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Robert Gordon University

Temperature Measurement System

COURSEWORK
ON

TEMPERATURE
MEASUREMENT
SYSTEM
BY
SUSHIL GOSWAMI
0903143
3RD YEAR BEng MECHANICAL &
OFFSHORE ENGINEERING

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

We are required to measure temperatures between 0°C


and 120°C with a high accuracy. The system uses 10V
voltage source producing an output ranging from 0mV
to 120mV.

The following table lifted from lecture notes makes it


easy to choose the correct temperature sensor:

It is quite evident from the above table that the choice


is between RTD and Thermistor. We would be discussing
RTD as the temperature sensor used for this particular
system application.

What is an RTD?

Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are


temperature sensors that contain a resistor that
changes resistance values as its temperature changes.
They have been used for many years to measure
temperature in laboratory and industrial processes, and
have developed a reputation for accuracy, repeatability
and stability.

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

Why use an RTD instead of a thermocouple or


Thermistor sensor?

Each type of temperature sensor has a particular set of


conditions for which it is best suited. RTDs offer several
advantages:
• A wide temperature range (approximately
-200 to 850°C)
• Good accuracy (better than thermocouples)
• Good interchange ability
• Long-term stability
With a temperature range up to 850°C, RTDs can be
used in all but the highest-temperature industrial
processes. When made using metals such as platinum,
they are very stable and are not affected by corrosion or
oxidation.
Other materials such as nickel, copper, and nickel-iron
alloy have also been used for RTDs. However, these
materials are not commonly used since they have lower
temperature capabilities and are not as stable or
repeatable as platinum.
(The above has been adapted from:
www.omega.com/TEMPERATURE/pdf/RTD_Gen_Specs_Ref.pdf)

We would be using the platinum RTD for this


coursework calculation. This RTD has a resistance (R0) of
100Ω and a temperature coefficient of resistance (α) of
4x10-3°C-1.
This platinum RTD is to be used as a sensor in a bridge
circuit with other resistances R2, R3, and R4. This bridge
circuit is supplied a voltage of 10V.
The following figure shows the bridge circuit with R1 as
the resistance of the temperature sensor:

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

We are given that:


Temperature range: 0°C-1 to 120°C-1.
Output range: 0mV to 120mV.
At minimum conditions:
T=0°C-1, hence the resistance of the sensor,
R1=R0(1+ αT)=100(1+0x0.004)=100Ω
V0(minimum)= 0mV
Substituting this into the standard bridge equation:
V0=ER1R1+R4-R2R2+R3

→ 0=10(100100+R4-R2R2+R3)

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

→ R4=100R3R2 …… (1)

At maximum conditions:

T=120°C, hence the resistance of the sensor,


R1=R0(1+ αT)=100(1+0.004x120)=148Ω
V0(maximum)= 120mV
Substituting this into the standard bridge equation:
V0=ER1R1+R4-R2R2+R3

→ 120x10-3=10(148148+R4-R2R2+R3)

→ 0.012= (11+R4148-11+R3R2)

→ 0.012= (11+100148xR3R2-11+R3R2)

Solving the above equation, we get two real roots.

i.e. R3R2≅37.6 and R3R2≅0.039

As we know that for a linear output bridge circuit, R3


≫R2, we neglect the value 0.039.

Hence, R3R2≅37.6

Hence, from equation (1),

→ R4≅100x37.6

→ R4≅3760Ω

From balance conditions,

R4=R3=3760Ω

R1=R2=100Ω

The standard bridge equation: V0=ER1R1+R4-R2R2+R3,


demonstrates a non-linear relationship between the

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

output reading and the measured quantity, and this


does not conform with the normal requirement for a
linear input-output relationship.

In some applications the bridge non-linearity may be


acceptable, but there are various methods available to
linearize bridges.
A simple linear relationship for a RTD quarter-bridge can
be obtained from the bridge output voltage. Firstly the
bridge must be balanced at a single temperature, i.e.
0°C. This makes R1 = R2 (i.e. at zero degrees, R2 is
equal to the nominal value of R1) and R3 = R4, giving:

V0=E[R1R3-R0R3R1+R3R0+R3]

To achieve the best linearity R3 must be much greater


than R2, giving the following output voltage:
V0=E[(R1-R0)R3R3 2]= ER3(R1-R0)
If R1 the temperature sensor, and exhibits a change in
resistance such
that R1 = R+δR, the output voltage at other
temperatures becomes:
V0=ER3δR=ER3R0αT
Hence, by varying the resistance values, we can
linearize the bridge circuit.
(The above has been adapted from the lecture notes.)

Current through the temperature sensor:


I1=ER1+R4=10100+3760=103860=2.59mA

Now, the last part of the coursework question requires


us to feed the output of the sensor into an A/D
converter. It is being given that the sensor is situated in
a remote location, which means that the output signal

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Temperature Measurement System

from the sensor, might have some noise signal


embedded in it.
For this reason, we choose Difference Amplifier as it
removes the common mode noise making it a god choice
for a remote sensor.
A difference amplifier amplifies the difference between
the two input signals. The following diagram shows a
typical Difference Amplifier:

Where Va, Vb are the two input signals while V0 is the


output voltage.
The differential voltage gain for the above operational
amplifier is given by
V0Vb-Va=R2R1
The input range of the above operational amplifier is
given as from 0V to 10V. Let’s say Vb=10V and Va=0V,
then
V0=10R2R1
By altering the ratio R2R1, we can alter the forward gain
of the amplifier.
Let’s have a look at one of the practical application of
Platinum RTDs in industry. Platinum RTDs have a very
useful application in roaster control for coffee beans.
Good roasting techniques can produce quite acceptable
results from relatively low-grade beans; bad roasting
can produce quite dreadful results from the best high-

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Temperature Measurement System

grade beans. Green coffee beans are placed into a drum


or chamber, where they are agitated or tumbled as they
are roasted by hot air. The critical variable is the
temperature of the beans. Other variables can help to
improve the control of the critical variable. The heated
air is easier to measure, but it can differ from the bean
temperature by as much as 200 degrees F, so it is not a
sufficient indicator by itself.
A thermal probe measuring the temperature within the
coffee beans provides the most important feedback. The
probe must withstand the pounding as beans are
tumbled. Because of its rugged sheath, this kind of
probe will not respond quickly, but the temperature
profile will not change very fast either, and a reasonable
balance is maintained.
Platinum RTD probe is well suited for this application
because it is reliable, accurate, stable, easy to use, and
well suited for an operating temperature range of 100
to 500 degrees F.
(The above has been adapted from:
http://www.mstarlabs.com/sensors/rtd-example.html)

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Temperature Measurement System

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Temperature Measurement System

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Temperature Measurement System

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Temperature Measurement System

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Temperature Measurement System

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

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Robert Gordon University
Temperature Measurement System

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