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1

A MAJOR PROJECT REPORT


ON

SOLAR WATER PURIFIER


SUBMITTED
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
BY
B. RAMULU

09241A0329

P.MURALI KRISHNA
V. NARESH

10245A0307
10245A0311

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Mr. P.P.C. PRASAD


ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology
Bachupally-HYDERABAD-500 090, A.P., INDIA
April 2013

CONTENTS

S.NO.

NAME OF THE CHAPTER

Chapter - 1
INTRODUCTION

1
2

Chapter - 2
SOLAR STILL

3.

PAGE NO.

Chapter 3

WORKING OF SOLAR WATER PURIFIER


3.1.Working principle
3.2.supply fills ports
3.3 over flow port
3.4. distilled output collection port
3.5.solar still background
4.

Chapter -4

TROUBLESHOOTING
4.1.white crusty bottom inside purifier
4.2. Large drops of water on underside of glass.
4.3.broken glass
4.4.bobbles in liner

5.

6.

Chapter-5
SOALAR ENERGY

Chapter-6

SOLAR RADIATION
6.1.solar radiation outside the earths atmosphere
6.2.beam or direct radiation
6.3.soalr radiation at the earth surface
6.4.measurement of solar radiation

7.

Chapter -7
SOLAR WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEM

7.1. solar energy storage

7.2.solar constant
8.

Chapter-8
DESIGHN OF SOLAR WATER PURIFICATION PLANT
8.1.details of different parts of the system
8.1.1.still basin
8.1.2.top cover
8.1.3.channel
8.1.4.side walls
8.1.5.support for top cover

9.

Chapter-9
MATERIALS TO BE USED
9.1.properties
9.2about mild steel
Chapter-10

10.

DESIGHN CALCULATIONS

11.

Chapter-11
TECHNICAL REPORT
11.1.results and discussions
11.2.readings taken for still
11.3.observations
11.4.tested of purifier

12.

Chapter-12
CONCLUSION
Chapter-13
BIBILOGRAPHY

LIST OF FIGURES
13.
S.NO.

1.

NAME OF THE DIAGRAM

PAGE
NO.

Chapter-7
7.1 purification system
7.2 solar panel
7.3 water in atmosphere
7.4 difference between boiling
and evaporation

12
13
15
16

2.
Chapter - 8
8.0.1.desighn of solar
purification plant
8.0.2. proposed model of solar
distillation system
8.1.1.still basin
8.1.2.top cover
8.1.3.chaannel
8.1.4.sidewall
8.1.5.working model of solar
distillation system

20
21
22
23
24
25
26

LIST OF TABLES

S.NO.

NAME OF THE TABLE

1.

Chapter-11
11.2.1. reading for solar still

PAGE NO.

32

LIST OF FIGURES

NAME OF THE DIAGRAM

S.NO.

1.

Chapter-7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

2.

PAGE NO.

purification system
solar panel
water in atmosphere
difference between boiling and evaporation

Chapter - 8
8.0.1.desighn of solar purification plant
8.0.2. proposed model of solar distillation system
8.1.1.still basin
8.1.2.top cover
8.1.3.chaannel
8.1.4.sidewall
8.1.5.working model of solar distillation system

LIST OF TABLES

S.NO.

NAME OF THE TABLE

Chapter-11

PAGE NO.

6
1.

11.2.1. reading for solar still

ABSTRACT

There is almost no water left on earth that is safe to drink without purification after 20-25
years from today.
This is a seemingly bold statement, but it is unfortunately true. Only 1% of Earth's water is in
a fresh, liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both diseases and toxic chemicals.
For this reason, purification of water supplies is extremely important. Keeping these things in
mind, we have devised a model which will convert the dirty/saline water into pure/potable
water using the renewable source of energy (i.e. solar energy).
The basic modes of the heat transfer involved are radiation, convection and conduction. The
results are obtained by evaporation of the dirty/saline water and fetching it out as
pure/drinkable water. The designed model produces 1.5 litres of pure water from 14 litres of
dirty water during six hours.

Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
Water is the basic necessity for human along with food and air. There is almost no water left
on Earth that is safe to drink without purification. Only 1% of Earth's water is in a fresh,
liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both diseases and toxic chemicals. For this
reason, purification of water supplies is extremely important. Moreover, typical purification
systems are easily damaged or compromised by disasters, natural or otherwise.
This results in a very challenging situation for individuals trying to prepare for such
situations, and keep themselves and their families safe from the myriad diseases and toxic
chemicals present in untreated water. Everyone wants to find out the solution of above
problem with the available sources of energy in order to achieve pure water.
Fortunately there is a solution to these problems. It is a technology that is not only capable of
removing a very wide variety of contaminants in just one step, but is simple, cost-effective,
and environmentally friendly. That is use of solar energy.

Chapter-2

SOLAR STILL
Solar purification is a tried and true technology. The first known use of stills dates back to
1551 when it was used by Arab alchemists. Other scientists and naturalists used stills over the
coming centuries including Della Portal (1589), Lavoisier(1862), and Machete (1869)[3]. The
first "conventional" solar still plant was built in 1872 by the Swedish engineer Charles
Wilson in the mining community of Las Salinas in what is now northern Chile (Region II).
This still was a large basin-type still used for supplying fresh water using brackish feed water
to a nitrate mining community. The plant used wooden bays which had blackened bottoms
using logwood dye and alum.
The total area of the distillation plant was 0.278 square meters. On a typical summer day this
plant produced 1.59 kg of distilled water per square meter of still surface, or more than 15.59
litres per day. Solar water Distillation system also called Solar Still. Solar Still can
effectively purify seawater & even raw sewage. Solar Stills can effectively removing
Salts/minerals {Na, Ca, As, Fe, Mn} ,Bacteria { E.coli, Cholera, Outlines}, Parasites ,Heavy
Metals & TDS. Basic principal of working of solar still is Solar energy heats water,
evaporates it (salts and microbes left behind), and condenses as clouds to return to earth as
rainwater.

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Chapter-3

WORKING OF SOLAR WATER PURIFIER


3.1.Working principle: The basic principles of solar water distillation are simple yet
effective, as distillation replicates the way nature purifies water. The suns energy heats water
to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates, purified water vapour roses, condensing
on the glass surface for collection. This process removes impurities such as salts and heavy
metals, as well as destroying microbiological organisms. Is a passive solar distiller that only
needs sunshine to operate; There are no moving parts to wear out.
The distilled water from a still does not acquire the flat taste of commercially distilled
water since the water is not boiled (which lowers pH) . Solar stills use natural evaporation,
which is the rainwater process. This allows for natural pH buffering that produces excellent
taste as compared to steam distillation. Solar stills can easily provide enough water for family
drinking and cooking needs.

Solar distillers can be used to effectively remove impurities ranging from salts to micro
organisms and are even used to make drinking water from seawater. Stills have been will
received by many users, both rural and urban, from around the globe. Solar distillers can be
successfully used any where the sun shines.

The solar stills are simple and have no moving parts. They are made of quality materials
designed to stand- up to the harsh conditions produced by water and sunlight. Operation is
simple: water should be added (either manually or automatically) once a day through the stills
supply fills port. Excess water wool drain outs of the overflow port and this will keep salts
from building up in the basin. Purified drinking water is collected from the out put collection
port

3.2.Supply fills ports:


Water should be added to the still via this port. Water can be added either manually or
automatically. Normally water is adds once a day (in the summer its normally best to fill in
the late evening and the in the winter the early morning).
Care should be taken to add the water at a slow enough flow rate to prevent splashing onto
the interior of the still glazing or overflowing into the collection through.

3.3.Overflow port:
Once the still basin has filled, excess water will flow out of this port.recommonds three times
daily distilled water production to be allowed to overflow from the still on a daily basis to

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prevent salt build-up in the basin if flushed on a daily basis, the overflow water can be used
as appropriate for your feed water.

