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Oracle Database Administration Contents

Introduction to Oracle Database

Overview of Oracle Grid Architecture


Difference between a cluster and a grid
Responsibilities of Database Administrators
Creating the Database

Managing Tablespaces and Datafiles


Creating New Tablespaces
Bigfile Tablespaces (Introduced in Oracle Ver. 10g)
To Extend the Size of a tablespace
To decrease the size of a tablespace
Coalescing Tablespaces
Taking tablespaces Offline or Online
Making a Tablespace Read only.
Renaming Tablespaces
Dropping Tablespaces
Temporary Tablespace
Increasing or Decreasing the size of a Temporary Tablespace
Tablespace Groups
Creating a Temporary Tablespace Group

Assigning a Tablespace Group as the Default Temporary Tablespace


Diagnosing and Repairing Locally Managed Tablespace Problems
Scenario 1: Fixing Bitmap When Allocated Blocks are Marked Free (No
Overlap)
Scenario 2: Dropping a Corrupted Segment
Scenario 3: Fixing Bitmap Where Overlap is Reported
Scenario 4: Correcting Media Corruption of Bitmap Blocks
Scenario 5: Migrating from a Dictionary-Managed to a Locally Managed
Tablespace
Transporting Tablespaces
Procedure for transporting tablespaces
Transporting Tablespace Example
Viewing Information about Tablespaces and Datafiles
Relocating or Renaming Datafiles
Renaming or Relocating Datafiles belonging to a Single Tablespace
Procedure for Renaming and Relocating Datafiles in Multiple Tablespaces
Managing REDO LOGFILES
Adding a New Redo Logfile Group
Adding Members to an existing group
Dropping Members from a group
Dropping Logfile Group
Resizing Logfiles

Renaming or Relocating Logfiles


Clearing REDO LOGFILES
Viewing Information About Logfiles
Managing Control Files
Multiplexing Control File
Changing the Name of a Database
Creating A New Control File
Cloning an Oracle Database
Managing the UNDO TABLESPACE
Switching to Automatic Management of Undo Space
Calculating the Space Requirements For Undo Retention
Altering UNDO Tablespace
Dropping an Undo Tablespace
Switching Undo Tablespaces
Viewing Information about Undo Tablespace
SQL Loader
CASE STUDY (Loading Data from MS-ACCESS to Oracle)
CASE STUDY (Loading Data from Fixed Length file into Oracle)
Loading Data into Multiple Tables using WHEN condition
Conventional Path Load and Direct Path Load
Direct Path
Restrictions on Using Direct Path Loads

Export and Import


Invoking Export and Import
Command Line Parameters of Export tool
Example of Exporting Full Database
Example of Exporting Schemas
Exporting Individual Tables
Exporting Consistent Image of the tables
Using Import Utility
Example Importing Individual Tables
Example, Importing Tables of One User account into another User account
Example Importing Tables Using Pattern Matching
Migrating a Database across platforms
DATA PUMP Utility
Using Data Pump Export Utility
Example of Exporting a Full Database
Example of Exporting a Schema
Exporting Individual Tables using Data Pump Export
Excluding and Including Objects during Export
Using Query to Filter Rows during Export
Suspending and Resuming Export Jobs (Attaching and Re-Attaching to the
Jobs)
Data Pump Import Utility

Importing Full Dump File


Importing Objects of One Schema to another Schema
Loading Objects of one Tablespace to another Tablespace
Generating SQL File containing DDL commands using Data Pump Import
Importing objects of only a Particular Schema
Example
Importing Only Particular Tables
Running Import Utility in Interactive Mode
Flash Back Features
Flashback Query
Using Flashback Version Query
Using Flashback Table to return Table to Past States
Purging Objects from Recycle Bin
Flashback Drop of Multiple Objects With the Same Original Name
Flashback Database: Alternative to Point-In-Time Recovery
Enabling Flash Back Database
To how much size we should set the flash recovery area
How far you can flashback database
Example: Flashing Back Database to a point in time
Log Miner
LogMiner Configuration
LogMiner Dictionary Options
Using the Online Catalog

Extracting a LogMiner Dictionary to the Redo Log Files


Extracting the LogMiner Dictionary to a Flat File
Redo Log File Options
Automatically
Manually
Example: Finding All Modifications in the Current Redo Log File
Example of Mining Without Specifying the List of Redo Log Files Explicitly
Example : Mining Redo Log Files in a Given Time Range
BACKUP AND RECOVERY
Opening the Database in Archivelog Mode
Bringing the Database again in NoArchiveLog mode
Taking Offline (COLD) Backups
Taking Online (HOT) Backups
Recovering from the Loss of a Datafile

Introduction to Oracle Database


An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The purpose of a database is to store and
retrieve related information. A database server is the key to solving the problems of information
management. In general, a server reliably manages a large amount of data in a multiuser environment so
that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this is accomplished while delivering high
performance. A database server also prevents unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for
failure recovery.
Oracle Database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost
effective way to manage information and applications. Enterprise grid computing creates large pools of
industry-standard, modular storage and servers. With this architecture, each new system can be rapidly
provisioned from the pool of components. There is no need for peak workloads, because capacity can be
easily added or reallocated from the resource pools as needed.
The database has logical structures and physical structures. Because the physical and logical
structures are separate, the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting the access to
logical storage structures.

Overview of Oracle Grid Architecture


The Oracle grid architecture pools large numbers of servers, storage, and networks into a flexible, ondemand computing resource for enterprise computing needs. The grid computing infrastructure
continually analyzes demand for resources and adjusts supply accordingly.
For example, you could run different applications on a grid of several linked database servers. When
reports are due at the end of the month, the database administrator could automatically provision more
servers to that application to handle the increased demand.
Grid computing uses sophisticated workload management that makes it possible for applications to share
resources across many servers. Data processing capacity can be added or removed on demand, and
resources within a location can be dynamically provisioned. Web services can quickly integrate
applications to create new business processes.

Difference between a cluster and a grid


Clustering is one technology used to create a grid infrastructure. Simple clusters have static resources
for specific applications by specific owners. Grids, which can consist of multiple clusters, are dynamic
resource pools shareable among many different applications and users. A grid does not assume that all
servers in the grid are running the same set of applications. Applications can be scheduled and migrated
across servers in the grid. Grids share resources from and among independent system owners.
At the highest level, the idea of grid computing is computing as a utility. In other words, you should not
care where your data resides, or what computer processes your request. You should be able to request
information or computation and have it delivered - as much as you want, and whenever you want. This is
analogous to the way electric utilities work, in that you don't know where the generator is, or how the
electric grid is wired, you just ask for electricity, and you get it. The goal is to make computing a utility, a
commodity, and ubiquitous. Hence the name, The Grid. This view of utility computing is, of course, a
"client side" view.
From the "server side", or behind the scenes, the grid is about resource allocation, information sharing,
and high availability. Resource allocation ensures that all those that need or request resources are getting
what they need, that resources are not standing idle while requests are going unserviced. Information
sharing makes sure that the information users and applications need is available where and when it is
needed. High availability features guarantee all the data and computation is always there, just like a utility
company always provides electric power.

Responsibilities of Database Administrators


Each database requires at least one database administrator (DBA). An Oracle Database system can be
large and can have many users. Therefore, database administration is sometimes not a one-person job,
but a job for a group of DBAs who share responsibility.
A database administrator's responsibilities can include the following tasks:

Installing and upgrading the Oracle Database server and application tools

Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system

Creating primary database storage structures (tablespaces) after application developers have
designed an application

Creating primary objects (tables, views, indexes) once application developers have designed an
application

Modifying the database structure, as necessary, from information given by application developers

Enrolling users and maintaining system security

Ensuring compliance with Oracle license agreements

Controlling and monitoring user access to the database

Monitoring and optimizing the performance of the database

Planning for backup and recovery of database information

Maintaining archived data on tape

Backing up and restoring the database

Contacting Oracle for technical support

Creating the Database


This section presents the steps involved when you create a database manually. These steps should be
followed in the order presented. Before you create the database make sure you have done the planning
about the size of the database, number of tablespaces and redo log files you want in the database.
Regarding the size of the database you have to first find out how many tables are going to be created in
the database and how much space they will be occupying for the next 1 year or 2. The best thing is to
start with some specific size and later on adjust the size depending upon the requirement
Plan the layout of the underlying operating system files your database will comprise. Proper distribution of
files can improve database performance dramatically by distributing the I/O during file access. You can
distribute I/O in several ways when you install Oracle software and create your database. For example,
you can place redo log files on separate disks or use striping. You can situate datafiles to reduce
contention. And you can control data density (number of rows to a data block).
Select the standard database block size. This is specified at database creation by
the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter and cannot be changed after the database is created. For
databases, block size of 4K or 8K is widely used
Before you start creating the Database it is best to write down the specification and then proceed
The examples shown in these steps create an example database my_ica_db
Let us create a database my_ica_db with the following specification
Database name and System Identifier

SID
DB_NAME
TABLESPACES

=
=

myicadb
myicadb

(we will have 5 tablespaces in this database. With 1 datafile in each tablespace)

Tablespace
system
users
undotbs
temp
index_data
sysaux

Name Datafile
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/sys.dbf
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/usr.dbf
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/undo.dbf
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/temp.dbf
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/indx.dbf
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/sysaux.dbf

Size
250M
100M
100M
100M
100M
100M

LOGFILES
(we will have 2 log groups in the database)

Logfile Group
Member
Group 1
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/log1.ora
Group 2
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/log2.ora
CONTROL FILE
PARAMETER FILE

Size
50M
50M

/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/control.ora
/u01/oracle/dbs/initmyicadb.ora

(rememer the parameter file name should of the format init<sid>.ora and it should be
in ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory in Unix o/s and ORACLE_HOME/database directory in windows o/s)
Now let us start creating the database.
Step 1: Login to oracle account and make directories for your database.
$mkdir
$mkdir
$mkdir
$mkdir

/u01/oracle/oradata/myica
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/bdump
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/udump
/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/cdump

Step 2: Create the parameter file by copying the default template (init.ora) and set the required
parameters
$cd /u01/oracle/dbs
$cp init.ora initmyicadb.ora
Now open the parameter file and set the following parameters
$vi initmyicadb.ora
DB_NAME=myicadb
DB_BLOCK_SIZE=8192
CONTROL_FILES=/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/control.ora
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST=/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/bdump
USER_DUMP_DEST=/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/udump
CORE_DUMP_DEST=/u01/oracle/oradata/myica/cdump
UNDO_TABLESPACE=undotbs
UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO
After entering the above parameters save the file by pressing Esc :wq
Step 3: Now set ORACLE_SID environment variable and start the instance.

