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•  Mul-media:
Systems
that
support
the
interac1ve
use
of
text,

audio,
s1ll
images,
video,
and
graphics.
Each
of
these

elements
must
be
converted
in
some
way
from
analog
form
to

digital
form
before
they
can
be
used
in
a
computer

applica1on.
Thus,
the
dis1nc1on
of
mul1media
is
the

convergence
of
previously
diverse
systems.

•  www.tamu.edu/ode/glossary.html

•  Randall
Packer
and
Ken
Jordan
(2001)
suggest
five

characteris1cs
intrinsic
to
computer‐based
mul1media:


• integra1on,
the
way
different
media
and
art
forms
are
brought

together
in
certain
works

• interac1vity,
spectators
or
users
can
determine
the
structure
of
the

work
through
their
own
interac1ons
with
the
work

• hypermedia,
following
the
links

• immersion,
sensorial
overload

• narra1vity,
forms
of
conceptual
organiza1on
(oNen
non‐linear

narra1ves)

•  ‐
‘Overture’
Mul&media:
From
Wagner
To
Virtual
Reality,
New
York:
W.W.Norton
and

Company,
Ltd
(xii‐xxxi)


•  ‘These
terms
offer
a
star1ng
point
for
developing
a
language
in
which
to

ar1culate
the
forms
and
processes
inherent
to
mul1media
performance.’

Rosie
Klich
UNSW

The
Theatre
of
Images

• Robert Wilson - Einstein on the beach
(1976)
• Laurie Anderson - Home of the Brave
(1984)
• The Wooster Group (1980-)
The Wooster Group
•  1980
 Schechner
 dissolves
 Performance
 Group,
 the
 lease
 on
 Performing

garage
 transferred
 to
 LeCompte
 
 now
 ar1s1c
 director
 of
 the
 Wooster

Group
with
Willem
Dafoe,
Spalding
Gray,
Peyton
Smith,
Kate
Valk,
and
Ron

Vawter.



•  As
 Dafoe
 later
 describes
 it,
 the
 experimental
 group
 aims
 to
 create
 a

theater
disconnected
from
absolutes
of
text
and
psychology,
theater
that

speaks
to
an
age
"where
we
can
talk
on
the
phone,
look
out
the
window,

watch
 TV,
 and
 be
 typing
 a
 le`er
 at
 the
 same
 1me..."
 LeCompte
 and
 the

company
use
a
collage
of
audio,
video,
and
spoken
word
to
re‐invent
well‐
known
plays…
h`p://www.pbs.org

The
HAIRY
APE
by
Eugene
O'Neill
(1995)

HOUSE/LIGHTS
based
on
Gertrude
Stein
(1999)

Key
works:

•  Route
 1
 and
 9
 The
 last
 Act
 (1981)
 Video
 of

Thornton
 Wilder’s
 Our
 Town
 (1938)
 and

blackface
performance


•  L.S.D
 Just
 the
 High
 Points
 (1984)
 cut
 ups
 of



Arthur
 Miller’s
 The
 Crucible,
 Timothy
 leary

speeches
and
extensive
video.
Miller
sues
the

company.
(video)

Laurie
Anderson

1980

•  met
John
Cage


•  Toured
with
William
Burroughs
and
John
Giorno


•  the
mul1media
performance
UNITED
STATES
II
premiered
at

the
Orpheum
Theater,
New
York



•  "This
performance
was
sponsored
by
the
Kitchen
and
was
the

first
piece
I
did
in
a
real
theater.
It
ran
for
several
days
and
I

remember
feeling
guilty
that
it
was
more
or
less
the
same

every
night
because
I
was
so
used
to
changing
things
around

for
every
performance.”

1980s

•  O
SUPERMAN
reached
#2
on
the
Bri1sh
pop
charts;
signed
with

Warner
Brothers
Records
(Inspired
by
Massenet’s
O
Souverain
,
one
of

the
arias
in
Le
Cid
)
and
lyrics
like:

•  So
hold
me
Mom,
in
your
long
arms.../in
your
automa1c
arms.../your

electronic
arms.../your
petrochemical
arms/
your
military
arms/
in

your
electronic
arms...