3.4.Distilled output collection port:


Purified drinking water is collected from this port, typically with a glass collection container.
still that are mounted on the roof can have the distillate output piped directly to an interior
collection container. For a newly installed still, allow the collection through to be selfcleaned by producing water for a couple of days before using the distillate output.

3.5.Solar still back ground:


Solar distillation is a tired and true technology the first known issue of still dates back to
1551 when it was used by Arab alchemists. Other scientists and naturalists used stills over the
coming centuries including Delia Posta (1589), lavisher (1862), and mascot (1869).
The first conventional solar still plant was built in 1872 .by the Swedish engineer Charles
Wilson in the mining community of last Salinas in what is now northern Chile (region //).this
still was a large basin type still used for supplying fresh water using brackish feed water to a
nitrate mining community the plant used wooden bays which had blackened bottoms using
logwood dye and alum.
The total area of the distillation plant was 4700 sq. meter of still surface, ore than 23000 till /
day. This first still plant was in operation for 40 yrs.
Over the past century, literally hundreds of solar still plants and thousands of individual stills
nice been built around the world. Still have built upon years of still research and development
and use only food grade material and are the static of the art for commercial solar still
Distillation.

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Chapter-4

TROUBLESHOOTING

4.1.WHITE CRUSTY BOTTOM INSIDE PURIFIER OR PURIFIER


DOES NT LOOK CLEAN INSIDE:
You need to clean the purifier because it has either run dry and calcium carbonate has been
left behind or else build-up of salts/minerals has occurred due to improper maintenance and
irregular flushing. Take of f the glass, GENTLY scrub (with a soft kitchen dish scrubber) the
bottom and sides with vinegar, rinse and replace glass. You may wish to do this once/ year
(or more often if you wish) any way. Make sure to dump out all the old water first. Some of
the contaminated water will probably splash on the underside of the glass or into the trough
so make sure to let the purifier run for 2-3 years before drinking the water so it will self clean.

4.2.LARGE DROPS OF WATER ON UNDER SIDE OF GLASS OR NOT


GETTING MUCH PURIFIED WATER OUT:
If there is no water inside the purifier, or the sun shines inside when there is no water inside,
it will heat up the purifier like an oven and the mild steel liner will out gas.outgasing but
causes the purifier to loss some production/efficiency .this is due to the large drops that
collect and tend to drop back into the water basin instead of sliding smoothly down the glass
and into the trough as it is supposed to .
You may (since you have the glass off any way) wish to clean the purifier as prescribed
above at the same time. Make sure to let the still run with new water in it for 2-3 years before
drinking the water so it will self cleaned.
4.3.BROKEN GLASS: you can probably pay about 200-300 Rs,for a piece of DOBLE
STRENGTH glass from your local glass supply house, or you can order a piece or
TEMPERD glass 9 preferred since it is safety glass and doesnt cut children or adults as
readily if it does brek,also it is less likely to break as it is stronger than regular or even double
strength glass from solar .
4.4.BUBBLES IN LINER: sometimes due to manufacturing the M.S.liner will gear a
bobble or two (on very rear occasions).this will not harm to your purifier in any way, nor
should it reduce output of purified water.

13

Chapter-5

SOLAR ENERGY
Every day, the surface of planet earth is blasted with so much solar energy that, if harnessed,
60 seconds worth could power the worlds total energy requirements for one year. The sun
is a colossal fusion reactor that has been burning, for more than 4 billion years. In just one
day, it provides more energy than the current human population would consume in 27 years.
By some estimates, the amount of solar recitation striking the earth every 72 hours is
equivalent to all energy stored in the planets coal, oil, and natural gas reserves.

