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The13th&14thCenturies

Persian/ArabicLiterature
1. Poetry was a popular form. Amir Khusrau and Amir Hassan were great poets. They also wrote
qawwalisandcreatedanewIndianstyleofpoetryandistheoriginatorofHindustanimusic.
2. Historywritingwasanotherpopulartrend.Barni,Afif,Sirajetc.
3. Bookswewritten,speciallydictionaries,withpaintedillustrations.
PersianvsArabicHistoriography
2.analyticaltype.keepinmindthathistoriographyisthestudyofhowhistoryiswritten.itisthestudyofall
aspectsofwritinghistory.goingbythisdefinition.....volumewisearabichistoryworksarelessvoluminous,

persianmore.reason,persianhadbeenthecourtlanguageofmedievalrulers.whateverwaswrittenin
arabicwasbytravelersbeforedelhisultanate,byreligiousscholars,arabimmigrantstoindia.(listhere
famousexamples )perspectivesarabichistorianswerenotsympathetictohindutraditionsandculture.
mostoftheworkswrittenbyreligiousscholars,immigrantscarrythattingeoffanaticismandsuperiority
complexwithrespecttoindiaingeneralandhindusinparticular.persianmoresympatheticasthey
werewrittenbythosewhosettledhereandnonreligioushistorians.contentandstylenodifferences
thatiknowof.standardmuslimstylehistoricalwritingwithplentyofallusionstoreligiousterms.veryfew
wereobjective.mostofthemwerewrittentopraisetheirpatrons.eulogiesandexaggerations.political
history,culturalhistory,economichistory,militaryhistoryetcwerethegenres.
methods of study both relied on general observations, litterary sources written before them in their languages.
verylessornoimportancewasgiventonumismatics,inscriptions,archaeologicalsources,nonarabicandnon
persianliterature.

AlUtbi'sKitabiYamini
1. He himself was Secretary to the Sultan Mahmud. He thus played an important role in the
governmentatGazni,andnodoubthadfirsthandknowledgeofmanyoftheeventshedescribed,
at least those that took place in the capital. His work covers the entire reign of the first sultan of
Gazni Nasirud din Subuktgin, and of his son Mahmud up to the year 410 H. (1020 CE). As the
founderoftheGhaznivitedynasty,Subuktiginplayedanextremelyimportantroleinthehistoryof
IndiaandCentralAsia.
2. DespitehisproximitytoSultanMahmud,AlUtbiseemstohavelittleornodirectknowledgeofIndia.
HeseemstohavelittleknowledgeofIndiantopographyandhisstatementsregardinglocalitiesand
placenamesareunreliable.NoIndianwordsappearinhistextasidefromRai.
3. HisnumerousincursionsintoIndiawerelargelyraidsdesignedtocapturespoilinmaterialwealth,
slavesandlivestock.HeisportrayedasazealousMuslimeagertodestroy"idoltemples",butthis
was probably justification for pillage, since these activities contravened the earlier Arab policy of
grantingHindusandBuddhistsprotecteddhimmistatus.

MinhajusSiraj'sTabakatiNasiri
(a)Motivationbehindwriting
1. Minhajservedinveryhighpostsinhiscareer.Hewasveryclosetothesultans.Thushisinterests
were completely aligned with the interests of the sultanate i.e. to preserve and establish strongly
theTurkishrule.
2. Anothermotivationdefinitelywouldbetopleasethesultanandheworkedundermanysultans.But
thiswasaminormotivationonlyashedidn'tdependonwritingtoearnhislivelihood.
3. ByglorifyingthewesternconnectionsofIslamhesoughttoinspirethemuslimsaswellwhichwas
neededastheywerefacinganumberofchallengesinthatage.
(b)Importance
1. Duetohisproximitytothesultansthevalueofhisworkgoesupbecauseitreflectsthethoughtsof
a person whose interests were completely aligned with that of the Turkish rule and who was
activelyhelpingthesultansinpreservingandestablishingtherule.
2. The sultanate was in a nascent and insecure stage then. The sultan was trying to establish his
legitimacy and authority and for this he had even sought investiture from the Caliph. In his work
Minhaj tries to establish the historical links of the Sultanate with Western Asian Islam and covers

thisinhisinitialchaptersitself.
3. ByglorifyingthewesternconnectionsofIslamhesoughttoinspirethemuslimsaswellwhichwas
neededastheywerefacinganumberofchallengesinthatage.
4. His interests were in the preservation and propagation of Turkish rule and his writings reflect the
insecurityoftheage.Hedidn'tcarewhowasthesultansolongastherulewaspreserved.Thushe
praisedeachandeverysultanveryhighlydespitethefactthathemayhaveviolentlyreplacedthe
previoussultan.Forthesamereasonhekeepsabalancebetweenallsultans.
5. Wherehedepartsfromtheotherwritersofhisagewashecoverednotjustthehistoryofhissultan
butalsotheentirehistoryofIslam.
6. Becausehewaswritingahistoryofalongperioditwasnecessaryforhimtodrawupontheworks
of other scholars. Wherever he finds 2 conflicting opinions he mentions both with sources along
with the one he accepts and the reasons for doing so. For his own period he relies on his own
experiencesorthoseofwitnesses.
7. He gives an indiscriminate religious tone to his work. He almost absent minded uses terms like
Islamic armies and devil's armies to describe wars even if they were between two muslim rulers
only.Bydoingthishemerelyshowedwherehissympathylay.Thistellsusabouttheeducational
systemofthedaybecausehewasaproductofaneducationalsystemwhichwashighlyreligious
andusedonlyreligiousterms.
8. HisbiasagainstHinduscanbeseenonlywhenhedescribestheconflicts.Otherwiseheignoresit
whentheyposenothreattothesultanate.Thisclearlyreflectstheattitudeofthesultanaterulersas
well who used religion to achieve their goals in the conflict situations only and otherwise were
indifferent in all practical purposes. In many instances Minhaj goes ignores the uncomfortable
religiousaspectsofaproblemaswellifitrancountertohisobjectives.Thisattitudewasreflected
inthesultansaswell.
(c)Limitations
1. Heremainedconfinedtotherulingandeliteclassonly.Butthistellsusaboutthenatureofstate
systeminthosedays.
(d)ComparisonwithBarani
1. Minhajcomesacrossasascholarwholivedinaturbulentphaseonewheretherulers'concern
was the preservation of their rule and for which they had to make many compromises and even
shift goalposts i.e. be practical. We cannot expect him to be driven by any particular ideology or
politicalleaning.Institutionswerefluidandsituationwasdynamicandonehadtobeverycareful.
By Barani's time the institutions had stabilized, self preservation was no longer the overriding
objective and one could stick to an ideology. Tensions were emerging between these institutions
andthisisreflectedinBarani'swritingsaswell.
2. Minhaj writes in detail about different amirs in different areas and thus many of the events are
repeated.Baraniontheotherhandfocusesontheeventsofonlyoneareaandwritesperiodwise.
ThusthereisnorepetitioninBarani.
3. Minhaj mostly chronologically lists various events and doesn't analyzes the trends, elements of
continuity/discontinuityandthereasonsthereof.Baranitriestoanalyzesomeaspectortheother
attheendofeachchapterforinstancehoweachsultanviewedpunishmentas.
4. Minhaj doesn't tell us about the problems faced by the sultans. Barani tells us how Balban
strengthened his position, how sultanate changed under Khaljis, how mongol threat changed the
natureofsultanateunderAlauddin.
ZiauddinBarani(TarikhiFiruzshahi&FatwaiJahandari)
(a)Motivationsbehindwriting
1. Barani himself writes that he hoped that his work will help others learn from past mistakes. He
claimshewasrepentfulfornotcriticizingMbTwhenitmattered.Bythiswork,hehoped,peoplewill
learnandnotcommitthesamemistakes.
2. ButinrealityhehadfallenoutoffavorofthenewsultanFiruzandwasevenimprisoned.Firuzhad
outlookwhichrancontrarytoMbTinmanywaysandhenceBaraniwaswritingtopleasehimand
earnfavor.

(b)Importance
1. Hisworkdoesn'tjustreflecthisownthinkingbuttellsusabouttheviewsoftheeducationalsystem
andtheparticularsectionofmaulvis.ThesemaulvisreliedonextremistformofIslamtopreserve
theirexistenceinpolity.Theyexpectedthesultantoconsultthemonevenpoliticalmattersandthis
kepttheirimportanceintact.ButunderMbTthedominanceofmaulvishadreduceddrasticallyas
he had to make many compromises to propagate and strengthen his rule in India which included
appointmentofevenHindustohighofficesandnotconsultingthemaulvisinpoliticalmatters.They
werethusfearfuloflosingpowerinthepoliticsoftheage.Thisisreflectedinthework.
2. Thus he prescribes that the sultan must take steps to propagate Islam, punish non muslims,
imposeshariatandgivemoreauthoritytomenof(muslim)religion.
3. Byhistimethesenseofinsecurityinthesultanatewasoverandthesultanswerewellestablished.
There was no need to draw legitimacy form the western connections any more (in fact delhi was
the sole surviving muslim sultanate). Sultanate had no connections left with the west. So Barani
makes no attempt to draw origin from west and merely carries forward from Minhaj. He focuses
onlyonIndia.
4. Barani'sworkandviewsexpressedreflecttheinsecurityofhisclassinthatage.BeingaTurkora
high born was no longer considered enough to qualify for a high post! This class was facing
competitionfromtheeducatedIndians.Onehadtohavequalitiesalsotosucceed.Baraniandhis
classobviouslyresenteditandinhisworkhecriticizesthelowborn,prescribestheyshouldn'tbe
giveneducationneitheremployedinstateservice.Inanidealmuslimworldallhigherbornwillhave
assuredhereditaryhighoffices.
5. Baranirepresentedaclassofnobleswhodependedonlandandthesurplusextractedfortheirwell
being.Thushewasalsoverycriticalofmerchantsandtradersandprescribedthatthestateshould
ensuretheydon'taccumulatewealth.
6. He obviously hated Hindus because of both his education and the fact that many of them were
employed in higher posts and were richer than him (who was languishing in jail). So he is very
criticalofhighlyplacedhindusandignoresthepoorhindusasheignorespoormuslims.
7. Baranitriestoanalyzesomeaspectortheotherattheendofeachchapterforinstancehoweach
sultan viewed punishment as. He tells us how Balban strengthened his position, how sultanate
changedunderKhaljis,howmongolthreatchangedthenatureofsultanateunderAlauddin.
(c)Limitations
1. His work FatwaiJahandari is not a historical work at all. Barani has presented his own views in
form of Mahmud Gazni's lessons to his sons. Moreover the historical events presented (from
Gazni's tongue) are of doubtful historic nature. The book is just a reflection of Barani's own
thoughtsonhowthingsshouldbe.
2. Baranitriestomentionmanysourcesbutfailstobringthemoutclearly.Moreoverifanyfactwas
convenientforhimandsupportedhisviewshewouldclaimithadcomefromagodfearingmuslim
andhecouldthustakeitonitsfacevalue.
3. InTarikhiFiruzshahiherarelymentionsanychronologyandwhereverhedoesthatitisofdoubtful
nature. Perhaps it was due to the fact he was writing from jail and thus had to rely mostly on his
memory.
4. Hisbookisabundleofexaggerationsandhecontaminatesmanycharacters.
ShamsiSirajAfif:TarikhiFiruzshahi
(a)Motivationsbehindwriting
1. HewasclearlynottryingtopleaseFiruzbecauseFiruzhaddiedbythetime.Hewaswritingina
timewhensultanatehaddisintegrated,anarchyprevailedalloverandTimurhadplunderedDelhi.
Sohewastryingtorecollecttheoldgloriousdays.Hemissesthepastinlightofhispresentand
thatiswhyhetriestopaintaprosperousandpeacefulpictureofolddays.
(b)Importance
1. His writing reflects the anarchist state of affairs of his time and how he tried to justify each and
everyactofFiruzinordertoportrayapastthatwasgloriousandsorelymissed.
2. InhisattempttoportrayFiruz'sreignasoneoftotalpeaceandprosperityandunderagreatking,