•  Recorded
BIG
SCIENCE

•  1983
UNITED
STATES
performed
in
its
eight
hour
version
at
the

Brooklyn
Academy
of
Music

•  1984
Met
Peter
Gabriel
and
wrote
and
performed
THIS
IS
THE

PICTURE
for
"Good
Morning
Mr.
Orwell"
live
video
broadcast

organized
by
Nam
June
Paik

•  1985
Shot
HOME
OF
THE
BRAVE
produced
by
Paula
Mazir
and
filmed

by
John
Lindley

1990s
and
aNer

•  Anderson
wrote
the
soundtrack
to
Spalding
Gray’s

solo
performances
Swimming
to
Cambodia
1986
and

Monster
in
a
Box
1991

•  1992
STORIES
FROM
THE
NERVE
BIBLE,
the

performance,
was
premiered
at
Exp
o'92
in
Seville

•  1999
SONGS
AND
STORIES
FROM
MOBY
DICK
(BAM)

•  2004
NASA
ar1st
in
residence
THE
END
OF
THE

MOON

Cyberne1c
performance

•  Laurie
Anderson’s

construc1on
of
the
body...

a
cyberne1c
body
rather

than
a
natural
one,
an

interface
with
technology

eg;
the
mic’d
body
played

as
percussion,
the

vocoder
altering
voice

produc1on
producing
the

intona1on
of
a
male,
the

pas1che
of
‘male’
cross

dressing.

Robert Wilson / Bernice Johnson Reagon
The Temptation of St Anthony
Sadlers Wells London 2003
Einstein on the beach 1976/84
•  the
repeat
performance
of
Einstein
on
the
beach
took
place
at
the

Brooklyn
Academy
of
Music
in
December
1984.
This
piece
was
constructed

according
to
Wilson’s
sketchbook
images
which
divided
the
space

according
to
painterly
principles
of
portraiture,
s1ll
life
and
landscape.


•  ‘The
entr’actes
(known
as
“Knee
Plays,”
because
they
served
as
joints

between
the
acts)
were
performed
in
front
of
the
stage
curtain
in
a
very

shallow,
close
up
space
that
he
(Wilson)
thought
of
in
terms
of
portraiture.

The
sets
for
the
scenes
showing
a
train,
a
building,
a
courtroom,
and
a

prison
cell
gave
these
objects
the
intermediate
depth
of
field
common
in

s1ll‐life
composi1on.
And
finally
the
sets
that
provided
maximum
space
for

dance
groups
‐
the
open
field
and
the
massive
spaceship
interior
‐
had
the

depth
of
landscape.’
(Trevor
Fairbrother,
‘Robert
Wilson
a
chronological

essay’
Robert
Wilson’s
Vision
p120

•  The
cri1c,
Robert
Brustein,
argued
that
‘the
visual
effects
are
the
most

dazzling
and
original
aspects
of
the
work:
Wilson
is
essen1ally
a

painter
who
paints
in
mo1on.’
(qtd.
in
Fairbrother
op.
cit.
p120)

•  By
the
1me
Einstein
was
first
shown
in
1976
Wilson
had
already

acquired
an
interna1onal
reputa1on
as
an
imagist
for
the
theatre.
His

first
major
interna1onal
success
was
with
a
7
hour
piece
en1tled

Deafman
Glance
which
contained
no
dialogue
and
no
linear
narra1ve,

just
a
series
of
live
images.
The
piece
was
inspired
by
the
drawings
of
a

deaf‐mute
black
child,
Raymond
Andrews
whom
Wilson
had
adopted

aNer
seeing
him
being
harrassed
by
a
policeman
in
New
Jersey
in
1969.

Wilson
encouraged
the
child
to
express
himself
in
drawings
and
invited

the
child
to
teach
Wilson’s
theatre
company
his
pre‐verbal
language
of

gestures
and
sounds.
The
result
was
Deafman
Glance

which
Wilson

describes
as
a
‘silent
opera’
aNer
Cage.


•  A
play
consis1ng
only
of
gestures
and
images
based
on
the
drawings
of

a
child
with
no
other
language
is
probably
the
most
extreme
form
of
a

theatre
of
the
image
Wilson
at
this
1me
was
opposed
to
the
no1on
of

a
literary
theatre:

•  ‘people
are
just
beginning
to
return
again
to
discerning
visual

significances
as
a
primary
mode
‐
or
method
‐
of

communica1ng
in
a
context
where
more
than
one
form
or

‘level’
exists.
In
that
sense
of
overlays
of
visual

correspondences...
See,
we’re
not
par1cularly
interested
in

literary
ideas,
because
having
a
focus
that
encompasses
in
a

panoramic
visual
glance
all
the
hidden
slices
ongoing
that

appear
in
clear
awareness
as
encoded
fragments
seems
to

indicate
theatre
has
so
much
more
to
do
than
be
concerned

with
words
in
a
dried
out,
flat,
one‐dimensional
literary

structure.
I
mean
the
Modern
World
has
forced
us
to
outgrow

that
mode
of
seeing.’
(‘Speech
Introducing
Freud’
Twen&eth

Century
Theatre.
A
Sourcebook

p60)

Reviewing
Auslander:


•  Live
V
Mediated
performance
is
a
‘compe11ve
opposi1on
at
the
level
of
cultural

economy’
not
at
the
level
of
intrinsic
or
ontological
differences.



