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Optical Waves

in Crystals
Propagation and Control of
Laser Radiation

AMNON YARIV
California Institute of Technology

YEH
Rockwell International Science Center

A Wiley-Interscience Publication

John Wiley & Sons


New York

Chichester /

Brisbane

Toronto /

Singapore

Contents

Chapter 1. Electromagnetic Fields


1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

Maxwell's Equations and Boundary Conditions


Poynting's Theorem and Conservation Laws
Complex-Function Formalism
Wave Equations and Monochromatic Plane Waves
Propagation of a Laser Pulse; Group Velocity
Problems
References and Suggested Reading

Chapter 2. Propagation of Laser Beams


2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.

Scalar Wave Equation


Gaussian Beams in a Homogeneous Medium
Fundamental Gaussian Beam in a Lenslike
MediumThe ABCD Law
High-Order Gaussian Beam Modes in a Homogeneous
Medium
Gaussian Beam Modes in Quadratic-Index Media
Problems
References

Chapter 3. Polarization of Light Waves


3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.

The Concept of Polarization


Polarization of Monochromatic Plane Waves
Complex-Number Representation
Jones-Vector Representation
Problems
References and Suggested Reading

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CONTENTS

VUl

Chapter 4. Electromagnetic Propagation in Anisotropic Media


4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.
4.9.
4.10.
4.11.

The Dielectric Tensor of an Anisotropic Medium


Plane-Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media
The Index Ellipsoid
Phase Velocity, Group Velocity, and Energy Velocity
Classification of Anisotropic Media (Crystals)
Light Propagation in Uniaxial Crystals
Double Refraction at a Boundary
Light Propagation in Biaxial Crystals
Optical Activity
Faraday Rotation
Coupled-Mode Analysis of Wave Propagation in
Anisotropic Media
4.12. Equation of Motion for the Polarization State
Problems
References

Chapter 5. Jones Calculus and its Application to Birefringent


Optical Systems
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.

Jones Matrix Formulation


Intensity Transmission
Polarization Interference Filters
Light Propagation in Twisted Anisotropic Media
The Problem of Fresnel Reflection and Phase Shift
Problems
References

Chapter 6. Electromagnetic Propagation in Periodic Media


6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.

Periodic Media
Periodic Layered Media
Bragg Reflection
Coupled-Mode Theory
Coupled-Mode Theory of Sole Filters
Coupled-Mode Theory of Bragg Reflectors
Phase Velocity, Group Velocity, and Energy Velocity
Form Birefringence

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CONTENTS

6.9.

Electromagnetic Surface Waves


Problems
References

Chapter 7. Electro-optics
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.

The Electro-optic Effect


Linear Electro-optic Effect
Electro-optic Modulation
Wave Propagation in Electro-optic Crystals
Quadratic Electro-optic Effect
Physical Properties of Electro-optic Coefficients
Electro-optic Effects in Liquid Crystals
Problems
References

Chapter 8. Electro-optic Devices


8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.

Electro-optic Light Modulators


Electro-optic Fabry-Perot Modulators
Some Design Considerations
Bistable Electro-optic Devices
Electro-optic Frequency Shifting and Pulse Compression
Electro-optic Beam Deflectors
Problems
References

Chapter 9. Acousto-optics
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.6.
9.7.

The Photoelastic Effect


Basic Concepts of Acousto-optic Interactions
Particle Picture of Acousto-optic Interactions
Bragg Diffraction in an Anisotropic Medium
Coupled-Mode Analysis of Bragg Diffraction
Raman-Nath Diffraction
Surface Acousto-optics
Problems
References and Suggested Reading

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CONTENTS

Chapter 10. Acousto-optic Devices


10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.

Acousto-optic Modulators
Acousto-optic Deflectors
Acousto-optic Tunable Filters (AOTF)
Acousto-optic Spectrum Analyzers
Acousto-optic Signal Correlators
Problems
References

Chapter 11. Guided Waves and Integrated Optics


11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.
11.5.
11.6.
11.7.
11.8.
11.9.
11.10.
11.11.
11.12.

General Properties of Dielectric Waveguides


and TM Modes in an Asymmetric Waveguide
Dielectric Perturbation and Mode Coupling
Periodic WaveguideBragg Reflection
Codirectional Coupling in a Periodic Waveguide
Distributed-Feedback Lasers
Electro-optic Modulation and Mode Coupling
Directional Coupling
Frequency Multiplexers
Other Planar Waveguides
Leaky Dielectric Waveguide
Electromagnetic Surface Waves (Surface Plasmons)
Problems
References

Chapter 12. Nonlinear Optics


12.1.
12.2.
12.3.
12.4.
12.5.
12.6.
12.7.
12.8.

Introduction
Second-Order Nonlinear PhenomenaGeneral
Methodology
Electromagnetic Formulation of Nonlinear Interaction
Optical Second-Harmonic Generation
Second-Harmonic Generation with a Depleted Input
Second-Harmonic Generation with Gaussian Beams
Parametric Amplification
Parametric Oscillation

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CONTENTS

12.9. Frequency Tuning in Parametric Oscillation


12.10. Frequency Upconversion
Problems
References
Chapter 13. Phase-Conjugate Optics
13.1.
13.2.
13.3.
13.4.

Introduction
Propagation through a Distorting Medium
Image Transmission in Fibers
Theory of Phase Conjugation by Four-Wave Mixing

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Author Index

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Subject Index

573