from their causes, then
principleof the
would
the concept of a natural
no
longer belongto the
purpose
Keflective but to the Determinant
Judgment. Then, in fact,it
would
to the Judgment (likethe concept of
not belongspecially
but as a
formal
subjectivepurposiveness),
beauty regarded as

rational

concept

it would

introduce

into

which
we
only borrow
causality,
without
other beings,
meaning to
with

kind

let

mechanical
In the
was

them

and

new

ascribe

to be of the

to

same

the

methods
animals
not

the

very

products of

to

wise,"the world
mechanism

and

its parts

which

are

sented
pre-

regardedby
own
Afterthoughtas
design. The qualities
which
Epimetheus equips the animals are only those by
An
they barelysurvive in their strugglefor existence.
as

mere

due

foolish

which

ourselves

ProtagorasMyth, which I have


distinction between
the teleological
and the
of explainingthe world
and its parts.
as
equipped by Epimetheus,Afterthought,

return

us

said sets forth

with

assume

science

ourselves.

Now

"who

from

natural

animal

that

survives.

is small

But

are

to his

and

weak

burrows

in

that its power


suppose
view
to its survival
is to

to

the

of

earth, and

burrowing was

designedwith a
forget that it was
only Afterthoughtwho conferred the power, not Forethought.
To suppose
design here is as unnecessary surelyas it would
be to suppose that gold ore was
hidden
in the quartz in order
in finding
that men
it. As a matter
might have difficulty
of
fact,small weak
their enemies

by

do not

as

that
matter

perishin
generally

swift animals

on

animals

are

not

burrow
of

are

generallyfound

not

fact,animals

cold climate ;

generallycaught ;

The
proper understandingof the Doctrine
of the point here put
the proper appreciation

as
as

of ISiai

by Kant.

with
a

seems

thick

matter
matter
to

me

of

fur

fact,

of fact,
to

depend

THE
animals
prolific
extinct.

And

PROTAGORAS

MYTH

generallydo not die off fast enough to


yet Afterthought takes credit to himself

this !
In

225

become
for all

"

such

there

cases

is

reallyno

design

Forethought,

no

"

of blind natural
law ;
^merelythe inevitable consequence
and it is only foolish Afterthought who
pretends that there
is design Afterthought who
always begins to reflect after
the fait accompli, Afterthought the
Pindar
Father, as
'ETrt/ia^eo?
rav
o-^ivoov dvyarepa
says, of Pretence
But
the pretence of Epimetheus is found
out.
Ilp6"l)atTip}
has
He
He
to equip Man.
can
nothing left wherewith
seem,
to
work
where
mechanism
does
the
design only
really
he pretends to produce by
reallyproduces the results which
of structure
his "design." The
various
modes
and
habit
by which the lower animals
correspond with their various
modes
environments
list of these
(and the summary
given
in the
has
the
of the
that Plato
true
Myth shows
eye
naturalist) the various modes of animal correspondence are
without
indeed
best accounted
for mechanically,
any Epimethean
the
we
pretence of teleology. But when
pass from
of human
animal
survival to the koKov
dvayKaiov of mere
in this Myth
to tell us,
seems
civilisation,
we
pass, Plato
survival of animals
into another
order of things. The
mere
is not such
a
great thing that we must think of it as caused
as
by Prometheus
designed in the true sense ; but the
civilised life of Man
is too beautiful and good a thing not to
end consciously
be designed in the true
not
to be an
sense
the
Art
his means
aimed
at by the
uses
as
Creator, who
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

which

Prometheus

Hermes

placed

to
gave
the
within

and

few,

of

reach

In

all.

which

Virtue

the

short,

Plato

explanation
teleological
of Man's
Place in the Cosmos
indispensable.But let us
offers is
he
that
the
note
explanation which
teleological
towards
Plato's attitude here
teleology
conveyed in Myth.
seems

to

say

in

this

Myth

that

is

is not

different

difference

Kant's,

from

between

the

expression. "Though
Eeflective Judgment,"
Bernard's

mythical
not

says
1

if allowance

for

and

"

Pindar, Py(h. v.

Transl.

made

have

we

yet

sufacient

34.

of the Grit, of

for

critical ways

Determinant,

the

Kant,^

the

be

Judgment

t^. 35.

for

the
of
the

ground

226

for

judging

here
or

MYTHS

to

be, not

mao

but
pv/rpose}

natural

THE

earth."

on

It

also

does

say that
earth."

not

the Oak

is

"

of nature

purpose

If oaks could
purpose

assumption

the

makes

here

the ultimate

organisedbeings,

said that

Kant

alone.

stand

ultimate

the

hardly be

need

all

merely,like

working hypothesiswhich

Man

PLATO

OF

of

behalf

on

speak,they would
of nature

here

on

Ill

given of the origin


in the ProtagorasMyth.
of Virtue
aperrj
and
The
gift of Epimetheus is ^vcrt? bodily structure
function, with the instincts and habits thereon
dependent,
but blindly,
whereby the lower animals correspondaccurately,
the
metheus
with
immediate
a
narrow
environment;
gift of Prois not adequate to the
to Man, whose
mere
ff"va-i"!
wider
environment
into which
his destiny advances
him, is
Art, re^vr), which, though imparted to few, benefits the whole
to
borrow
the phrase in which
race
by completing ^va-i';,
Aristotle^ expresses
the
close
relation
existing between
Nature
and Art, (j}vai";
and
Plato, too, wishes us to
rexv}look
at the relation as a close one ; for in the Myth
metheus
ProMy

next

observation

"

is

the

on

account

"

"

takes

up

his brother's

unfinished

work.

But

a/serif

the one
on
morality(as distinguished,
hand, from ^vo-k
the giftof Epimetheus to animals, and,
natural
constitution
the other hand, from ri'xyv aquired skill in some
on
ment
departthe
to a few men)
tinguished
gift of Prometheus
aperTj, as disfrom "f"va-K
and
to
re^i/i?,is distributed by Hermes
all men.
All men
have
what
be
implanted in them
may
called "an
originalmoral sense," which education appeals to

"

"

"

"

"

"

and

awakens.

capableof
is

All

speech.

learnt, without

men

Virtue

capable of morality as they

are

is

"

learnt

"

as

one's mother

are

tongue

specialinstruction like that through


which
some
particularart or craft is acquired by a person
and
specially
capable of acquiringit. Here the resemblance
difference
^

"

part is

between

any

Virtue

and

organisedproductof nature
reciprocally
(end) and
purpose

An

Judgment, p. 280 ; of. Watson's


'"'
Phys. ii. 8, 199 ". 15 : S\m
ri, Si /u/ieiTai.
dTrepyiffaaBai,

Art

"

(a natural

means."
Selections from
Sk

subjectapproached by

purpose)is
Bernard's

in which
one
every
Transl.
of CrU.
of

Kant, p. 345.
i)Tixvri rh ji^v iiriTeXet

"

r]

^i"ns idwarel

THE
from

Plato

PROTAGORAS

sides"

many

MYTH

is viewed

from

227

yet another

side,in

Myth, and, therefore,we may take it,with deep insight into


its metaphysical import. Art, though it i% the gift of Prometheus,
and
distinguishesMan, as working for consciously
realised
a

future

dream

and

ends, from

of the

Man

brutes,which,

present, is still only

does

regime

the

not

live

yet

of Prometheus.

the

"

most, live in

at

completion of nature,"

Life of

true

Man

under

the

The

giftof Prometheus, indeed, came


The
from Heaven, but it was
stolen.
of
Godlike intelligence
Man
employs itself in the pursuit of objectswhich, though
under the providenceof the Creator to the ultimate
reaUy means
human
realisation of the true
life,are not yet regarded by
Man

himself

dominant

than

more

as

animal

earth.

on

Man,

the lower animals


gift,conquers
him
But
the giftwhich
makes
and
a

respect,his fellow-man
of Ends

Kingdom

Grace

It

which

all may

epfiaiov
it is

given

Great

in

of

see, with
an

is

hope

in the

measure

to

moral

the

not

homini
of

the

stolen,but

stolen

lupus.
justice

of
men

is of

least

at

or

men,

course

ideal

the

eye
along with himself

End

some

life of the

received

yet still homo

giftwas
given to all

greater

teachers

as

convenient

having

this

"

of God.

to the

means

in

the
is

life to find ; and

than

arise, like

others.

to

great poets,

whether
their
speciallyinspired; and
power,
in
the
in the
silent example of their lives, or
of Myth, is felt in its effects by all ; but
utterance

manifested

prophetic
the secret

of it is incommunicable.^
The
to

in

eminent

is not, indeed, aUuded


in greater measure
giftof dperi]
the
Protagoras Myth, but it is, after all, merely an
The
described in that Myth.
instance of the giftas
in

whether
gift of apeT'^,

less

or

is of

greater measure,

the

properlyconveyed in Myth ;
it is conveyed is,I
and the discourse of Protagorasin which
submit, a true Myth, because it sets forth the a priori,not, as
Grace

of God.

Such

and

Schleiermacher

SophisticApologue
a

doctrine

some

is

other

critics maintain,

and
Allegoryillustrating

or

mere

popularising

posterioridata.

myth brought forward by Protagoras,"says


have
it as some
Schleiermacher,^ there is no need to number
"

As

to

the

"

1
2

Introduction,

See Mem,

to the

99, 100.
Protagoras, p. 96, Dobson's

Transl.

MYTHS

THE

228

done, good-naturedly
raisingit
of Plato's

own

the

it makes

there is

goras
Prota-

evidence

no

Plato

in which

to

applies

posed
is,at aU events, com-

it

probablethat

more

property of

the

not

seems

it much

those

exalted rank, among

an

though
likely,
supposition,
yet the manner

himself, as
confirm

to

contrary,if

the

on

PLATO

OF

preciselyas is natural to one of a


coarselymaterialistic mode of thinking,whose philosophydoes
the reasoning
not extend beyond immediate
sensuous
experience,
for their
is only viewed
a
as
recompense
principlein men
deficient corporealconformation, and
the idea of right with
in his

spirit. For

the

feelingof shame,
and
as
something not
later period."
a
"Not

introduced

requisitefor

as

introduced

into

into the minds

of

of

until

minds

the

existence,

sensuous

men

until

men

later

to be founded
on
a
objectionappears to me
of what
a
Myth is and does. [It is of the
misunderstanding
of a Myth
to represent as
having a historyin
very essence

period!"