he tells unintentionally us about Firuz's weaknesses. On his part he merely focuses on positives
andpresentstheweaknessesasiftheyappearhisstrength.Hedidn'ttrytohidefactsbecausehad
thisbeenthecasehewouldhavenotevenmentionedtheweaknesses.Examplesarethefamous
bribecaseandthemilitarydefeats.
3. He didn't come from a very well to do family like Barani. So he is free from his biases. He didn't
haveanystrongideologicalleaningsMoreoverhewritesinaverysimplelanguage.
4. HeisalsofreefromtheantihindubiasesofBaraniandMinhaj(probablybecausehewasfreefrom
the extremist atmosphere in his upbringing like them and also because the muslims of the age
didn'tfaceanythreatfromhindustheywereravagedbymongols).ThoughhepraisesFiruz'sact
ofburningabrahmanandimposingjiziyabutthatisapartofhisgeneralattempttoportrayFiruz
asagreatkingandhisreignasagoldenage.
5. Comingfromacommonerbackgroundwefindhemovesbeyondthesultanandhisdurbarinhis
workandtalksabouttheproblemsfacedbythecommoners.
IbnBatuta'sRehela
1. It is not a reliable source at all. It is interesting only because it throws some light on the socio
politicaleventsoftheage.ButthewriteriscompletelybiasedagainstMbT.
2. Moreover his description of places and things doesn't have any depth and he simply briefly
describesthinswithoutdoinganyresearch.
AmirKhusrau
1. AmirKhusrautooktheliteraturefromelitestothecommoners.Hewrotenumerouspopularpuzzles
inaformwhichisenjoyabletocommonpeople.Thiswasperhapsbecausehewasverycloseto
sufis and hence influenced by them and also contributed to their cause. Thus his writings are a
reflectionofsufimovement.
2. Hewasapoetandnotahistorian.Whateverhistoryhewrotewaseitheroninstanceofthesultans
(whoeventoldhimthetopicsonwhichtowriteabout)ortopleasethem.Evenwhilewritinghistory
hisfocuswasonthepoeticaspectandnothistoricaltruth.
3. His first work was KiranusSaden (1289) which was written to please Bugra Khan and his son
KakuiBad. In this he tells us about delhi, its buildings, durbar, social life of amirs etc. and his
hatredtowardsmongols.Naturallyhisfocuswasonthepoeticaspect.
4. His second work was MiftahulFutuh (1291) in which he praised Jalaluddin and his military
campaignsagainstMalikChajju,againstRanthamboreetc.
5. KhwajainulFutuh or TarikhiAlahi was written in a highly ornate style and described the first 15
yearsofhisreign.Althoughitisagainmoreofapoeticworkitshistoricalsignificancecomesfrom
thefactthatitistheonlycontemporarysourcewehave.Thisbookdescribesmilitarycampaignsof
Alauddin and Malik Kafur and presents a beautiful description of the physical and cultural
geographyofIndia.
6. His next work is Ashika which talks of Alauddin's son Khijr Khan's desire for princess of Gujarat
Devalrani.GedescribesthecampaignslaunchedtogetherandalsothegeographyofIndia.
7. InhisworkSipiharhepraisesMubarakKhalji.
8. His strong point is that he has given a lot of dates and in general he is more trustworthy than
Barani. His writings also highlights the social conditions prevailing in the age something most
historians of the age couldn't do. He tells us about the people, their dances, songs, settlements,
professionsetc.
AlBerouni'sKitabulHind
(a)Motivationbehindwriting
1. Some scholars believe that he sympathized with Indians because Mahmud had plundered his
nativeplacetoolikeIndia.HencehewassosympathetictoIndiancause.
2. In reality he was motivated by pure scientific and intellectual curiosity. He wanted to understand
Indianphilosophical,religiousandscientificthought.Heanalyzedeverythingthatcameacrosshim
inacriticalandscientificmannerandpresentedhisanalysisinanunbiasedmanner.
(b)Importance
1. In his quest he found that most of the information he came across about India is based on

secondary sources only. He realized that second hand information is invariably corrupted as it
passes from people to people. Hence he was driven to find the original sources and hence he
began to learn Sanskrit and collect ancient Indian texts. He referred to works of Varahmihira,
Aryabhatta,Brahmagupta,PatanjaliaswellasBhagwadGita,VishnuPurana,VaayuPurana.
2. For this he also consulted many brahmans of the age whenever he needed some help in proper
interpretation.
3. Hehadacompletelyscientificoutlookandanunbiasedopinion.Soreligiousconventionscouldn't
corrupthim.
4. Whereverhefeelshisunderstandingandknowledgeislackingheacceptsitwithouthesitation.He
mentions it clearly wherever he had to rely on sources without testing for their authenticity or
secondarysources.
5. He describes Indian society, culture, festivals, dress, food, entertainment, scientific thought,
philosophical thought etc. in great detail. He describes the weights and measures used in India,
distances, geographical features, alphabet etc. prevailing in India. Not only does he merely
describe them but also critically analyzes them. He talks of the legal system as mentioned in the
scripturesandhighlightshowtheprevailingsystemdifferedfromit.Weaverswerelowevenamong
theoutcasteswholivedonlyoutsidethevillagesandtowns.HetellsusthatBuddhismwasnotto
be seen anywhere and he had only heard about it. He tells us about the influence of Bhakti by
recognizingafirmmonotheisminNIndia.
6. HeexpressesregretthatIndianshadabandonedthescientificoutlookoftheirancestorsandhad
relapsedintostagnationinmindandinthought.Insteadofkeepingtheirmindsopenandlearning
fromothersastheirancestorsdidtheynowreliedonlyontraditions.
(c)Limitations
1. His work is mostly limited to the intellectual class of the age which was obvious given his
methodology.Heholdsignorantpeopleinverylowesteem.
HindiLiterature
1. Parochial / feudal outlook: After the fall of the Gupta empire the political landscape had become
increasingly fragmented and the land based feudal system which developed encouraged a local
parochialoutlook.Wecanseethisclearlyintheliteratureoftheage.
2. Stagnation in the society: The society had shut its mind towards embracing new ideas and
encouraging original thinking. We find a similar trend in the literature as it became void of fresh
outlookandcontinuedonestablishedthemesonly.
3. Phases of hindi literature: (a) ancient phase (adi kaal): reflects the feudal order of the day, (b)
bhaktiphase(bhaktikaal):reflectstheimpactofbhaktimovementsoftheday,(c)reetikaal:after
thebhaktiphasewhenthezamindariandjagirdarisystemsreturnedwithnewvigoralongwiththe
presenceofromanticism.
Phase1:Ancientphase/AdiKaal/VeerGathaPhase(814centAD)
(a)RasoLiterature
1. It was called veer gatha phase earlier because the first literature found comprised almost
exclusivelyofthewritingsofthecourtpoetsglorifyingthebraveryoftheirrulingmastersinorderto
praise them. They often were full of exaggerations. Examples are Prithviraj Raso, Parmal Raso
(Alha and Udal), Beesaldev Raso (love affair of Ajmer ruler Beesaldev and Malwa princess
Rajmati).Inadditiontoglorifyingtheirbraverythepoetsalsoglorifiedtheirloveaffairswithbeautiful
princessesoftheage.
2. Reflection of feudalistic order and parochial outlook: The literature was full of praise for the local
rulersandhowtheyfoughtotherlocalrulers.Theyleftnowordsunwritteninthepraiseoftheirlocal
lordsandridiculingtheotherchiefs.Theiraimwasnottopresenthistoricalfactsbuttoglorifytheir
masters. By glorifying wars and feuds they played an important role in promoting regional rivalry
anddisturbednationalunity.
3. Reflection of cherished ideals in the society: Bravery and love. Fighting wars was noble. These
warswerefoughtsolelyforpersonalreasonsoftherulersbeitvengeanceortogetaprincessor
simply to display one's bravery and never for the interests of the state. They consider a brave
warriortobethemostnobleperson.