$export ORACLE_SID=myicadb
$sqlplus
Enter User: / as sysdba
SQL>startup nomount
Step 4: Give the create database command
Here I am not specfying optional setting such as language, characterset etc. For these
settings oracle will use the default values. I am giving the barest command to create the
database to keep it simple.
The command to create the database is

SQL>create database myicadb


datafile /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/sys.dbf size 250M
sysaux datafile /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/sysaux.dbf size 100m
undo tablespace undotbs
datafile /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/undo.dbf size 100m
default temporary tablespace temp
tempfile /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/tmp.dbf size 100m
logfile
group 1 /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/log1.ora size 50m,
group 2 /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/log2.ora size 50m;
After the command fishes you will get the following message
Database created.
If you are getting any errors then see accompanying messages. If no accompanying messages are
shown then you have to see the alert_myicadb.log file located in BACKGROUND_DUMP_DESTdirectory,
which will show the exact reason why the command has failed. After you have rectified the error please
delete all created files in /u01/oracle/oradata/myica directory and again give the above command.
Step 5: After the above command finishes, the database will get mounted and opened. Now
create additional tablespaces
To create USERS tablespace
SQL>create tablespace users
datafile /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/usr.dbf size 100M;
To create INDEX_DATA tablespace
SQL>create tablespace index_data
datafile /u01/oracle/oradata/myica/indx.dbf size 100M
Step 6: To populate the database with data dictionaries and to install procedural options execute
the following scripts
First execute the CATALOG.SQL script to install data dictionaries
SQL>@/u01/oracle/rdbms/admin/catalog.sql

The above script will take several minutes. After the above script is finished run
the CATPROC.SQL script to install procedural option.
SQL>@/u01/oracle/rdbms/admin/catproc.sql
This script will also take several minutes to complete.
Step 7: Now change the passwords for SYS and SYSTEM account, since the default passwords
change_on_install and manager are known by everybody.
SQL>alter user sys identified by myica;
SQL>alter user system identified by myica;
Step 8: Create Additional user accounts. You can create as many user account as you like. Let us create
the popular account SCOTT.
SQL>create user scott default tablespace users
identified by tiger quota 10M on users;
SQL>grant connect to scott;
Step 9: Add this database SID in listener.ora file and restart the listener process.
$cd /u01/oracle/network/admin
$vi listener.ora
(This file will already contain sample entries. Copy and paste one sample entry and edit
the SID setting)
LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS =(PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST=200.200.100.1)(PORT = 1521))

)
)
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME =/u01/oracle)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME=ORCL)
(ORACLE_HOME=/u01/oracle)
)
#Add these lines
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME=myicadb)
(ORACLE_HOME=/u01/oracle)
)
)
Save the file by pressing Esc :wq

Now restart the listener process.


$lsnrctl stop
$lsnrctl start
Step 10: It is recommended to take a full database backup after you just created the database.
How to take backup is deal in the Backup and Recovery Section.

Congratualtions you have just created an oracle database

Managing Tablespaces and Datafiles

Using multiple tablespaces provides several Advantages

Separate user data from data dictionary data to reduce contention among dictionary
objects and schema objects for the same datafiles.

Separate data of one application from the data of another to prevent multiple applications
from being affected if a tablespace must be taken offline.

Store different the datafiles of different tablespaces on different disk drives to reduce I/O
contention.

Take individual tablespaces offline while others remain online, providing better overall
availability.

Creating New Tablespaces

You can create Locally Managed or Dictionary Managed Tablespaces. In prior


versions of Oracle only Dictionary managed Tablespaces were available but from
Oracle ver. 8i you can also create Locally managed tablespaces. The advantages of
locally managed tablespaces are
Locally managed tablespaces track all extent information in the tablespace itself by
using bitmaps, resulting in the following benefits:

Concurrency and speed of space operations is improved, because space allocations and
deallocations modify locally managed resources (bitmaps stored in header files) rather
than requiring centrally managed resources such as enqueues

Performance is improved, because recursive operations that are sometimes required


during dictionary-managed space allocation are eliminated

To create a locally managed tablespace give the following command


SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE ica_lmts DATAFILE '/u02/oracle/ica/ica01.dbf' SIZE 50M
EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL AUTOALLOCATE;

AUTOALLOCATE causes the tablespace to be system managed with a minimum


extent size of 64K.
The alternative to AUTOALLOCATE is UNIFORM. which specifies that the
tablespace is managed with extents of uniform size. You can specify that size in the
SIZE clause of UNIFORM. If you omit SIZE, then the default size is 1M. The
following example creates a Locally managed tablespace with uniform extent size of
256K
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE ica_lmt DATAFILE
'/u02/oracle/ica/ica01.dbf' SIZE 50M EXTENT MANAGEMENT
LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 256K;
To Create Dictionary Managed Tablespace
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE ica_lmt DATAFILE
'/u02/oracle/ica/ica01.dbf' SIZE 50M EXTENT MANAGEMENT
DICTIONARY;
Bigfile Tablespaces (Introduced in Oracle Ver. 10g)

A bigfile tablespace is a tablespace with a single, but very large (up to 4G blocks)
datafile. Traditional smallfile tablespaces, in contrast, can contain multiple datafiles,
but the files cannot be as large. Bigfile tablespaces can reduce the number of datafiles
needed for a database.
To create a bigfile tablespace give the following command
SQL> CREATE BIGFILE TABLESPACE ica_bigtbs
DATAFILE '/u02/oracle/ica/bigtbs01.dbf' SIZE 50G;

To Extend the Size of a tablespace

Option 1
You can extend the size of a tablespace by increasing the size of an existing datafile
by typing the following command
SQL> alter database ica datafile
/u01/oracle/data/icatbs01.dbf resize 100M;
This will increase the size from 50M to 100M
Option 2
You can also extend the size of a tablespace by adding a new datafile to a tablespace.
This is useful if the size of existing datafile is reached o/s file size limit or the drive
where the file is existing does not have free space. To add a new datafile to an existing
tablespace give the following command.
SQL> alter tablespace
add datafile /u02/oracle/ica/icatbs02.dbf size 50M;
Option 3
You can also use auto extend feature of datafile. In this, Oracle will automatically
increase the size of a datafile whenever space is required. You can specify by how
much size the file should increase and Maximum size to which it should extend.
To make a existing datafile auto extendable give the following command
SQL> alter database datafile
/u01/oracle/ica/icatbs01.dbf auto extend ON next
5M maxsize 500M;
You can also make a datafile auto extendable while creating a new tablespace itself by
giving the following command.
SQL> create tablespace ica datafile
/u01/oracle/ica/icatbs01.dbf size 50M auto extend
ON next 5M maxsize 500M;

To decrease the size of a tablespace

You can decrease the size of tablespace by decreasing the datafile associated with it.
You decrease a datafile only up to size of empty space in it. To decrease the size of a
datafile give the following command
SQL> alter database datafile
/u01/oracle/ica/icatbs01.dbf

resize 30M;

Coalescing Tablespaces

A free extent in a dictionary-managed tablespace is made up of a collection of


contiguous free blocks. When allocating new extents to a tablespace segment, the
database uses the free extent closest in size to the required extent. In some cases,
when segments are dropped, their extents are deallocated and marked as free, but
adjacent free extents are not immediately recombined into larger free extents. The
result is fragmentation that makes allocation of larger extents more difficult.
You should often use the ALTER TABLESPACE ... COALESCE statement to manually
coalesce any adjacent free extents. To Coalesce a tablespace give the following
command
SQL> alter tablespace ica coalesce;

Taking tablespaces Offline or Online

You can take an online tablespace offline so that it is temporarily unavailable for
general use. The rest of the database remains open and available for users to access
data. Conversely, you can bring an offline tablespace online to make the schema
objects within the tablespace available to database users. The database must be open
to alter the availability of a tablespace.

To alter the availability of a tablespace, use the ALTER TABLESPACE statement. You
must have the ALTER TABLESPACE or MANAGE TABLESPACE system privilege.
To Take a Tablespace Offline give the following command
SQL>alter tablespace ica offline;
To again bring it back online give the following command.
SQL>alter tablespace ica online;
To take individual datafile offline type the following command
SQL>alter database datafile
/u01/oracle/ica/ica_tbs01.dbf offline;
Again to bring it back online give the following command
SQL> alter database datafile
/u01/oracle/ica/ica_tbs01.dbf online;
Note: You cant take individual datafiles offline it the database is running in
NOARCHIVELOG mode. If the datafile has become corrupt or missing when the
database is running in NOARCHIVELOG mode then you can only drop it by giving
the following command
SQL>alter database datafile
/u01/oracle/ica/ica_tbs01.dbf
offline for drop;
Making a Tablespace Read only.

Making a tablespace read-only prevents write operations on the datafiles in the


tablespace. The primary purpose of read-only tablespaces is to eliminate the need to
perform backup and recovery of large, static portions of a database. Read-only
tablespaces also provide a way to protecting historical data so that users cannot
modify it. Making a tablespace read-only prevents updates on all tables in the
tablespace, regardless of a user's update privilege level.
To make a tablespace read only
SQL>alter tablespace ica read only

Again to make it read write


SQL>alter tablespace ica read write;
Renaming Tablespaces
Using the RENAME TO clause of the ALTER TABLESPACE, you can rename a
permanent or temporary tablespace. For example, the following statement renames
the users tablespace:
ALTER TABLESPACE users RENAME TO usersts;

The following affect the operation of this statement:

The COMPATIBLE parameter must be set to 10.0 or higher.

If the tablespace being renamed is the SYSTEM tablespace or the SYSAUX


tablespace, then it will not be renamed and an error is raised.

If any datafile in the tablespace is offline, or if the tablespace is offline, then


the tablespace is not renamed and an error is raised.

Dropping Tablespaces
You can drop a tablespace and its contents (the segments contained in the
tablespace) from the database if the tablespace and its contents are no longer
required. You must have theDROP TABLESPACE system privilege to drop a
tablespace.

Caution: Once a tablespace has been dropped, the data in the tablespace is not
recoverable. Therefore, make sure that all data contained in a tablespace to be
dropped will not be required in the future. Also, immediately before and after
dropping a tablespace from a database, back up the database completely
To drop a tablespace give the following command.
SQL> drop tablespace ica;
This will drop the tablespace only if it is empty. If it is not empty and if you want to
drop it anyhow then add the following keyword
SQL>drop tablespace ica including contents;
This will drop the tablespace even if it is not empty. But the datafiles will not be
deleted you have to use operating system command to delete the files.

But If you include datafiles keyword then, the associated datafiles will also be
deleted from the disk.

SQL>drop tablespace ica including contents and datafiles;


Temporary Tablespace

Temporary tablespace is used for sorting large tables. Every


database should have one temporary tablespace. To create
temporary tablespace give the following command.
SQL>create temporary tablespace temp tempfile
/u01/oracle/data/ica_temp.dbf size 100M
extent management local uniform size 5M;
The extent management clause is optional for temporary tablespaces because all temporary tablespaces
are created with locally managed extents of a uniform size. The AUTOALLOCATEclause is not allowed
for temporary tablespaces.

