Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

BENEMRITA UNIVERSIDAD AUTNOMA

DE PUEBLA

FACULTAD DE INGENIERA QUMICA


LABORATORIO DE INGENIERA II

PRCTICA 1: Conduccin Lineal de Calor


EQUIPO 4:
Brenda Garca Hernndez
Brenda Moreno Lazcano
Jocelyn Trejo Gallardo
Amairani Vzquez Prez

PROFESOR: FERNANDO HUMBERTO DEL VALLE SOTO

Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza a 10 de septiembre de 2015

LINEAR CONDUCTIVITY

OBJECTIVES
GENERAL:
Determine the linear coefficient of thermal expansion given the length alteration
that accompanies a specified temperature change.
SPECIFIC:

To verify the phenomenon of heat transfer for linear conduction without not
knowing the presence of other forms of heat losses.
To calculate with experimental information the thermal conductivity of
different materials.
To check that the thermal conductivity is a property independent from the
geometry.
Analyzes the effect of the thermal conductivity on the temperature
distribution.

INDEX
OBJECTIVES........................................................................................................ 2
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 3
THEORICAL FRAMEWORK.................................................................................... 4
METHODOLOGY................................................................................................... 6
DISCUSSION AND RESULTS.................................................................................. 9
CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................... 18
BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................. 19

INTRODUCTION

Thermal Conductivity The transport of thermal energy from high- to lowtemperature regions of a material is termed thermal conduction. For steady-state
heat transport, the flux is proportional to the temperature gradient along the
direction of flow; the proportionality constant is the thermal conductivity. For solid
materials, heat is transported by free electrons and by vibrational lattice waves, or
phonons. The high thermal conductivities for relatively pure metals are due to the
large numbers of free electrons, and also the efficiency with which these electrons
transport thermal energy. By way of contrast, ceramics and polymers are poor
thermal conductors because free-electron concentrations are low and phonon
conduction predominates.
Thermal conduction is the phenomenon by which heat is transported from high to
low-temperature regions of a substance. The property that characterizes the ability
of a material to transfer heat is the thermal conductivity. It is best defined 720 in
terms of the expression where q denotes the heat flux, or heat flow, per unit time
per unit area (area being taken as that perpendicular to the flow direction), k is the
thermal conductivity, and dT/dx is the temperature gradient through the conducting
medium. The units of q and k are W/m2 (Btu/ft2 -h) and W/m-K (Btu/ft-h-F),
respectively. is valid only for steady-state heat flow, that is, for situations in which
the heat flux does not change with time. Also, the minus sign in the expression
indicates that the direction of heat flow is from hot to cold, or down the temperature
gradients similar in form to Ficks first law for atomic diffusion. For these
expressions, k is analogous to the diffusion coefficient D, and the temperature
gradient parallels the concentration gradient, dC/dx.
Mechanisms of Heat Conduction
Heat is transported in solid materials by both lattice vibration waves (phonons) and
free electrons. A thermal conductivity is associated with each of these
mechanisms, and the total conductivity is the sum of the two contributions, or
where kl and ke represent the lattice vibration and electron thermal conductivities,
respectively; usually one or the other predominates. The thermal energy
associated with phonons or lattice waves is transported in the direction of their
motion. The kl contribution results from a net movement of phonons from high to
low-temperature regions of a body across which a temperature gradient exists.
Free or conducting electrons participate in electronic thermal conduction. To the
free electrons in a hot region of the specimen is imparted a gain in kinetic energy.
They then migrate to colder areas, where some of this kinetic energy is transferred
to the atoms themselves (as vibrational energy) as a consequence of collisions
with phonons or other imperfections in the crystal. The relative contribution of k to
the total thermal conductivity increases with increasing free electron

concentrations, since more electrons are available to participate in this heat


transference process.

THEORICAL FRAMEWORK
What is a thermocouple sensor?
A thermocouple is a sensor for measuring temperature, consisting of two different
metals joined at one end. When the junction of the two metals is heated or cooled
a voltage that can be correlated with temperature occurs. Thermocouple alloys are
available for normal wire form.
What are the different thermocouple types?
A thermocouple is available in different combinations of metals or calibrations. The
four most common calibrations are J, K , T and E. There are high temperature
calibrations are R, S, C and GB. Each calibration has a different temperature range
and environment, although the maximum temperature varies with the diameter of
the wire used in the thermocouple. Although the thermocouple calibration dictates
the temperature range, the maximum range is also limited by the diameter of the
thermocouple wire.
How I choose a thermocouple type?
Because a thermocouple measures in wide temperature ranges and can be
relatively rugged, thermocouples are used extensively in the industry. The following
criteria were used to select a thermocouple:

Temperature range
Chemical resistance of the thermocouple or sheath material
Abrasion resistance and vibration
Installation requirements ( it may be necessary to be compatible with
existing equipment ; existing holes may determine probe diameter )

Fouriers law

This law states that the flow of heat between two bodies is directly proportional to
the temperature difference between them, and can only go in one direction: the
heat can only flow from the hotter to the cooler body. The mechanical paths,
however, are reversible: can ever imagine the reverse process. In his Analytical
Theory of Heat, Fourier says: There are a variety of phenomena that are not
produced by mechanical forces, but result exclusively from the presence and heat
buildup. This part of the Natural Philosophy cannot be explained under the
dynamic theories, but has particular his principles, using a similar method to the
other
sciences.

rest

is found

Suppose we put a substance in contact with two heaters at


temperatures T1 and T2 and thermally isolated pockets of the
of the universe, as indicated below:
There will be a flow of heat from the hot source to the cold
source (T2 > T1). If we maintain a constant temperature of
outbreaks, a stationary regime is reached. Experimentally it
that the density of heat flux through any plane
perpendicular to the z axis is proportional to the
temperature gradient.