4. Reflectionofpoorstatusofwomeninthesociety:Thewaytheyfocussolelyonthebeautyofthe
princesswhileglorifyingtheloveaffairsoftheirmasterstellsusthatwomenweretreatedmerelyas
an object of consumption. Women were expected to perform jauhar and sati. They had no
existenceoftheirown.
5. Reflectionoflackoflawandorderandpeaceinthesociety:Theyglorifywarsontheotherchiefs.
They glorify violence and mention the insecurity of common people specially if they had any
valuables.
6. Reflection of the state system: The rulers had no concern whatsoever with the welfare of their
subjects. They merely collected taxes and fought wars and were concerned with their own glory
andwelfareonly.
7. Reflection of growth of regional dialects: Many of these works use a mixed form of regional
Rajasthanidialectsastyleoftencalledpinglestyle.
(b)SiddhLiterature
1. Itreflectsthecontemporaryreligiousandculturallifeverywell.Itwaswrittenforthepropagationof
Vajrayan buddhist sect in eastern India in the local languages. This literature tells us about the
changeswhichhadoccurredinthebuddhistreligionovertheages.
2. They criticize complex rituals, traditionalism, extremism and advocate a simple life. They show a
dominance of mystic ideas in their thoughts. At the same time they also advocate continuation of
grihastalife.
(c)JainLiterature
1. ItflourishedinwesternIndiaintheformofpoeticliteratureinlocallanguages.Forthepoeticformit
isalsocalledRaasliterature.Itcomprisesofthepoemswhichweresunginthejaintemplesbythe
worshippers.
2. They told us about the contemporary feuds etc. but their main aim remained to emphasize the
principlesofnonviolenceenshrinedintheJainreligion.ChandanBalaRaasisafamouswork.
(d)NathLiterature
1. ItemergedineasternIndiaasareactiontoSiddhliterature.WhiletheSiddhliteraturebelievedin
continuation of normal married life the Nath sect opposed consummation. It was advocated by
GorakhnathandMatsyendranath.
2. Theybelievedinausteritiesandselfcontrol.Theyidealizedamanwhodoesn'tgetdeviatedfrom
hispathdespitebeingsurroundedbyalltemptations.Ithaselementsofmysticisminit.
(e)MaterialLiterature(LaukikLiterature)
1. Romantic literature: Its main works are Jaichandra Prakash, Jai Mayank Chandrika and Vasant
Vilas.Theirmainemphasiswasonexpressingthefeelingsofheart,descriptionofwomenetc.
2. Literatureforcommoners:AmirKhusrautooktheliteraturefromelitestothecommoners.Hewrote
numerouspopularpuzzlesinaformwhichisenjoyabletocommonpeople.
Phase2:BhaktiPhase(1416centAD)
1. Differentprovincialrulersbegantopatronizemusic.DuetothefusionofIndoIslamicmusic,khyal
styleemerged.Textswerewrittenonthismusicwhichformedapartofthebhaktiliterature.
2. Thisperiodwasaperiodofgrowingregionalismanddecliningcentralauthority.Thiswasreflected
in the rapid growth of regional languages as well which became fully developed in this period.
Similarly new styles of literature emerged in different parts and attained maturity. This trend is
reflectedinthebhaktiperiodliterature.
3. Bhakti movement sought to involve more people with it and to awaken them. This led to the
development of literature for people instead of the literature for the elites as in the previous raso
literature.
4. Bhakti and sufi movement led to spread of communal harmony. This effort can be seen in the
literatureaswell.
5. Bhaktimovementdrewfromthebasictenantsofupanishadsandvedasbutwasprogressiveinits
outlookandhumanistincharacter.Thiscanbedirectlyseeninitsliteratureaswell.
6. Thenirgunliteraturecanbedividedintotwooneemphasizingknowledge(likekabir,nanak,dudu

dayal) emphasized on the greatness of the teacher. It was more radical, egalitarian, assimilatory,
vocal in their criticism of traditional rituals and closer to the masses. The other type of nirgun
literature emphasized on love (sufis, chandayan, mrigavati, padmavat) which preached
monotheismandtriedtobringhindusandmuslimscloser.ItwasromanticinnaturewithGodasthe
loveobject.TheybelievedbylovingGodwecaneliminatealldifferences.TheyportrayGodasa
womanandsoulasaman.
7. ThesagunliteraturecanbedividedintotwoonedevotedtoRama(tulsidas,ramanand)andother
devoted to Krishna (mira, surdas). They use a highly poetic literature which could be sung in the
temples.
Phase3:TraditionalPhase/RitiPhase(Mughals)
1. UndertheMughalswesawtheemergenceofatrulycompositerulingclasswhichincludedHindus
aswell.WecanseetheimpactintheliteratureofthetimeasitcameclosertotheIslamicliterature.
Wecanseethedescriptionsofthedresses,attitudeandpractices,subjectsetc.allinawaywhich
indicated that both communities had come closer to each other. Thus the protagonists of hindi
literaturenowfreelyworedressesmadeoffinesilkandmuslin,usedarabicperfumes,engagedin
entertainment like the mughal rulers, their durbars, various practices became more like mughals.
Even the religious subjects like Krishna and Radha are portrayed in an intensely romantic and
playfulmannerandwearingmuslimcostumes.Thereisacleardeparturefromthetraditionalfocus
on spiritualism and devotion towards worldly pleasures. There is increased focus on wealth, wine
andwomen.
2. Under Akbar we find many muslim writers like Rahim, Raskhan composing in Hindi while many
Hindi works being translated into Persian. A new upanishad called Allahoupanishad was even
composed.Weseethatthewriterswhotriedtopreachcommunalismcouldnotfindanypopularity
inthisage.
3. Withrespecttowomen,theliteratureclearlyshowsthemasanobjectoftobeenjoyedasagainst
their depiction as goddesses, mothers etc. earlier. Even characters like Sita and Radha were no
longer objects of worship but the focus was on their body and makeup and they were treated as
objectsofconsummation.
4. Thus we can see a clear decline of bhakti spirit in the literature of this age and instead being
replacedbyconsumptionwhichwasalsothesocialundercurrentastherulingclass(whowerethe
audienceofsuchliterature)believedinconsumptiononly.Thusthisliteraturecanalsobecalledas
class literature. In opposition to this there was a minor strand of mass literature specially coming
from sufi saints of the age like Mira etc. which opposed worldly consumption. We can also see a
strandofliteratureemphasizingonmoralsintheformofdohasofRahimetc.
5. Justliketherulingclasswasseparatefromandunmindfuloftheproblemsofthemassestheclass
literaturealsoignoresthemassesandfocusesonlyonthelifestyleoftherulers.Wecanalsoseea
clear movement towards attributing divine association to the emperors and kings as was
emphasizedbytheMughals.
SanskritLiterature
Kalhana'sRajtarangini
(a)WhywassuchaworkwrittenonlyinKashmir?
1. Some scholars believe that Kashmir because of being cutoff from rest of India and its distinct
geographicalsetupwasabletomaintainaseparateculturalidentity.Thusregionalloyaltywasvery
strong in Kashmir. Moreover it had constant interaction with the Buddhists in Tibet and China as
wellaswithCentralAsia.Suchplaceshadastrongtraditionofhistoriographyandhencethework
waswritteninKashmir.
2. ButitmustberecognizedthatinthatperiodentireIndiawasfragmentedintonumerouslocalities
and under feudal system. Regional outlook was strong everywhere. Such attempts to write on
regional histories came up everywhere but what make Kalhana's work unique was its sense of
history.
3. Kalhana was different from other raso writers in the sense that he probably didn't have the
patronageofanyruler.Thatswhyhisworkcouldriseabovethepettynatureofhiscontemporaries.
(b)Motivationsforwriting

1. He writes in the kavya style in order to make it interesting to the reader. Though he ensures
creativityinhiswritingyetheneverlosessightofhismaingoalvistowritehistoricaltruthsasseen
byhim.Thushemaintainedhisobjectivityinmostmatters.
2. He was writing in a very turbulent period. Harsha's reign had ended and there were lots of wars
andstrugglesaround.Hewantedtowriteimpartiallysoastopresentfactsbeforepeopleandmake
themlearnfromtheirmistakes.
(c)Importance
1. He mentions his sources in detail. He mentions the 11 scholars who gave him the family tree of
Kashmirrulers.Hementionsthelegends,myths,folkloreetc.whereverhehadtorelyonit.Buthis
strongestpointishereliesoninscriptionsinthetemples,landgrantinscriptionsetc.andmentions
themclearly.
2. Hisworkisdividedinto8parts.First3coverhistoryofmorethan3000yearswhichmainlyrelyon
Puranas and legends. His real historiography begins from 4th part and in 4 6 he covers the
Karkota and Utpal rulers. For these parts he relies on inscriptions as well as buddhist texts. In 7
and8thparthecoverstheLoharadynasty.
3. Inthebeginninghecomesacrossasamerepresenterofvariousfolklore.Therewasnoattemptof
anyanalysis.Butaswecomeclosertohisperiodwecanclearlyseethecriticalanalysisdoneby
him. This expresses his views clearly on matters as well as contemporary realities. For instance
KashmirwentthroughaveryturbulentphasepostHarsha.Localfeudalelementshadbecomevery
strongandtherewasanarchy.Sohesaysthatakingshouldbestrongsothathecancontrolthe
affairsofthekingdomefficiently.Heshouldmakesurethatnooneineventheremotestvillagehas
sufficient wealth left with him so that he could even think of posing a challenge to the king. He
writes that the feudal elements derive their strength from the vast amount of land they hold. He
criticizeskayasthasandbureaucratsandaccusesthemofharboringtreacherousintentionsagainst
thekings.Heneverpaintsanybodyinfullwhiteorblackandimpartiallytellsusabouthisstrengths
aswellasweaknesses.
4. Ittellsusaboutotherrealitiesofthesociallifeaswell.Hementionsveryproudlythathebelonged
to a brahman family. The society had rich who fed on fried meat and drank perfumed cool wine.
Whilethepoorhadtoliveonwildvegetables.ItsaysHarshaintroducedageneraldressinKashmir
oflongcoats.Hegivesusawholelotofotherinformationlikegeography,familytreesofimportant
people,economicactivitieslikecoinmouldingetc.
5. It contains a striking description of the engineering works supervised a minister of Avantivarman.
Landslidesandsoildegradationledtoagreatamountofrubbleandstonebeingdepositedinthe
Jhelumriverwhichimpededtheflowofwater.Thiswascleared,embankmentswereconstructedto
prevent the landslides, dams were built and lakes were drained. The minister even managed to
divert the course of the Jhelum and the Indus rivers slightly which led to reclamation of land for
cultivation. This has been supported by archaeological evidences and subsequent economic
prosperityofKashmiranditledtowithdrawalofKashmirfromtheplainspoliticssincetheneedto
movetherewaslessened.
(d)Limitations
1. His analysis is not entirely free from his biases. Thus while he criticizes bureaucracy (because it
wasmadeofmostlykayasthas)andsaysthebureaucracyhadcorruptedthekingsandpersuaded
themtofollowantipeoplepolicies,hesaysthatthekingshouldconsultbrahmansinstead.This
perhapsreflectshispersonalgrudge.
Architecture
Features
1. Before the advent of Turks, Rajput architecture belonged to the trabeatestyle and had flat roofs,
falsearchesandstone/mudbased.ButTurksbroughtwiththemtheIslamicstylevistruearches,
domesandusedlimemortarandbrickbased.
2. Turkish architecture was technologically superior as it used true arches, domes, lime mortar,
headersandstretchersbrickoutlay,wasmassive.
3. Italsoleftenoughspaceforthecirculationofair.
Howthearchitecturereflectscontemporarysociopoliticoeconomicrealities?

