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Process Synthesis

PROCESS ENGINEERING

HENS Heat Exchange

Network Synthesis

ALVARO ORJUELA

Process Synthesis

Column Configuration
Heat Available?
1

A
B
C
B,C

Heat Exchanger network Synthesis - HENS

The problem is defined as follows: Given
A set of hot process streams to be cooled and a set of cold
process streams to be heated
The flow rates and the inlet and outlet temperatures for all
the process streams
The heat capacity for each stream versus their temperatures
as they pass through the heat exchange process
The available utilities, their temperatures, and their costs per
unit of heat provided or removed
Determine the heat exchange network for energy recovery
that will minimize the annual cost of the equipment plus the
annual cost of utilities

Heat Exchanger network Synthesis - HENS

We have to know the pressure of the stream as it passes the
through the exchange network because phase changing
(latent heat) can be present
We can predict the less amount of utilities required in the
process
We can estimate the fewest number of heat exchangers that
we will require
We can estimate the cost of the network
ALL THESE WITHOUT INVENTING OR DESIGNING THE
NETWORK

Problem description

Alternative I Tmin = 20 F

A reactor is fed with two reactants available at 100 F.

Reaction occurs at 580 F and it is slightly exothermic, so
products leave the reactor at 600 F. For separation
purposes reactor outlet must be cooled down to 200 F.
FCP = 1
FCP = 2

580 F
1

100 F
100 F

Stream Condition
1
2
3

Cold
Cold
Hot

600 F

580 F

FCP,
Tin (F)
BTU/h F
1
100
2
100
3
600
NET HEAT

Tout (F)
580
580
200

226.6 F

FCP = 1

280 F

FCP = 1

BTU
h
q1 = Q1 = FC P T = 3 ( 600 T ) = 960
T = 280 F

FCP = 3

q1 = FC P t = 2 (100 580 ) = 960

Q available
BTU/h
-480
-960
1200
-240

BTU
h
q2 = Q2 = FC P T = 3 ( 280 T ) = 160
T = 226.66 F

q2 = FC P t = 1 (100 260 ) = 160

440 F
100 F

FCP = 2

Alternative II Tmin = 20 F
FCP = 3

580 F

600 F

580 F

FCP = 1

FCP = 1
100 F
100 F

420 F

200 F

FCP = 2
FCP = 3

580 F

FCP = 2
226.6 F

FCP = 3
600 F

FCP = 2

200 F
1

200 F

580 F
580 F

100 F

Alternative II Tmin = 20 F

100 F

260 F

100 F

1580 F

600 F

200 F

200 F

200 F

BTU
h
q1 = Q1 = FCP T = 1 ( 600 T ) = 400
T = 200 F

q1 = FC P t = 1 (100 580 ) = 480

BTU
h
q1 = Q1 = FCP T = 3 ( 600 T ) = 480

T = 440 F

q1 = FC P t = 1 (180 580 ) = 400

BTU
h
q2 = Q2 = FC P T = 3 ( 440 T ) = 640
T = 226.66  F

q2 = FC P t = 2 (180 580 ) = 800

BTU
h
q2 = Q2 = FC P T = 2 ( 600 T ) = 800
T = 200 F

First law of thermodynamics calculation does not take into

account driving force, so secondsecond-law analysis is required
FCP,
Stream Condition
Tin (F)
BTU/h F
1
Hot
1000
250
2
Hot
4000
200
3
Cold
3000
90
4
Cold
6000
130
NET HEAT

Tout (F)

Q available
BTU/h

120
100
150
190

BTU
Q1 = 1000

h F


( 250 120 ) F

Q1 = 130 103 BTU / h

Stream Condition
1
2
3
4

Hot
Hot
Cold
Cold

FCP,
Tin (F)
BTU/h F
1000
250
4000
200
3000
90
6000
130
NET HEAT

Tout (F)
120
100
150
190

Q available
BTU/h
130000
400000
-180000
-360000
-10000

Temperature Interval

Temperature Interval

Establish a minimum driving force between hot and cold

streams (for example 10 F)
Put side by side two scales of temperatures, hot and cold
scale. Cold scale is shifted by the minimum driving force
Draw temperature intervals and streams using arrows. Head
is outlet temperature, tail is inlet temperature.
H1

250 F

240 F

200 F

190 F

150 F

140 F

100 F

90 F

Define temperature intervals using inlet and outlet

temperatures of all streams
In each interval we can transfer heat form hot streams to
cold streams because the minimum temperature driving
force is adequate (
(Tmin = 10 F)
250 F