1 dq
dT
=k x=
Adt
dz
Expression is known as Fourier Act and the coefficient of proportionality (with
units Jm -1s -1K -1 in the international system) is known as thermal conductivity.
Fourier's law applies to gases, solids and liquids, provided that the heat transfer
occurs only by conduction (collisions between molecules or atoms forming
substance), rather than radiation or convection (macroscopic movements due to
density differences, as occurs in the ascent of hot air in the atmosphere). Clearly,
conductivity coefficient values are very different in solids, liquids and gases due to
density differences.
The amount of heat transferred by conduction in a given direction is proportional to
the area to be heat flow and how temperature decreases in said direction. That is,
the amount of heat that will be lost depends on the material surface in contact with
the flow and how much or little to lower the temperature in that direction. The
constant of proportionality is the thermal conductivity.

METHODOLOGY
1. Connect thermocouple 1, 2, 3 corresponding to the hot zone and 6, 7,8
correspond to the cold zone of the team.
2. Determine the percentage of voltage heat.
3. Allow the computer to stabilize to take readings in each of
4. Thermocouples.
5. Determine experimentally the distance between thermocouples.
6. Take the readings corresponding to the values of each thermocouple, the
7. Percentage of heat intensity, I and V.
8. Increase the percentage of heat intensity , twice as
9. growing and take appropriate readings
Heat transfer and thermodynamics HT11 linear heat conduction HT11c computer
controlled linear heat conduction issue.
The armfield linear heat conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate
the application of the Fourier rate equation to simple steady-state conduction in
one dimension. We can appreciate the equipment we worked with on the lab on
Figure 1.

Figure 1. Equipment for lineal heat conduction practice. Heat transfer and thermodynamics
HT11 linear heat conduction HT11c.

The units can be configured as a simple plane wall of uniform material and
constant cross sectional area or composite plane walls with different materials or
changes in cross sectional area to allow the principles of heat flow by linear
conduction to be investigated. Measurement of the heat flow and temperature
gradient allows the thermal conductivity of the material to be calculated. The
design allows the conductivity of thin samples of insulating material to be
determined.
(Figure2).
On the HT11c the heater power and the cooling water flow rate are controlled via
the Ht10xc, either from the front panel or from the computer software. On the ht11
these are controlled manually.

Figure 2.Brass disc and thermocouples (on the equipment).

Technical details
The accessory comprises a heating section and cooling section which can be
simply clamped together or clamped whit interchangeable intermediate sections
between them, as required. The temperature a difference created by the
application of heat to one end of the resulting wall an cooling at the other end
results in the flow of heat linearly throught the wall by conduction.
The heating section is manufactured from 25 mm diameter cylindrical brass bar
with cartridge type electric heating element installed at one end. The heating
element is operated at low voltage for increased operator safety and is pretected
by a thermostat to prevent damage bye overheating.

DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

Thermal Conduction calculation for Brass:


During the experiment, we observed several changes on the temperature values,
but we waited until the equipment registered temperatures without variation which
indicated we have reached steady state, then we proceed to take data for our
calculations.

10

The following data table shows the results of the laboratory practice:
Voltage

10 J/C

Intensity

0.35 C/s

Thermocouple
1
2
3
6
7
8

Temperature (C)
16.0156
14.8437
14.0625
10.7421
9.375
8.6914

Temperature (K)
289.1656
287.9937
287.2125
283.8921
282.525
281.8414

Distance
0.015
0.03
0.045
0.06
0.075
0.09

Now, making a graphic of Temperature versus distance with the obtained data we
can note that the curve doesnt describe a line, therefore we cannot calculate the
slope directly.
So, the next step is to make a linear regression, obtaining the results below:

Temperature (K) vs Distance (m)


290
288

f(x) = - 107.33x + 291.07

286

Temperature (F)

Temperature (K) 284


282

Linear (Temperature
(F))

280
278
0

0.05

0.1

Distance (m)

With this information, we can apply the next formula:


T 1T 2
Q
k=
x 2x 1
A

11

Making a clearance
m=

Q
Ak

But first, we need to calculate Q and A, knowing that:

Q=V I

Then:

J
C
J
0.35 =3.5
C
S
S

Q= 10

And for A, we know that:


A=r 2=( 0.0125 m)2=4.9087 x 104 m2
Using the last equation of the line we obtained from the practice, we can take the
slope as 107.33 positive for convenience. Then, making a clearance for K, we
obtain:
k=