1. Urbanization: Turks were urban dwellers. Their monuments are in urban areas and promote
urbanism.
2. Concentrationofwealth:Theturkishrulersextractedalltheagriculturesurplusintheirhands.This
surplushadtobeputtouseandithappenedintheformofgrandmonuments.
3. Reflects the distance between the rulers and the ruled, the despotism of the sultans: Each
monument reflects the tastes of the sultan as because of their scale each sultan tried to build
accordingtohislikestoexpandhisglory.AlauddinbuiltAlaiDarwazawhichwasmajesticinscale.
Thisreflectsthedespotismofthesultanandhisabilitytoextractsurplusfromthepeasants.
4. Communal composition: Most of the monuments were Islamic which showed the distribution of
power in the urban society. Islam doesn't permit images of birds and animals so floral designs,
geometricdesignsandcalligraphycameup.
5. Theycanbedividedinto3phases(a)DuringandimmediatelyafterTurkishconquestwhenmany
hindu temples were destroyed and new islamic monuments were sought to be created in their
place quickly. (b) Exchange of skills and traditions between Indian and Islamic architecture forms
butatthesametimealsoshowslackofmasteryofIndiancraftsmenoverthenewIslamicform,(c)
evolutionofaspecialIndoIslamicform.
6. DuringandimmediatelyafterTurkishconquest:Turkishrulershadnotyetestablishedthemselves.
Theyneededtocreateanaweamongtheruled.ThusIltutmishcreatedmanymonumentsinDelhi
sothatthepubliccouldbeawed.QutubMinarwasbuiltasasymbolofTurkishvictory.Furtherthe
monuments of the age can't be divided exclusively into secular and religious monuments. This is
because the rulers needed monuments which could be used for huge public gatherings of the
nascent Muslim society in India. Thus they were often located in the middle of the town and had
largeopengardeninthem,pillaredverandahson3sidesandtheprayingsitefacingwest.There
wasaraisedplatformwhereimamsandsultanscouldaddressthepublic.Firstsuchmonumentof
thekindwasKuwwatulIslaminQilaPithora.TheyhadcometoIndiaasconquerors.Sothey
didn't bring along any masons. So the initial monuments have a deep influence of Indian
architecture.Thebuildingsofthisphasewerebuiltbydemolishingpartsofexistinghindutemples
and converting them according to muslim needs by destroying the images, putting a wall in
garbhgrihaandinscribingQuranicverses.Alsotheflatroofhadtobeconvertedintoadomeand
flat windows into arch. The Indian craftsmen were used to their traditional style only. One of the
earliest monuments is Adhai Din Ka Jhopda which was built by Qutubuddin which has false
arches.
7. ExpandingmuslimpopulationinIndiaandsubsequentriseofIndianmuslimclass:Amosque'sarea
isoftenproportionaltotheMuslimpopulationlivinginthearea.ThusQuwwatulIslammosque
wasexpandedbyIltutmishandAlauddin.AsIndianmuslimclassgrewstrongeritalsogotitsfair
share in the ruling class in the form of Khaljis. So the expansion of the mosque also symbolizes
risingpowerofIndianmuslimclass.
8. ExchangeofskillsandtraditionsbetweenIndianandIslamicarchitecturalforms:Graduallywesee
pure form of Islamic architecture coming as Indian craftsmen began to master the new form.
Balban's tomb had the first True arch. Jamatikhana mosque of Alauddin is the first true Islamic
monument.AlaiDarwazacanbeconstruedtobethefirstmonumentwhichsymbolizestheendof
theinitialphaseofinsecurityandtheIndoIslamicarchitecturalform.
9. Tughluqage: The monuments built were inferior in grandeur and beauty compared to the Khalji
phase.PerhapstheyrepresentedareactiontotheexcessivewaysoftheKhaljisortheeconomic
problemsfacingthesultan.UnderGhiyasuddinTughluqwecanseethecontinuationofthefusion
ofIndoIslamicforms.Thusinhismausoleumwecanseeakalashkeptontopofthedome.The
construction work in Tughluqabad may also reflect the haste and commotion in the face of
impendingMongolthreat.Firuzconstructedmanymonumentsbutnonematchedthegrandeurof
earlier sultans. Specially under Firuz, sloping walls called salami were prevalent to give an
impression of solidity to the monument. True domes were constructed but they were somewhat
small.Pentagonaldesignscameup.
10. Lodi age: Lodis believed in the kingship theory of being first among the equals. This is also
reflectedinthearchitectureaswefindthatthemonumentsbuiltbymanyAmirswereequalinscale
andgrandeurtothosebuiltbythesultans.Bytheirtime,theoctagonaldesigns,doubledomesand
headersandstretchersbricklayeringstylescameup.Charbaghstylealsocameup.

Painting
1. Thesepaintingsalsoshowmanymusicalinstrumentslikevariousformsofveena.
EvidencesofGrowthofPaintingsUnderSultans
1. It was generally considered that the sultans didn't favor paintings. But recent evidences firmly
establishthatpaintingsflourishedunderthesultans,undertheprovincialrulersoftheageaswell
asundertheeliteelementsofthesociety.
2. ContemporarywriterTajuddinRajasaysthatpaintingswerequitepopularunderIltutmish'sreign.
He explicitly talks of paintings involving human and animal figures while the Caliph's envoy was
welcomedattheport.Othercontemporarywritersconfirmwhathesays.
3. Wefindbothdirectandindirectevidencesofpaintingsbeingusedasillustrationsinbooksduring
Alauddin'srule.AmirKhusrauwritesindetailhowthesedesignswereprepared.
4. ShamsiSiraj Afif in his TarikhiFiruzshahi writes clearly that Firuz banned the living portraits of
humansinthepalacegalleriesandbedroomsofthesultan.Thistellsusthatsuchapracticewas
followedrightintheheartofsultanate.
5. SimilarlyBaraniwritesinTarikhiFiruzshahithatJalaluddinfinishedtheworkofconstructionofa
palacestartedbySultanKakuibadanddecorateditwithpaintings.
RegionalPaintings
1. Jaunpurpaintings:VariousplaysandotherliteraryworksintheAvadhilanguagemakeliberaluse
of illustrations and/or talk explicitly about paintings. Prominent are the romantic works of
Chandayan and Mrigavati. The subjects of such works were often derived from Ramayan and
Mahabharat. Another Persian manuscript has been found which is heavily influenced by Persian
paintingstyle.
2. Paintings under Jain merchants: Since 9 10 cent AD we find miniature illustrations in religious
worksofBuddhism,JainismandHinduismunderthePalas.Inthe1315centADsuchatradition
emerged very strongly under the patronage of rich Jain merchants and spread to central and
northern India as well. In Ahemdabad many secular as well as religious Jain works were created
whichhadillustrationsinthem.
3. Mandu paintings: We have found 4 major manuscripts here which give evidence of flourishing
paintingarthere.Amanuscriptfoundhere(Niyamatnama)hasmanyminiatureportraitsofSultan
Nasiruddin Khalji. These paintings show clear fusion of Indian and Persian art. They use bright
andlivelycolorsandreflectthelivelinessofthedurbarofMandu.AnothermanuscriptisMiftahul
Fuzalawhichisadictionary.ThemanuscriptVostanshowsheavyinfluenceofPersianart.The4th
oneisUjaibulSannati.
4. Bengalpaintings:AmanuscriptSharafnamahas9paintings.Sikandarnamahasbeautifulpaintings
onitsopeningpageitself.TheyshowclearfusionofIndoIslamicforms.
CompositeCulture
1. ThefusionofIndoIslamicculturebeganwiththeTurksin13thcentury.BeforethatArabmerchants
wereresidinginIndiaintheMalabarandRashtrakutaempireandArabshadalsoconqueredSind.
Butstillnotmuchexchangehappened.ThisfusionreachedgreaterheightsundertheMughals.
Music
1. Despite the opposition of religious extremists, music flourished under the Sultans. Amir Khusrau
developedanewIndianstyleofpoetry.MbTandZainulAbedinwerebigpatronsofmusic.Then
under Mughals it reached its zenith. Abul Fazl tells us about the prominent musicians in Akbar's
courtwhichincludedbothHindusandMuslims.UnderBijapur'ssultanIbrahimAdilShahmanytexts
were written in poetry. He himself was a poet. Bahadur Shah and Muhammad Shah also
encouragedmusic.
LanguageandLiterature
1. One of the major steps which promoted the fusion was the complete Persianization of the
administrative work. This encouraged Hindus to take up Persian learning and they also began to
contributetothePersianliterature.
2. RegionallanguagesalsobegantoliberallyexchangewithPersianduetothismove.Thoughthey

kepttheirbasicgrammarandsyntaxbutincorporatedmanywordsfromPersian(speciallyMarathi
forinstancePeshwa,Avadhi,Bengali).WecanseetheinfluenceofPersianinNanak'sworkaswell
asTulsi'sRamcharitmanas.RegionallanguagesalsodevelopedastheMuslimrulersinprovinces
alsopatronizedthem(forinstanceZainulAbedinencouragedcompilationofRajtarangini,healso
encouraged Kashmiri literature. Sanskrit works came up in Muhammed Begara's reign, Gujarati
works were encouraged by Ahmedshah. Similarly Bengali, Telugu etc. were encouraged by the
localrulers).ManyworksweretranslatedfromPersianandSanskritintotheseregionallanguages.
3. Akbarwasveryfondofliteraryworksandhadabiglibraryofworksinmanylanguages.Healsogot
manyworkstranslatedintoPersian.
UrduLanguage
1. The Turkish invaders came here and settled here. With time their links with Central Asia broke
(specifically due to Mongol invasions) and hence they had to recruit for their armed forces from
among Indians. Naturally there was a barrier in communication between the Persian speaking
central asians and hindi speaking Indians. Thus urdu came up as the camp language. Amir
KhusrauwasoneofthefirstprominentwriterstoalsotakeupUrdu.
2. Whenthesufisaintsandsubsequentlythesultanswenttodeccantheyfacedthesamelanguage
barrier again. So the language which subsequently came up after exchanges with the regional
languagesiscalledDeccanilanguagewhichevolvedintothemoreformal/classicalformofUrdu.
WiththeexpansionofMughalempirein17thcenturyinDeccanthespreadofDeccaniincreased.
3. In 18th century Urdu emerged as the leading language of the gentry and symbolized the revolt
againstthePersiandominance.
ProvincialArchitecture
1. GujaratistylerepresentstheclearestinfluenceofHindustyleofarchitecture.Wecanseethisinthe
Jama Masjid @ Ahemdabad, Khambat and Badi Masjid @ Champaner etc. where they resemble
HinduandJainatemplesclosely.Thedomewassupportedbyslenderminarets.Influenceseenin
FatehpurSikri.
2. In Golconda fort we can see that the arches were ornamented with Hindu motifs like cranes,
parrots,lions,peacocksetc.SimilarlyinBijapur'sJamaMasjidwecanseesculpturesofPipaltrees
onthewallswhichisasacredtreeforHindus.
3. Under the Bundelas @ Orchha and Datia we can see arches along with Hindu style. Under
Marathas we can see Islamic features lime minarets, domes etc. which are even used in the
construction of temples. Marathas also had gardens constructed in their palaces along with
fountains,canalsetc.
ReligionandPhilosophy
1. Bhakti and Sufi movements influenced each other and the popular thought. Diniilahi was a
manifestationofthefusion.DaraShikohwasalsoagreatassimilatorycharacterandinfluencedby
sufism.
2. Still the exchange couldn't take place beyond some popular practices and beliefs. At the
philosophicallevelthefusionwasnotvisibleexceptfortheabovementionedinstances.Therewere
somesufisaintswhoincorporatedsomepracticesofhindusaintslikeyogaetc.Aparticularsectof
MuslimsbelievedProphettobeanavatar,MuinuddinChistitobeademigod.Wecanseepeople
ofbothcommunitycelebratingmanyfestivalstogether.Thiscommunalharmonywasencouraged
bytheprovincialsultansaswell.
EvolutionofaCompositeRulingClass
1. WithtimethedominationofTurksendedandwecanseeIndianMuslimsrisingintherankofthe
rulingclass.ThenthereweremanyHinduswhowereexploitedintheHindusociety,theysoughtto
take advantage of the new situation for their advance. Slowly even the better off hindus aligned
themselveswiththesultansandeventhoughtheydidn'tgetasharedirectlyintheupperechelons
ofpowertheywerequiteimportantforthesultanate.
2. When Sikandar Lodi ordered for the adoption of Persian as the official language many learned
HinduclasseslikeKayastha,Kashmiribrahmansetc.learntPersianandtookadvantage.Theruling
class at the village and local level still comprised predominantly of hindus. Yet before Mughals a