Solar radiation is a free and unlimited natural resource, yet converting it into an energy
sources is a relatively new idea. Using solar power for heat seems simple enough today , but
it wasnt until 1767 that Swiss scientist Horace de assure built the first thermal solar
collectors . He used his solar collator to heat water and cook food. It wasnt until 1891 that
the first commercial patent for a solar water heater was awarded to US inventor clearance
Kemp. The patent right to this system were later purchased by two California executives who
by 1897, had installed the solar powered water heaters in one- third of the homes in
Pasadena, California.
Solar energy has great potential for providing clean and unlimited electricity in May
regions of the world. This renewable resource has largely been ignored by many US energy
providers because there has been little economic motivation due to the abundance of cheap
coal, and oil, corporate shareholders wants their profits today, not sometime in the distant
future. In the last few decades, however, global energy demand has surged, as have the
environmental problems associated with burning coal and oil and the storage of nucleargenerated radioactive waste. In the late 1990s, more governments, utilities, and corporations
were embracing renewable energy sources as environmentalists, consumers, and voters
pressure them to do so. More importantly, many consumers are willing to pay for green
energy so suppliers see future profit in non-polluting renewable energy production. Some
governments and energy suppliers have been slow to recognize the potent ional of solar
power. Historically, research and development in photovoltaics has progressed erratically, in
short- lived during the 1973-1974 oil embargo. By the late 1970s, energy companies and
government agencies wear investing in the PV industry, and acceleration in module
development took place. But solar power remained far behind oil, coal, nuclear, and other
non rewable energy sources. Serious interest in photovoltaics increased again during the
1990s after several military conflicts in the oil Rich Persian gulf

14

Chapter-6

SOLAR RADIATION
Solar energy is the electromagnetic energy or radiation emitted by the sun. solar energy
arrives at the our of the earths atmosphere .part of this radiation is reflected back to space,

15
part is observed by the atmosphere and re emitted and part is state side by atmospheric
particle as a result only about, two thirds of the suns energy reaches the surface of the earth.

6.1.Solar radiation outside the earths atmosphere


The cherictirstics of the suns energy available outside the
earths atmosphere are first considered.
The sun is a large sphere of hot gases the heat being generated by various kinds of
fusion reactions. Its diameter is 1.39*10^6 Km, while that of the earth is 1.27*10^4 Kms.the
mean distance between the two is 1.50 *10^3 Kms.all the sun is large ,it substance an angle
of only 32 min at the earth surface .this is because it is also at a very large distance .thus the
beam radiation received from the sun of the earth is almost parallel, the brightness of the a
sun varies its centre to its edge.
However for engineering calculations, it is customary to assume that the brightness all-overs
the solar disk is uniform as viewed from the earth, the radiation coming from the sun appears
to be essentially equivalent to that coming from a black surface at 5763 K.

6.2.BEAM OR DIRECT RADIATION:


Solar radiation received at the earth surface without change of direction is called beam or
direct radiation .it is if form of straight rays that the unscathed by the atmosphere.

6.3. SOLAR RADIATION AT THE EARTH SURFCE:


Solar radiation is received at the earth surface after being subjected mechanisms of
attenuation, reflection and scattering at the earth atmosphere. The radiation recived
without changed direction is called beam radiation ,while that received after its
direction as been changed by scattering and reflection is called diffused radiation
.the sun of the beam and diffuse radiation flux is referred to as total radiation or
global radiation.
Although extensive studies have been made on the various mechanisms which
reduce the
Quantity of radiation being received at the earth surface is in general not possible to
predict to a reasonable degree of accuracy the amount which might be expected on
the ground .thus the designer of solar process equipment has to taker resources to
one of the following options.
a. Make measurements over a period of time at the location in questions where
solar equipment is to be installed.
B.use measurements available for some other locations whose climate is known to
be reasonable similar to the location under consideration.
C.use epical predictive eqns which link the values of solar radiation with other
metrological parameters whose values are known for the location under
consideration. Examples of such parameters are the no of hours of sunshine received
every day the precipitation that could cover etc.

6.4. MEASUREMENT OF SOLAR RADIATION:


Solar radiation can be measured by the following instruments
1. Pyheliometer
2. Pyranometer

16

I.

II.

Pyheliometer: it is an instrument which measure beam radiation in contact to a


pyranometer,the black sensor disk is located at the base of a tube whose axis is
aligned with the direction of the rears rays. Thus diffuse radiation is essentially
blacked from the sensor surface.
Pyranometer:a pyranometer is an instrument which measure the either global or
diffuse radiation over a hemi spherical field of view. Basically the pyranometer
consists of a black surface which heats up when exposed to the solar radiation.

