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1.0 Objective
1. To demonstrate the use of fin (extended surface) in order to improve the
heat transfer in forced convection.
2. To perform calculation to find the heat transfer coefficient for each finned
and pinned surfaces.
2.0 Background
Convection is heat energy transfers between a solid and a fluid when
there is a temperature difference between the fluid and the solid. Generally,
convection heat transfer cannot be ignored when there is a significant fluid
motion around the solid. On the other hand, convection is said to be the flow
of heat through a bulk, macroscopic movement of matter from a hot region to
a cool region, as opposed to the microscopic transfer of heat between atoms
involved with conduction. In order to make it clearer, consider heating up a
local region of air. As this air heats, the molecules spread out, causing this
region to become less dense than the surrounding, unheated air. Being less
dense than the surrounding cooler air, the hot air will subsequently rise due to
buoyant forces. This movement of hot air into a cooler region is then said to
transfer heat by convection.
There are two types of convection. The first one is natural convection.
Theoretically, natural convection happens when the temperature of the solid
due to an external field such as fluid buoyancy can induce a fluid motion. It is
a strong function of the temperature difference between the solid and the fluid.
Besides that, when the blowing air over the solid by using external devices
such as fans and pumps can also generate a fluid motion. This is known as
forced convection. This report is going to discuss about forced convection
only. In forced convection, the fluid has a nonzero streaming motion in the far
field away from the body surface, caused perhaps by a pump or fan or other
driving force independent of the presence of the body.

Two major examples are duct flows and bodies immersed in a uniform
stream. Since fluid velocities are forced and may be large, heat transfer via

forced convection will usually be significantly larger than that in natural

convection. Heating a pot of water on a stove is a good example of the
transfer of heat by convection. When the stove is first turned on heat is
transferred first by conduction between the elements through the bottom of
the pot to the water. However, eventually the water starts bubbling - these
bubbles are actually local regions of hot water rising to the surface, thereby
transferring heat from the hot water at the bottom to the cooler water at the
top by convection. At the same time, the cooler, more dense water at the top
will sink to the bottom, where it is subsequently heated.

Figure 1 The movement of heat by gas molecules.

3.0 Theory

Heat transfer from

an object can be improved by

increasing the surface area

in contact with the coolant i.e air by

adding fins or

pins normal to the surface. From the

Newtons Law of

Cooling, the convection heat transfer



s (T s T )





experimental equipment.

= Power input
h = convection heat transfer coefficient
As = area of plate
Ts = heater temperature
T = air temperature
For this experiment, we use finned plate and pinned plate to compare the
effect of heat transfer by each plates under the same conditions of power and flow.
To calculate the area for finned plate and pinned plate used, we use the equation
shown below:

A finned plate =9 Lw+ A base

A pinned plate=17

+ Abase


The surfaces are shown in the figure below. The finned surface consists of
9 fins that are each of 0.1 m high and 0.068 m wide. The pinned surface consists
of 17 pins that each have a diameter of 0.013 m and are 0.068 m long.

Figure 3 Dimensions
of finned and pinned surfaces.

Figure 4 Finned surfaces.

5 Pinned surfaces.


Figure 6 Full experimental apparatus.