Increasing or Decreasing the size of a Temporary Tablespace

You can use the resize clause to increase or decrease the size of a
temporary tablespace. The following statement resizes a temporary
file:
SQL>ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE '/u02/oracle/data/lmtemp02.dbf' RESIZE 18M;

The following statement drops a temporary file and deletes the


operating system file:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE
'/u02/oracle/data/lmtemp02.dbf' DROP
DATAFILES;

INCLUDING

Tablespace Groups

A tablespace group enables a user to consume temporary space


from multiple tablespaces. A tablespace group has the following
characteristics:

It contains at least one tablespace. There is no explicit limit on the maximum


number of tablespaces that are contained in a group.

It shares the namespace of tablespaces, so its name cannot be the same as


any tablespace.

You can specify a tablespace group name wherever a tablespace name would
appear when you assign a default temporary tablespace for the database or a
temporary tablespace for a user.

You do not explicitly create a tablespace group. Rather, it is created


implicitly when you assign the first temporary tablespace to the
group. The group is deleted when the last temporary tablespace it
contains is removed from it.
Using a tablespace group, rather than a single temporary
tablespace, can alleviate problems caused where one tablespace is
inadequate to hold the results of a sort, particularly on a table that
has many partitions. A tablespace group enables parallel execution
servers in a single parallel operation to use multiple temporary
tablespaces.
The view DBA_TABLESPACE_GROUPS lists tablespace groups and
their member tablespaces.
Creating a Temporary Tablespace Group
You create a tablespace group implicitly when you include the TABLESPACE GROUP clause in
the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE or ALTER TABLESPACE statement and the specified
tablespace group does not currently exist.
For example, if neither group1 nor group2 exists, then the following statements create those groups,
each of which has only the specified tablespace as a member:
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ica_temp2 TEMPFILE '/u02/oracle/ica/ica_temp.dbf'
SIZE 50M
TABLESPACE GROUP group1;
ALTER TABLESPACE ica_temp2 TABLESPACE GROUP group2;

Assigning a Tablespace Group as the Default Temporary Tablespace


Use the ALTER DATABASE ...DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE statement to assign a
tablespace group as the default temporary tablespace for the database. For example:
ALTER DATABASE sample DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE group2;

Diagnosing and Repairing Locally Managed Tablespace Problems

To diagnose and repair corruptions in Locally Managed Tablespaces


Oracle has supplied a package called DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN. This
package has many procedures described below:
Procedure

Description

SEGMENT_VERIFY

Verifies the consistency of the extent map of


the segment.

SEGMENT_CORRUPT

Marks the segment corrupt or valid so that


appropriate error recovery can be done.
Cannot be used for a locally
managed SYSTEM tablespace.

SEGMENT_DROP_CORRUPT

Drops a segment currently marked corrupt


(without reclaiming space). Cannot be used for
a locally managed SYSTEM tablespace.

SEGMENT_DUMP

Dumps the segment header and extent map of


a given segment.

TABLESPACE_VERIFY

Verifies that the bitmaps and extent maps for


the segments in the tablespace are in sync.

TABLESPACE_REBUILD_BITMAPS

Rebuilds the appropriate bitmap. Cannot be


used for a locally managed SYSTEM tablespace.

TABLESPACE_FIX_BITMAPS

Marks the appropriate data block address


range (extent) as free or used in bitmap.
Cannot be used for a locally
managed SYSTEM tablespace.

TABLESPACE_REBUILD_QUOTAS

Rebuilds quotas for given tablespace.

TABLESPACE_MIGRATE_FROM_LOCA
L

Migrates a locally managed tablespace to


dictionary-managed tablespace. Cannot be

Procedure

Description
used to migrate a locally
managed SYSTEM tablespace to a dictionarymanaged SYSTEM tablespace.

TABLESPACE_MIGRATE_TO_LOCAL

Migrates a tablespace from dictionarymanaged format to locally managed format.

TABLESPACE_RELOCATE_BITMAPS

Relocates the bitmaps to the destination


specified. Cannot be used for a locally
managed system tablespace.

TABLESPACE_FIX_SEGMENT_STATE
S

Fixes the state of the segments in a tablespace


in which migration was aborted.

Be careful using the above procedures if not used properly you will
corrupt your database. Contact Oracle Support before using these
procedures.
Following are some of the Scenarios where you can use the above
procedures
Scenario 1: Fixing Bitmap When Allocated Blocks are Marked Free (No
Overlap)

The TABLESPACE_VERIFY procedure discovers that a segment has


allocated blocks that are marked free in the bitmap, but no overlap
between segments is reported.
In this scenario, perform the following tasks:
1. Call the SEGMENT_DUMP procedure to dump the ranges that the
administrator allocated to the segment.
2. For each range, call the TABLESPACE_FIX_BITMAPS procedure with the
TABLESPACE_EXTENT_MAKE_USED option to mark the space as used.
3. Call TABLESPACE_REBUILD_QUOTAS to fix up quotas.

Scenario 2: Dropping a Corrupted Segment

You cannot drop a segment because the bitmap has segment blocks
marked "free". The system has automatically marked the segment
corrupted.
In this scenario, perform the following tasks:
1. Call the SEGMENT_VERIFY procedure with the
SEGMENT_VERIFY_EXTENTS_GLOBAL option. If no overlaps are reported, then
proceed with steps 2 through 5.
2. Call the SEGMENT_DUMP procedure to dump the DBA ranges allocated to the
segment.
3. For each range, call TABLESPACE_FIX_BITMAPS with the
TABLESPACE_EXTENT_MAKE_FREE option to mark the space as free.
4. Call SEGMENT_DROP_CORRUPT to drop the SEG$ entry.
5. Call TABLESPACE_REBUILD_QUOTAS to fix up quotas.

Scenario 3: Fixing Bitmap Where Overlap is Reported

The TABLESPACE_VERIFY procedure reports some overlapping.


Some of the real data must be sacrificed based on previous internal
errors.
After choosing the object to be sacrificed, in this case say, table t1,
perform the following tasks:
1. Make a list of all objects that t1 overlaps.
2. Drop table t1. If necessary, follow up by calling the
SEGMENT_DROP_CORRUPT procedure.
3. Call the SEGMENT_VERIFY procedure on all objects that t1 overlapped. If
necessary, call the TABLESPACE_FIX_BITMAPS procedure to mark appropriate
bitmap blocks as used.
4. Rerun the TABLESPACE_VERIFY procedure to verify the problem is resolved.

Scenario 4: Correcting Media Corruption of Bitmap Blocks

A set of bitmap blocks has media corruption.


In this scenario, perform the following tasks:

1. Call the TABLESPACE_REBUILD_BITMAPS procedure, either on all bitmap


blocks, or on a single block if only one is corrupt.
2. Call the TABLESPACE_REBUILD_QUOTAS procedure to rebuild quotas.
3. Call the TABLESPACE_VERIFY procedure to verify that the bitmaps are
consistent.

Scenario 5: Migrating from a Dictionary-Managed to a Locally Managed


Tablespace
To migrate a dictionary-managed tablespace to a locally managed tablespace. You
use the TABLESPACE_MIGRATE_TO_LOCAL procedure.

For example if you want to migrate a dictionary managed tablespace


ICA2 to Locally managed then give the following command.
EXEC DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN.TABLESPACE_MIGRATE_TO_LOCAL ('ica2');

Transporting Tablespaces

You can use the transportable tablespaces feature to move a subset


of an Oracle Database and "plug" it in to another Oracle Database,
essentially moving tablespaces between the databases. The
tablespaces being transported can be either dictionary managed or
locally managed. Starting with Oracle9i, the transported tablespaces
are not required to be of the same block size as the target database
standard block size.
Moving data using transportable tablespaces is much faster than
performing either an export/import or unload/load of the same data.
This is because the datafiles containing all of the actual data are
simply copied to the destination location, and you use an import
utility to transfer only the metadata of the tablespace objects to the
new database.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g, you can transport tablespaces
across platforms. This functionality can be used to Allow a database
to be migrated from one platform to another. However not all
platforms are supported. To see which platforms are supported give
the following query.
SQL> COLUMN PLATFORM_NAME FORMAT A30

SQL> SELECT * FROM V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM;


PLATFORM_ID PLATFORM_NAME

ENDIAN_FORMAT

----------1
2
7
10
6
3
5
4
11
15

-------------Big
Big
Little
Little
Big
Big
Little
Big
Little
Little

-----------------------------Solaris[tm] OE (32-bit)
Solaris[tm] OE (64-bit)
Microsoft Windows NT
Linux IA (32-bit)
AIX-Based Systems (64-bit)
HP-UX (64-bit)
HP Tru64 UNIX
HP-UX IA (64-bit)
Linux IA (64-bit)
HP Open VMS

10 rows selected.

If the source platform and the target platform are of different endianness,
then an additional step must be done on either the source or target platform
to convert the tablespace being transported to the target format. If they are
of the same endianness, then no conversion is necessary and tablespaces
can be transported as if they were on the same platform.

Important: Before a tablespace can be transported to a different


platform, the datafile header must identify the platform to which it
belongs. In an Oracle Database with compatibility set to 10.0.0 or
higher, you can accomplish this by making the datafile read/write at
least once.
SQL> alter tablespace ica read only;
Then,
SQL> alter tablespace ica read write;
Procedure for transporting tablespaces
To move or copy a set of tablespaces, perform the following steps.
1. For cross-platform transport, check the endian format of both

platforms by querying the V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM view.


If you are transporting the tablespace set to a platform different from
the source platform, then determine if the source and target platforms
are supported and their endianness. If both platforms have the same
endianness, no conversion is necessary. Otherwise you must do a

conversion of the tablespace set either at the source or target


database.
Ignore this step if you are transporting your tablespace set to the
same platform.
2. Pick a self-contained set of tablespaces.
3. Generate a transportable tablespace set.

A transportable tablespace set consists of datafiles for the set of


tablespaces being transported and an export file containing structural
information for the set of tablespaces.
If you are transporting the tablespace set to a platform with different
endianness from the source platform, you must convert the tablespace
set to the endianness of the target platform. You can perform a
source-side conversion at this step in the procedure, or you can
perform a target-side conversion as part of step 4.
4. Transport the tablespace set.

Copy the datafiles and the export file to the target database. You can
do this using any facility for copying flat files (for example, an
operating system copy utility, ftp, theDBMS_FILE_COPY package, or
publishing on CDs).
If you have transported the tablespace set to a platform with different
endianness from the source platform, and you have not performed a
source-side conversion to the endianness of the target platform, you
should perform a target-side conversion now.
5. Plug in the tablespace.

Invoke the Export utility to plug the set of tablespaces into the target
database.