This

time

in

what

itself is out

of time.

Soul, which

The

is the

set forth
Subjectof all experiencein time, is mythologically
an
as
Object or Thing whose creation, incarnation and earthly

life,disembodied
or
purification

How

absurd

received
is

damnation,

to draw

It is not

history!

the idea of

is the true

the Soul
"

says,
which

is not
we

may
is

Universal

throughout
matter

easy

from

historical

the

Virtue,whether
with ;

its

Thing

but

best^

"

or

always

of

Soul

forth

as

changes in

to remember

that

sooner,

of the Virtuous

"

to

or
permanence
discuss,but a Universal."

succession

time.

that

Plato

philosophicalquestion.

the

necessarilyset

in

chronology of such a
the mind
question.When
later

The

final

and

the

the

of Virtue

nature

itself at

re-incarnation
penance,
be traced as events
can

inferences

really concerned

What

and

state

Plato," as

Soul

"

Hegel

non-permanence
in Myth
Yet
a

of
^

of
this

Thing permanent

time.

Myth

It is indeed

is

no

Myth.

IV
A

Myth
as

remarks

well
on

may
as

the
'

be

told in

painting,or embroidery,or sculpture,


in words ; and I am
going to conclude these
ProtagorasMyth by asking the reader to look
Gesch, der Phil. vol. xiv. p. 187 (1842).

230

THE

MYTHS

{Excursus on
The

PLATO

OF

Allegory)

story of Prometheus, whether

as

told

in the

goras,
Prota-

CapitoKne sarcophagus,is, I.
forth
sets
a
am
a
genuine Myth
fathom.
the
scientific understanding cannot
mystery which
At the same
time, it is a Myth which
evidentlylends itself
examined
to
more
easilythan those which we have hitherto
hands
and, indeed, in Neo-Platonic
allegorical
interpretation,
the subjectof very beautiful allegorical
became
interpretation.
It would
have
then, that at the Protagoras Myth we
seem,
of the Platonic
reached
the stage in our
review
Myths at
which
connected
remarks
be offered on
some
a
point
may
which
has been already alluded to
the Difference
between
Myth and Allegory;and along with Allegory we may consider
the

representedon
prepared to maintain,
or

as

"

"

Parable.
I remarked

little while

that

compositionwhich,
not
as
a whole, is a Myth, and
an
Allegory,is often found to
be built up
of parts, some
of which
are
Allegories. The
Phaedrus
Myth and the Divina Commedia
are
compositionsof
this build.
This partlyexplains the circumstance
that
even
the noblest Myths have so often fallen an
gorical
easy prey to allethe
interpretation.Because
gories,
parts are
plainly Alleit is supposed that the whole
is an
Allegory. And
there
limits to allegorical
are
no
interpretation.Any Myth
"

nay,

true

any

account

of

ago

historical

events

or

of

natural

be interpreted
can
phenomena
an
as
Allegory,
settingforth
scientific.
or
philosophical,
any dogma, religious,
The
importance of the part played by the allegorical
of Homer
in the Greek
interpretation
philosophical
schools,of
the Old Testament
the Alexandrine
History among
Jews
and
"

Christian

Fathers, and

cannot
Platonists,^

of the Platonic

easilybe

Myths among the Neoover-estimated by the historian of

'"
The Myths were
acceptedby common
consent
as the
text for the deepest
speculationsof the later Platonic schools,and so have contributed
throuffh
them, more
largelythan any other part of Plato's writings to the sum
of
common
thoughts.""Westcott's Msays in the History of Religious Thought in
the West (" The Myths of Plato "),
p. 48;
"

THE

PROTAGORAS

MYTH

231

and religious
philosophical
thought. As early as the time of
felt that the tendency of the popular
Xenophanes^ it was
Homer
and HeSlod,"
he says, have
mythology was immoral.
ascrihed to the Gods all things that are a shame
and a disgrace
thefts and adulteries,
and deceptionof one another."
men
among
this verdict Plato is in entire agreement {Rep. 378 D) ;
"With
the
but not with
method
of allegorical
interpretation
(see
Homer
and
both
Phaedrus, 229), which
attempted to save
morality.^ Plato, objectingto the allegorical
interpretation
and
of Myth
on
literary
philosophical
grounds,as well as on
the practicalground alleged in Rep. 378
that children
D
and literal meaning,
cannot
distinguishbetween allegorical
"

"

"

"

"

banishes
of

Homer

his

from

for he
behave

in

invented

moral

"

which

in some

just as th^ good people behave

youngi

the

human

beings

of Homer
ii^4lisobjectionto the allegorisation-

But
stands

suppose,

may

ought to, be imitated,


modern
story-booksfor

and

can,

and

in lieu

stitutes
stories,sub-

tales,we
Gods

in which

"

with

begin

must

stories

specimens

manner

curriculum, and

educational

children

stories,since

newly
gives no

the

almost
well

after,as

we

get beneath

an

with

content

were

Homer
the

from

Greeks
is

an

culum.
curri-

literal

modern

of historical

instrument

Few
speculation.^

the

the

meaning, we find him


of
interpretation
allegorical
spiritof apology for revered/

i^e
The

by

that

was

banished

not/be

must

teachingthe highesttruth.
Homer
began doubtless in
tvires found to conflict
scrip
became

generallytaken

Defore, Plato's time

as

inspiredteacher, and
If

line

The

alone.

Plato

notions ; but

research
to

confine

and

it

soon

metaphysical

themselves

with

from
Homer
plain ethical lessons to be drawn
to read,
life and
and the poets as picturinghuman
nature
for example, the story of The Intrigue of Aphrodite and Ares,
if not
simply for the story, at any rate for nothing more

Plutarch

to the

"

He

was

alive

in

479

B.C.

see

Burnet, Early

Greek

Philosophy, p.

111.

beginning with Theagenes, see Lobeok,


which
feeling
prompted it is expressedin the
pp.
el fii]i/Wriydinia'ei'.
aphorism, Ofttipos7A/) "fiai^iiaev,
"

On

the

of Homer,
allegorisation
155

Aglaoph.

ff. ;

the

'

lishments
"Ion's allusion to his embelembellishment.
perhaps also of literary
he declares himself to have
surpassed Metrodorus
of Homer, in which
to show
of Thasos, seems
that, like them, he
of Lampsaous and Stesimbrotus
belonged to the allegoricalschool of interpreters"(Jowett'sIntroduction to
^

"

and

the Ion).

abstruse
Such

than

the lesson

the

luxury leads to such intrigue.^


satisfyeither the historians or

that

simple teaching did


philosophers.

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

232

not

a
body of young
(Palaephatustells us) were
first trained
from
the villageof NephelS in Thessaly,who
men
herd
of bulls
of repelhng a
and mounted
horses for the purpose
belonging to Ixi6n, King of the Lapithae,which had run wild
back,
horseand done great damage ; they pursued these wild bulls on

The

Centaurs

acquiring both
of joint
and the imputed attribute
of Prickers (Kevropes)
the name
Aktae6n
Arcadian, who neglected
an
was
body with the horse.
of his land for the pleasuresof hunting,and was
the cultivation
The
of his hounds.
thus eaten
dragon whom
up by the expense
in reality
Kadmus
killed at Thebes
Drako, King of Th"bes ;
was
and
from
said to have
he was
and the dragon'steeth which
sown,
in point of fact
of armed
were
whence
a
men,
crop
sprung
and

pierced them

Kadmus

teeth,which
elephants'
with

over

him

in

GygSs

and

the

inhabitants

whom
; Scylla,

Titans

of

Odysseus

vessel,as
sailingpiratical
horse

violent

was

brought

teeth
elephants'

KrSte

Kottus, Briareus,
ants
hands, but inhabitUpper Macedonia, who

storm

hundred
in

Olympus against the

Mount

fasta
narrowly escaped,was
also Pegasus, the allegedwingedso

Belleroph6n.^

of

Plutarch, de Audiendis

Poetis, u.

The

4.

de And.

Poet,

is worth

with the allegorisation


of Homer,
against which
study in connection
be
read
the
the
is
for
entertainment
to
On
hand,
one
Poetry
protest.
a
"good story" simply as a "good story" ; thus
carefullyat the things in Hades, in order that he

be derived from
may
bids Odysseus look

tell his wife abovt

and

and

Daedalus,

wings, had escaped from

on

one
persons
Hekatoncheiria
of
village

with

had

rich Phoenician

sold these

with

not

were

of the
warred

sons

the sea
flyingacross
under
sailing-boat

of

swift

the

as

of Drako

proceedsto levy troops againstKadmus.

the

employed
instead

spears, thus

their

with

them

careful
it is
which

Homer
iruay go

"

S^ irdvTa
^dtaffSerdxt^T-a XiXafeo,ravra
ta6',Iva Kdl neTbirtaBere^ elrriaBayvvaiKl.

dXXd

ets t^v vexvlav clirev,


lis yvvaixhs ixpSaaiv odaap
x^'P^^'rois
"O/iripos
yhp TOVTO
Sid 8t) t6 /wddSes (c.2). On the other hand, Poetry is to be read for the lessons
which
be learnt from
the characters and
in morality and worldly wisdom
may
but
conduct
of the personages
let
the
not
think
that these
portrayed;
young
Kai

personages
mixed
men,

abstract

are

of

Sii, Si
\(i(vSiai,
are

types

and

"

bad

TeXcLui' oiSi

o6
dvBpiiirtov
These

good

the

all-goodor all-bad ; the poets draw for us real


kclI /Sfuc Kai
qualities. Poetry is idiajaisiiBCiti

dXXd
KaBapuv
ir"0e"n Kai Sb^ai.!
/leiuyp^iibiv
airods TroXXdicis fiCTaTiBhriav irpis rb Kpeirrov (c. 8).
ii"t"vtav

advantages to

be

derived

from

Poetry.