trulycompositerulingclasscouldn'temerge.
AmirKhusrauinMusic
1. He was very much influenced by Indian music and gave many new ragas (like tilak, sarpada,
saajgiri)andtaalsbyfusingIndianandIslamicmusic.HeissaidtohavepopularizedQawwalisand
inventedtablaandsitar.
SufisinMusic
1. Theycontributedintheformofgazalsandqawwalis.Gazalisaromanticformofmusicwherethe
objectofloveisapersoninthisworldonly.QawwaliistheromanticmusicwheretheobjectisGod.
Assuchgazalsbecameverypopularinthedurbarsofsultans.
CultureinMughalEmpire
PersianHistoryWriting
NatureandCharacter
1. In N India land records were kept in Persian only. In S India however, both local and Persian
languageswereused.ThisgaveagreatboosttothespreadofPersian.
2. ThehistorieswerewrittenwithintheconfinementofIslami.e.criticismofKuran,Hadi,Sunnaetc.is
notpossibleanditmustremainwithintheconfinesofthereligion.
3. Therisingmightoftheemperorhadaninfluenceonthehistoriographyaswellandnowthehistory
oftheagebecamethehistoryoftheemperor.Thecompletedworksnowcametobededicatedto
the emperor. The earlier Arabic tradition of giving sources was also discontinued here. Divine
associationofthekingswasemphasizedupontoestablishtheirsovereignty.Wefindthetradition
ofhistorywritingspreadingtotheprovincesaswell.
4. We find extensive use of religious terminology in the texts which might appear to the extent of
outright communal at the first glance. But it must be kept in mind that in those days religion and
education were intricately linked. The scholars were invariably men of religion and they knew no
terminology other than religious. Thus they make indiscriminate use of such terms. For instance
usingsuchtermslashkarikufraandlashkariislamevenwhenbothsidesfightingeachotherwere
Muslims.
5. We must also keep in mind that the interest of much of the history writing section differed from
thoseofthesultans.Thehistorywritingsectionmainlycamefromthereligiousulemmasclassand
wantedsultantobeboundbytheshariatandkuransothathewouldhavetoconsultthemonall
matters and their importance in the politics grows. Sultans on the other hand were not willing to
acceptanysovereigntyabovethem.Sotopleasetheulemmasandtoshowtheircompleteloyalty
towards shariat whenever it was possible they tried to give religious color to actions otherwise
necessitated by politicoeconomic considerations. The historians naturally used to give lot of
importanceandcommunalcolortosuchevents.
6. Thepoliticalstabilityandeconomicprosperityoftheagecanalsobeseeninsuchworks.
DifferencesfromSultanateEraHistoryWriting
1. Thecompletedworksnowcametobededicatedtotheemperor.
2. TheearlierArabictraditionofgivingsourceswasalsodiscontinuedhere.
3. The emperors used to pay a lot of attention to history writings themselves as is evident from the
traditionofautobiographiesinthemughalage.Whentheycouldn'ttheyappointedhighestscholars
forthetaskandgavethemfullaccesstoallgovernmentrecords(includingtheclassifiedones)and
gavethemotherprivilegesaswell.Butasusualthismeansthesewritingswereoftenbiased.
4. Inthemughalworkswecanseeeventspresentedchronologicallyyearafteryearalongwithallthe
dates.ButinBarani'sworkweseelackofsuchchronology.
5. Thetechniquesofpapermakingandbindingshowedmarkedimprovementoverthesultanateera
andsowehavelargeramountofsourcesofmughalerawithus.
ZahiruddinMuhammedBaburandTuzukiBabri
(a)Importance
1. Its importance is that its an autobiography and this is where Mughals differed from sultans. The
workisfromsomeonewhowasshapingtheIndiaoftheageandbroughtarevolution.Hedivides

his work in 3 parts first part runs from his accession to the throne of Fargana and ends with
leavingSamarkandforthefinaltime,secondparttellsusabouthisstrugglesandwarsinIndiaand
thethirdparttellsusaboutthestateofaffairsinIndia.
2. Hedescribesthepoliticalsituationofthecountryingreatdetail.Hetalksaboutdifferentprovincial
rulers like Gujarat, Malwa, Bijapur, Golconda etc., Vijaynagar, Bengal, Rajputana. He talks about
the difficulties faced in keeping the conquered areas firmly under his control. He talks about the
difficultiesfacedincollectinglandrevenue.
3. Beingaforeignerhetellsusindetailaboutallthingswhichstrucktohimandwhichmayhavebeen
ordinarytoaresidenthere.Hewasakeenobserveranddescribespeopleandgeographyingreat
detail.Hewritesabouttheirclothes,food,habits,behavior,profession,socialstructure,festivals,art
forms,architecture,technologiesetc.ingreatdetail.Thusheproducesarichaccount.
4. Healsowritesveryfranklyabouthisownmistakes.Italsogivesagoodaccountoftheconditions
prevailinginHumayun'sinitialyearsandtellsusabouthisstrengthsandweaknessesaswell.
(b)Limitations
1. Hecanbeaccusedofdistortionoffactsalsospeciallywhilehighlightinghismilitaryvictories.
2. HeformsanegativestereotypeofIndiansbasedonhisobservationsofcertainbackwardsections
ofthesociety.
3. He also leaves out certain provinces like Sind, Kashmir, Odisha, Khandesh. He neglects
Portugueseaswell.
4. Hisisalsoabrokenaccountsometimesithadlongbreaks.
Humayun'sHistoriography
1. TarikhiRashidi by Hussain Mirza: He was a senior commander in Babur's and then Humayun's
army and hence the importance. He talks in detail about Humayun's period. He writes about
character and habits of Humayun. He gives a different and detailed account of circumstances
leadingtothebattle@KannaujandKamran'sroleinit.Hesaidthatsomerevoltshademergedin
PunjabandQandharsoKamranhadtoreturnimmediatelybutheleft5000sawarswithHumayun.
2. KanuniHumayunibyKhondMir:ThewriterwasaseniorofficialunderHumayunandthusgivesus
agoodaccountoftheeventsandconventionsofthedurbar.
3. HumayunnamabyGulbadan:ShewasastepsistertoHumayunandtellsusindetailaboutthelife
ofroyalladiesandHumayun'sexileandconqueringKabul.
Akbar'sHistoriography
1. It had 3 strands (a) the official version i.e. Akbarnama written by Abul Fazl and which was
sponsoredbyAkbar,(b)neutralversioni.e.TabakatiAkbariwrittenbyNizamuddinAhmad,and
(c)antiAkbarversionMuntakbhutTarikhwrittenbyBadayuni.
(a)AkbarnamabyAbulFazl
1. AbulFazlwasaliberalpersonlikeAkbarandconsequentlyhadcomeveryclosetohim.In1590he
was entrusted with the task of writing history of Akbar. The first part starts with Akbar's birth and
ends in 1572 where he talks about creation of the universe, other religions and their prophets,
Akbar's ancestors etc. In the second one he covers the period till 1588. The third part is Aini
Akbari. The 4th part talks about the geography, people, climate, indian saints, sufi saints etc. of
India.Inthefinalparthegiveshisbriefautobiography.
2. He studied all relevant Arabic and Persian history books, he used all relevant official records,
farmaans etc., he interviewed a lot of people including the amirs and Akbar himself, he knew
intricate details of many things being a high amir himself and whenever there was a dispute
regardinganythingheusedtotakeopinionofmaximumpossiblenumberofpeopleconversantwith
thematterandiftherewasstillanydisputeleftthenAkbarusedtotakeadecision.
3. AbulFazlwasagreatsupporterofAkbar'sliberalreligiousideasandhewantedtostrengthenhis
positionfurther.SohehighlightedthedivineaspectofAkbar'skingshipandalsopraisedsulhikul
policy of Akbar. He supported his claim to mustajir. Various religions generally associate births of
prophetsorgreatmenwithsomedivinesigns.AbuFazltriestolinkAkbar'sbirthwithsomedivine
signsaswell.Ifhewasnotgivenformaleducationduringhischildhood,AbuFazllinksittosucha
traditionamongtheprophets.HewantedpeopletobelievethatAkbarhadanelementofdivinityin