Transporting Tablespace Example


These steps are illustrated more fully in the example that follows, where it is assumed
the following datafiles and tablespaces exist:

Tablespace

Datafile:

ica_sales_1

/u01/oracle/oradata/ica_salesdb/ica_sales_101.dbf

ica_sales_2

/u01/oracle/oradata/ica_salesdb/ica_sales_201.dbf

Step 1: Determine if Platforms are Supported and Endianness

This step is only necessary if you are transporting the tablespace set to a platform
different from the source platform. If ica_sales_1 and ica_sales_2 were being
transported to a different platform, you can execute the following query on both
platforms to determine if the platforms are supported and their endian formats:
SELECT d.PLATFORM_NAME, ENDIAN_FORMAT
FROM V$TRANSPORTABLE_PLATFORM tp, V$DATABASE d
WHERE tp.PLATFORM_NAME = d.PLATFORM_NAME;

The following is the query result from the source platform:


PLATFORM_NAME
ENDIAN_FORMAT
------------------------- -------------Solaris[tm] OE (32-bit)
Big

The following is the result from the target platform:


PLATFORM_NAME
ENDIAN_FORMAT
------------------------- -------------Microsoft Windows NT
Little

You can see that the endian formats are different and thus a conversion is necessary
for transporting the tablespace set.
Step 2: Pick a Self-Contained Set of Tablespaces

There may be logical or physical dependencies between objects in the transportable


set and those outside of the set. You can only transport a set of tablespaces that is selfcontained. That is it should not have tables with foreign keys referring to primary key
of tables which are in other tablespaces. It should not have tables with some partitions
in other tablespaces. To find out whether the tablespace is self contained do the
following

EXECUTE DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK('ica_sales_1,ica_sales_2', TRUE);

After executing the above give the following query to see whether any violations
are there.
SQL> SELECT * FROM TRANSPORT_SET_VIOLATIONS;

VIOLATIONS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------Constraint DEPT_FK between table SAMI.EMP in tablespace ICA_SALES_1 and table
SAMI.DEPT in tablespace OTHER
Partitioned table SAMI.SALES is partially contained in the transportable set

These violations must be resolved before ica_sales_1 and ica_sales_2 are


transportable
Step 3: Generate a Transportable Tablespace Set
After ensuring you have a self-contained set of tablespaces that you want to
transport, generate a transportable tablespace set by performing the following
actions:
Make all tablespaces in the set you are copying read-only.
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ica_sales_1 READ ONLY;
Tablespace altered.
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ica_sales_2 READ ONLY;
Tablespace altered.
Invoke the Export utility on the host system and specify which tablespaces are in
the transportable set.
SQL> HOST
$ exp system/password FILE=/u01/oracle/expdat.dmp
TRANSPORT_TABLESPACES = ica_sales_1,ica_sales_2

If ica_sales_1 and ica_sales_2 are being transported to a different platform, and the
endianness of the platforms is different, and if you want to convert before transporting
the tablespace set, then convert the datafiles composing
the ica_sales_1 and ica_sales_2 tablespaces. You have to use RMAN utility to

convert datafiles
$ RMAN TARGET /
Recovery Manager: Release 10.1.0.0.0
Copyright (c) 1995, 2003, Oracle Corporation.

All rights reserved.

connected to target database: ica_salesdb (DBID=3295731590)


Convert the datafiles into a temporary location on the source platform. In this
example, assume that the temporary location, directory /temp, has already been
created. The converted datafiles are assigned names by the system.
RMAN> CONVERT TABLESPACE ica_sales_1,ica_sales_2
TO PLATFORM 'Microsoft Windows NT' FORMAT '/temp/%U';

Starting backup at 08-APR-03


using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=11 devtype=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile conversion
input datafile fno=00005
name=/u01/oracle/oradata/ica_salesdb/ica_sales_101.dbf
converted datafile=/temp/data_D-10_I-3295731590_TS-ADMIN_TBS_FNO5_05ek24v5
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile conversion complete, elapsed time:
00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile conversion
input datafile fno=00004
name=/u01/oracle/oradata/ica_salesdb/ica_sales_101.dbf
converted datafile=/temp/data_D-10_I-3295731590_TS-EXAMPLE_FNO4_06ek24vl
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile conversion complete, elapsed time:
00:00:45
Finished backup at 08-APR-07

Step 4: Transport the Tablespace Set

Transport both the datafiles and the export file of the tablespaces to a place accessible
to the target database. You can use any facility for copying flat files (for example, an
operating system copy utility, ftp, the DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER package, or publishing on
CDs).

Step 5: Plug In the Tablespace Set


Plug in the tablespaces and integrate the structural information using the
Import utility, imp:
IMP system/password FILE=expdat.dmp
DATAFILES=/ica_salesdb/ica_sales_101.dbf,/ica_salesdb/ica_sales_201.dbf
REMAP_SCHEMA=(smith:sami) REMAP_SCHEMA=(williams:john)

The REMAP_SCHEMA parameter changes the ownership of database objects. If


you do not specify REMAP_SCHEMA, all database objects (such as tables and
indexes) are created in the same user schema as in the source database,
and those users must already exist in the target database. If they do not
exist, then the import utility returns an error. In this example, objects in the
tablespace set owned by smith in the source database will be owned
by sami in the target database after the tablespace set is plugged in.
Similarly, objects owned by williams in the source database will be owned
by john in the target database. In this case, the target database is not
required to have users smith and williams, but must have
users sami and john.

After this statement executes successfully, all tablespaces in the set being copied
remain in read-only mode. Check the import logs to ensure that no error has occurred.
Now, put the tablespaces into read/write mode as follows:
ALTER TABLESPACE ica_sales_1 READ WRITE;
ALTER TABLESPACE ica_sales_2 READ WRITE;

Viewing Information about Tablespaces and Datafiles

Oracle has provided many Data dictionaries to view information about tablespaces
and datafiles. Some of them are:
To view information about Tablespaces in a database give the following query
SQL>select * from dba_tablespaces
SQL>select * from v$tablespace;
To view information about Datafiles
SQL>select * from dba_data_files;
SQL>select * from v$datafile;
To view information about Tempfiles

SQL>select * from dba_temp_files;


SQL>select * from v$tempfile;
To view information about free space in datafiles
SQL>select * from dba_free_space;
To view information about free space in tempfiles
SQL>select * from V$TEMP_SPACE_HEADER;

Relocating or Renaming Datafiles


You can rename datafiles to either change their names or relocate them.

Renaming or Relocating Datafiles belonging to a Single Tablespace

To rename or relocate datafiles belonging to a Single Tablespace do the following.


1.

Take the tablespace offline

2.

Rename or Relocate the datafiles using operating system command

3.
4.

Give the ALTER TABLESPACE with RENAME DATAFILE option to change the
filenames within the Database.
Bring the tablespace Online

For Example suppose you have a tablespace users with the following datafiles
/u01/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf
/u01/oracle/ica/usr02.dbf
Now you want to relocate /u01/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf
to /u02/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf and want to
rename /u01/oracle/ica/usr02.dbf to/u01/oracle/ica/users02.dbf then
follow the given the steps
1.

Bring the tablespace offline


SQL> alter tablespace users offline;

2.

Copy the file to new location using o/s command.


$cp /u01/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf

/u02/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf

Rename the
file /u01/oracle/ica/usr02.dbf to /u01/oracle/ica/users02.dbf usi

ng o/s command.
$mv
3.

/u01/oracle/ica/usr02.dbf /u01/oracle/ica/users02.dbf

Now start SQLPLUS and type the following command to rename and relocate
these files
SQL> alter tablespace users rename file
/u01/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf, /u01/oracle/ica/usr02.dbf
to
/u02/oracle/ica/usr01.dbf,/u01/oracle/ica/users02.dbf;

4.

Now bring the tablespace Online


SQL> alter tablespace users online;

Procedure for Renaming and Relocating Datafiles in Multiple


Tablespaces
You can rename and relocate datafiles in one or more tablespaces using the ALTER
DATABASE RENAME FILE statement. This method is the only choice if you want to
rename or relocate datafiles of several tablespaces in one operation. You must have
the ALTER DATABASE system privilege

To rename datafiles in multiple tablespaces, follow these steps.


1. Ensure that the database is mounted but closed.
2. Copy the datafiles to be renamed to their new locations and new names, using
the operating system..
3. Use ALTER

DATABASE

to rename the file pointers in the database control file.

For example, the following statement renames the


datafiles/u02/oracle/rbdb1/sort01.dbf and /u02/oracle/rbdb1/user3.dbf to /u
02/oracle/rbdb1/temp01.dbfand /u02/oracle/rbdb1/users03.dbf, respectively:
ALTER DATABASE
RENAME FILE '/u02/oracle/rbdb1/sort01.dbf',
'/u02/oracle/rbdb1/user3.dbf'
TO '/u02/oracle/rbdb1/temp01.dbf',
'/u02/oracle/rbdb1/users03.dbf;

Always provide complete filenames (including their paths) to properly identify


the old and new datafiles. In particular, specify the old datafile names exactly
as they appear in theDBA_DATA_FILES view.

4. Back up the database. After making any structural changes to a database,


always perform an immediate and complete backup.
5. Start the Database

Managing REDO LOGFILES


Every Oracle database must have at least 2 redo logfile groups.
Oracle writes all statements except, SELECT statement, to
the logfiles. This is done because Oracle performs deferred batch
writes i.e. it does write changes to disk per statement instead it
performs write in batches. So in this case if a user updates a row,
Oracle will change the row in db_buffer_cache and records the
statement in the logfile and give the message to the
user that row is updated. Actually the row is not yet written back to
the datafile but still it give the message to the user that row is
updated. After 3 seconds the row is actually written to the datafile.
This is known as deferred batch writes.
Since Oracle defers writing to the datafile there is chance of power
failure or system crash before the row is written to the disk. Thats
why Oracle writes the statement in redo logfile so that in case of
power failure or system crash oracle can re-execute the statements
next time when you open the database.
Adding a New Redo Logfile Group

To add a new Redo Logfile group to the database give the following
command
SQL>alter database add logfile group 3
/u01/oracle/ica/log3.ora size 10M;
Note: You can add groups to a database up to the MAXLOGFILES
setting you have specified at the time of creating the database. If
you want to change MAXLOGFILE setting you have to create a new
controlfile.