We

must

partake

of

it

caution,however, for it is like the polypus pleasantto eat, but often gives
bad dreams
(c.1).
with

It
does

"

ought
not

to

eschew

de Is. et Osir.

he

noted

the

that,where Egyptian Myths are concerned,Plutarch


of allegorical
remarks
interpretation
see
on
; but
DUl's Soman
Prof
the
Last Century of the
m
Society

method

" 78, in

Western .Empire,pp. 76, 77.


"
Grote's Mist, of Greece,part i. ch. 16, vol. i. pp.

342, 343, edit 1862.

THE
While

those

PROTAGORAS

interested
"

"natural

MYTH

233

in

of
historyadopted this method
dealing with Myths, the philosophers
to which
it is iJfest
to confine the

in
explanation
adopted the method
description allegorical
interpretation."Homer's
"

and

the

which

names

proper

occur

in

whole

it, have

story,
hidden

scientific meaning which


it is the
religious,
philosophical,
work
of the method
to unfold, by discovering
analogiesand
etymologies. So far as etymologies were
concerned, this
method
probably owed something to the lead given by Plato
in the
himself
Gratylus; but while Plato's etymologies are
Sta fjLv6o\o'yl,a"i,
the
put forward
playfully,and as it were
of Myth
etymologiesof the Stoics and other allegorisers
seem
be
offered as the meanings which
to
Homer
seriously
really
had
in his mind
when
he used the names.
Magnam suscepit
necessariam
Zeno primus,
molestiam," says Cicero,^ et minime
fabularum
post Cleanthes,deinde Chrysippus,commenticiarum
reddere rationem, et vocabulorum
cur
quidque ita appellatum
sit causas
will
explicare." Two examples of the Stoic method
be
sufficient,with
a
general reference to Zeller's Stoics,
ff. (Eng. Transl.).
Epicureans, and Sceptics,
pp. 334
The
One
is called
God, of Many Names, "ko'Xvwvvimo's,
"

"

Zeus

airo

manifested

as

aijp:

manifested
If

"

^fjv:

tov

in

manifested

aether,is called Athena,

Hephaestus,"says
to

thereby meant

fire,matter

has been

be

Heraclitus

air,is called Hera, from


Poseidon, from
from
the

aWijp:

as

woo-k;:

and

on.'

so

Stoic, intended

the

"

representationof this world, what


but
that, by the infiuence of primary
shaped into a world ? *
a

"

'

See Zeller's Stoics,JEpicureans,and

""'

Cic. de Nat. Dear. iii.24, 63.


Diog. Laert. vii. 147.

in

in water, is called

shield of Achilles
else is

as

Sceptics,p. 335,

n.

1, Engl. Transl.

See Zeller's Stoics,etc.,p. 340, Eng. Transl.


"The
Stoics,"says Dr. Bigg
Christian Platonists of Alexandria, p. 146), "assure
that the heathen
us
but symbols of the forces of nature, and turn the hideous
deities are
myths
of physicalscience."
of Zeus or Dionysus into a manual
of Homer, both before and after
On the generalsubject of the allegorisation

{The

consult, in addition to Lobeck, referred to above,


may
Rep. 378 r, 24, with authorities cited there ; Zeller's
Stoics, Epicuream, amd Sceptics,pp. 334 ff., Eng. Transl. ; Jowett's Dialogues of
Plato, Introd. to Eep. p. xxxviti. ; and Grote's History of Greece, part i. eh. 16,
"which
I extract
the following passage
from
(vol. i. p. 344, edit. 1862) :
Plato's time, the
Adam's
note
Mr.

reader
on

"

"It
were

that
remains
received
and

which
them
others

we
on

hear, on
ethical

of his

we

should

dealt with
the part of

notice

by

the
the

in which
philosophers. The
manner

philosophy,is the

severe

the

censure

ancient

earliest

myths

expression

bestowed

upon

grounds by Xenophanes of KolophSn, and seemingly by some


contemporaries. It was apparentlyin replyto such charges,which

MYTHS

THE

234

The

Alexandrine, before

and

Jews, Palestinian

PLATO

OF

and

after

preters
intertime,^followingthe lead given by the Greek
to the Old
method
of Homer, applied the allegorical
Testament
scriptures. One may estimate the length to which
carried by
was
of the Old Testament
allegorical
interpretation
Philo's

^
and
BepairevraL

that

himself

Philo

even

of the Law, he

thought, makes

it.'

man

The

and

wise

observe

but

of

and

accuracy
Testament
from

Old

throughout the
time,

he
"

where

it

of

Hebrew

of the
the

the

allegorising
of

the observance

meaning,
without
will allegorise
not
the aUegorisation,
Testament
Old
tures,
scripthe

hidden

fear.

'At

once

an

Hebrews, he assumed

narrative

creation

stance
the circum-

of events

of the world

given

in

downwards

whole

believed

history

He

the

the substantial
the

But

out

from
The

laxityin

seek

loth

old custom.*

Platonist

ardent

for

History of the
concerned, Philo proceeds without

Law,
is

will

time

alarmed.

was

the letter of the Law.

breaking with
of the

Philo's

before

others

was

historyof his Eace ; and, at the same


that the history of his Eace
not mere
was
philosophy,or rather theology,as well as

did

admit
of being directlyrebutted, that TheagenSs of Rhegium
not
(about
520 B. c. ) first started the idea of a double meaning in the Homeric
and Hesiodic
narratives
interior sense,
different from
that which
the words
an
in their
obvious
meaning bore, yet to a certain extent analogous, and discoverable
"

by sagaciousdivination.
Gods

in the

Upon

this

the battle
principlehe allegorised
especially
succeedingcentury, Anaxagoras and Metrocarried
out
the
allegoricalexplanation more
comprehensively and
former
systematically
mere
representing the mythical personages
as
; the
mental
and gender,and illustrative of ethical
conceptionsinvested with name
and phaenomena.
precepts, the latter connectingthem with physicalprinciples
resolved not only the persons of Zeus, Her6, and AthenS, but also
Metrod6rus
those of Agamemnon, Achilles,and Heot6r, into various elemental combinations
and physicalagencies,
and treated the adventures
ascribed to them
natural
as
facts concealed under the veil of allegory.Empedocles, Prodicus,Antisthenes,
of Pontus, and, in a later
Parmenides, Heracleides
the
age, Chrysippusand
Stoic philosophersgenerally,
followed more
or less the same
principleof treating
the popularGods as allegorical
personages
; while the expositorsof Homer
(such
down
Stesimbrotus, Glaucon, and others, even
as
to the
Alexandrine
age),
of them
though none
extreme
proceeded to the same
length as Metrod6rus,
of explanation for the
employed allegoryamongst other media
of
purpose
or eluding
solvingdifficulties,
reproachesagainstthe poet."
Grote, in a footnote (p. 345, n. 1) to the foregoingpassage, calls attention
to the ethical turn given to the stories of Circe, the Sirens,and
Scylla,by
Xenophon, Mem. i. 3, 7, and ii. 6, 11-31.
'
The allegorising
Jewish
school began two hundred
years before Philo (fl.
A.D.
39) ; see Gfrbrer,Urchristenthum,i. 83.
^
See Conybeare's Philo, de Vita Gontemplativa, 293 : the
p.
eepairevral(also
called Ixirai,cvZtores deum
ascetic Jewish
congregationsor guilds)allegorised
of the
ddrus

Iliad.

In

the

"

"

the Pentateuch.
looked
^
*

for Plato
See

This

was

necessary

in order

to make

in Moses.

Conybeare'sPhilo, de Vita Cont. pp. 300, 301.


See Gfrbrer, Urchristenthum, i. 104.

Gentile

converts, who

THE

history. The
they constituted
He

looked at

actual

into

we

as

his

revelation

is very

of hidden

both

difficult to enter

far,at least,as

as

the

to

treat

down

to

de

"

"

the

meaning.

Abelis
Sacrificiis

dogma
double
must

we

if
seriously,

certain

currents

of

prevailedsince

Here

Gaini}

et

of

it very

have

time.

present

fact ;

chronicle

into ; but

tendency of
philosophical
thought which

book

in

true

great miracle-playin which

understand

and
religious
his day, even
from

continuous

only

not

were

235

stage of this visible worldly This

it,so

to

are

MYTH

history of his Eace

the

of view

point
enter

also

the

on

recorded

events

events, and

put

was

PROTAGORAS

is
in

passage

which

the

"

of
of
sacred history reminds
us
allegorical
interpretation
tional
the method
not
only sacred history but tradiby which
own
as
dogma is, in our
day, being rewritten
philosophy :
"

"

"

"

"

"

For

mands
Abraham, coming with great haste and alacrity,comof meal,
Virtue, Sarah, to hasten and ferment three measures
attended
and
cakes under
the ashes, when
to make
God,
by two
dvcoTaTw
Powers
vTrh
6
Qc"s
Sueiv
tcov
Supreme
(rjviKa
Sopvifiopov/j^evoi
in
the middle,
Dominion
and
Himself
one
Goodness,
Svvdfieuiv),

producedthree images
which
be
the

impossibleto measure
but [theymeasure
circumscribed),
of the

measure

good.His

the Euler

Himself
It is

incorporeal.
...

fermented,

persuaded
Powers,

all

Dominion
the

good

Powers

things.

the

for

measure

of every
three

measure

^^'^^ of

{opariKy^xv)"

soul

(forHis

it is

; and

and

in the visual

these

also
His

not

are

to

Goodness

is

ject
thingssubthing corporeal
of

be

to

measures

and
it were,
commingled in the soul, that being
of the existence
of a supreme
God, who surpasses His

and

as

is either

it may
receive
be initiated in

seen

without

them,

with them,
appears
and
beneficence, and

or

impressions of His might


the most
perfect mysteries (twv TiXi'unv p.-ia-ri's

"yiVOjjAvT)),
In
a

once

rj

the

Old

higher,or

mystic, and

VTTOVoia'; aTroSoffK

Si

The
Si'^yrjo-K-^

historical,and
the

history,then,

Testament

fact of

history
'

are

De

his

in the

mythical,and
et

historical,or

is

book

literal,sense

of Genesis
is

but
historical,

must

recognisesat

and
aW.Tj'yopia,

Adam
"yfrv^V'^-

existence

Sacrif. Ab.