H1
H2

200 F

H2

160 F
140 F

C2

250 F

240 F

200 F

190 F

150 F

140 F

100 F

90 F

C2

120 F

C1

100 F

Summation of all available heat at each interval is identical

to the result obtained by first law calculation

250 F

BTU
Q4 = 80000
h
250 F

H1

H1

250 F

240 F

200 F

190 F

50000

FCP=4000

H2

200 F

FCP=6000

2
200 F

H2

200 F

3
4

160 F

150 F

140 F

C2

140 F

160 F
140 F

100 F

100 F

90 F

150 F

140 F

100 F

90 F

Q (BTU/h)
240 F

250 F

190 F

200 F

240 F

90 F

- 10000

Poor engineering!!! Transferring energy from the highest

temperatures directly to a cold utility rather than using this
available heat in lowerlower-temperature intervals where is
required

150 F

100 F

HOT UTILITY

HOT UTILITY

140 F

40000

- 40000
70000

10000

- 80000
40000
20000

40000

COLD UTILITY

20000

50000
COLD UTILITY

100 F

- 80000
40000

20000
- 10000

50000

150 F

C1

C1

Q (BTU/h)
250 F

- 40000

- 80000
40000

Heat Transfer Using Utilities

200 F

C2

120 F
100 F

120 F

- 40000

FCP=3000

190 F

Q (BTU/h)

FCP=1000
250 F

240 F

C1

190 F

140 F

2000
90 F

- 10000

Energy integration!!! Only one hot utility and one cold utility
are required for the process
Low cost utilities (low temperature)

Information from Cascade Diagram

TemperatureTemperature-Enthalpy Diagram

Minimum utility loads From cascade diagram we can

compute the minimum heating requirement (70000 BTU/h)
and the minimum cooling requirement (60000 BTU/h). The
difference still matches first law, but now minimum utilities
requirement fulfills second law.
Pinch Temperature There is no energy transfer between
third and fourth temperature intervals. This is the pinch
temperature (140 F for hot stream or 130 F for cold
streams, 135 F average ). Above we only supply heat,
below we only reject heat to a cold utility
What about the minimum temperature approach or minimum
driving force (
(Tmin=10 F)? We shift temperature scales,
heat loads in each interval and minimum utilities
requirements. Visualize in T vs. H diagram

Calculate minimum heating and cooling loads using the

cascade (heating requirement =70000 BTU/h, cooling
requirement = 60000 BTU/h)
Define enthalpy of the coldest temperature of any hot stream
as our base condition. (at T = 100 F H = 0 BTU/hr)
Calculate the cumulative heat available in the sum of all the
hot streams as we move to higher temperature intervals

TemperatureTemperature-Enthalpy Diagram

Hohmann/Lockhart
Hohmann/Lockhart Composite Curve

T (F)
90
110
130
150
190

h (BTU/h)
h0 = 60000
h1 = 3000 (110-90) = 60000
h2 = 3000 (130-110) = 60000
h3 = (3000+6000) (150-130) = 180000
h4 = 6000 (190-150) = 240000

Cumulative H (BTU/h)
60000
120000
180000
360000
600000

H (BTU/h)

100

H0 = 0

120

80000

140

180000

160

280000

200

480000

250

530000

T (F)

At the lowest temperature of any cold stream (at T = 90 F)

we choose the enthalpy as the minimum cooling
requirement (cooling requirement = 60000 BTU/h)
at T = 90 F h = 60000 BTU/hr
Calculate the cumulative enthalpy as the sum of all the cold
streams as we move to higher temperature intervals

T (F)

250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90

HOT
COLD
Cold
utility
required

70000

TemperatureTemperature-Enthalpy Diagram

T (F)

1
2
3
4

110000

Hot
utility
required
120000

200

300

400

300

400

500

500

Enthalpy (BTU/h)

600

700
Millares

Hot
Hot
Cold
Cold

FCP,
kW/ C
8.79
10.55
7.62
6.08

600
Millares

Stream Condition

Cold
utility
required

100

200

Some Practice

HOT
COLD DT=10
COLD DT=20

100

Enthalpy (BTU/h)

What if we choose the enthalpy of the cold stream at T = 90

F = 110000 BTU/h (a different cooling requirement)
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90

Hot
utility
required

60000

Plot T vs H COMPOSITE CURVE

Cumulative H (BTU/h)

Tin (C)

Tout (C)

160
249
60
116

93
138
160
260