Adding Members to an existing group

To add new member to an existing group give the following


command
SQL>alter database add logfile member
/u01/oracle/ica/log11.ora to group 1;
Note: You can add members to a group up to the MAXLOGMEMBERS
setting you have specified at the time of creating the database. If
you want to change MAXLOGMEMBERS setting you have create a
new controlfile
Important: Is it strongly recommended that you
multiplex logfiles i.e. have at least two log members, one member
in one disk and another in second disk, in a database.
Dropping Members from a group

You can drop member from a log group only if the group is having
more than one member and if it is not the current group. If you
want to drop members from the current group, force a log switch or
wait so that log switch occurs and another group becomes current.
To force a log switch give the following command
SQL>alter system switch logfile;
The following command can be used to drop a logfile member
SQL>alter database drop logfile member
/u01/oracle/ica/log11.ora;
Note: When you drop logfiles the files are not deleted from the disk.
You have to use O/S command to delete the files from disk.
Dropping Logfile Group

Similarly, you can also drop logfile group only if the database is
having more than two groups and if it is not the current group.
SQL>alter database drop logfile group 3;

Note: When you drop logfiles the files are not deleted from the disk.
You have to use O/S command to delete the files from disk.
Resizing Logfiles

You cannot resize logfiles. If you want to resize a logfile create a


new logfile group with the new size and subsequently drop the
old logfile group.
Renaming or Relocating Logfiles

To Rename or Relocate Logfiles perform the following steps


For Example, suppose you want to move
a logfile from /u01/oracle/ica/log1.ora to /u02/oracle/ica
/log1.ora, then do the following
Steps
1. Shutdown the database
SQL>shutdown immediate;

2. Move the logfile from Old location to new location using operating system command
$mv /u01/oracle/ica/log1.ora

/u02/oracle/ica/log1.ora

3. Start and mount the database


SQL>startup mount

4. Now give the following command to change the location in controlfile


SQL>alter database rename file
/u01/oracle/ica/log1.ora to
/u02/oracle/ica/log2.ora;

5. Open the database


SQL>alter database open;

Clearing REDO LOGFILES


A redo log file might become corrupted while the database is open, and
ultimately stop database activity because archiving cannot continue. In this
situation the ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE statement can be used reinitialize
the file without shutting down the database.
The following statement clears the log files in redo log group number 3:
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE GROUP 3;

This statement overcomes two situations where dropping redo logs is not
possible:

If there are only two log groups

The corrupt redo log file belongs to the current group

If the corrupt redo log file has not been archived, use the UNARCHIVED keyword
in the statement.
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR UNARCHIVED LOGFILE GROUP 3;

This statement clears the corrupted redo logs and avoids archiving them.
The cleared redo logs are available for use even though they were not
archived.
If you clear a log file that is needed for recovery of a backup, then you can
no longer recover from that backup. The database writes a message in the
alert log describing the backups from which you cannot recover

Viewing Information About Logfiles

To See how many logfile groups are there and their status type the
following query.

SQL>SELECT * FROM V$LOG;


GROUP# THREAD#
SEQ
BYTES
------ ------- ----- ------1
1 20605 1048576
2
1 20606 1048576
3
1 20603 1048576
4
1 20604 1048576

MEMBERS
------1
1
1
1

ARC
--YES
NO
YES
YES

STATUS
--------ACTIVE
CURRENT
INACTIVE
INACTIVE

FIRST_CHANGE#
------------61515628
41517595
31511666
21513647

FIRST_TIM
--------21-JUN-07
21-JUN-07
21-JUN-07
21-JUN-07

To See how many members are there and where they are located
give the following query
SQL>SELECT * FROM V$LOGFILE;
GROUP#
-----1
2

STATUS
-------

MEMBER
---------------------------------/U01/ORACLE/ICA/LOG1.ORA
/U01/ORACLE/ICA/LOG2.ORA

Managing Control Files


Every Oracle Database has a control file, which is a small binary file that records the
physical structure of the database. The control file includes:

The database name

Names and locations of associated datafiles and redo log files

The timestamp of the database creation

The current log sequence number

Checkpoint information

It is strongly recommended that you multiplex control files i.e.


Have at least two control files one in one hard disk and another one
located in another disk, in a database. In this way if control file
becomes corrupt in one disk the another copy will be available and
you dont have to do recovery of control file.
You can multiplex control file at the time of creating a database and
later on also. If you have not multiplexed control file at the time of

creating a database you can do it now by following given procedure.


Multiplexing Control File

Steps:
1. Shutdown the Database.
SQL>SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;

2. Copy the control file from old location to new location using operating system
command. For example.
$cp
/u01/oracle/ica/control.ora

/u02/oracle/ica/control.ora

3. Now open the parameter file and specify the new location like this
CONTROL_FILES=/u01/oracle/ica/control.ora
Change it to
CONTROL_FILES=/u01/oracle/ica/control.ora,/u02/oracle/ica
/control.ora

4. Start the Database


Now Oracle will start updating both the control files and, if one
control file is lost you can copy it from another location.
Changing the Name of a Database

If you ever want to change the name of database or want to change


the setting of MAXDATAFILES, MAXLOGFILES, MAXLOGMEMBERS then
you have to create a new control file.

Creating A New Control File

Follow the given steps to create a new controlfile


Steps
1. First generate the create controlfile statement
SQL>alter database backup controlfile to trace;
After giving this statement oracle will write
the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement in a trace file. The trace
file will be randomly named something like ORA23212.TRC and
it is created in USER_DUMP_DEST directory.
2. Go to the USER_DUMP_DEST directory and open the latest trace file in text editor.
This file will contain the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement. It will have two sets of
statement one with RESETLOGS and another without RESETLOGS. Since we are
changing the name of the Database we have to use RESETLOGS option
of CREATE CONTROLFILE statement. Now copy and paste the statement in a file.
Let it be c.sql

3. Now open the c.sql file in text editor and set the database name from ica to prod
shown in an example below
CREATE CONTROLFILE
SET DATABASE prod
LOGFILE GROUP 1 ('/u01/oracle/ica/redo01_01.log',
'/u01/oracle/ica/redo01_02.log'),
GROUP 2 ('/u01/oracle/ica/redo02_01.log',
'/u01/oracle/ica/redo02_02.log'),
GROUP 3 ('/u01/oracle/ica/redo03_01.log',
'/u01/oracle/ica/redo03_02.log')
RESETLOGS
DATAFILE '/u01/oracle/ica/system01.dbf' SIZE 3M,
'/u01/oracle/ica/rbs01.dbs' SIZE 5M,
'/u01/oracle/ica/users01.dbs' SIZE 5M,
'/u01/oracle/ica/temp01.dbs' SIZE 5M
MAXLOGFILES 50
MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
MAXLOGHISTORY 400
MAXDATAFILES 200
MAXINSTANCES 6
ARCHIVELOG;

4. Start and do not mount the database.


SQL>STARTUP NOMOUNT;

5. Now execute c.sql script


SQL> @/u01/oracle/c.sql

6. Now open the database with RESETLOGS


SQL>ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Cloning an Oracle Database.

You have a Production database running in one server. The company


management wants to develop some new modules and they have
hired some programmers to do that. Now these programmers
require access to the Production database and they want to make
changes to it. You as a DBA cant give direct access to Production
database so you want to create a copy of this database on another
server and wants to give developers access to it.
Let us see an example of cloning a database
We have a database running the production server with the
following files
PARAMETER FILE located in /u01/oracle/ica/initica.ora
CONTROL FILES=/u01/oracle/ica/control.ora
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST=/u01/oracle/ica/bdump
USER_DUMP_DEST=/u01/oracle/ica/udump
CORE_DUMP_DEST=/u01/oracle/ica/cdump
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1=location=/u01/oracle/ica/arc1

DATAFILES =
/u01/oracle/ica/sys.dbf
/u01/oracle/ica/usr.dbf
/u01/oracle/ica/rbs.dbf
/u01/oracle/ica/tmp.dbf
/u01/oracle/ica/sysaux.dbf
LOGFILE=
/u01/oracle/ica/log1.ora
/u01/oracle/ica/log2.ora
Now you want to copy this database to SERVER 2 and in SERVER 2 you dont
have /u01 filesystem. In SERVER 2 you have /d01 filesystem.
To Clone this Database on SERVER 2 do the following.
Steps :1. In SERVER 2 install the same version of o/s and same version Oracle as in SERVER
1.

2. In SERVER 1 generate CREATE CONTROLFILE statement by typing the following


command

SQL>alter database backup controlfile to trace;

Now, go to the USER_DUMP_DEST directory and open the latest trace file. This file
will contain steps and as well as CREATE CONTROLFILE statement. Copy
the CREATECONTROLFILE statement and paste in a file. Let the filename
be cr.sql

The CREATE CONTROLFILE Statement will look like this.


CREATE CONTROLFILE
SET DATABASE prod
LOGFILE GROUP 1 ('/u01/oracle/ica/log1.ora'
GROUP 2 ('/u01/oracle/ica/log2.ora'
DATAFILE '/u01/oracle/ica/sys.dbf' SIZE 300M,
'/u01/oracle/ica/rbs.dbf' SIZE 50M,
'/u01/oracle/ica/usr.dbf' SIZE 50M,
'/u01/oracle/ica/tmp.dbf' SIZE 50M,
/u01/oracle/ica/sysaux.dbf size 100M;
MAXLOGFILES 50
MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
MAXLOGHISTORY 400
MAXDATAFILES 200
MAXINSTANCES 6
ARCHIVELOG;

3. In SERVER 2 create the following directories


$cd /d01/oracle
$mkdir ica
$mkdir arc1
$cd ica
$mkdir bdump udump cdump

Shutdown the database on SERVER 1 and transfer all


datafiles, logfiles and control file to SERVER 2 in /d01/oracle/ica directory.

Copy parameter file to SERVER 2 in /d01/oracle/dbs directory and copy all


archive log files to SERVER 2 in /d01/oracle/ica/arc1 directory. Copy
the cr.sql script file to /d01/oracle/ica directory.

4. Open the parameter file SERVER 2 and change the following parameters

CONTROL FILES=//d01/oracle/ica/control.ora
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST=//d01/oracle/ica/bdump
USER_DUMP_DEST=//d01/oracle/ica/udump
CORE_DUMP_DEST=//d01/oracle/ica/cdump
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1=location=//d01/oracle/ica/arc1

5. Now, open the cr.sql file in text editor and change the locations like this
CREATE CONTROLFILE
SET DATABASE prod
LOGFILE GROUP 1 ('//d01/oracle/ica/log1.ora'
GROUP 2 ('//d01/oracle/ica/log2.ora'
DATAFILE '//d01/oracle/ica/sys.dbf' SIZE 300M,
'//d01/oracle/ica/rbs.dbf' SIZE 50M,
'//d01/oracle/ica/usr.dbf' SIZE 50M,
'//d01/oracle/ica/tmp.dbf' SIZE 50M,
//d01/oracle/ica/sysaux.dbf size 100M;
MAXLOGFILES 50
MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
MAXLOGHISTORY 400
MAXDATAFILES 200
MAXINSTANCES 6
ARCHIVELOG;

In SERVER 2 export ORACLE_SID environment variable and


start the instance
$export ORACLE_SID=ica
$sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL> startup nomount;

6. Run cr.sql script to create the controlfile


SQL>@/d01/oracle/ica/cr.sql
7. Open the database
SQL>alter database open;

Managing the UNDO TABLESPACE


Every Oracle Database must have a method of maintaining information that is used to
roll back, or undo, changes to the database. Such information consists of records of
the actions of transactions, primarily before they are committed. These records are
collectively referred to as undo.
Undo records are used to:

Roll back transactions when a ROLLBACK statement is issued

Recover the database

Provide read consistency

Analyze data as of an earlier point in time by using Flashback Query

Recover from logical corruptions using Flashback features

Earlier releases of Oracle Database used rollback segments to store undo.