"

personages
t/jottoi

Philo

be

ij
are

at

"

prjTr)
once

avdp(ovo"iyijyevij';;
the

details of his

:
interpretedallegorically

Caini, (15),59, ed. Cohn, p. 173, Mangey.


^
Gfrorer, o.c. i. 84.

MYTHS

THE

236

PLATO

OF

Noah
fiv0"8e"; nobody can take it literally.^
Similarly,
Enoch
is justice,
Xoyog 7rpo"j)^T7]'i.
hope, Moses
piety.^Again and here Philo's
Egypt is the body, Canaan
not
Platonism
God, but the \0709, who
prevails it was
are
satisfied,
appeared in the burning bush.^ Spiritualmen
thus

his rib is

"

"

"

he says, with
an

anthropomorphic

on

account

is

of

the

God.

understandingof his readers.


Moses
is like the physicianwho

This

weak

ought to be.
keep his patient in
it

as

exists ; but the irdXXoi need


Moses
gives God feet and hands,
God

that

the truth

must

for the
But
ignorance of the truth.
of God
reader
are
educated
such
dangerous.
representations
of dealing
They lead to Atheism, and the only true method
them
wisdom,
with
is that of Allegory.* The
allegorical
to the
the possessionof the few wise, is compared by PhUo
Hellenic
" fivarai
ra
KeKaOapfjuevoL
ara,
Mysteries: ravra
of

Here,
TrapaSey(^e(rde.

iepa 6vT"o"i fivarripia

to?

course,

often
Plato,^who
directly from
compares
when
Myth is its vehicle,to iiutiation,
Philosophy,especially
in Sympos. 209 E, 210 a, and
in Phaedrus, 249
as
c, 250 B.'^
from
Plato.
Philo
borrows
But
it is only a phrase that
A
What
a
Myth is
Myth is Philo does not understand.
Philo

borrows

indeed

followingare
the

For

by
refer the

and

mystery

remains

concerned

only

employment

the

mystery.

make

to

of the method

Christian

Fathers

it

of

Philo

and

his

stood.
under-

something

allegorical
tation
interpre-

cannot

do

better

than

reader

generallyto Dr. Bigg'sChristian Platonists of


to Lecture
Alexandria, especially
iv.,and to Hatch's Sihhert
Greek and
Christian
Lectures, 1888, Lecture iii.,
on
Exegesis.
I would
from
To these references
add
Professor
a
quotation
Smith's Modern
the Preaching of the
G. Adam
Criticism and
Old

Testament,
The

early

pp.

fathers

mainly

for its

became

the orthodox

types

were

:
"

interested

As
See

he does also at the end

Couturat,de

the

Old

predictionsof Christ. The


and was
at last reduced
exegesis,

Platonis

Testament

allegorical
to

theory

Gfrbrer, o.c. i. 88.


Gfrbrer, o.c. i. 97.
Gfrbrer, Urckristenthum, i. 100.
'

of the passage

et Gain.
'

in

and

Gfrbrer, o.c. i. 98, 99.


Gfrorer, o.c i. 87.
Philo, de cherubim, Mang. i. 147

Ab.

226-228

Mythis, p. 55.

quoted

above

from

the de

Saerif.

MYTHS

THE

238

Neo-

the

purpose.
Plotinus

{Enn.

which

sets

Plato

place,for

is fated

to

realised

their

olov

in

eyei

obey a universal
themselves.
They are free, as
they obey the necessitywhich is

kuBoXov

etvai koI

"^prja-ofievoK

viroTTiirTov
o

Kai

Trifiireraf
ovk
e^toOev

vo/iO";

SeBorai

aWa

that

irefvireiv,

vofim

Koi

TeKecrOrjvai
to-^et,

TO

Kat,

pov"{.

elfiap-

vov"s

Koa-fiov

oiroaov

KaOoXov

to

eKacrrcp

la'yyv6ts

eKel

fieveiv

law

Souls

6 fjLev irpo

koi

"

tS

ryap

eyxeiTai

tov

ttjv

yet it is free,

law; and

universal

by

nature

own

KadeKoa-Tov

TTjV

"

KdXovvTO"s
Kanacri
KrjpvKO^
Their
descent, he says,
"7rp6a-"j)opov
(ra/ui.

is free,for
Intelligence,

TO

an

embodying themselves.
is

fjLevijv

in

the

determined

or

for, in

of

Orphic doctrine
the Phaedrus
Myth, speaks of the
bodies prepared for them
as
taking
appointed time : KaX aXKos aXKy

nrapar/evofievov

ela-eBv ek

which

forth

this

the

13),adhering to

iv. 3.

Soul, at

each

ov
Yp6vo";,

KoX

of

of Souls into

Descent

and

deaKng with these Myths;


following specimens may be sufficient for
method

Platonic

perhaps

PLATO

OF

iv

avTot?

irepi^epovaivavrov.

Cosmos, then,"he continues, having many


Lights,and
illumined
receiveth
added
unto
beauty
being
by Souls,
beauty
and
from
the Intelligences
the great Gods
which
from
bestow
And
Souls.
this,methinks, is the meaning of that Myth which
Prometheus
that
is Forethought had
telleth how
that, when
fashioned
a woman,i the other
gods did thereafter adorn her : one
"

"

This

"

"

this creature

unto

gave

beauty

of

as

gifts;

who

she

and

and

human

water

speech,and
her one
gift,

goddess; and Aphrodite gave unto


another, and all the other gods added

the Graces

and

of earth

called

was

Pandora,

because

that

their several

all gave

her

unto

fashioned

But
by the Forethought of Prometheus.
who
is
this
Epimetheus,
Afterthought,rejected
gift of
that the choice of that
Prometheus, the Myth thereby signifieth
was

whereas

which

the Maker

Yea,
with

sort

some

of the nature

partakethmore

choice.

that which

constrained
releaseth

him

he

in him

Power

deliverance
'

and

In

Hesiod, 0.

from

et D.

warns

49

flF.

is the
Intelligible
for he

proceeded from

his

bonds,
he

the

is

Myth

yet

hath

him,

without.

are

whereby

his brother

of the

bound,

which

these bonds."

from

Prometheus

hath

bonds

by

Heracles
hath

is himself

able

better

contact

of

and

is therefore

But

whereas

that
signifieth
to

attain

unto

Hephaestus, not Prometlieus,


makes
not to accepther, but he pays no

Pandora
heed

to the

warning.
2

Plot. Enn.

p. 42.

Pandora

iv. 3. 14 ; and see A. Eitter,die


endowed
is the World
by the Soul

des
Psychologie
with

ideal

Flotin

gifts.

(1867),

THE
Another

that

was

of

"

from

which

Narcissus.^

MYTH

the

Their

Bowl

of

Dionysus."^

239

Neo-Platonists

drew

largely
Myth
Dionysus with

of
interpretation

the identification of the

hinges on
the

Myth

PROTAGORAS

The

"

Mirror

Soul

this

"

"f

remains

at

in

peace

its

heavenly home, till it sees its own


image in the water of this
mirror.
It plunges into the water
to emhrace
the image, and
drinks forgetfulness
of its heavenly estate :
Ihovra yap, says
Plotinus (Unn. i. 6. 8),Set to, iv
ato/iacri Koka
firjToi, irpocr"

rpey(etp, aXKa

yvovra,

koX aiciai,
X'xyr}
elKove?. el yap rt? iiriBpdfioi
ravra
qXtjOlvov,ola elBcaiXov kcCKov
e"f

^evyeiv Tpo"; eieelvo ov


Xa^elv ^ovXofievo'}tas
vSaTo";

etaiv

"?

Xa^etv
ov
oj(pvfjiAvov,

et/coi/e?

^ovX7jdet";,
W9

/tv^09,hoKS) fioi, alvirTerai,Bv"; ets


B^ rpoirov
a^avT]^eyevETO, rov avrov
koI

creofiarmv

Bvaerai

ov
d^iei'i,

koL

"rKOTeiva

""

ahov

ev

p/rj

xal

p.evcov

koI

rb
6

Karto

ivravda

KaKel

rov

rt?

pev/iaTO";

KuXav
rmv
iy(6fJ"vo";

tqJ (TmpMTi,

aTepiri]rm

irov

vm

Be

ry

"^ffvyyKara-

^ddrj, ev9a

aKiali

Ti/^\o?
(pev-

"7vve(TTai.

dv Tt?
Br) tpCXijve"s varpLBa, aXride"7repov
Ke\evot,To.
k.t.X. : and
ovv
jJ "f"vyi)
Tis
again, in
;

ytop,ev

3. 12, he

trapa"nn.

iv.

eiBccXa avT"v
IBovaai
dvOpwiraivBe ^jrv^^^al
says
olov Aiovva-ov
ixei iyevovro avmOev
iv KaroiiTpcp
opiJuqOelcrat,
oiiB'
eavr"v
xal vov.
ovK
dTTOTfirjdela-ai avrai
re
T7J";
dp'^rj^
ov

p,eTa

yap

Be

Kapa

Be

"

avral";

avrali

rjXdov,dXK

vov

eaTripLKrat

e^daaav
VTrepdvm rov

fiev

p-eypi

yff'i,
irXeov

ovpavov.