6.5. SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE:


Solar energy is intermittent energy source and must be stored for lateral use solar
storage may permit to produce uniform electrical or thermal energy is improves the
reliability solar thermal and electrical sytem.soalr storage system provides adequate
input energy to meet the load demand.
Methods of storing solar energy:
The storage system store energy when the collected amount is in excess of the
requirement and discharges energy when the collected amount is in adequate.
The different methods of storing solar energy are:
1. Thermal storage
A. Sensible heat
B.latent heat
2. Chemical storage
A. Thermal chemical storage
B.fuel
C.hydrogen storage
3. Mechanical storage
A.fly wheel
B.compressed air
C.hydro electric storage
4. Electric storage
A. Capacity storage
B.battery storage
C.electromagnetic storage

6.6.SOLAR CONSTANT:

17
The rate at which solar energy arrives at the top of atmosphere is called solar
constant (Isc).solar constant may be defined as the amount of energy received in
unit time on a unit area proportional to the suns directions at the mean distance of
the earth from the sun. The rate of arrival solar radiations varies throughout the
year. The standard value expressed by NASA (NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE
ADMINISTARTION) is 1.353 KW/m2.

Chapter-7

SOLAR WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEM

18
Solar water purification is of the simplest and most effective methods of purifying water.
Solar water distillation replicates the way nature purifies water. The suns energy beats water
to the point of evaporation. As the water evaporates purified water vapour rises, condensing
on the glass surface for collection.
This process removes impurities such as salts and heavy metals, as well as destroying
microbiological organisms. The end result is water cleaner than the purest rainwater.
Only solar energy is required for the still to operate. There are no moving parts to wear out.

The number of systems designed to fitter or purity water has increased dramatically in recent
years. As water supplies have increased in salinity, have been contaminated or have
experienced periods of contamination, people have lost trust in their drinking water supply.
Water filtration systems can be as simple as a filter for taste and odour to complex water
treatment systems can remove more impurities but they are also the most expensive to
operate and required increased maintains.

Fig7.1.. purification system

19

10 watt SOLAR PANEL SPECIFICATION

power(w)
open circuit
voltage
short circuit
current
max.power
voltage
max.power
current
cell-type
frame type
junction box
Length
Width
Depth
Weight
connector
Fig.7.2.solar panel

10 watts
22.30 voc
0.58 ISC
18.70 vmp
0.54 IMP
mono-crystalline
Silver
Yes
13.78
inches(350.01)mm
11.42
inches(290.07)mm
0.98 inches(24.89)mm
3.31 lb (1.50)kg
battery clamp

20

Applications of solar energy


1. heating and cooling of residential building
2. solar water heating

3. solar drying of agricultural and animal products


4. solar distillation on a small community scale

5. Salt production by evaporation of sea water of inland brines.


6. solar cookers

7. solar engines for water pumping

8. food refrigeration

9. bioconversion and wind energy which are indirect source of solar energy

10. solar furnaces

21

Water in atmosphere

In gas form-absorbs long wave radiation (green house gas) and stores latent
heat.
In liquids and solids forms reflects and absorbs solar radiation.

Phase and
transitions

Solid ice in ocean and atm


clouds

Liquid- water in
ocean and atm clouds

Gas vapours
In
atmosphere(humidity)

Fig.7.3.water in atmosphere

22

What is difference between boiling and


evaporation?

Temperature

Boiling takes place at 100


degree Celsius ,but
evaporation takes place at
40 degree Celsius

Bubbles are formed


during boiling ,but
in evaporation

Bubbles

Gas

Gas formed in boiling water is


called steam and gas formed
during evaporation is called
water vapour
Fig.7.4.differnce between boiling and evaporation

What is pressure?
The pressure in a fluid is defined as the normal force per unit area exerted on a imaginary or
real plane surface in a fluid or a gas.
The eqn for pressure p=F/A
Where,
P=pressure lb/in2 (psi)
N/m2 or kg/ms2 (pa)
F=force (n)
A=area (in2, m2)

What is gauge pressure?