Oracle9i introduced automatic undo management, which simplifies undo space
management by eliminating the complexities associated with rollback segment
management. Oracle strongly recommends that you use undo tablespace to manage
undo rather than rollback segments.
Switching to Automatic Management of Undo Space

To go for automatic management of undo space set the following parameter.


Steps:1. If you have not created an undo tablespace at the time of creating a database
then, create an undo tablespace by typing the following command

SQL>create undo tablespace myundo datafile


/u01/oracle/ica/undo_tbs.dbf size 500M
autoextend ON next 5M ;

When the system is first running in the production environment, you may be
unsure of the space requirements of the undo tablespace. In this case, you can
enable automatic extension for datafiles of the undo tablespace so that they
automatically increase in size when more space is needed

2. Shutdown the Database and set the following parameters in parameter file.
UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO
UNDO_TABLESPACE=myundo
3. Start the Database.

Now Oracle Database will use Automatic Undo Space Management.


Calculating the Space Requirements For Undo Retention
You can calculate space requirements manually using the following formula:
UndoSpace = UR * UPS + overhead

where:

UndoSpace is the number of undo blocks

UR is UNDO_RETENTION in seconds. This value should take into consideration longrunning queries and any flashback requirements.

UPS is undo blocks for each second

overhead is the small overhead for metadata (transaction tables, bitmaps, and so forth)

As an example, if UNDO_RETENTION is set to 3 hours, and the transaction rate (UPS) is 100 undo
blocks for each second, with a 8K block size, the required undo space is computed as follows:
(3 * 3600 * 100 * 8K) = 8.24GBs

To get the values for UPS, Overhead query the V$UNDOSTAT view. By giving the following
statement
SQL> Select * from V$UNDOSTAT;

Altering UNDO Tablespace

If the Undo tablespace is full, you can resize existing datafiles or add new datafiles to
it
The following example extends an existing datafile
SQL> alter database datafile /u01/oracle/ica/undo_tbs.dbf resize
700M
The following example adds a new datafile to undo tablespace

SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE myundo


ADD DATAFILE '/u01/oracle/ica/undo02.dbf' SIZE 200M AUTOEXTEND ON
NEXT 1M MAXSIZE UNLIMITED;

Dropping an Undo Tablespace


Use the DROP TABLESPACE statement to drop an undo tablespace. The following example drops
the undo tablespace undotbs_01:
SQL> DROP TABLESPACE myundo;

An undo tablespace can only be dropped if it is not currently used by any instance. If the undo
tablespace contains any outstanding transactions (for example, a transaction died but has not yet
been recovered), the DROP TABLESPACE statement fails.

Switching Undo Tablespaces


You can switch from using one undo tablespace to another. Because
the UNDO_TABLESPACE initialization parameter is a dynamic parameter, the ALTER SYSTEM
SET statement can be used to assign a new undo tablespace.
The following statement switches to a new undo tablespace:
ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE = myundo2;

Assuming myundo is the current undo tablespace, after this command successfully executes, the
instance uses myundo2 in place of myundo as its undo tablespace.

Viewing Information about Undo Tablespace


To view statistics for tuning undo tablespace query the following dictionary
SQL>select * from v$undostat;
To see how many active Transactions are there and to see undo segment information give the
following command
SQL>select * from v$transaction;
To see the sizes of extents in the undo tablespace give the following query
SQL>select * from DBA_UNDO_EXTENTS;

SQL Loader
SQL LOADER utility is used to load data from other data source into Oracle. For
example, if you have a table in FOXPRO, ACCESS or SYBASE or any other third
party database, you can use SQL Loader to load the data into Oracle Tables. SQL
Loader will only read the data from Flat files. So If you want to load the data
from Foxpro or any other database, you have to first convert that data into Delimited
Format flat file or Fixed length format flat file, and then use SQL loader to load the
data into Oracle.
Following is procedure to load the data from Third Party Database into Oracle using
SQL Loader.
1. Convert the Data into Flat file using third party database command.
2. Create the Table Structure in Oracle Database using appropriate datatypes
3. Write a Control File, describing how to interpret the flat file and options to load
the data.
4. Execute SQL Loader utility specifying the control file in the command line
argument
To understand it better let us see the following case study.

CASE STUDY (Loading Data from MS-ACCESS to Oracle)

Suppose you have a table in MS-ACCESS by name EMP, running under Windows
O/S, with the following structure
EMPNO
NAME
SAL
JDATE

INTEGER
TEXT(50)
CURRENCY
DATE

This table contains some 10,000 rows. Now you want to load the data from this table
into an Oracle Table. Oracle Database is running in LINUX O/S.
Solution
Steps

Start MS-Access and convert the table into comma delimited flat (popularly known
as csv) , by clicking on File/Save As menu. Let the delimited file name
be emp.csv
1. Now transfer this file to Linux Server using FTP command
a. Go to Command Prompt in windows
b. At the command prompt type FTP followed by IP address of the server
running Oracle.
FTP will then prompt you for username and password to connect to the
Linux Server. Supply a valid username and password of Oracle User in
Linux
For example:C:\>ftp 200.200.100.111
Name: oracle
Password:oracle
FTP>
c. Now give PUT command to transfer file from current Windows machine
to Linux machine.

FTP>put
Local file:C:\>emp.csv
remote-file:/u01/oracle/emp.csv
File transferred in 0.29 Seconds
FTP>
d. Now after the file is transferred quit the FTP utility by
typing bye command.
FTP>bye
Good-Bye
2. Now come the Linux Machine and create a table in Oracle with the same
structure as in MS-ACCESS by taking appropriate datatypes. For
example, create a table like this
$sqlplus scott/tiger
SQL>CREATE TABLE emp (empno number(5),
name varchar2(50),
sal

number(10,2),

jdate date);
3. After creating the table, you have to write a control file describing the actions
which SQL Loader should do. You can use any text editor to write the
control file. Now let us write a controlfile for our case study
$vi emp.ctl
1

LOAD DATA

INFILE

BADFILE

/u01/oracle/emp.bad

DISCARDFILE

/u01/oracle/emp.dsc

/u01/oracle/emp.csv

INSERT INTO TABLE emp

FIELDS TERMINATED BY , OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY


TRAILING NULLCOLS

(empno,name,sal,jdate date mm/dd/yyyy)

Notes:
(Do not write the line numbers, they are meant for explanation purpose)
1.

The LOAD DATA statement is required at the beginning of the control file.

2.

The INFILE option specifies where the input file is located

3.

Specifying BADFILE is optional. If you specify, then bad records found during loading will be
stored in this file.

4.

Specifying DISCARDFILE is optional. If you specify, then records which do not meet
a WHEN condition will be written to this file.

5.

6.

You can use any of the following loading option


1.

INSERT : Loads rows only if the target table is empty

2.

APPEND: Load rows if the target table is empty or not.

3.

REPLACE: First deletes all the rows in the existing table and then, load rows.

4.

TRUNCATE: First truncates the table and then load rows.

This line indicates how the fields are separated in input file. Since in our case the fields are separated
by , so we have specified , as the terminating char for fields. You can replace this by any char
which is used to terminate fields. Some of the popularly use terminating characters are
semicolon ;, colon :, pipe | etc. TRAILING NULLCOLS means if the last
column is null then treat this as null value, otherwise, SQL LOADER will treat the record as bad if
the last column is null.

7.

In this line specify the columns of the target table. Note how do you specify format for Date columns

4. After you have wrote the control file save it and then, call SQL Loader utility by typing

the following command

$sqlldr userid=scott/tiger control=emp.ctl


log=emp.log

After you have executed the above command SQL Loader will shows you the output
describing how many rows it has loaded.
The LOG option of sqlldr specifies where the log file of this sql loader session
should be created. The log file contains all actions which SQL loader has performed
i.e. how many rows were loaded, how many were rejected and how much time is taken to
load the rows and etc. You have to view this file for any errors encountered while
running SQLLoader.

CASE STUDY (Loading Data from Fixed Length file into Oracle)

Suppose we have a fixed length format file containing employees data, as shown
below, and wants to load this data into an Oracle table.
7782 CLARK

MANAGER

7839 KING

PRESIDENT

7934 MILLER

CLERK

7566 JONES

7839

2572.50

10

5500.00

10

7782

920.00

10

MANAGER

7839

3123.75

20

7499 ALLEN

SALESMAN

7698

1600.00

300.00 30

7654 MARTIN

SALESMAN

7698

1312.50

1400.00 30

7658 CHAN

ANALYST

7566

3450.00

20

7654 MARTIN

SALESMAN

7698

1312.50

1400.00 30

SOLUTION:
Steps :-

1. First Open the file in a text editor and count the length of fields, for
example in our fixed length file, employee number is from 1 st position to
4th position, employee name is from 6th position to 15th position, Job name is
from 17th position to 25th position. Similarly other columns are also located.
2. Create a table in Oracle, by any name, but should match columns specified
in fixed length file. In our case give the following command to create the
table.

SQL> CREATE TABLE emp (empno

NUMBER(5),

name VARCHAR2(20),
job

VARCHAR2(10),

mgr

NUMBER(5),

sal

NUMBER(10,2),

comm NUMBER(10,2),
deptno

NUMBER(3) );

3. After creating the table, now write a control file by using any text editor
$vi empfix.ctl
1)

LOAD DATA

2)

INFILE '/u01/oracle/fix.dat'

3)

INTO TABLE emp

4)
(empno
EXTERNAL,

POSITION(01:04)

INTEGER

name

POSITION(06:15)

CHAR,

job

POSITION(17:25)

CHAR,

mgr
EXTERNAL,

POSITION(27:30)

INTEGER

sal
EXTERNAL,

POSITION(32:39)

DECIMAL

comm
EXTERNAL,

POSITION(41:48)

DECIMAL

5)
deptno
EXTERNAL)

POSITION(50:51)

INTEGER

Notes:
(Do not write the line numbers, they are meant for explanation
purpose)
1.

The LOAD DATA statement is required at the beginning of the control file.

2.

The name of the file containing data follows the INFILE parameter.

3.

The INTO TABLE statement is required to identify the table to be loaded into.

4.

Lines 4 and 5 identify a column name and the location of the data in the datafile to be loaded into that
column. empno, name, job, and so on are names of columns in table emp. The datatypes (INTEGER
EXTERNAL, CHAR, DECIMAL EXTERNAL) identify the datatype of data fields in the file, not of
corresponding columns in the emp table.

5.

Note that the set of column specifications is enclosed in parentheses.