Kare'XjBelv

avTali
on
avp^^e^rjicev,
to
fieaov
rpieh b e"p6acrav(ppovriaai.
ayKaaOT) "f)povTiSo"i
Seop,evovrov
Zev? Be TraTTjp eX,eija-a";
dvTjra avrStv to, Seap,cl,
"7rovovp,eva"s
iroia"v
iroimv

irept,

BiBaxjiv

Trovovvrai

eKevdepa";,Xv

amp^aTtov

dvairavKa';
e'xpiev

ixeZ

'^v'^r)del
Souls, then, descending,at
iiria-rpe^opevT]?

yiveaQai, ovirep

r)

rov

Trai/ro?

iv

"ypovoi's

Koi

ovBev
their

avTat,

rd

TgBe
appointed

'

See Ovid, Met. iii.,


and Pausanias, ix. 31, for this Myth.
See Maorobius,in Som/n. i. 12. 66 : " Hoc est quod Plato notavit in Phaedone
animum
in corpus trahi noya
ebrietate trepidantem,
volens novum
potum materialia
^

alluvionis intelligi,
Arcaui
hujus indicium est Liberi
quo gravata deduoitur.
Patris crater ille sidereus,et hoc est, quod veteres Lethaeum
fiuvium vocaverunt,
i\iK6v
Liberum
Patrem
antem
vovv
Lobeok,
ipsum
Orphaici
suspicanturintelligi."
who

(Aglaoph. p. 736), criticises it as departing


quotes this passage from Maorobius
which is that of the bowl in which Plato's
the original
conceptionof the Kpm-fip,
first of the World-Soul, and then of human
souls.
Demiurgus mixes the ingredients,
' See Lobeck
{Aglaoph. p. 565, for the place of the k"tottpov in the Zagreus
Myth ; and Kohde (Psyche,ii. 117) for Zagreus as a type, along with Narcissus,
from

of the
sensible

passage

of the

phenomena.

Unity

of

the

Worid-Principle into

the

of
multiplicity

MYTHS

THE

240

times, come
and

the

to

enamoured

is, of

mortal

of it go
The wise

down

own

"

into

the

a-TrijXatov the

of this

cave

"

that
This

"

is the water

water

Aiovvaov,

KaToirrpov

images reflected therein


bodies
plunge into the water.
of oblivion,of X^dij,and
they that

of their

their

is the

which

water

PLATO

OF

drink

world.^

moderately; for to drink deeply is to


world.
The wise soul is
of the intelligible
lose all dvd/i,vT]cn";
thus the "dry" soul
^^ *^" phrase of Heraclitus^
^i]p^"^vx^'
to be understood
seems
quote it.'
by the Neo-Platonists who
The dry soul hearkens, in this life,
to the genius who
panies
accomall the geniiof particular
her in her KcidoSo^: but, over
a
souls,Eros rules as summus
genius. Creuzer* mentions
picture in which Narcissus is representedas gazing at his
own
image in the water, and the Heavenly Eros as standing
soul

drinks

"

with

behind

sad countenance

Ficino,^"id est,temerarii

says
vultum

non

et

corpore, et
admiratur."
The

from

escape

adolescens,"

Narcissus

animus, sui

sui

substantiam

et

virtutem

sed

in aqua
ejus umbram
sequitur
proid
in
conatur
:
est, pulchritudinem
amplecti
fragili
instar
animi
umbra
est,
aquae fluentis,quae ipsius

moral

"ecstasy"

"

imperitihominis

et

aspicit;propriam
animadvertit

nequaquam

him.

from
the

of the
the

Narcissus

life of

Stream

flux

Myth
and

of Pleasure

is :

Free

thyselfby

sensible

and

the

appearances
Flesh
97 peva-ri)
"

"

the Stream
of Generation, which
a-cl)/juiro";
^vctk
''
Mirror of Dionysus."
is the
With
the Myth of Narcissus
thus
the Neoallegorised,
Platonists
brought the story of Odysseus into very close
Thus the passage quoted above from Unn. i. 6. 8, in
relation.

ivvXov

Tov

"

"

which

the immersion

of the

Soul

is immediately followed
described,
deliverance

from

that

stream

is

in

the

Stream

by a passage
compared to

of Sense
in

the

which

is
the

flightof

1
\puxv ''"' Seir/iosrb aCifw, /toi T"i0osKal 6 k6itiu"s
airy aiHiKiuov Kal Avrpov,
Plot. Minn. iv. 8. 3 ; and of. iv. 8. 1, where the doctrine of the Fall or Incarnation
of Souls, as set forth by Plato in the Phaedrus
and
Timaeus and by Empedocles,is reviewed.
^

See

'

See Creuzer, Plotinus de Pulch.


Plot, de Pulch. p. Ixiii.

*
"

Bywater's Heraeliti Eph. Reliquiae,Ixxiv. Ixxv.


p. xxxvi.

Fieinus, in Plat. Sympos. cap. 17, quoted by Creuzer,Plot, de Pulch.


Ixviii.
p.
^
See Creuzer, Plot, de Pulch. pp. Ivi. Ivii.
' I take
it that the k"tottpov Aioviffov of the Neo-Platonists is due
to a
"
"conflation
of the Narcissus
Myth and the Zagreus-Dionysus
Myth.

THE

Odysseus
oJiv

from

PBOTAGOBAS

the

MYTH

enchantments
xal

Circe

and

Calypso:
"

olov

ava^ofieda;

fidyov
Bo/cel
^i,pKi)"i
^aXv rj KaXif^ou? 'OSvaaeii^ dlviTTO/ievo^,
St' o/ifidreov
/cairoi 'i')((ov
ovK
riBova";
apeaQeiis,
fioi, fieZvai,
KoXKei
iroWw
Kai
aiaOriTm avvdiv, iraTpii Sr)rjfuv, odev
Ti?

r)

(^XTfri
;

of

241

Kot
TraprfKOofiev,

^vrfrj
;

TToSe? eVt
oyfTj/ia rj

ixel,

irarrjp

Set

iroaX

OX)

ttms

Siavucrai'

yfjv aXX'rjv
OaXdmov

ri

d^etvaiSet

/cat

dXKd^aaOai

Kot

oSv

Tt?

yap

ovBe

olov

r}

"j)epovcTi,

Set

ae

aXKu
vapacrKevdaai,

pKeireiv,dXK
fifj
dveyelpat,
r]v

xal

aroKo^

vavrajfpv

aWrj^'

air

cltto

'iTrircav

vdvra

ravra

aWrjV
o-^jriv
ttSs, '^p"vrai Se

fivtravTa

ej^et fiev

oXljoi,
Numenius
Similarly,
(quotedby Porphyry,de Ant. Nymph.
^ makes
Odysseus the image of vov"i gradually,
through
cap. 34)
various incarnations,freeingitself from the flesh
elxova tov
diroKadSt^ TJjs e^efij? yeveaetoi
ovr(0"i
epj(pp,evov, koI
/cXuSmvo? /cat
6a\da'a'r)"}
tow
e^fo iravTOi
et?
larafievov
"

direipov;.
p.

Again, a Pythagorean quoted by Stobaeus,Ee. Phys. i. 52,


Be rrjv iv KVK\(p irepioSov
Kal TrepKpopav
1044, sa,j8,'
OfiTjpo^
'HXtou

7raXiyyevea'ia"!
KijO/ciyv
irpoo'ijyopevKev,

TraiSa :

and

Od. i. 51, says, on


Eustathius, on
KaXui^m, et fiev
ttjv
ol yea)ypa"j"ovvTe"!
^aaiXiaaa
/j,iKph
/cat
irapaBihoaat,,
rjv

Be avTrjv
ol iraXaioL
fieraTrXdrrovTai
Trepiepyd^ovTat
Ty
Kad' '^fia";
aSifia,t09 avyKoXinrTovaav
dWTjyopla ell to
BiK-qviXvTpov tov
evTO";
"^v^lkov fidpyapov tjtii /cat aiiTr]
'OSvcra-ea,m?
evBeBefievov
avOptoirov
"f)iX6a-o"j}ov
KaTei'X^e tov
Kal
elirelv,iv
fivdiKS"";
d/KpipuTy vrjcrcp ovTa
(TapKi.
ia-Ti
iv
TOVTeanv
6aXda(Tr)";,
"^tis o/i(f"a\6i
BevBprjea-a-T},
Kal
TiXaTOiv
av
o
eXirrj,
iirippvTto
"a9
vypS awfiaTi
ovti,
KoX diroppvTa(Timaeus, 43
a).
'E^/tovfievroi, "b?
.

iv

T019

/leToi,

alvi^eTaio

TavTa

\6yov, yeyove
tov
iraTplBo'},
rjyovv

icTTi

HXaTcoviKoii^ -^v^av

ttj?

ttjv

KaTa

o
woirjTi^'i,
fieaiTevovToif,
TroOov/jLevrji;
(j)i\,oao(f"lav

Koafiov,

vorjTOV

69

ecTt

tov;

KaTa

a\7]0')j"s'
iraTpl's
ofioia)"} yeyove

Kai

t^9

Xvdel"; Kal dtraXkayelis


Trj"!
TObavTTj';
n'j7j/e\o7r'?;9,
^iXoa'o"^la";,

VLdKv^ov"i.
his

With

words

treatise de Beo

Homerus

Socratis

docet, qui semper


'

to

the
"

"

same

Nee

ei comitem

See Creuzer, Flat, de Pulch.

effect
aliud

Apuleius

Ulixe

te in eodem

voluit

esse

closes

prudentiam:

p. Ixxii.
K

poeticoritu

quam

Quippe,
:

horrenda

adscendit.

sapientia comitante, Scyllam praeter


ereptus est : Gharybdi conseptus est, nee
est : ad LotoCircae poculum bibit,nee
mutatus

est

remansit

nee
phagos accessit,

Beautiful

of

introivit,sed egressus
ad Inferos demeavit, sed

Eadem

navigavit,nee

Plato's

that the less


the

Myths

understand

Sirenas

Neo-Platonic

the

as

to think

venture

specus

vidit,sed abstinuit

Solis boves

retentus

nuncupavit. Igitur,hac eadem


adversa
superavit.
subiit, omnia

adjutrice,
Cyclopia

ea

PLATO

OF

Minervam

comitante, omnia
est

MYTHS

THE

242

we

better.

accessit."

audiit,nee

aUegorisationoften is, I
associate it with our
reading
Neo-Platonists

The

did

not

gory
Myth and Allegory. Alleis Dogma
in picture-writing
Myth is not Dogma,
; but
does not convey
tained
Dogma.
Dogma is gained and mainby Dialectic,which, as Stallbaum
says (note on Bep.
be applied to the elucidation of the subjects
b), cannot
which
than
it can, at the other
Myth deals,any more
of the series,
be appliedto the elucidation of the particulars

and

614

the difference between

"

with

end

of sense,

such."

as

Por

light in understandingPlato's Myths, it is to the


such as Dante,
independent creations of other great /ivBoiroioi,
that we must
of the
go, not to the allegorical
interpretations
and

Neo-Platonists
What

Plato

know

we

from
In

(229):
"

thinks

that

Boreas

from

Socrates
answer,

called

surelynot
it,where

reply

the

near

the

to

of

allegorical
interpretation

beginningof

the

story about

the

the Ilissus is
height overlooking

that

if

Yes, it may
But

very

such

you to
stories in Greek

took

the

that

true

blown

by

the

learned

once

wind

true

line,he

upon

time

the

over

he

by

story,

might
a
girl

cliff and

rationalism,imposing and

happy

are

he
be

Fhaedrus

question of Phaedrus, whether


Orithyiabeing snatched away

the

matter-of-fact
1

thinks

passage

Orithyia was

killed."

the

himself

says,
"

like.^

their

as

method, for if you

stop ?