•  Auslander’s
view
is
that
Live
&
Mediated
are
mutually
dependent
for
reasons
that

are
both
historical
and
experien1al:



•  historical
(the
theatricality
of
tv,
tv
as
a
‘live
medium’
;
ubiquitous
use
of
media
in

live
performance
such
as
dance)


•  experien1al
(going
live,
in1macy
and
immediacy,
interac1vity,
‘mul1ple
camera
set

up
enables
tv
to
re
create
the
perceptual
con1nuity
of
theatre’,
p19
cinema1c

vocab
of
spectators,
laughing
on
cue,
stadium
concerts
and
sports
events)


What
does
he
mean
by
the
term

‘remedia1on’?


•  In
Jay
David
Bolter
and
Richard
Grusin’s
work
Remedia&on:
Understanding
New

Media
(MIT
Press,
Cambridge,
1998)
they
define
this
idea
as
‘the
representa1on
of

one
medium
in
another’
and
‘the
formal
logic
by
which
new
media
refashion
prior

media
forms’...


•  ‘Each
act
of
media1on
depends
on
other
acts
of
media1on.
Media
are
con1nually

commen1ng
on,
reproducing,
and
replacing
each
other,
and
this
process
is
integral

to
media.
Media
need
each
other
in
order
to
func1on
as
media
at
all.’

•  Similar
to
repurposing
(Hollywood).
Newman’s
sugges1on
that
adapta1on
is
the

essen1al
postmoderm
form

is
related
to
this.
(11)

I
s1ll
don’t
get
it…

•  If
we
understand
a
performance
work,
however
vital
or

improvisatory,
as
a
work
within
a
representa1onal
frame,
then

it
can
be
defined
in
terms
of
media,
as
an
event
which
is

mediated
by
the
ar1s1c
or
ins1tu1onal
context
in
which
it

occurs.



•  Therefore
it
follows
that
the
documenta1on
of
such
a
work
in

a
photographic
or
video
format,
and
which
is
cons1tuted
as
a

work
in
itself,
can
be
seen
as
a
remedia1on
of
that
work.


the
‘economy
of
repe11on’


•  Media1sed
culture
involves
what
A`ali
calls
the
‘economy
of

repe11on’
the
mass
produc1on
of
art
and
media
objects

images
and
sounds.
(p10)
A`ali
says
‘What
irony:
people

originally
intended
to
use
the
record
to
preserve
the

performance,
and
today
the
performance
is
only
successful
as

a
simulacrum
of
the
record.’
(qtd
p12)


•  Live
performance
must
recreate
the
media1sed
version
of
it:

music
video,
stand
up
comedy


the
in1macy
effect

•  This
is
the
significance
of
Walter
Benjamin’s
art
work
essay
(1936)
for

Auslander’s
argument,
the
media’s
shaping
of
‘the
sensory
norm’:
the

produc1on
of
a
desire
for
proximity,
the
in1macy
effect…
suggests
another

set
of
terms
for
the
interconnec1on
between
live
and
mediated

performance
forms.

•  Due
to
our
familiarity
with
televisual
images
‘we
see
them
as
proximate’

no
ma`er
how
far
we
are
away
from
them
in
physical
terms,
even
in
the

last
row
of
a
Madonna
concert.
(p14)

•  Some
of
the
advantages
of
mixing
media
(p15)
are
the
produc1on
of

conscious
and
unconscious
worlds,
objec1ve
events
and
internal

subjec1ve
mo1ves
can
co‐exist
in
the
mise
en
scene.

Ques1ons
on
Auslander
Reading:


•  1.
What
does
non‐matrixed
representa1on
mean?

Give
an
example.
23


•  2.
Which
concept
from
Baudrillard
‘best
describes

the
current
rela1onship
between
live
and
mediated’

and
why?
28


•  3.
What
is
Peggy
Phelan’s
posi1on?
(28)

The
Live
V
Mediated
debate


•  Live
V
Mediated
performance
is
a

‘compe11ve
opposi1on
at
the
level
of

cultural
economy’
not
at
the
level
of

intrinsic
or
ontological
differences.

Dumb Type ‘OR’ and ‘S/N’

•  ‘seeks
to
explore
ever
new
dimensions
of

human
system
interac1on.’


•  virtual
mul1media
dance
theatre
collec1ve


•  formed
in
Kyoto
Japan
in
1984
by
Teiji

Furuhashi
then
a
student
at
Kyoto
Uni
of
Fine

Arts.