4. After saving the control file now start SQL Loader utility by typing the following
command.

$sqlldr userid=scott/tiger control=empfix.ctl


log=empfix.log direct=y
After you have executed the above command SQL Loader will shows you the
output describing how many rows it has loaded.
Loading Data into Multiple Tables using WHEN condition

You can simultaneously load data into multiple tables in the same session. You can
also use WHEN condition to load only specified rows which meets a particular
condition (only equal to = and not equal to <> conditions are allowed).
For example, suppose we have a fixed length file as shown below
7782 CLARK

MANAGER

7839

2572.50

10

7839 KING

PRESIDENT

5500.00

10

7934 MILLER

CLERK

7782

920.00

10

7566 JONES

MANAGER

7839

3123.75

20

7499 ALLEN

SALESMAN

7698

1600.00

300.00 30

7654 MARTIN

SALESMAN

7698

1312.50

1400.00 30

7658 CHAN

ANALYST

7566

3450.00

20

7654 MARTIN

SALESMAN

7698

1312.50

1400.00 30

Now we want to load all the employees whose deptno is 10 into emp1 table and
those employees whose deptno is not equal to 10 in emp2 table. To do this first
create the tablesemp1 and emp2 by taking appropriate columns and datatypes. Then,
write a control file as shown below
$vi emp_multi.ctl
Load Data
infile /u01/oracle/empfix.dat
append into table scott.emp1
WHEN (deptno=10 )
(empno
POSITION(01:04)

INTEGER EXTERNAL,

name

POSITION(06:15)

CHAR,

job

POSITION(17:25)

CHAR,

mgr

POSITION(27:30)

INTEGER EXTERNAL,

sal

POSITION(32:39)

DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

comm

POSITION(41:48)

DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

deptno

POSITION(50:51)

INTEGER EXTERNAL)

INTO TABLE scott.emp2


WHEN (deptno<>10 )
(empno
POSITION(01:04)

INTEGER EXTERNAL,

name

POSITION(06:15)

CHAR,

job

POSITION(17:25)

CHAR,

mgr

POSITION(27:30)

INTEGER EXTERNAL,

sal

POSITION(32:39)

DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

comm

POSITION(41:48)

DECIMAL EXTERNAL,

deptno

POSITION(50:51)

INTEGER EXTERNAL)

After saving the file emp_multi.ctl run sqlldr


$sqlldr userid=scott/tiger control=emp_multi.ctl
Conventional Path Load and Direct Path Load.

SQL Loader can load the data into Oracle database using Conventional Path method
or Direct Path method. You can specify the method by using DIRECT command line
option. If you give DIRECT=TRUE then SQL loader will use Direct Path Loading
otherwise, if omit this option or specify DIRECT=false, then SQL Loader will use
Conventional Path loading method.
Conventional Path
Conventional path load (the default) uses the SQL INSERT statement and a bind
array buffer to load data into database tables.
When SQL*Loader performs a conventional path load, it competes equally with all
other processes for buffer resources. This can slow the load significantly. Extra
overhead is added as SQL statements are generated, passed to Oracle, and executed.
The Oracle database looks for partially filled blocks and attempts to fill them on each
insert. Although appropriate during normal use, this can slow bulk loads dramatically.
Direct Path
In Direct Path Loading, Oracle will not use SQL INSERT statement for loading rows.
Instead it directly writes the rows, into fresh blocks beyond High Water Mark, in
datafiles i.e. it does not scan for free blocks before high water mark. Direct Path load
is very fast because

Partial blocks are not used, so no reads are needed to find them, and fewer writes are performed.

SQL*Loader need not execute any SQL INSERT statements; therefore, the processing load on
the Oracle database is reduced.

A direct path load calls on Oracle to lock tables and indexes at the start of the load and releases
them when the load is finished. A conventional path load calls Oracle once for each array of rows
to process a SQL INSERT statement.

A direct path load uses multiblock asynchronous I/O for writes to the database files.

During a direct path load, processes perform their own write I/O, instead of using Oracle's buffer
cache. This minimizes contention with other Oracle users.

Restrictions on Using Direct Path Loads


The following conditions must be satisfied for you to use the direct path load method:

Tables are not clustered.

Tables to be loaded do not have any active transactions pending.

Loading a parent table together with a child Table

Loading BFILE columns

Export and Import


These tools are used to transfer data from one oracle database to another oracle
database. You Export tool to export data from source database, and Import tool to load
data into the target database. When you export tables from source database export tool
will extracts the tables and puts it into the dump file. This dump file is transferred to
the target database. At the target database the Import tool will copy the data from
dump file to the target database.
From Ver. 10g Oracle is recommending to use Data Pump Export and Import tools,
which are enhanced versions of original Export and Import tools.
The export dump file contains objects in the following order:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Type definitions
Table definitions
Table data
Table indexes
Integrity constraints, views, procedures, and triggers

6. Bitmap, function-based, and domain indexes

When you import the tables the import tool will perform the actions in the following
order, new tables are created, data is imported and indexes are built, triggers are
imported, integrity constraints are enabled on the new tables, and any bitmap,
function-based, and/or domain indexes are built. This sequence prevents data from
being rejected due to the order in which tables are imported. This sequence also
prevents redundant triggers from firing twice on the same data
Invoking Export and Import

You can run Export and Import tool in two modes


Command Line Mode
Interactive Mode
When you just type exp or imp at o/s prompt it will run in interactive mode i.e. these
tools will prompt you for all the necessary input. If you supply command line
arguments when calling exp or imp then it will run in command line mode
Command Line Parameters of Export tool
You can control how Export runs by entering the EXP command followed
by various arguments. To specify parameters, you use keywords:
Format: EXP KEYWORD=value or KEYWORD=(value1,value2,...,valueN)
Example: EXP SCOTT/TIGER GRANTS=Y TABLES=(EMP,DEPT,MGR)
or TABLES=(T1:P1,T1:P2), if T1 is partitioned table

Keyword

Description (Default)

-------------------------------------------------------------USERID
BUFFER

username/password
size of data buffer

FILE

output files (EXPDAT.DMP)

COMPRESS

import into one extent (Y)

GRANTS

export grants (Y)

INDEXES

export indexes (Y)

DIRECT

direct path (N)

LOG

log file of screen output

ROWS

export data rows (Y)

CONSISTENT

cross-table consistency(N)

FULL

export entire file (N)

OWNER

list of owner usernames

TABLES

list of table names

RECORDLENGTH

length of IO record

INCTYPE

incremental export type

RECORD

track incr. export (Y)

TRIGGERS

export triggers (Y)

STATISTICS

analyze objects (ESTIMATE)

PARFILE

parameter filename

CONSTRAINTS
OBJECT_CONSISTENT

export constraints (Y)


transaction set to read only during object export (N)

FEEDBACK

display progress every x rows (0)

FILESIZE

maximum size of each dump file

FLASHBACK_SCN

SCN used to set session snapshot back to

FLASHBACK_TIME

time used to get the SCN closest to the specified time

QUERY

select clause used to export a subset of a table

RESUMABLE

suspend when a space related error is encountered(N)

RESUMABLE_NAME

text string used to identify resumable statement

RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT

wait time for RESUMABLE

TTS_FULL_CHECK

perform full or partial dependency check for TTS

TABLESPACES

list of tablespaces to export

TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE
TEMPLATE

export transportable tablespace metadata (N)

template name which invokes iAS mode export

The Export and Import tools support four modes of operation


FULL
:Exports all the objects in all schemas
OWNER
:Exports objects only belonging to the given OWNER
TABLES
:Exports Individual Tables
TABLESPACE :Export all objects located in a given TABLESPACE.
Example of Exporting Full Database
The following example shows how to export full database
$exp USERID=scott/tiger FULL=y FILE=myfull.dmp
In the above command, FILE option specifies the name of the dump
file, FULL option specifies that you want to export the full database, USERID option
specifies the user account to connect to the database. Note, to perform full export the
user should have DBA or EXP_FULL_DATABASE privilege.
Example of Exporting Schemas
To export Objects stored in a particular schemas you can run export utility with the
following arguments

$exp USERID=scott/tiger OWNER=(SCOTT,ALI)


FILE=exp_own.dmp
The above command will export all the objects stored in SCOTT and ALIs schema.
Exporting Individual Tables
To export individual tables give the following command
$exp USERID=scott/tiger TABLES=(scott.emp,scott.sales)
FILE=exp_tab.dmp
This will export scotts emp and sales tables.
Exporting Consistent Image of the tables
If you include CONSISTENT=Y option in export command argument then, Export
utility will export a consistent image of the table i.e. the changes which are done to the
table during export operation will not be exported.
Using Import Utility

Objects exported by export utility can only be imported by Import utility. Import
utility can run in Interactive mode or command line mode.
You can let Import prompt you for parameters by entering the IMP command
followed by your username/password:
Example: IMP SCOTT/TIGER
Or, you can control how Import runs by entering the IMP command followed
by various arguments. To specify parameters, you use keywords:
Format: IMP KEYWORD=value or
KEYWORD=(value1,value2,...,valueN)
Example: IMP SCOTT/TIGER IGNORE=Y TABLES=(EMP,DEPT)
FULL=N
or TABLES=(T1:P1,T1:P2), if T1 is
partitioned table

USERID must be the first parameter on the command line.


Keyword

Description (Default)

USERID

username/password

BUFFER

size of data buffer

FILE

input files (EXPDAT.DMP)

SHOW

just list file contents (N)

IGNORE

ignore create errors (N)

GRANTS

import grants (Y)

INDEXES

import indexes (Y)

ROWS

import data rows (Y)

LOG

log file of screen output

FULL

import entire file (N)

FROMUSER

list of owner usernames

TOUSER

list of usernames

TABLES

list of table names

RECORDLENGTH

length of IO record

INCTYPE

incremental import type

COMMIT

commit array insert (N)

PARFILE

parameter filename

CONSTRAINTS

import constraints (Y)

DESTROY

overwrite tablespace data file (N)

INDEXFILE

write table/index info to specified file

SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES

skip maintenance of unusable indexes (N)

FEEDBACK

display progress every x rows(0)

TOID_NOVALIDATE

skip validation of specified type ids

FILESIZE

maximum size of each dump file

STATISTICS

import precomputed statistics (always)

RESUMABLE

suspend when a space related error is encountered(N)

RESUMABLE_NAME

text string used to identify resumable statement

RESUMABLE_TIMEOUT

wait time for RESUMABLE

COMPILE

compile procedures, packages, and functions (Y)

STREAMS_CONFIGURATION

import streams general metadata (Y)

STREAMS_INSTANITATION

import streams instantiation metadata (N)

Example Importing Individual Tables


To import individual tables from a full database export dump file give the following
command
$imp scott/tiger FILE=myfullexp.dmp
FROMUSER=scott TABLES=(emp,dept)
This command will import only emp, dept tables into Scott user and you will get a
output similar to as shown below
Export file created by EXPORT:V10.00.00 via conventional path
import done in WE8DEC character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
. importing SCOTT's objects into SCOTT
. . importing table

"DEPT"

4 rows imported

. . importing table

"EMP"

14 rows imported

Import terminated successfully without warnings.