You

will have

ponderous, is
begin to employ

to

rationalise all

mythology, expending a great deal of


on
an
interminable,
task,and leaving

cleverness

allegorical
interpretationof three myths" that of Pan, that of
that of Dionysus" in his de Augmentis
Scientiamm, ii cap 13 ' is
worth comparingwith the Neo-Platonic examples
given above.
'
For Zeller's opinion of the Neo-Platonic
of Diotima's Mvth
interpretation
Bacon's

Perseus, and

"

in

the

Sympos.

see

his

Plato,p. 194,

u.

66

(Engl.Transl.).

THE

time

PROTAGORAS

MYTH

243

for

anything worth doing. As for himself,he declares


that, not yet having satisfied the Delphic injunction, Know
"if he spent his
thyself,"he should be acting ridiculously
the interpretation
precioustime over
of these stories: he is
no

"

willingto
just as
Dr.

receive

other

them

people believe

Westcott, in

they

as

are

told, and

believe

them

them.^

his

charming and suggestiveessay on


The Myths of Plato
(thefirst of his Essays in the History of
ReligiousThought in the West),to which every student of the
feel himself
under
subject must
contrasts
great obligation,
Myth and Allegory in the followingwords :
"

"

"

In the

and
allegorythe thought is grasped first and hy itself,
in
dress.
Jn the myth, thought and
arranged a particular
form
into being together: the thought is the vital principle
come
which
shapes the form; the form is the sensible image which
is the conscious
work
of an
displaysthe thought. The allegory
individual
the
of
truth which
he has seized.
a
fashioning
image
The
is
the
unconscious
of
myth
a
common
growth
mind, which
witnesses
laws by which
to the fundamental
its development is
ruled.' The
meaning of an allegoryis prior to the construction
of the story : the meaning of a myth is first capable of being
separated from the expressionin an age long after that in which
it had its origin.
is then

It will be understood
contained
of

competence
'

in

the

that

I do

last sentence.

not

agree with the suggestion


I do not recognisethe

to separate the
interpretation

"

meaning

"

from

Grote, Sist. of Greece, part i. cli. xvi. vol. i. pp. 362

S. (ed.1862), has remarks


exceptionalvalue on this passage, and generallyon Plato's attitude to the
old mythology.
discountenances
all attempts to transform
Plato," he says,
the myths by interpretation
into history or philosophy,indirectly
recognising
the genericdifference between
them.
He shares the current
faith,without
suspicion or criticism, as to Orpheus, Palamedes, Daedalus, Amphion,
any
Theseus, Achilles, Chiron, and other mythical personages ; but what chiefly
fillshis mind
of deep reverence
for these superhimian
is the inherited sentiment
characters
and for the age to which
The more
examine
we
they belonged.
of

"

"

...

this

sentiment, both

in

the

mind

of Plato, as well as
that it formed
be convinced
The
religiousfaith.
myth

in that

of

the

Greeks

shall we
and insepargenerally,the more
essentially
ably
both
a
portion of Hellenic
presupposes, and
social,
springsout of, a settled basis and a strong expansive force of religious,
and patriotic
feeling,
operatingupon a past which is little better than a blank as
It resembles
in so far as its form is narrative ;
to positiveknowledge.
history,
it resembles
philosophy,in so far as it is occasionallyillustrative ; but in its
it is created,
and substance, in the mental tendencies by which
as well as
essence
it is judged and upheld, it is the popularisedexpressionof the
in those by which
divine and heroic faith of the people." See further, vol. i. pp. 370 ff.,for a
summary

of Greece.

of Grote's

I
informing and

whole

discussion

acquaintedwith no
suggestiveas Grote's.

am

of Greek
Myths in part i. of
which appears
discussion' of them

his Sist.
to

me

so

"expression"of

the

its literal

dogmatic meaning behind


is,first,its literal

sense

is removed

one

origin,the

of this second

sort

the facile

is not

has

which

reading our

down

come

Myth had its


its meaning

"

"

be to

recover

it called up and
Our task
audience.

his immediate

and

of

one

told; and then,

is,the feelingwhich

that

its maker

in
regulated

Myth has no
Its "meaning"
The
regulates^)

the age in which

from

"

is
and

it calls up

difficult it must

more

sense.

story which

the

"

beyond this,the feelingwhich


further

(l_hold
that

Myth.

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

244

to

vastly difficult one of


life of a prophet in a bygone

the

into
enteringsympathetically

Myth

the

but

us,

into

doctrines

own

world.
While

into Allegorieshas
historical,
work

prosaicpersons,

of

happy

effect.

me

of this

instance

one

Let

that

saith

Sepulchreand
in

at the

Salome
Him

found

has

white garment, who

of the
allegorisation

Sepulchre:

"

Magdalene,and

Mary

Mary

and

James,

it
a-otpia
^(pmfievot,

beautiful

Dante's

"

story of the three Marys


Mark

rivl

a^poLKa

congenial

the

been

often

most

or

with
up by the great poets themselves
conclude this part of the subjectwith

taken

been

sometimes

narratives, mythical

old

of

conversion

the

find

to

went

Mary
the

a
not, but found
young
them
seek
said unto
: "Ye

of

mother

the

Saviour

at

clothed

man

the

the

Saviour

that He
is not
here ; but be not
I say unto
aflfrighted
; go
you
that
He
will
before
them
into
and
and tell His disciples
Peter,
go
these

By

shall ye

there

Galilee ; and

three

Him,

see

women

as

He

said unto

signifiedthe

are

you."

three

of

sects

the

which
life,the Epicureans,the Stoics,and the Peripatetics,
this
which
is
the
the
to
Sepulchre, wit,
present World,
go unto
of corruptible
things,and seek for'the Saviour,to wit,
receptacle
clothed
in
man
beatitude,and find it not ; but they find a young
the
white
of
Matthew
and
to
a
testimony
garment, who, according
the Angel of God ; thus,Matthew
also of the others,was
saith,
descended
from heaven, and
The Angel of God
and rolled
came
and
sat
like
back the stone
it, and his countenance
was
upon

active

"

like snow."
and his raiment
lightning,
This
Angel is the Nobility of

Cometh,

as

it is

said,from

God,

saith unto

each of these sects

beatitude

in the active life

and
disciples
those
denied

who
Him

Peter

have
"
"

"

that

"

erred
that

He

"

"
"

from

and

that

speaketh in

is,those who
the

Nature

every man
here ; but
go
go

rightway,
before

them

about

who

seeketh

and

tell the

seekingit,and

like Peter
into

which

Reason, and

our

is,unto

It is not

will go

Human

our

Galilee

who
"
"

had
that

ascribed

to deliberate

of the

Gospels by
Son," as distinguishedfrom stories
are
reallyAllegories.
and

There

of the

"

also narratives

are

with

be

must

class of Parables, strictly

The

intention.

it which

in

much

called,is representedby many

Testament

PLATO

OF

has
{O.D. 49 ff.),

Hesiod

givenby
so

MYTHS

THE

246

Parables

of

stories like "The


like

purpose,
and
Allegories
a

Prodigal

Sower," which

The

"

Old

the

which, like The

tinguished
Parables as disPilgrim'sProgress,are at once
in these
strikes one
most
from Allegories. "What
Parables is: How
narratives originally
written to be Allegories
or
much
old Myths tampered with
effective they are
than
more
by rationalism and converted into Allegories.These Allegories
indeed, present doctrine
originallywritten to be Allegories,
have
often thinly disguised,but
to exercise
their makers
creative imagination,not merely scholastic ingenuity. The
best of them
and appeal
true Myths as well as Allegories,
are
if not
to us, at any rate, by their avdpcoiroXoyla,
always by
of callingup Transcendental
Feeling a power which
I power
: properlybelongs to less consciously
planned productsof genius.
"Why is The Pilgrim'sProgress a Possession for Ever ? Not
it is an
because
ingeniousAllegory setting forth doctrine
rigorouslyheld by its author; not because it has a good
moral tendency,like Plato's tales for children ; but
because it
is a Myth
an
interesting,
touching, humorous, mysterious
story about people because its persons, albeit "allegorical,"
and
are
living men
sometimes, like Moliere's
women,
or
active in the dramatic
of the story,
Shakespeare's,
movement
"

"

"

sometimes

sketched

Characters
And

of

like

they stand,
Theophrastus.
as

the

people

in

the

the
slept,and dreamed
two
again, and saw
same
down
the
Mountains
the
towards
Pilgrimsgoing
along
High-way
the City. Now
these Mountains, on the left hand,
a little below
lieth

Country of

the

into the way

in which

Here, therefore,they
of that
avd

Country.

whither

he

on

Chr.
may

find

the left
But
some

met

So

with

Country

very
him

Christian asked

little crooked

brisk

there

Lad,

From

that

comes

Lane.

came

wJiat
parts he

out
came,

going?

was

Ignor. Sir,I
little

Conceit ; from
which
the Pilgrimswalked,

was

hand,

how

do

born
and
you

in the
I

am

think

there ?
diflBculty

Country that lieth off there


going to the Celestial City.
to

get in

at

the

Gate, for

you

THE

PROTAGORAS

MYTH

Ignor. As

other

good people do, said

Ghr.

what

have

But

that the Gate

cause

I pay every man


and have left
my

Chr.
the head
crooked

But

opened

thou

camest

in

not

of

this way ; thou


Lane, and therefore

that

at

Gate,

into the

the Wicket-Gate
in

hither

fear,however

; be content
will follow the

for the

as

is

in

Eeligionof
that

shall come,
thou wilt hear
and a Eobber, instead of

they matter
fine pleasantGreen

of him.

way, his wisdom


What, shall we
and

leave

so

getting

much

so

do

they
Lane,

as

no,

or

that

comes

that the

man

know

the way

since

we

down

as

in his

that
man

any

need

it,nor

to

our

And

that

that

have,
from

wise

was

you

be well.

knows

think

I cannot

When
he
said,moreover.
him, and he saith
faileth
talk further with
him,

him

to think

him

of him

good

any

laid to

see,

you

the

Country

Conceit,

own

fool than
that is a foolwalketh by the
to everyone that he is a fool.

for

stop again

of

Country,and

all will

hope

Hopeful whisperingly.There is

And

same

I know

me,

of,all the world

Country.

into the way.