himsothattheyfollowhisorderswithoutanyissues.
4. HerejectsthehighlyornamentalstyleofPersianwritingofprevioushistoriansandinsteadwritesin
averysimpleandyetlovablelanguage.UnlikeotherPersianhistorianshedoesn'tuseanysuch
languagewhichcanevenhintatreligiousintolerance.Thiswasabigbreakfromthehistorywriting
traditionoftheage.
5. AiniAkbari reflects the liberal religious views and sulhikul thoughts of Akbar. It tries to give a
harmoniousportrayalofhindusandhinduphilosophyandpresentsthemasbeingtolerant,liberal
and assimilatory. Although it must be noted that he didn't know Sanskrit like Berouni and thus
sufferedfromthishandicap.Hetriestoportraytheapparentdifferencesbetweenvariousreligions
asaresultofdifferentlanguages,ignoranceofthereligiousheadsandinterpreters,theirtraditional
andfanaticaloutlook,useofreligionbythemandtherulerstoservetheirpersonalambitionsetc.In
realitythereisnodifferencebetweenanyreligion.HerejectstheclaimofoldhistoriansthatinIndia
thereisaninherentconflictbetweenthemuslimsandhindus.Healsorejectsanyfanaticismbeitin
hindus or in muslims. Thus he praises Todarmal for his qualities but criticizes him for his lack of
tolerance.
(b)TabakatiAkbaribyNizamuddinAhmad
1. Nizamuddin was a high ranking officer under Akbar yet wrote in a neutral way. His book covers
thehistoryofsultanateandAkbarandotherprovinceslikeBengal,Malwa,Jaunpur,Kashmir,Sind
etc.Hedidn'twritetogainfavorsfromtheemperorandwasamanofhighintegrity.
2. HeusesotherworkslikeTuzukiBabri,Akbarnamaandnumerousotherhistoricaltextsofhisage.
(c)MuntakbhutTarikhbyAlBadayuni
1. Badayuni represented the traditional fanatical ulemma class. He had grown up and received
educationinaveryorthodoxandfanaticalenvironment.HehatedAkbarforhisreligioustolerance
which he believed had led to the ignorance of learned scholars like him. He believed that all the
high posts and influence should be exclusively reserved for muslims and that too for learned
scholarslikehim.Thiswashisbiggestlimitationbutatthesametimealsoletsusknowtheimpact
ofAkbar'spoliciesonthissection.
2. BadayunihadbeeninvitedtoibadatkhanaaffairsofAkbar.Buthesoonfoundoutthathisorthodox
views would have no impact on the emperor. He was also jealous of Abul Fazl (who not only
influenced Akbar's policies but also was involved in implementing them) whom he accused of
poisoningtheemperor'smindandthishatredshowsinhiswork.Hebelieveshimselftobeasoldier
ofIslamandbrandsbothAkbarandAbulFazlasenemiesofIslam.Hewasalsodissatisfiedfrom
Akbar for his regulations imposed on madadimash (the tax free land grants made to muslim
ulemmas).
3. Hisworkhas3partsfirstonebeginsfromSubuktginandlaststillHumayun'sdeath(thiscanbe
consideredasasummaryofTabakatiAkbar),secondrelatestoAkbarandthirdrelatestosome
sufisaints,poetsandmuslimscholars.
4. His work is full of religious intolerance and hatred for hindus. But it must be kept in mind that he
was jealous of rich hindus as they were richer than him and focuses his venom on them. At the
same time he ignores poor hindus just like he ignores poor muslims as this reflects the typical
mindsetoftheprivilegedclassoftheage.
5. His research and analysis was shallow as he was not really interested in describing any event of
theage.HemerelywantedtopourvenomonbothAkbarandAbulFazl.
TuzukiJahangiribyJahangir
1. This is an autobiography and describes in detail his campaigns including failures, factionalism
emerging in the high noblery, transfers of mansabdars and how he himself turned away from his
responsibilities. The work reflects his desires, his efforts, successes, failures everything. He
describeshowhewantedtobelikehisfather.Hewritesindetailabouthisdailylife,histhoughts
veryhonestly.
2. He doesn't stay limited to his life only. He also describes his officers, his perception about their
thoughts and factional fights etc. This makes it a very good source. He also describes the
geographicaldetailsofhisjourneytoKashmir,Malwa,Ajmer,GujaratandPunjab.
3. First15yearsofhisreignwereverygoodbutfromthe16thyearonwardsproblemsbeginandhe

starts to retire from active life. This is reflected in the form of irregular entries in the book. In the
alteryearshedelegatedtheresponsibilityofhistorywritingtoMotmidKhanwhowritesinthename
ofJahangirtillthe19thyear.FromthenonhewritesIkbalnamaiJahangiriinhisownnamewhich
againisaveryreliablesource.
Padshahnama(forShahjahan)
1. Thishas3versions.FirstwaswrittenbyKazwiniwhichcoversthefirst10yearsofhisreign.Next
was written by Abdul Hamid Lahori and covers first 20 years of the reign. The third version was
writtenbyMuhammadWariswhichcoversthelast10yearsofhisreign.Thisworkcoversindetail
theprinces,amirs,scholars,sufis,poets,campaigns,politicalevents,transfersetc.
Aurangzeb'sHistoriography
(a)AlamgirnamabyKasemShiraji
1. Hecoversthefirst10yearsofhisreign.Likeotherofficialhistorians,hetoohadaccesstoallthe
governmental records. Where he needed more information he could investigate anyone and was
also free to consult the emperor. He liberally praises Aurangzeb and criticizes his brothers and
evenShahjahan.HepraisesthoseamirswhosidedwithAurangzebinhissuccessionwar.
(b)MuntakbhulLubabbyKhafiKhan
1. ThisisacriticalworkofAurangzeb'sreignandhewriteshowthepeasantrywasoppressedbythe
mughals and always lived in fear. He also criticizes the handling of deccani affairs and his work
containstheelementspointingtowardsthedeclineofmughalempire.
(c)FutuhatiAlamgiribyIsardasNagar
1. This covers his reign up to 34 years and talks in detail about his relations with rajputs. He writes
how by 1691 Aurangzeb's policies had failed and his noblery had hatched ambitions to carve out
independentprincipalities.
EuropeanSources:JeanTaverner
1. He was a merchant and hence was interested mostly in economic activities of the country. But a
differencebetweenhimandotherwritersisthathedidn'tremainconfinedtothecourtactivities.He
travelledacrossIndiaandalsowroteaboutthepeople,sociallife(whateverhecouldunderstand)
and economic life. Thus he becomes an important source albeit one which should be interpreted
with proper caution. He thus writes about the production activities in India, the merchants, the
sarafs,theinvolvementofamirsintrade,varioustemplesetc.
2. One limitation is that he travelled through forests so he could have written about the tribals there
buthedidn't.Thenhiswritingsonreligiousandculturallivesareatbestshallow.
EuropeanSources:FrancisBernier
1. He had stayed in India for a long period. So he came to understand the circumstances here in a
betterway.Hehadaccesstotheroyalcourtsandhencewritesaboutthelivesoftherulingclass
includingtheprincesses.Hewritesabouttherajputsaswell.
2. He also throws sufficient light on the economic life. He writes about the craftsmen, the peasants
etc.Butheincorrectlyassertsthattheemperorwastheownerofalllandhere.
3. Onamirshewritesthattheylivedaveryconsuminglife.Despitelargeincomestheywerealways
indebted. He talks about the transportation means, the mughal army, the brahmans and their
narrowmindsetandsuperstitions,thesatisystem,devadasisystemandcraftproductionprocesses
inIndia.
MughalArchitecture
Features
1. Change & Continuity: Double dome, charbagh style were elements of continuity. Influence of
provincialarchitecture,kalash,petradurastylewereelementsofchange.
2. Due to the central asian origin of the emperors the architecture was characterized by fusion of
HinduIslamicarchitecturespeciallyunderAkbar.Onesuchinfluenceisthekalashplacedontopof
thedomeswhichwasborrowedfromHindutemplearchitecture.InSJ'stime,greateremphasiswas

placed on Islamic character of buildings. Thus during Akbar's period we can see a fusion of
regionalstylesintoMughalbuildings.InRedFortwecanseedistinctGujaratiandMalwainfluence.
The use of domes was avoided and instead replaced by chatris. Domes were used only in the
mosque. We can see the use of colorful and glazed tiles on the external walls in Sikri which
resemble Persian style. On the other hand the internal walls and chatris were ornamented with
motifs of different animals and human beings in the Rajput style. Fatehpur Sikri too saw huge
influenceofGujaratandRajputstyles.Rajputinfluenceiswitnessedinthedoorsandwindowsand
inJodhabai'sandBirbal'spalaceswhileKashmiriinfluenceisvisibleinMariam'spalace.InBirbal's
palace we can see the arches were decorated with motifs of lotus, rose and other flowers. In the
DiwaniKhaswecanseetheinfluenceofJain,BuddhistaswellasHindustyles.
3. Itusedthecharbaghstyle.Initiallythemonumentwasconstructedinthemiddleofthegardenona
raised plinth and flowing water. Humayun's tomb is the first example. Shahjahan changed it to
placingthemonumentinonecornerofthegarden.
4. Many beautiful gardens with flowing canals were created. It began with Babur who got a garden
created in Agra when he began to live there. Example are Shalimar @ Lahore, Nishat Bagh in
Kashmir.
5. Doubledomewasanotherfeature.Humayun'stombisthefirstexample.
6. Red sandstone from Dhaulpur was extensively used by Mughals. Examples are Shahjahanabad
andFatehpurSikri.Marblewasalsoused.FromJahangir'stimeavisibleshiftwasmadetowards
useofmarble.
7. SomenewcitieslikeDinPanahbyHumayunandShergarhbySSSwerebuilt.
8. Pietra dura style was used for ornamentation. Floral designs were carved in walls and semi
preciousstoneswerefittedintheseengravingsforentiredesign.
9. LastexampleofMughalarchitectureisSafdarjungtomb.
10. Thearchitecturewassuitedtotheclimaticconditionsoftheland.Theroomswerelargeandairy.
Therewerebiggardensaroundthebuildingandmanyfountainsaswell.Theroofshadthekhus
khusgrasstokeepthemcool.
MughalArchitectureasaReflectionofContemporaryLife
1. It symbolizes the great power of the ruling class and the great divide between the rulers and the
ruled.Mughalsbroughtavastareaofthecountryundertheiradministration.Theyhadelaborate
machinerytoextracttheagriculturesurplusandthissurpluswasconcentratedinfewhandsonly.
This gave them the ability to provide for best of the resources from all over the country in their
monuments.Thisshowsinthesuperiorityoftheirarchitecture.Theeliteandprivilegedclassused
burnt bricks, mortar and stones (because stone cutting and polishing was costly) and arches,
domes and vaulted roofs in their constructions. They also made use of glasses for their windows
andJahangirevenusedcoloredglasseswhichwereveryexpensive.Commonersusedmudbricks
orkucchahouses.
2. They reflect the increasing power of the emperor even in respect of his amirs. Thus while in the
Lodirulewefindthatthemonumentsofhisamirswereasgoodasthoseofthesultan,inmughal
age monuments of the emperors were way above anybody else's. While the emperors had the
resourcesandcapacitytoobtainbestofmaterialandlaborfromanypartofthecountryhisnobles
andprovincialrulers/governorsclearlycouldn'tdoso.
3. We can see the impact of Akbar's desire to be the religious leader of Indian muslims as well. In
DiwaniAam @ Sikri we can see that the emperor's throne was placed in the western direction
whichgavehimreligioussupremacyaswell.Theuseofmanyprovincialstylesinthebuildingscan
beseentoreflectAkbar'sdesiretobetheemperorofwholeIndiaandnotjustapartofit.Butthis
innovative and assimilative character was replaced by a traditional character in Shahjahan's
monuments.
4. The monuments clearly show the state of the empire in those days. For instance the majestic
fusion and smooth construction of Sikri shows the stability and the strength of the empire. By
Shahjahan's time a stagnation had occurred which we can see in the lack of variety in the
construction. The freshness and cultural fusion of the buildings gave way to artificial grandeur.
TheinnovativeandassimilativecharacterofAkbar'stimewasreplacedbyatraditionalcharacterin
Shahjahan'smonuments.Itappearsthatthiswasanattempttohidethegrowingproblemsofthe