Furuhashi
1960‐95

•  In
1990
their
piece
PH
toured
9
countries

and
took
as
its
theme
the
global
infobahn


•  This
piece
features
precision
choreography

on
a
tennis
court
like
gridded
stage
over

which
an
enormous
electronic
boom

(actually
a
metal
scanner)
sweeps
back
and

forth
projec1ng
texts
and
images
onto
the

floor


PH:
One
such
text
is
the
phrase
‘New
world
order’
which
morphs


into
‘new
world
border’
S/N

•  a
later
piece
S/N
(1992‐98)
concerns
the
interac1on

between
medical
technologies
and
the
body:

•  SIGNAL
/
NOISE

•  SOUTH
/
NORTH

•  SOCIETY
/
NATURE

•  SIGN
/
NAME

•  STATE
/
NATION

•  SYSTEM
/
NETWORK

•  SENSE
/
NONSENSE

•  SCIENCE
/
NECROMANCY

•  SAMPLE
/
NARRATIVE


In
Scene
5
a
projected
text
declares:



•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
gender
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
na1onality
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
blood
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
rights
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
worth
will
disappear.

•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
common
sense
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
race
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
property
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
style
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
fear
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
duty
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
authority
will
disappear.


•  I
dream
.
.
.
my
power
will
disappear.

Related
work:
Lovers
1994

•  Installa1on
version
of
S/N


•  collabora1on
between

Furuhashi
and
Tokyo’s
Canon

Artlab


•  projec1ons
onto
walls
and
floor

of
space


•  Computer‐controlled,
five‐
channel
video/sound

installa1on
with
five
video

projectors,
eight‐channel
sound

system,
and
slide
projectors.
OR
1994

•  Explaining the issue around the border of life and
death. And how technology is involved in to distinct
this border now. Idea came up from my experiences
in the hospital when my mother (cancer) died in
August, and my brother (traffic accident), my lover
(AIDS) in the past. How much the science can
control this border. How much our mind can control
this border. This is the border which all the humans
have to confront some day. teiji furuhashi. oct 1995
OR
installa1on

•  Images of
death, looked
at from
various view
points, be it
religious,
philosophical,
medical,
cultural or
emotional…
Kyupi
Kyupi
‐
Audio

visual
performance
unit
founded
in
1996
•  While maintaining a base
of activities in Kyoto, their
audiovisual works and
performances have been
shown at museums in
Paris, New York and
London

•  ‘videoworks suited to
private spaces and live
works at public venues,
directly stimulating the
senses via diverse
platforms transcending
media barriers’
Influences

•  kawaii culture (hello
Kitty etc)
•  Manga graphic novel
culture - mainstream in
japan
•  Cyberculture with the
emphasis on WAP and
mobile phone
technologies (internet –
enabled mobiles)
BLAST
THEORY

•  (1991‐
present)

•  Ma`
Adams,
Ju
Row
Farr
and
Nick
Tandavanitj

based
in
London
Company
statement

•  Blast theory ‘explores interactivity and the
relationship between real and virtual space with
a particular focus on the social and political
aspects of technology. It confronts a media
saturated world in which popular culture rules,
using video, computers, performance,
installation, mobile and online technologies to
ask questions about the ideologies present in
the information that envelops us.’
•  Since
2000,
Blast
Theory
has
been
exploring
the
convergence
of

online
and
mobile
technologies
in
collabora1on
with
the

Mixed
Reality
Lab,
University
of
Novngham

•  Recent
Projects
include
the
award‐winning
Can
You
See
Me
Now?,

Uncle
Roy
All
Around
You
and
I
Like
Frank
‐
the
world's
first
mixed

reality
game
for
3G
phones.

Staging
media
Kidnap
1998

•  In 1998 Blast Theory launched a lottery in which
the winners had the chance to be kidnapped.
Ten finalists around England and Wales were
chosen at random and put under surveillance.
Two winners were then snatched in broad
daylight and taken to a secret location where
they were held for 48 hours.
•  http://www.blasttheory.co.uk/kidnap/regform.htm

Kidnap

•  The two winners were Debra
Burgess, a 27 year old
Australian working as a temp
and Russell Ward, a 19 year
old from Southend working
in a 24 hour convenience
store.The whole process
was broadcast live onto the
internet. Online visitors were
able to control the video
camera inside the safehouse
and communicate live with
the kidnappers.
Desert
Rain
2000 

•  ‘A game, an installation and a performance placing participants
in a collaborative virtual environment and sending them on a
mission into a virtual world. In a world where Gulf War images
echo Hollywood images, where Norman Schwarzkopf blurs into
Arnold Schwarzenegger, Desert Rain looks for the feint line
between the real and the fictional.’
Desert
Rain

•  You have 30
minutes to find the
target, complete the
mission, and get to
the final room,
where others may
have a very different
idea of what actually
happened out there.
New media performance in
Australia
•  Performance
Space
(1980‐present)

•  Denis
Beaubois;
‘In
the
Event
of
Amnesia
the

City
will
Recall’
(1998
New
York)

•  The
KingPins:
Técha Noble b.1977, Emma
Price b.1975, Katie Price b.1978,
Anglelica Mesiti b.1976

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