Christian saw

he said to

mine.
talk

you

great way oif of our


all our
parts doth

way
When

is at

think

mayest

strangers to
ye be utter
follow the Eeligionof your

whether

next

that

City.

to

Gate

may

through that

thou

Ignor. Gentlemen,
not

that

to

at

camest

when
the reckoningday
thyself,
thy chargethat thou art a Thief

admittance

he.

you
Lord's will,and I have been a good liver ;
my
his own
tithes,and give alms,
; I pray, fast,pay
Country for whither I am going.

I know

Ignor.

should

shew

to

you
be

247

of what

outgo

or

heard

he hath

afterwards,and

see

hopes of

more

if

him

present

at

already,and

by degreeswe

then
do

can

******

So

they both

went

on,

Ignorancehe

and

after.

came

******

saw

then

in

Ignorance,whom
Chr.

Ay,
But

Hope.
with

us

Chr.

him.

So
Then

behind

had

far

Hopeful looked back and


Look,
behind, coming after.

that

left

saw

said

loitereth behind.

yonder youngster

our

company.
him, had he

kept

hitherto.

true, but

That

they

think

I warrant
he

you

he thinketh

doth, but, however,

let

otherwise.
us

tarry for

did.

Christian said to

him. Come

away,

man,

why

do

you

stay

Ignor.
great

Dream

ay, I see him ; he careth not for


hurt
have
I tro it would
not

That's

Hope.

so

they

how
Christian,

he to

pace

my

I take

deal than

in

pleasure in walking alone, even


Company, unless I like it the better.
my

more

he cared
and

for

not

let

talk

us

said

But, however,

company
the
away

our

he,

stands

Ignor.
that

and

God

it between

Chr.

I think

Ignor. Why,
So

Chr.
Chr.

do

So

that

many

Souls.

desire them.

and

of them

I think

But

Ignor.

like

never

are

us.

Heaven.

damned

the Devils and

do

tell

and

of God

good motions,

full of

I walk.

as

me

you?

now

always

am

to comfort
into my mind
What
good motions ? pray

come

Soul

your

for I

hope well;

up,
Then

do

how

directinghis speech to Ignorance,he said. Come,


How

come

solitaryplace.

this

in

time

tell you

I not

Did
Hopeful(butsoftly),

said Christian to

Then

PLATO

OF

MYTHS

THE

248

to

The

there.

come

and hath nothing.


of the Sluggarddesires,
Ignor. But I think of them, and leave all for them.
matter
That
I doubt, for leaving all is an hard
Chr.
yea, a
But why, or by what,
of.
than
harder
aware
matter
are
many

Soul

"

persuadedthat

art thou

heart

Ignor. My
Chr.

The

Ignor.

good

so.

that trusts his

man

is

Heaven.

evil

an

heart is

own

heart,

fool.

is

mine

but

one.

Chr.

how

But

dost

Ignor.

It comforts

Chr.

may
minister

may
he
for which

Ignor.
hope is
Chr.

well

hopes of
him

to

Heaven.

deceitfulness,for

its

through

comfort

the

in

of

hopes

man's

that

thing

ground to hope.

no

and

heart

my

that 1

prove

in

be

has

yet

But

thou
me

That

heart

my

me

says. He
spoken of

wise

This

tells

and

hast left all for God

thou

life agree

and
together,

heart

life agree

therefore

grounded.
told thee

Who

tells

heart

Ignor. My

that
me

thy

and

?
together

so.

******

head

look

to

but

he

the

other

then

I turned
gazing upon all these things,
my
the
River-side
to
back, and saw Ignorancecome
up

while

Now

got

soon

two

in that

helpedhim
come

up
him

meet

was

and

over,

placeone
over

so

For

half
it

he, as

happened

the other

I saw,

he

alone

came

the least

which
difficulty

that

that

Vainhope,a Ferry-man,that

Gate, only

to the

with

with.

met

men

that without

with

did ascend
; neither
When
he

there

was

his Boat
the

did

HiU

any

to

man

encouragement.
up
Gate, he looked up to the writingthat was above, and then
began to knock, supposing that entrance should have been quickly
was

come

to the

administered
over

the

top

to

for

his

; but

he

was

asked

of the

He
you have ?
of the King, and
him

him

Gate, Whence
answered, I have
he has

taught in

that
Certificate,

by

came

eat
our

and

the

looked

would
you 1 and what
drank
in the presence

Streets.

they might

that

men

go

Then
and

shew

they asked
it to

the

THE
So

King.
Then

he

said

word.

Christian
and

fumbled

they, Have
they told

So

him,

see

in

you
the

but

commanded

and

Hopeful

bind

him

hand

his

bosom

King,
the

and

for

But

none

the
to

MYTH

but

249

one,

and

man

answered

the

he would

not

City, to

go
have

foot,and

that

and

out

that there
well

from

as

was

was

to Hell

way

from

him

even

the

City of Destruction.

day

drew

the

So

never

to

conducted

take

Ignorance,
they

Then

him

saw

none.

down

come

Shining^nes

two

found

away.
up, and carried him through the air to the
in the side of the Hill,and
put him in there.

took

door

that

Then

Gates

of

awoke,

and

saw

Heaven,

as

behold

it

Dream.

Now
Road

the

which

were

Gate.

People to see
beyond the River

she

of Farewell

to

last word

So

down

come

So

thee and

she

from

Christiana
her

those

that

heard

was

take

to

her

here

the

to

behold

City

beckon

River-side.

The

Lord, to be vMh

I come,

was,

the

Chariots,

and

accompany
the River, with

entered

say

gone.
her Journey. But

her to the

to

followed

So

be

must

full of Horses

were

above

forth and

came

bless thee.
her Children

those

that

on

full of

was

all the Banks

So

PBOTAGOBAS

that waited

she went

and

Ceremonies

of

and

returned

Friends

for Christiana

called,and
that

Joy

her

had

their

to

of their

carried

her

out

in at

the

Gate

entered

Christian

Husband

that

place,for
with

had

sight.

all the

done

before

her.
******

In process of time there came


Post to
a
his business was
with Mr. Beady-to-halt.
So
and

said to

him,

hast

loved

thou

am

and

thyselffor

this

in

he

the

again,and
enquired him out,
Town

of

name

whom

him

Crutches; and my
upon
to
he expects thee at his Table
sup
wherefore
after
the next
Easter,
day

followed,

is to tell thee that


message
with
him
in his Kingdom
prepare
Then

thee

to

come

the

tho'

Journey.

he also gave him a Token


that he was
a true
Messenger,
cord.
I
have
and
loosed
silver
broken thy goldenbowl,
thy
saying,
After

called
Beady-to-halt
sent
them, saying,I am
for,and

told
also.

for his

this Mr.

So he desired

Mr.

Faliant

he had

to

God

shall

should

that

nothing to bequeath to
his Crutches
and
his good "Wishes,therefore
Crutches I bequeathto my Son that shall tread
hundred

warm

Then
and
at

he
so

the Brink

wishes that he may prove


Mr. Great-heart
himself

of the River

he

to

for

his

said.Now

of these Crutches,since yonder are

you
because

And

him

survive
he

thus

but

said.These
with a
steps,

in my
than
I have done.
better

thanked

addressed

surelyvisit

his Will.

make

them

and
Pilgrims,

fellow

Chariots

his

Journey.
Horses

he

When

I shall have
and

and

Conduct

no

for

more
me

ness,
Kindcame

need
to ride

The

on.

he

last words

heard

was

test, indeed, of

good Myth,
for it,as

care

he

PLATO

OF
to

So

lAfe.

Welcome

say was,

his way.

went

The
a

MYTHS

THE

250

He

it is also

that

understand, or

not

modated.
consciouslyaccom-

been

have
to
appear
often spoke to the

Jesus

spoken by

is

this test the Parables

To

of doctrine.

vehicle

do

who

those

story,for

or
a

good Allegory

peoplein

common

Parables

received by
These Parables were
interpretingthem.
the common
people as Myths; afterwards He interpreted
them
as
Allegoriesto His disciples.Many of His Parables,
no
interpretation.
indeed, as was
suggested above, have
Stories like the Parables
of the Prodigal Son, of the Eich
Man
who
proposed to build barns, of Dives and Lazarus, of
the G-ood Samaritan, are
not
Allegoriesto be interpreted
for they have no "other
meaning," but rather little dramas
is continually
which
reduce
to
a
single incident what
^
occurringin man's experience."

without

"

"

"

And

of detailed
the

those

even

doctrinal

Sower, have

which

they

things

stand

wonder,

in

looks

convey

intrinsic
the

"

reflectedstand
"

the

"

Cave," and

"

ourselves

of the

Republic,532
in

Zeafimv
Kal

TO

Kot

e"64

'

the

B, c, where
:

to show
natural
effect

of the
a

doctrine

the

picturesin which common


images, or doubles, for
another

sky.^

elaborate

most

rjv

"

former*

summary

koX

When

our

one

; and

by

of the

"

"

Allegories

let

us

remind

first referring
to
whole

is

given

S' eyto, Xucri? re


tS"v
anro
eiScoKa
t"v
(tki"v iirl t^

otto
fieTa(7rpo"pr)
Koi
e/c
tow
Karayeiov ei? rov
"f)S""}
rf^iov iirdvoBo^,
rk ^md Te
Kal tpvrk Kal to
rjkiov
tov
7r/)09 fJ,h"

Eeville,ProUgomines

p. 110.
"
See

of

Be ye,

rj

"

apart from

DisorderlyCrew

"

Parable

the

it is easy to put oneself in the


Parables gladly without
asking for

Sower,"

features

sentence

one

as

look at Plato's two

now

us

as

admit

of

world, under

another
"

and
Allegories

are

value

value

place of those who heard


of them.
the interpretation
Let

which

such
interpretation,

an

Millet's

at

Parables

Shelley'spoem,
that

The

I'Hist. des

Religions(Engl. Transl.

objects as of trees
of Poetry.
produced by the word-pictures
"

'

In the

Republic,514

galleryof
A

the

ff.

by Squire),

Recollection,
quotedinfra,p. 395, where I attempt
belonging to reflected images, or doubles, of
(or of Narcissus himself)in a pool enters into the

like that

charm

de

Museum
Metropolitan

"

of Art, New

York.