empire.ByAurangzeb'stimethearchitecturedeclinedduetohispersonalindifferenceaswellas
economic condition of the state. Whatever monuments are there show traditional style only and
lack of creativity. Instead the monuments of the regional principalities began to grow in their
attraction.Thisshowsthedeclineoftheempire.
5. Thesemajesticprojectsreflectedtheculturalcurrentsandtastesoftheageintherulingclass.The
emperorsoftenpersonallypaidattentiontotheplansandconstructionofthemonuments.Thuswe
havepaintingsofAkbarobservingtheconstructionofFatehpurSikripersonally.
6. After 300 years of liberal exchanges and changes, Indian architecture style had stabilized. The
craftsmenhadbecomemastersoftheirartandthisshowsinthebuildingswhichshowastylethat
is more mature and uniform than its predecessors. Architecture during sultanate period was
heterogenousandmorelikeacollectionofdifferentstyles.
7. The construction made use of labor intensive technologies which indicate the abundance of
unskilledandskilledlaboroftheageandthatithadbecomeanimportantindustry.Largeamount
oflaborwasemployed.ForinstanceAkbarnamatellsus4000workerswereemployedeverydayfor
the construction of Agra fort. Jama Masjid of Delhi employed 8000 workers and Taj Mahal
employed20000workersworkingeveryday.
8. Thearchitecturewassuitedtotheclimaticconditionsoftheland.Theroomswerelargeandairy.
Therewerebiggardensaroundthebuildingandmanyfountainsaswell.Theroofshadthekhus
khusgrasstokeepthemcool.
9. The architecture clearly shows a fusion of IndoIslamic styles and shows the prevailing
undercurrentsofcommunalharmonyandliberalexchangeinthesociety.
10. The mughal amirs used to construct their buildings close to the buildings constructed by their
ancestors.
11. Thefoundationofanymajorprojectwaslaidonlyafterconsultingtheastrologicalcharts.
MughalPainting
Howtheyreflectthecontemporarylife?
1. PainterswerebothHinduMuslimsaswellaslowercastehindus.
2. Court patronized. Book illustrations played an important role. Karkhanas were established for
painting.Painterswerepaidmonthlysalaries+bonuses.
3. Itwasunislamicyetliberalinterpretationofislamallowsit.
4. PaintedportraitsofAkbarshowingdespotism.
5. Specializationabsent.
6. Mughal paintings show the construction scenes of the big monuments and also tell us about the
usedtechnologies.Forinstancesomepaintingsshowushowstoneswerecutandpolishedtobe
usedinFatehpurSikri.
7. Courtscenes,huntingscenes,warswerepainted.Indiancolorsweredeveloped.
MughalPaintingsunderAkbar
1. IntheinitialphaseduringAkbar,paintingsusedtodrawheavilyfrompersianstylethoughwecould
see some influences of Indian style occasionally. One of the first important paintings was the
miniaturestyleDastaniAmirHamzaorHamzanama.Ithad1200paintingsandusedbrightcolors.
Amir Hamza was a Persian mythological hero and Akbar used to enjoy his stories. Hamzanama
depicts foreign plants and flowers. We can also see influence of Hindus style in the painting of
womeninit.InAnwariSuhailiwecanseethatthebirdsandanimalsarepaintedinaverynatural
style whereas in persian style animals are painted in a very artificial way (they appear more like
masksthanaliveanimals).ItshowsIndiantreesandflowersbutpaintshillsandcloudsinpersian
style.ThesepaintersweremostlyPersians.
2. In the next phase Akbar's policies had become much more assimilatory and the resulting fusion
culturehadbecomemature.Akbarwasbecomingmoreinterestedinanalysisofdifferentreligions.
So he wanted many books of different religions to be translated into Persian. Such translations
wouldalsoincludeminiatures.Thisgaveabigboosttothefusionprocess.Wecanseethesame
impact in the paintings as they now included various provincial styles like Gwalior, Gujarat,
Rajputana,Lahore,Kashmiretc.Thiswaspossibleastheirpainterswerenowdrawnfromallover
India and not just Persia. Tootinama is an important painting from this phase and we can see

Indian influence in both subjects as well as style. The most famous painting of this age was
Razmnamawhichworkedasamilestoneforotherpaintings.
3. With time we can also see the European influence in the paintings. It began when in 1580 Akbar
invited a missionary to his durbar. They brought many paintings with them. The mughal princes
were impressed and the painters tried to incorporate its features in their own paintings. In the
beginning they just copied the outlines and filled it in their own colors and style. Later on we can
seetheeuropeaninfluencebothinthesubjectsandstyle.Apopularfeaturenowwasthatthefront
objectswereputinaperspectivebychangingtheirsize.
4. DuringthefinalyearsAkbarwasbesiegedwithmanyproblemsincludingtherevoltofprinceSalim
anddeathofprincesMuradandDaniyal.Wecanseethecorrespondingdeclineinthepaintingsas
wellspeciallyminiatures.Thisdeclinewasevidentnotonlyinquantitybutalsoqualityastheynow
lackedcreativity.
MughalPaintingsunderJahangir
1. DuringAkbar'sreignthepaintingwasboundbythesubjectofthemanuscriptofwhichitformeda
part. Jahangir freed it from this limitation and encouraged free paintings (on subjects dictated by
him)includingportraits.Initiallyhegotsomeofthepaintingsredonefromtheroyallibrary.Thenhe
turned towards life size portraits and other scenes from royal life. It must be kept in mind even
Akbar got portraits done but under Jahangir they became the dominating theme. Jahangir was
eager to have important events of his life and reign recorded and asked the painters to paint his
durbar scenes, festival celebrations, flowers and animals which interested him etc. There is one
paintingwhichshowsJahangiraimingforalioness'seyeandaRajputprinceispointingtowardsit.
2. ThepaintingsoftheageelevatedJahangir'sauraandshowedhiminamajesticform.Maybethey
are an attempt to take his mind away from the dissonance of his failures to tackle some of the
problemshefacedorsomeofthedesireshecouldneverfulfill.Theywerejustanattempttoshow
him as a great, all conquering, merciful and just ruler. For instance we can see him greeting the
persianruleronequaltermsthoughhenevermethim.Theonepaintingshowshimpresidingover
(asagreatgreatemperor)ameetingofmanykingsandprincesfromfarofflands.Inanotherheis
seenaskickingMalikAmbar'shead.
3. Thus gradually in his reign we can see miniatures declining and getting replaced by free style
paintingsincludingtheportraits.
4. The paintings also show the animals and birds in a very natural way and focus on their bodily
featureswithaprecisenesswhichisamazing.Wecanseesignsofscientificstudyofsuchsubjects
beforethepaintings.
MughalPaintingsafterJahangir
1. For some years Shahjahan let them work as they were working under Jahangir. But later on he
begantohavehimselfpaintedinassociationwithsomedivinepowerslikeforinstancetheangels
themselvesaredescendingonearthtokeepthecrownonhishead,ortheyarestandingholding
flags in their hands and praying for his victory and long life. He also had himself painted in most
imposing forms. In one painting we can see Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan with Akbar directly
givingthecrowntoShahjahan.
2. Perhapsallthiswasanattempttohidethedeclineinthefortunesoftheempire.Thatiswhythere
is too much of glorifying the emperor. The decline in mughal painting had clearly set in and
creativityhadgivenwaytotraditionalism.
3. Europeaninfluencecanbeclearlyseeninthesepaintingsasthereisgenerallyanilluminatedcircle
behindhisheadradiatinglightasintheeuropeanpaintingsofJesus.Furtherwecanseethatthe
backgroundisgenerallypaintedblurinlightcolors.
RajputanaSchoolofPainting
1. Rajputana paintings can be broadly divided into (a) court paintings which depict as usual the
lifestyle of the feudal lords. We can see clear mughal influence here in the form of dresses,
symbols,background,sceneryetc.Theinfluencegrewasthepaintersreturnedfromthedelhicourt
duetothedeclineoftheempire.(b)literarypaintingswhichtypicallydrawtheirsubjectmatterfrom
hindu religion. They also show less influence of islamic art and more of rajput traditional art only
becausetheinteractionwithmughalswasmoreintherulingclass.(c)folkpaintingswhichtypically

showfestivals,celebrations,dailylifeeventsetc.
MewarSchool
1. It mainly flourished in Chittor, Udaipur, Nathdwara, Deogarh, Sirohi, Saawar under Sisodias. It
shows comparatively lesser influence of mughal style due to distant political relations with the
mughals.
2. Under Rana Amar Singh we can see that the men clothing is triangular in the bottom part of the
body which indicates mild mughal influence only. Under his successor Rana Jagat Singh we can
seeanincreaseinthereligiouspaintingsaswellascourtpaintings.Thesepaintingsdepictedmen
andwomeninamixofmughalandtraditionalwear,birds,flowersetc.allintheirnaturalstatebut
thehillswerepaintedinmughalstyle.
3. Inthefirsthalfof18thcenturythecourtpaintingsflourishedfurtheraslotofpainterscameback,
butafterthatwecanseeadeclineundertheinfluence.
AmberSchool
1. ItflourishedunderKachwahasinAmber,Jaipur,Alwar.
2. Here the folk painting and literature related religious painting flourished more. It flourished under
ManSingh,SawaiJaiSinghandhissuccessors.Butby19thcenturyitlostitsappeal.
MarwarSchool
1. It flourished under Rathores in Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Pali. With time we can see growing
mughal influence in the Jodhpur school as the traditional rajput elements were replaced by
refinementandadornment.Itportraysmenandwomeninstockybodiesandmenwithmustaches.
2. Bikanerschoolwastheonemostcloselyaffiliatedwiththemughalstyleasithadveryclosepolitical
relationswithmughals.Insteadofbrightcolorsorbeautifulsceneryworklikeotherrajputschoolsit
usessoftlinesandcolorassortmentlikethemughals.Itappearsthatwhenmughalpainterswere
neglected under Shahjahan they came to Bikaner. Apart from the mughal influence we can also
seedeccaniinfluenceherebecauseRanaAnupSinghstayedindeccanforlongunderAurangzeb.
Theytoofocusonthebodilybeautyofwomenwhoarelightandslim.
BundiSchool
1. ItflourishedundertheHadasinBundiandJhalawar.BundiwaslocatedbetweenAmberinnorth,
Mewar in south and Kota in west. So Bundi used to attract painters from all these schools and
hencedevelopeditsdistinctstyle.
2. It typically used bright lively colors, focused on the bodily beauty of women and added to their
beauty by using sceneries including hills, rivers, forests, trees, fruits, flowers etc. in very natural
sense.Itusedaspecialmixtureofcolorstoshowtheskyinbackground.
3. In18thcenturythesubjectsweremostlyhuntingscenes,durbars,portraitsofthefeudallordsand
theirentertainment(examplesofmughalinfluence).Ittoodeclinedinthelaterhalfof18thcentury.
KotaSchool
1. Although it is close to Bundi, it still developed a unique style. Bundi passed through a turbulent
phase in the 18th century. So many painters from there came to Kota and worked here. Thus it
cameclosertoBundi.
2. The subjects were mostly hunting scenes, portraits of the feudal lords and their entertainment
(examplesofmughalinfluence).Ittoodeclinedinthelaterhalfof18thcentury.
KishangarhSchool
1. TheRanaherewasveryinterestedinartformsandwasinfluencedbysagunbhakti.Thefamous
BaniThanipaintingisfromKishangarh.ThepaintingsheredepictRadhaandKrishnaingardensor
celebratingfestivalsetc.Itwasverymuchinfluencedbybhaktiandthefocusisonthebodilybeauty
ofRadha.
PahadiSchoolsofPainting
KangraSchoolofPainting
1. Thisschoolreflectstheclosenesstonatureandusesnaturalscenestoexpresshumanemotions.
Forexampledrytreestosymbolizeseparation,brightflowerstosymbolizemeetingetc.