23

A gauge is often used to measure the pressure difference between a system and the
surroundings atmosphere.
This pressure is often called the gauge pressure.
It can be expressed as;
Pg=Ps-Patm.
Where,
Pg=gauge pressure.
Ps=system pressure.
Patm=atmospheric pressure.

What is atmospheric pressure?

Atmospheric pressure is pressure in the surroundings air at or close to the surface of the
earth .the atmospheric pressure vary with temperature and altitude above sea level.

The main conclusions are :1atm=1.0325bar=14.696psi=760mm of Hg = 10.33Mh2o=760torr=29.92 in


Hg=101.3mbar=1.0332kg/cm2=33.90ftH2O.

SOME ALTERNATIVE UNITS OF PRESSURE:

1 bar=100000 pa.
1 mille bar=100 pa
1 atmosphere=101325 pa
1 mm of Hg =133 pa
1 inch Hg=3386 pa
1 Atm pressure=760 torr=14.696 pounds per sqr inch (psi).

24

What is Evaporation?
Evaporation is a type of vaporisation of a liquid that only occurs only on the surface of a
liquid. The other type of vaporisation of boiling, which instead, occur within the entire mass
of the liquid.

What is convection?
Convection is a form of heat transfer, as is the process of radiation, which we examined.
Convection takes place in liquids and gases and distinguishes them from solids.

R of the air constant=287 J/kg k


P=mRT
m=mass of unit volume.
R=universal gas constant.

25

Chapter-8

DESIGN OF SOLAR WATER PURIFICATION PLANT

Construction of Solar water purifier:

26

I.

Fig.8.0.a.design of solar water purification plant

27

fig.8.0.b. Proposed Model of Solar Distillation System

28
8.1.

Details of Different Parts of the System

8.1.1. Still Basin: It is the part of the system in which the water to be distilled is kept. It
is therefore essential that it must absorb solar energy. Hence it is necessary that the
material have high absorbtivity or very less reflectivity and very less transitivity. These
are the criterias for selecting the basin materials. Kinds of the basin materials that can be
used are as follows: 1. Leather sheet, 2. Ge silicon, 3. Mild steel plate, 4. RPF (reinforced
plastic) 5. G.I. (galvanised iron).

Fig.8.1.1.STILL BASIN

29
We have used blackened MILD STEEL sheet (K= thermal conductivity= 300W/m0C) (8mm
thick).( SIZE:: BOX3018 inche2 OF M.S.)

8.1.2.Top Cover: The passage from where irradiation occurs on the surface of the basin is
top cover. Also it is the surface where condensate collects. So the features of the top cover
are: 1) Transparent to solar radiation, 2) Non absorbent and Non-adsorbent of water, 3) Clean
and smooth surface. The Materials Can Be Used Are: 1.Aluminium frame, 2.Glass, We have
used glass thickness (8mm).

Fig. 8.1.2. TOP COVER

30
8.1.3.Channel: The condensate that is formed slides over the inclined top cover and falls
in the passage, this passage which fetches out the pure water is called channel. The materials
that can be used are: P.V.C., 2) G.I. , 3) RPF . We have used P.V.C channel (figure.4)(size::
4.5 X 1 cm).

Fig.8.1.3 . CHANNEL

31

8.1.4.Side Walls: It generally provides rigidness to the still. But technically it provides
thermal resistance to the heat transfer that takes place from the system to the surrounding. So
it must be made from the material that is having low value of thermal conductivity and should
be rigid enough to sustain its own weight and the weight of the top cover. Different kinds of
materials that can be used are: 1) wood, 2) concrete, 3) M.S. sheet 4) RPF (reinforced
plastic). For better insulation we have used composite wall of M.S .sheet (inside) and
(outside). (Size:- 8 mm thick, 3018 inch2).