Q
Am

And replacing values we have:


3.5
k=

J
S

( 4.9087 x 104 m2 ) (107.33 K )

=66.43247372

W
m K

The above result is not a real value; because we can say that in the transference area
exists a heat loss, because the two surfaces are not in direct contact. Therefore, we
proceed to calculate the heat loss value, we start making a Temperature vs Distance
graphic with the first three points:

12

289.5
289

f(x) = - 65.1x + 290.08

288.5
288
Temperature (K)

287.5
Temperature (F)
287

Linear (Temperature (F))

286.5
286
0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05
Distance (m)

As the last time, we use the next formula:

m=

Q
Ak

With the clearances we have already made, and knowing that m=65.103 (positive for
convenience) from the linear regression and that

Q=3.5

J
S

A=4.9087 x 104 m2

Then we have:

3.5
k=

J
S

( 4.9087 x 104 m2 ) (65.103 K )

=109.5217948

W
m K

For the next three points we made the same steps. Making a graphic of
Temperature versus distance of the others three points we obtain:

13

284.5
284
283.5

f(x) = - 68.36x + 287.88

283
Temperature (K) 282.5
282

Linear ()

281.5
281
280.5
0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.1
Distance (m)

Applying the formula again:


m=

Q
Ak

Also using Q and A (values obtained before):


Q=3.5

J
S

A=4.9087 x 104 m2

Making a clearance, this time for Q, we obtain:


mAk =Q

Replacing the values in the formula

Q=( 68.357 K )( 4.9087 x 104 m2 ) 109.5217948

W
m K
2

Q=3.674938176
Making the difference between these two numbers:
3.674938176 W 3.5 W =0.174938176 W

14

The value we obtained represents the heat loss during the process.

Thermal Conduction calculation for Stainless Steel:


Voltage

10 J/C

Intensity

0.33 C/s

Thermocou
ple
1
2
3
6
7
8

Temperature
(C)
22.1679
21.1914
20.7031
9.375
8.39843
7.8125

Temperature
(K)
295.3179
294.3414
293.8531
282.525
281.54843
280.9625

Distanc
e
0.015
0.03
0.045
0.09
0.105
0.12

And making a graphic Temperature vs Distance we obtain:

Temperature (K) vs Distance (m)


300
295
290
Temperature (F)

Temperature (K) 285


280
275
270
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

Distance (m)

In the first graphic we can see that there is not thermocouple in the line where the
specimen is placed and thats the temperature we need to calculate K, we need the
temperature in the beginning of the specimen and the ending; so, we made a linear
regression of the first three points and after, for the other three points too.

15

Now, we can calculate the distance from the first thermocouple till the first line of
the specimen adding all distance, obtaining: 0.0525 m. replacing this value in the
first linear regression equation as follows:
y=48.827 x +295.97

y ( K )=48.827 ( 0.0525 )+ 295.58

y ( K )=293.01658 K

283
282.5
f(x) = - 52.08x + 287.15
282
Temperature (K) 281.5
281
280.5
280
0.09 0.09 0.1 0.1 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.13
Distance (m)

The last point in the end of specimen is -0.0075 and the temperature in that point is
calculated as follows:

y=52.083 x+287.15

y ( K )=52.083 (0.0075 )+ 287.15

And now we can put those points in a graphic.

16

y ( K )=287.5406 K

294
293

f(x) = - 182.53x + 302.6

292
291
290
289

Linear ()

288
287
286
285
284
0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.08

0.09

With this information we can apply the next formula:


m=

Q
AK

But first we need to calculate the Q and A like the next way:

Q=V I = 10

J
C
J
0.33 =3.3
C
S
S

The area is calculated:


A=4.9087 x 104 m2

Using the last formula:


3.3
K=

J
S

( 4.9087 x 104 m2 ) (182.53 K )

=36.8309

W
mK

17

We can compare the results of our operations with the next table, which shows
several materials and their thermal conductivity.

As we can observe the values we calculate for Brass and Stainless steel are in the
range the table shows.

18

CONCLUSIONS
With the results it is found that the heat transfer by conduction is a process in
which heat flows from a region of high temperature to a low temperature region
within a medium or between different media in direct physical contact.
The thermal conductivity values depend on the material and temperature. A
material will be a better driver of heat while major it is his conductivity of the same
one. Due to the fact that the values of temperature were verified, is observed that a
stationary condition exists since in the same one variation was not observed with
regard to the time. With the results of the graphs obtained there was verified that
the heat transfer is better to minor length.

19

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cengel, Y., Transferencia de calor, 3 Edicin, McGraw Hill, Mxico (2004).

Incoprera, F. & Dewitt D., Fundamentos de transferencia de calor,


Prentice-Hall, Mxico (1999).
Mc Cabe, W., Smith, J. &Harriot, P., Operaciones unitarias en ingeniera
qumica, 6 Edicin, McGraw-Hill, Mxico (2002).
P. A. Hilton LTD. Experimental Operating and Maintenance Manual. Heat
Transfer Service Unit. November, 2000.

20