2. IthasmanyregionalvariationswhichcanbeseeninBilaspur,Jammu,Mandi,Garhwal,Chamba,
Nurpuretc.
BasauliSchoolofPainting
1. WecanseeaclearfusionoffolkartofKashmir,MughalschoolandRajputschoolhere.Itschief
centerswereJasrota,Mankot,Bandharlata,Jammu,Nurpur,Chamba.
2. Initially we can see the traditional art forms clearly with people wearing traditional dresses and
ornaments etc. After the turbulence in Delhi due to invasions and throne games, many painters
came here and we see the influence of mughal style growing. This we can see in the form of
changesindresses,expressionsofwomen,ornamentationetc.
GulerorEastKangraSchoolofPainting
1. One of the reasons for its development was that due to disorder the route between Delhi and
NWFPandKashmirchangedfrompassingviaLahoretoviaJammu.Sowithtimethiscameunder
mughalinfluence.
DifferenceswithMughalandRajputSchools
1. While mughal school has focused on the splendor of the emperor and his court, pahadi school
expresses the emotions, nature, religious sentiments etc. Thus pahadi school could focus on life
outsidetheroyalsphereaswell.
2. Pahadischooltriestoportraycommonlifestyleandclothingstylethroughkrishnaasithappenedin
European renaissance. Thus krishna is depicted as wearing pahadi dresses and among pahadi
womenwearingtraditionaldresses.Thescenesaredepictedintheoriginalstateofnature.
3. Apart from krishna, pahadi paintings also depict common girls playing the common games of the
day or playing music or depicts animals and birds in their natural settings. Women are shown as
well like mughal paintings. the paintings of the princes and their families are very much mughal
styled. The difference here though is that while such mughal paintings focused on some political
events like battles, surrender by the enemy, receiving an ambassador etc. pahadi paintings on
sucheventsarefew.
ProvincialArchitecture&Painting
LucknowSchoolofPainting
DeccaniSchoolofPainting
1. ItflourishedinBijapur,GolcondaandAhmadnagar.Therewasalotofexchangebetweenthethree
centersduetotheupheavalsoftheagesoitisoftendifficulttodistinguishwhichpaintingbelonged
to which place. There were exchanges with Rajputs as well as Mughals. Nizamshahi sultans also
welcomedthepaintersfromVijaynagarempire.Thusthepaintingsshowagoodfusionwithhindu
styleaswell.
2. These paintings show openness as against the traditionalism which crept into mughal paintings
duringShahjahan.Themostfamouspaintingisthatofayogini(orprincess)fromBijapur.AdilShah
IandIbrahimAdilShahofBijapurweregreatpatronsofartincludingpaintings.Theirpaintingsare
clearlyinfluencedbywesternromanticschool.
PatnaSchoolofPainting
LucknowSchoolofArchitecture
RajputanaSchoolofArchitecture
ClassicalMusic
1. Originally there was only one system of music but in medieval age, north India came under the
influence of Persian music leading to formation of 2 schools Hindustani (north) and Karnataka
(south). They have common basic features like raga, taal, performance includes a soloist (either
vocaloroninstrument),adrummerandatanpura.
2. InitiallyDhrupadstylewaspopularwhichusedveenaastheinstrument.Anothermusicstylewhich
was popular among people in those days was Dhamar style which focused on describing krishna
along with the country girls, krishna playing holi in Braj, celebration of festivals etc. Mughal court
couldn'tremainuninfluencedbyHoliandTansenetalcomposedmanyDhamarsaswellandthus
thisfolkmusicstylefounditswayinthemughalcourts.Apartfromthesetwotherewasthebhakti

music specially from Kabir, Mira etc. which was sung. Then Akbar also gave patronage to
musicians from southern india as well as north west. Thus an all encompassing music evolved in
his period. Jahangir was a patron of music as well specially gazals. This continued under
ShahjahanbutdeclinedunderAurangzeb.
3. In the 18th century under Muhammed Shah (court musicians Adarang and Sadarang) and under
rulerofJaunpur,thekhyalstyleemergeddominant.Itdifferedfromdhrupadinthesenseitallowed
for more freedom of the musician as well as was was light and full of life. It has only two parts
(sthayi and antara) as against the 4 in dhrupad. It is more suited to the female voice and this
helpedinitsspread.Inkhyalstyleaswellthereweretwotypeschotakhyalandbadakhyal.Bada
khyal has slow tempo while chota khyal has medium and high and hence became more popular
amongthetwo.Khyalwasdifficulttoplayonthetraditionalveenaandhencenewinstrumentslike
sitarandtablacameup.
CarnaticMusic
1. IncontrasttoHindustanimusic,themainemphasisinCarnaticmusicisonvocalmusicmostcompositions
are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed
ingayaki(singing)style.
2. It peaked under Vijaynagar empire @ Tanjavur in 16 17 century. Purandar Das is known as the father of
Carnatic Music. Bhakti movement and folk music traditions contributed a lot to the development of

Carnaticmusic.
Shruti
1. It refers to musical pitch, the note from which all the others are derived. It is also used in the sense of
graded pitches in an octave. While there are an infinite number of sounds falling within a raga in Carnatic
music,thenumberthatcanbedistinguishedbyauditoryperceptionistwentytwo.
Swara

1. It consist of seven notes, "sarigamapadani". Every member of the swara has 3 variants (like ra, ri, ru)
except for sa, pa, ma. It refers to a type of musical sound that is a single note, which defines a relative
(higherorlower)positionofanote,ratherthanadefinedfrequency.
Raga

1. In Carnatic music, it prescribes a set of rules for building a melody. It specifies rules for movements up
(aarohanam) and down (avarohanam), the scale of which notes should figure more and which notes should
be used more sparingly, which notes may be sung with gamaka (ornamentation), which phrases should be
used or avoided, and so on. In effect, it is a series of obligatory musical events which must be observed,
eitherabsolutelyorwithaparticularfrequency.

Tala
1. Taals are the repeating succession of beats or claps like on a dholak (dhikdhadhikdhak
dhin).Theyhavecyclesofadefinednumberofbeatsandrarelychangewithinasong.
HindustaniMusic
1. Fusion of Vedic and Persian music as well as sufi tradition. Names like Amir Khusrau and Tansen are
associatedwiththisschool.SufitraditionbroughtreligiousassimilationinthemusicasMuslimsingerssung
praisingHindudeitiesandviceversa.
2. Itistraditionalforperformerswhohavereachedadistinguishedlevelofachievementtobeawardedtitlesof
respectHindusareusuallyreferredtoaspanditandMuslimsasustad.

DhrupadStyle
1. Itsnameisderivedfromthewords"dhruva"(fixed)and"pada"(words).Thistraditioncanbetracedbackto
Vedas.Butitsawadeclinefrom18centuryonwards.Anewergenre,khyal, gained popularity at dhrupad's
expense as it placed less constraints on the singers and also the new instruments being developed
thesitarandthesarodwerenotsuitedtodhrupad.
2. Dhrupad as we know it today is performed by a solo singer or a small number of singers in unison to the
beatofthepakhavajormridangratherthanthetabla.Thevocalistisusuallyaccompaniedbytwotanpuras.
3. Dhrupadstyleshavelongelaboratealapsandgraduallyaccelerates.Thealapisderivedfromamantra,ina

recurrent,setpattern:arenena,tterenena,rirerenena,tenetone.Inmoststylesofdhrupadsinging
caneasilylastanhour.Itisbroadlysubdividedintothealapproper(unmetered),thejor(withsteadyrhythm)
and the jhala (accelerating strumming) or nomtom, when syllables are sung at a very rapid pace. Then the
composition is sung to the rhythmic accompaniment: the four lines, in serial order, are
termedsthayi,antara,sanchariandaabhog.

KhyalStyle
1. Khyal bases itself on a collection of short songs of two to eight lines each called a bandish. Khyal
bandishesaretypicallycomposedinavariantofUrdu/Hindi,andsometimesinPersian,MarathiorPunjabi,
andthesecompositionscoverdiversetopics,suchasromanticordivinelove,praiseofkingsorgods,the
seasons,dawnandduskandtheycanhavesymbolismandimagery.Thebandishisdividedintotwoparts
thesthayiandtheantara.Thesthayioftenusesnotesintheloweroctave,whiletheantarausesinupper
octave.
2. Every singer generally renders the same bandish differently, with only the text and the raga remaining the
same.Atypicalkhyalperformanceusestwosongsthebadakhyalinslowtempocomprisingmostofthe
performance, while the chota khyal in fast tempo used as a finale. The songs are sometimes preceded by
improvisedalap.
3. The singer uses the bandish as raw material for improvisation, accompanied by a harmonium or sarangi,
tablaandatanpurainthebackground.

TaranaStyle
1. ItisatypeofcompositioninHindustaniclassicalvocalmusicinwhichcertainwordsandsyllablesare used
inamediumtempoandfasttempo.ItwasinventedbyAmirKhusrau.
TappaStyle

1. Tappa originated from the folk songs of the camel riders of Punjab and developed as a form of classical
musicbyMianGhulamNabiShori@Oudh.
ThumriStyle

1. ItisasemiclassicalIndianmusic.Itdeveloped@OudhanddealsmainlywithKrishna.