Fig.8.1.4. SIDE WALL

32

8.1.5.Supports for Top Cover: The frame provided for supporting the top cover is an
optional thing. I.e. it can be used if required. We have used fibre stick as a support to hold
glass (size:: 31.9 inch 18.3 inch). The only change in our model is that we have to make the
model as vacuumed as possible. So we have tried to make it airtight by sticking tape on the
corners of the glass and at the edges of the box from where the possibility of the leakage of
inside hot air is maximum.

Fig.8.1.5.Working model of solar distillation system

33

Chapter-9

MATERIALS TO BE USED
 The following factors are to be considered to use a material

Selection of material
Suitability of materials for service conditions.
Size and shape of the part.
Condition of loading to which the part is subjected.
Manufacturing requirements.
Availability of material cost.
Properties of material.

9.1.PROPERTIES
Strength:- it is defined as the capacity to resist external loads under given conditions.
Modulus of elasticity:- it is ratio of stress to the strain within the elastic limit, the metal
with high modulus of elasticity possess high stiffness.
Ductility:- it is the ability of the material to deform under tensile load.
Malleability:- it is the ability of material to be deformed under compressive load.
Brittleness:- it is the ability of the material fracture with every little deformation.
Hardness:- it is the ability of the material to resist abrasion, scratching or indentation.
Resilience:- it is the ability of the material to store energy within its limit.
Toughness:- it is the ability of the material to absorb energy before fracture.
Fatigue strength:- the maximum stress at which the material will operate indefinably
without failure.
Creep:- the slow and progressive of the material with time cost is called creep.
Mach inability:- the ease with a given material may be worked with machine is called
mach inability.
9.2. about mild steel:
Carbon steel is also called plain carbon steel, it is a metal alloy. A combination of two
elements iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect
the properties. The only other alloying elements allowed in plain-carbon steel are manganese
(1.65%max), silicon (0.60% max), and copper (0.60% max).steel with a low carbon content
has the same properties as iron, soft but easily formed. As carbon content rises the metal
higher carbon content lowers the steel melting point and its temperature resistance in
becomes harder and stronger but less ductile and more difficult to weld. Generally carbon
contents influences the yield strength of steel because they fit into the interstitial crystal
lattice sites of the body-centred cubic arrangement of the iron molecules..The interstitial

34
carbon reduces the mobility of dislocations. Which intern has a hardening effect on the iron.
To get dislocations to break away. This is because the interstitial carbon atoms cause some of
the iron BCC lattice cells to distort.
The term mild steel is also applied commercially to carbon steels not covered by standard
specifications. Carbon content of this steel may vary from quite low levels up to
approximately 0.3%. Generally commercial mild steel can be accepted to be readily
wieldable and have reasonable cold bending.

Properties:But to specify mild steel is technically in appropriate and should not be used as a term
engineering .approximately 0.05-0.15% carbon content for low carbon steel and 016-029%
carbon content for mild steel (e.g.AISI 1018 STEEL). Mild steel has a relatively low tensile
strength ,but it is cheap and malleable, surface hardness can be increased through carburizing.
Mild is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material
properties that are acceptable for many applications. Mild steel has low carbon content (up to
0.3%)
And is therefore neither extremely brittle nor ductile. It becomes malleable when heated, and
so can be forged. It is also often used where large amount of steel need to be formed. For
example as structural steel. Density of this metal is 7,861.093kg/m3 (0284lb/in3) the tensile
strength is maximum of 500MPa (72,500 psi) and it has a youngs modulus of 210GPa.
Medium carbon steel: - approximately 0.30-0.59% carbon content (e.g. AISI 1040
steel).balances ductility and strength and has good wear resistance, used for large parts,
forging and automotives components.
High carbon steel: - approximately 0.6-0.99%carbon content .very strong used for
springs and high strength wires.

Ultra-high carbon steel: -

approximately 1.0-2.0%carbon content. Steels that can be


tempered to great hardness .used for special purpose like (non-industrial purpose) knives,
axles or punches. Steels are often wrought by cold-working methods, which us the shaping of
metal through deformation at a low equilibrium or met stable temperature.

