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Intended Learning Outcomes

Production of Power from Heat


(Part 1: Steam Power Cycles)
ChE 413: Topic 2a
Chapter 8 (SVNA)
Handbook (Chapter 10)

To differentiate between the following types of


steam power cycles (L1.1):
Ideal Rankine Cycle
Practical Rankine Cycle
Regenerative Cycle

To use steam tables to perform calculations on


problems related to the steam cycles (L2.1).

UST ChE Department

Coal Power Plant Simple Diagram

Coal Power Plant Detailed

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Simple Steam Cycle Diagram

Review of Carnot Cycle Steps

Carnot Cycle Review

Reversible, Isothermal Heat Absorption (QH) at TH


(saturated water to saturated steam)
Reversible, Adiabatic (Isentropic) Expansion from TH
to TC (saturated steam to wet steam)
Reversible, Isothermal Heat Rejection (QC) at TC
(wet steam condensing , lowering quality)
Reversible, Adiabatic Compression (WC) from TC to
TH. (wet steam to saturated water)
Gives the highest possible thermal efficiency

Carnot Cycle Equations


QH
QC

W
QH

TH
TC

QH QC
QH

TC
TH

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Rankine Cycle

Ideal Rankine Cycle

Constant Pressure (P1) Heating in a Boiler


Heating of subcooled water at T1 to saturation T1
Vaporization at constant P1 and T1 to saturated steam
Superheating the steam at P1, T2

Reversible, adiabatic (isentropic) expansion of vapor


to condenser pressure P2,T2 converting to wet
steam
Isobaric, Isothermal Condensation of wet steam to
saturated water at P2, T2.
Reversible, adiabatic (isentropic) pumping of
saturated water to boiler pressure P1, T1.

Practical (Actual) Rankine Cycle

Usual Problem Type


Given: Power Generation Rate; Boiler
Steam Pressure & Temperature,
Condenser Pressure
Required: Thermal Efficiencies of Ideal and
Practical Rankine Cycles; Steam Rate;
Heat Transfer Rates (QH, QC)

Steps 2-3 and 4-1 are irreversible


(S3>S2 and S1>S4)

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Example

Solution (Ideal Rankine Cycle)

Given: Ideal Rankine Cycle


Power Generation: 80 MW
Boiler Steam Pressure & Temperature: 8600
kPa and 500oC
Condenser Pressure: 10 kPa

Required:
Thermal Efficiency of Ideal Rankine Cycle
Thermal Efficiency assuming 75% turbine and
pump efficiencies.

Solution (Ideal Rankine Cycle)

Solution (Ideal Rankine Cycle)

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Solution (Practical Rankine Cycle)

Solution (Practical Rankine Cycle)

Increasing Thermal Efficiency

Regenerative Cycle (4 stage)

Increasing Boiler Pressure (Normal Limit


=10 MPa)
2. Increasing Superheated Temperature
(Normal Limit = 600oC)
3. Lowering Condensing Temperature
(Limited by Ambient or Climate
Temperature)
4. Increasing Feedwater Temperature in
stages (Regenerative Cycle)
1.

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Regenerative Cycle (1 stage)

Problem Set (End of Chapter 8)


8.1/8.2 Basic Cycle & Carnot
8.3/8.4/8.5 Rankine Cycle
8.6 Steam Turbine in Series
8.7/8.8 Regenerative Cycle, one
feedwater heater
8.9 Regenerative Cycle, two feedwater
heaters

P2 = 4500 kPa, T2 = 500oC

e = 0.78

T1 = T4- 6

P4 = 350 kPa

P4 = 20 kPa

p = 0.78