THE

^W9

Kal

erepov

ravTTjv

avTT]

"ifrv-^y
Trpof

Cave

the

dimensions

last

daylight at
there

and

is

iv

PekTiaTov iv
6eav,

ovcri,

rots

Over

Sffirep

of these

the Cave

ends

down, where

way

the

burning,and beyond the


the Cave at rightangles

the top of this wall showmen

hold

and
animals.
images of men
images are thrown on the rock with
beyond.^ Pacing this end-rock
way

some

the

across

down, with

runs

little

shadows

and

Some

Fire is

wall built

low

about

move

Cave

iTravaytoyriv
tov

earth.

a
fails,
great

its direction.

to

h"; BirfKQofiev,
Tey(v"v,

of its entrance,

steep decline,into the

Fire

Bi,'

"yKia"i

"

throughout
a

elBcoXcov

tov
aa^eaTarov
^avocrtofiari
tt/sos tijv
tS
koL
There
crw fjMToetBeire
Toira.
opaTm
in
of
form
a
which, retaining
long tunnel

iv
""

"f)avTd(rfiaTa

ffKiov*
KpiveivavoffKia^or"v

apLarov

rov

iv vBaai

ra
ovk

tt/so?

rj TrpajfiaTeia

Tr]v

251

iv

TOV

TuTov

w?

Svva/iivkoX

ej^et ttjv

8e

aXX'

ovrtov,

^oto?

iraaa

fieva"i,

is

r"v

crKtai

toiovtov

Tore

MYTH

^iiretv, Trpo?
aZvvafiLa

6Tt

6eia

PBOTAOORAS

shadows

thus

thrown

on

it

Prisoners

are

up

The
which
of the

bound

that

These
turn
round.
Prisoners, whose
they cannot
shadows
of images, represent
to
knowledge is confined
have
people who
nothing better than second-hand, hearsay
Philosopher
knowledge of
particularfacts.'' But the
the
from
down
comes
daylight into the Cave, and unbinds
so

of them, and

some

that

they

the

see

"converts"

shadows.

These

have

direct,first-hand

Philosopher is

past

the

them

Kttle

showmen's

these

the

"

"

"

converted

knowledge

able to lead

images, the
of

round,

realities

"

"

so

of

represent people who

ones
"

the

Visible

is the

Fire, which

up

them

turns

"

facts."

of these

Some

steep floor of
and

Sun,

out

the

Cave,

into

the

Sun, the Good,


Intelligible
the
of existence
and
true
source
knowledge. At first the
released prisonersare
dazzled by the daylight that they
so
cannot
bear to look at the things illuminated
by it men,
look only
much
but can
less at the Sun
itself,
animals, trees
and trees on the ground, or
and animals
at shadovfs of men
is the

daylight,which

lightof

the

"

"

reflections of
"

In the

them

Pitt-Eivers

used, in the

Historical

The
representations.
screen,
arms

the

by

in

Museum
and

water.

at

These

Oxford

there

MythologicalDrama,

shadows

of sticks.

is

and

reflections,

Wayang KuUt,
productionof shadow-

.Javanese

for the

of puppets (made of leather) are


from behind, and

performermanipulating the puppets

means

shadows

thrown

on

working their

MYTHS

THE

252

PLATO

OF

however, differ from the shadows seen on the end-rock of the


Cave, in being shadows, not of images of real things,but of
real

themselves

things

they represent

"

in

deductive

the

with

which

eyes

of

sciences

animals, trees, the

men,

all,the Sun,

be looked

can

of all education

and
which severally,
Principles,
particulars,
just as the livingman
showman's
image of him.

Allegory,and

an

But

the

Cave

"

Allegory,the
an
Allegory,transcends

an
as

and

makes

us

reached

now

"

seen

once

IBeai,

system, explain

connected

as

the

"

the

explains

is
Allegory. It certainly
its interpretation.^
is offered as such together with
when
a
great poeticgeniuslike Plato builds
while serving its immediate
edifice,
purpose

called

have

have

apprehensionof

the direct

"

We

the

stars, and,

and

moon

at.

or

the

In time,
inquiry is reallyconcerned.
accustomed
to
released
prisonersbecome

the

the end

laws

or
principles

the

express

the

daylight,and
last of

to

of

diagrams

concepts employed

symbols and

the
geometry, and, generally,

the

an

that

it,and

see

"

Plato

purpose.
is much

there

to be

more

the

sees

Cave
there

seen

Allegory requires. Perhaps


such a galleryin the
he was
at Syracuse,saw
Plato, when
in the
still to be seen
stone
quarries(there are such galleries
Zatomie
at Syracuse)lightedup with
a
fire,and the miners
it may
be slaves or convicts in chains
working at the far
than

the

mere

of

purpose

the

"

"

end

with

their

shadows

of

walls.
We

Be

the
down

is

while
the fire,

to

and

their shadows

behind

things

it may, Plato's Cave is a


it wondering,and
in
soon
forget,

meaning."

We

into

up
See

the

wonder, that

our

acquiescein

what

the

daylight.

The

vision

we

see

"

die

bringsit

in the

verschiedeno

der

Feaseln

mehr

und

Pandora

Mythus

Prometheus

von

aller Gemlither
und

Staaten
The

dem

eingepragtist,an
Sinn

fur

"Cave"

as

an

calls the

hand,

into close

Protagoras:

Erkenntniss

beschrankenden

sie der

Scheu

and

Plato's

which

Couturat,

"Cave"
a
myth,
Epimetheus Myth

on

mysteriousplace.

de Plat. Myth. p. 51, who


regards the
die
des
the other
Schwanitz,
Plato,
Allegory.
Mythen
p. 9, on

auf

the

flitted

them

as

another

and

the shadows, and the Eedeemer


prisonersamong
coming
the
like
to lead
through
dimly-Ughted gloom,
Orpheus,^

them
'

"

people
this

enter

there

backs

comparison with the Prometheus-andin dem vorigen Bilde (the Cave)


Menscheu
hingewiesenwurde, je nach dem
"

"

Wenn

oder

Einem

wenigerentledigt
waren,

die Wahrheit

ein, dass

von

so

leitet der
Eins in

Gott

alle Theil

den
Gerechtigkeit,

nehmen, an der sittlichen


wodurch
gemeinsamen Banden

zusammengehaltenwerden."
book

in Plato's mind.

eU 'AtSou (seeLobeok, Aglaoph.


KOTdjSoo-is

p.

373) may

have

been

254

MYTHS

THE

OF

PLATO

he used to
during which
receive
instruction:
even
assertingthat the art
imagine them
be taughtat all,and ready to cut down
cannot
anybody who says
that it can, and
the
themselves
shipowner,their
always mobbing
him, with every argument they can lay
master, and entreating
faction
hold of, to let them
have
the tiller;
sometimes, if one

taught him,

fails to

mention

can

him,

move

killingthe
the

or

and

another

successful

fine old

or

and

owner,

time

is

the
successful,

more

castingthem

out

drugging him,

or

unsuccessful

ship,and taking

of the

making him drunk, or


the
taking themselves

perhaps putting him in irons, and then


of the ship,and
using the stores, and drinking and
and
feasting,
sailingthe ship as such revellers are likelyto sail
her ; and, to put the finishing
touch to our
picture,imagine them
'true seaman,' a 'true pilot,'
'man
as
a
a
praising describing
in
who
is
thoroughly qualified
navigation' any one
great
in the art of capturingthe owner
or
force, and
by argument
of the ship to themselves
securing the command
imagine
; and
these men
fault
with
who
do this,and
cannot
one
finding
saying
that he is 'of no
use'
who
have
men
all of
at
no
conception
what the true pilotmust
be
that one
make
must
a study of the
and
the
and
the
and
all things
sky
seasons,
stars,and the winds
that belong to navigation,
if one
is to be reallyfit to take command
of a ship men,
I say, who
have
whatever
no
conception
of this
who
think that there is no
men
art of how a pilotshall
whether
steer
some
art of
people wish him to steer or not
no
command

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

as
steering

such

"

to

be studied

and

learnt.

With

such

state

of

things as this on board, don't you think that the trulyqualified


pilotis sure to be called a 'star-gazer,'
'mere theorist,'
and 'of
a
to us,'by sailors in a ship so appointed?
no
use
Yes, indeed,"said Adeimantus.
Then," said I, I don't think you want
to have
the simile
analysed, in order to understand that it figuresa city in its
"

"

"

"

attitude
"

to

Yes,"

Philosophers.You

true

understand

that 1 "

said he.i

I sailed

(writesKinglake)^from Smyrna in the Amphitrite,


which
was
said to be bound
brigantine
for the
confidently
of Syria; but I knew
coast
that this announcement
not to be
was
relied upon
with
for the Greek
positivecertainty,
mariners
are
free from
the stringency
of ship's
practically
and
where
papers,
they will,there they go.
a

Greek

******
******
The

receive

crew

venture, and

in
1

but
have
wages,
I
general, believe,they are

Bep. 488

no

ff.

all

the

share
owners

oh. vi.
jEofhen,

in

the

of

the

THE
whole

PBOTAGOBAS

freight
; they

choose