Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

IA assignment

Research question.
How does the different salts affect on the freezing point of water.

The purpose of the experiment.


The purpose of the experiment is to find out how does the salt affects on the
freezing point of water.

Hypothesis
When the salt is mixed with the water molecules the ions of the salt start
affecting on the behaviour of the water molecules including their freezing
point. By freezing H2O , the water molecules start forming the crystals. Salt
ions react with water molecules, complicating this formation of water
crystals. It means that the temperature of saltwater will stay longer in the
liquid state than the water without a salt.
For proving or disproving given hypothesis few types of salt was used during
the experiment.
The types of salt which were used are given below
1. Sodium nitrate.
2.Magnesium sulphate.
3. Copper sulphate.
4. Calcium chloride.
5. Potassium nitrate.

Required equipment:
1. Sodium nitrate.
2.Magnesium sulphate.
3. Copper sulphate.
4. Calcium chloride.
5. Potassium nitrate.
6. Freezer
7. Distilled water
8. Electric weights
9. 16 plastic beakers with cork.
10. Electric stirrer.
11. Clocks\Timer
12. Electric thermometer.
13. Measuring flask\cylinder ( 20 ml )

Variables
Initial temperature of solution
Independent
variables

Chemical reaction between salts and water


Freezing point of water
Temperature of the freezer

Dependent
variables

Time during the solution was completely


frozen
Concentration of salt in the solution

Controlled variables

Amount of the solutions


Amount of the concentrations
Volume of the solution

Procedure
1. Take 5 different types of salt which are given below (NaNO 3 , MgSO4 , CuSO4 , CaCl2 ,
KNO3)
2. Take distilled water in amount of 1 litter.
3. During the experiment make 3 solutions for each type of salt with different
concentrantrations of it.
4. The following solutions have to be done for each salt. 10 % , 20 % and 30 % solution.
5. Take 18 ml of water and 2 g. of salt for making the 10% solution.
6. Take 16 ml of water and 4 g. of salt for making the 20% solution

7. Take 14 ml of water and 6 g. of salt for making the 30% solution


8. Don't forget to make a controlled variable. For making the controlled variable take 20 ml
of water.
9. Use electric stirrer to dissolve the salt in the solutions.
10. All solutions must be transferred in the plastic beaker on closed with the cork.
10. Make sure that all amount of salt has been dissolved in the solution before they will be
transferred into the freezer.
11. Measure the temperature of the room temperature to find out the initial temperature of
the solutions.
12. Measure the temperature of the freezer to state the speed of the freezing reaction of the
solution.
13. Transfer the solutions and controlled variable into the freezer.
14. Note the time when the freezing process has started.
15. Check the point of the solutions every 5-10 minutes.
16. State the time when the solution was freezed .
17. Write down the raw data.

Qualitative\ quantitative data.

-15 degrees by
Celsium

Temperature of the freezer

All salts has affected on the water in similar way .All the solutions which contained
more than 0% of salt have been freezing much longer than the distilled water
without any salt.

Concentra
tion
0%
10%
20%
30%

CuSO4
(time in
minutes
)
90
135
170
220

MgSO
4
(time
in
minut
es)
90
145
200
230

CaCl2
(time
in
minut
es)
90
145
190
220

NaNO
3
(time
in
minut
es)
90
170
220
260

KNO3
(time
in
minut
es)
90
180
235
270

Freezing time of solutions


CuSO4 10%

CuSO4 20%

CuSO4 30%

MgSO4 10%

MgSO4 20%

MgSO4 30%

CaCl2 10%

CaCl2 20%

CaCl2 30%

NaNO3 10%

NaNO3 20%

NaNO3 30%

KNO3 10%

KNO3 20%

KNO3 30%

Water
270

260
230

220

220

200

190

170
135

170
145

235

220
180

145

90

Solutions

Freezing time of CuSO4

Solution
250
200
150
Time (in minutes)

f(x) = 425x + 90
R = 1

100
50
0
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

Concentration

Freezing time of MgSO4 solution

Solution
250
200

f(x) = 475x + 95
R = 0.98

150
Time (in minutes)

100
50
0
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

Concentration

25%

30%

35%

Freezing time of CaCl2 solution

Solution
250
200

f(x) = 435x + 96
R = 0.98

150
100
50
0
0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

35%

Concentration

Freezing time of NaNO3 solution

Solution
300
250
200
Time (in minutes)

f(x) = 595x + 104.5


R = 0.96

Linear (NaNO3)

150
100
50
0
0%

NaNO3

5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%


Concentration

Freezing time of KNO3 solution

Solution
300
250

f(x) = 595x + 104.5


R = 0.96

200
Time (in minutes)

KNO3

150

Linear (KNO3)

100
50
0
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Concentration

Average freezing time of all solutions

Average
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

Average

Solution
characteristics

Solubility.
Precipitate

Color
Gas

With increasing the


concentration of salt in
the solution the solubility
of solution was
decreasing.
No precipitate was
observed after the salts
were dissolved
Almost all solutions had
color change. It was
white , blue (CuSO4) or
slightly yellowish color.
No gas releasing was
observed.

Uncertainties.
Volume of the solution
Temperature of the freezer
Mass of the salt in the solution
Time of the freezing point of the
solution

+-0.1 ml.
+- 1 C*.
+- 0.01
g.
+- 5
minutes.

Conclusion.
As the results have shown , salt affects on the freezing point of
water. The solution with salt has been freezing much longer than
just a distilled water .
The graphs have shown that by increasing the concentration of
salt the freezing point also will increase.

As an example 20 ml of distilled water has frozen for 90 minutes.


The solution with the 30% concentration of salt has been freezing
3 times longer ( about 240 minutes ( average result.)).

Evaluation
The freezing time of solution couldn't be recorded constantly ,
this fact probably cause the percentage error in pinpointing the
exact time of when the solution was completely frozen. For taking
out this error the freezer should of have one transparent wall for
constant monitoring of the solutions.
The bottom of the plastic beaker with solution was connected
with the ice in the freezer. This could cause an error in time of
freezing point of the solution. Instead of putting the beakers with
the solutions in freezers they could of be suspended on a rope for
preventing any affect on the solution from the ice crystals in the
freezers.