35

Chapter-10

DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR SOLAR WATER


PURIFIER
1. Daily hours of sunlight=5hours /day
a. =5hours/day 3600 sec/hour
b. =18,000 sec/day

2. still= channel=60%
3. daily global solar irradiation(G)=1.0kw
4. the solar energy obtained from the solar collector(S)=1.2kw,based on the MODEL
RA 240 SOLAR MAX by consolair.in.

Evaporation rate can be calculated by:-

1. Q=( CHANNEL S+ STILLAG)/(heat of vaporisation)


2. Q=(60%110^3(316-313) 18000)+(60%0.2780.00110^618000 /(2.2710^6)
a. =15.59 L/day /m2

Where,
1. heat of vaporisation of water =2.27MJ/L
2. Q is the daily output of distilled water(litre/day)
3. still is the efficiency of the still

36
4. channel is efficiency of the flow channel mani fold, as the fraction of the energy
transferred to the water to energy collected from the solar energy collector.
5. G is the daily global solar irradiation approximatly1000 watts/sq m for surface
i. Approximately 18MJ/m2
6. A is the still surface area (perpendicular to the sunlight)
7. S is the thermal energy obtained from solar ENERGY COLLECTION.
It can be calculated by using enthalpy (H).
H=Hf-Hi=m.Cp(T2-T1)

Where,

H is the enthalpy change

H final is the final enthalpy of the system expressed in (MJ)

H initial is the initial enthalpy of the system

M is the mass flow rate out of the air flow(kg/s)

Cp is the specific heat of air (MJ/kg/k)

T2 is the flow outlet temperature of solar energy collection in Kelvin scale.

T1 is the inlet temperature of the solar energy collection in Kelvin scale.

37

Chapter-11

TECHNICAL REPORT
11.1Results and Discussion
Experiment is performed from 10:00am to 04:00pm in summer season.

Time

Outside temp in 0C

Inside temp (water) in 0C

10.00AM

30 0C

40 0C

11.2Readings taken for still: Table 1 represents the reading taken for solar still.
Table. Reading for Solar Still

38
10.45AM

32 0C

43 0C

11.30AM

34 0C

47 0C

12.15PM

36 0C

50 0C

1.00 PM

38 0C

53 0C

1.45 PM

40 0C

56 0C

3.00 PM

41 0C

59 0C

3.45 PM

42 0C

63 0C

for solar still

11.3. Observations:

Time taken for drop to come to channel = 35Minutes


Time taken for drop to come out of channel = 10 min
Amount of brackish water poured initially = 24 litre
Amount of pure water obtained at the end of the exp. = 15.59 L/day/m2
Temperature of the condensate = 43 0C

11.4. Tested of purified water


1. Measuring the PH value of the purified water by using PH meter.
2. Determined the PH value of the purified water is 7.

3. Density of the pure water is 1


4. Boiling point 100 0C.

fig.11.2 .1
.reading

39

Chapter-12

CONCLUSION
Finally, we concluded that this device need to be required some installations like
1. Temperature sensor
2. Pressure sensor/gauge
3. Ionic exchanger
Apart from these, this purification system is more advantageous than the
normal solar distillation systems. The collected distillate from this system is very much
suitable for modern engineering applications like in chemical laboratories, pharmaceutical
industries, maintenance of vehicle batteries, domestic purpose and so on.
This solar water purification system is portable and maintenance free (cleaning is required
through), it is an inexhaustible fuel sources, doesnt cause any pollution. it is an excellent
supplement to other renewable sources. The collected water from the device as better taste
when compared to rain water because it doesnt boiled.

40

Chapter-13

BIBILOGRAPHY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Renewable energy resources/Tiwari and Ghosal/Narosa


Non conventional energy sources/G.D.Rai
Renewable energy sources/Twidell and Weir
Solar energy/Sukhatme
Solar power engineering/B.S.Magal Frank Kreith and J.F.Kreith
Principals of solar energy/Frank Kreith and John F .Kreider
Non conventional energy /Ashok V.Desai/Wiileyeastern
Non conventional energy systems/K.Mittal /Wheeler
Renewable energy technologies /Ramesh and Kumar/Narosa