Example, Importing Tables of One User account into another


User account
For example, suppose Ali has exported tables into a dump file mytables.dmp. Now
Scott wants to import these tables. To achieve this Scott will give the following import
command
$imp scott/tiger FILE=mytables.dmp
FROMUSER=ali TOUSER=scott
Then import utility will give a warning that tables in the dump file was exported by
user Ali and not you and then proceed.
Example Importing Tables Using Pattern Matching
Suppose you want to import all tables from a dump file whose name matches a
particular pattern. To do so, use % wild character in TABLES option. For example,
the following command will import all tables whose names starts with alphabet e
and those tables whose name contains alphabet d
$imp scott/tiger FILE=myfullexp.dmp
FROMUSER=scott TABLES=(a%,%d%)
Migrating a Database across platforms.

The Export and Import utilities are the only method that Oracle supports for moving
an existing Oracle database from one hardware platform to another. This includes
moving between UNIX and NT systems and also moving between two NT systems
running on different platforms.
The following steps present a general overview of how to move a database between
platforms.
1. As a DBA user, issue the following SQL query to get the exact name of all tablespaces. You will
need this information later in the process.

SQL> SELECT tablespace_name FROM dba_tablespaces;


2. As a DBA user, perform a full export from the source database, for example:

> exp system/manager FULL=y FILE=myfullexp.dmp

3. Move the dump file to the target database server. If you use FTP, be sure to copy it in binary
format (by entering binary at the FTP prompt) to avoid file corruption.
4. Create a database on the target server.
5. Before importing the dump file, you must first create your tablespaces, using the information
obtained in Step 1. Otherwise, the import will create the corresponding datafiles in the same file
structure as at the source database, which may not be compatible with the file structure on the
target system.
6. As a DBA user, perform a full import with the IGNORE parameter enabled:

> imp system/manager FULL=y IGNORE=y


FILE=myfullexp.dmp
Using IGNORE=y instructs Oracle to ignore any creation errors during the import and permit the import
to complete.

7. Perform a full backup of your new database.

DATA PUMP Utility

Starting with Oracle 10g, Oracle has introduced an enhanced version of EXPORT and
IMPORT utility known as DATA PUMP. Data Pump is similar to EXPORT and
IMPORT utility but it has many advantages. Some of the advantages are:
Most Data Pump export and import operations occur on the Oracle database
server. i.e. all the dump files are created in the server even if you run the Data
Pump utility from client machine. This results in increased performance
because data is not transferred through network.

You can Stop and Re-Start export and import jobs. This is particularly useful if
you have started an export or import job and after some time you want to do
some other urgent work.

The ability to detach from and reattach to long-running jobs without affecting
the job itself. This allows DBAs and other operations personnel to monitor jobs
from multiple locations.

The ability to estimate how much space an export job would consume, without
actually performing the export

Support for an interactive-command mode that allows monitoring of and


interaction with ongoing jobs

Using Data Pump Export Utility

To Use Data Pump, DBA has to create a directory in Server Machine and create a
Directory Object in the database mapping to the directory created in the file system.
The following example creates a directory in the filesystem and creates a directory
object in the database and grants privileges on the Directory Object to the SCOTT
user.
$mkdir my_dump_dir
$sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL>create directory data_pump_dir as
/u01/oracle/my_dump_dir;
Now grant access on this directory object to SCOTT user
SQL> grant read,write on
directory data_pump_dir to scott;
Example of Exporting a Full Database

To Export Full Database, give the following command


$expdp scott/tiger FULL=y
DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir DUMPFILE=full.dmp
LOGFILE=myfullexp.log JOB_NAME=myfullJob
The above command will export the full database and it will create the dump file
full.dmp in the directory on the server /u01/oracle/my_dump_dir

In some cases where the Database is in Terabytes the above command will not
feasible since the dump file size will be larger than the operating system limit, and
hence export will fail. In this situation you can create multiple dump files by typing
the following command
$expdp scott/tiger FULL=y
DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir DUMPFILE=full%U.dmp
FILESIZE=5G LOGFILE=myfullexp.log
JOB_NAME=myfullJob
This will create multiple dump files named full01.dmp, full02.dmp, full03.dmp and so
on. The FILESIZE parameter specifies how much larger the dump file should be.
Example of Exporting a Schema
To export all the objects of SCOTTS schema you can run the following export data
pump command.
$expdp scott/tiger
DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir DUMPFILE=scott_schema.dmp
SCHEMAS=SCOTT
You can omit SCHEMAS since the default mode of Data Pump export is SCHEMAS
only.
If you want to export objects of multiple schemas you can specify the following
command
$expdp scott/tiger
DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir DUMPFILE=scott_schema.dmp
SCHEMAS=SCOTT,HR,ALI
Exporting Individual Tables using Data Pump Export

You can use Data Pump Export utility to export individual tables. The following
example shows the syntax to export tables
$expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tables.dmp
TABLES=employees,jobs,departments

Exporting Tables located in a Tablespace

If you want to export tables located in a particular tablespace you can type the
following command

$expdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=tbs.dmp


TABLESPACES=tbs_4, tbs_5, tbs_6

The above will export all the objects located in tbs_4,tbs_5,tbs_6

Excluding and Including Objects during Export

You can exclude objects while performing a export by using EXCLUDE option of
Data Pump utility. For example you are exporting a schema and dont want to export
tables whose name starts with A then you can type the following command
$expdp scott/tiger
DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir DUMPFILE=scott_schema.dmp
SCHEMAS=SCOTT EXCLUDE=TABLE:like A%
Then all tables in Scotts Schema whose name starts with A will not be exported.
Similarly you can also INCLUDE option to only export certain objects like this
$expdp scott/tiger
DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir DUMPFILE=scott_schema.dmp
SCHEMAS=SCOTT INCLUDE=TABLE:like A%
This is opposite of EXCLUDE option i.e. it will export only those tables of Scotts
schema whose name starts with A
Similarly you can also exclude INDEXES, CONSTRAINTS, GRANTS,
USER, SCHEMA
Using Query to Filter Rows during Export

You can use QUERY option to export only required rows. For Example, the following
will export only those rows of employees tables whose salary is above 10000 and
whose dept id is 10.

expdp hr/hr QUERY=emp:'"WHERE dept_id > 10 AND sal > 10000"'


NOLOGFILE=y DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=exp1.dmp

Suspending and Resuming Export Jobs (Attaching and ReAttaching to the Jobs)

You can suspend running export jobs and later on resume these jobs or kill these jobs
using Data Pump Export. You can start a job in one client machine and then, if
because of some work, you can suspend it. Afterwards when your work has been
finished you can continue the job from the same client, where you stopped the job, or
you can restart the job from another client machine.
For Example, suppose a DBA starts a full database export by typing the following
command at one client machine CLNT1 by typing the following command
$expdp scott/tiger@mydb FULL=y DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir
DUMPFILE=full.dmp LOGFILE=myfullexp.log
JOB_NAME=myfullJob
After some time, the DBA wants to stop this job temporarily. Then he presses
CTRL+C to enter into interactive mode. Then he will get the Export> prompt where
he can type interactive commands
Now he wants to stop this export job so he will type the following command
Export> STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE
Are you sure you wish to stop this job ([y]/n): y

The job is placed in a stopped state and exits the client.


After finishing his other work, the DBA wants to resume the export job and the client machine
from where he actually started the job is locked because, the user has locked his/her cabin. So
now the DBA will go to another client machine and he reattach to the job by typing the following
command
$expdp hr/hr@mydb ATTACH=myfulljob

After the job status is displayed, he can issue the CONTINUE_CLIENT command to resume logging
mode and restart the myfulljob job.
Export> CONTINUE_CLIENT

A message is displayed that the job has been reopened, and processing status is output to the
client.
Note: After reattaching to the Job a DBA can also kill the job by typing KILL_JOB, if he doesnt
want to continue with the export job

Data Pump Import Utility


Objects exported by Data Pump Export Utility can be imported into a database using
Data Pump Import Utility. The following describes how to use Data Pump Import
utility to import objects
Importing Full Dump File

If you want to Import all the objects in a dump file then you can type the following
command.
$impdp hr/hr DUMPFILE=dpump_dir1:expfull.dmp FULL=y
LOGFILE=dpump_dir2:full_imp.log

This example imports everything from the expfull.dmp dump file. In this example,
a DIRECTORY parameter is not provided. Therefore, a directory object must be
provided on both theDUMPFILE parameter and the LOGFILE parameter
Importing Objects of One Schema to another Schema

The following example loads all tables belonging to hr schema to scott schema

$impdp SYSTEM/password DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp


REMAP_SCHEMA=hr:scott

If SCOTT account exist in the database then hr objects will be loaded


into scott schema. If scott account does not exist, then Import Utility will create the
SCOTT account with an unusable password because, the dump file was exported by
the user SYSTEM and imported by the user SYSTEM who has DBA privileges.

Loading Objects of one Tablespace to another Tablespace.

You can use remap_tablespace option to import objects of one tablespace to another
tablespace by giving the command
$impdp SYSTEM/password DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=hr.dmp
REMAP_TABLESPACE=users:sales

The above example loads tables, stored in users tablespace, in the sales
tablespace.

Generating SQL File containing DDL commands using Data


Pump Import

You can generate SQL file which contains all the DDL commands which Import
would have executed if you actually run Import utility
The following is an example of using the SQLFILE parameter.
$ impdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp
SQLFILE=dpump_dir2:expfull.sql

A SQL file named expfull.sql is written to dpump_dir2.


Importing objects of only a Particular Schema

If you have the IMP_FULL_DATABASE role, you can use this parameter to perform a
schema-mode import by specifying a single schema other than your own or a list of
schemas to import. First, the schemas themselves are created (if they do not already
exist), including system and role grants, password history, and so on. Then all objects
contained within the schemas are imported. Nonprivileged users can specify only their
own schemas. In that case, no information about the schema definition is imported, only
the objects contained within it.
Example
The following is an example of using the SCHEMAS parameter. You can create the
expdat.dmp file used in this example by running the example provided for the
Export SCHEMASparameter.

$impdp hr/hr SCHEMAS=hr,oe DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 LOGFILE=schemas.log


DUMPFILE=expdat.dmp

The hr and oe schemas are imported from the expdat.dmp file. The log file, schemas.log, is
written to dpump_dir1

Importing Only Particular Tables

The following example shows a simple use of the TABLES parameter to import only
the employees and jobs tables from the expfull.dmp file. You can create
theexpfull.dmp dump file used in this example by running the example provided
for the Full Database Export in Previous Topic.
$impdp hr/hr DIRECTORY=dpump_dir1 DUMPFILE=expfull.dmp TABLES=employees,jobs

This will import only employees and jobs tables from the DUMPFILE.
Running Import Utility in Interactive Mode

Similar to the DATA PUMP EXPORT utility the Data Pump Import Jobs can also be
suspended, resumed or killed. And, you can attach to an already existing import job
from any client machine.
For Example, suppose a DBA starts a importing by typing the following command at
one client machine CLNT1 by typing the following command
$impdp scott/tiger@mydb FULL=y DIRECTORY=data_pump_dir
DUMPFILE=full.dmp LOGFILE=myfullexp.log
JOB_NAME=myfullJob
After some time, the DBA wants to stop this job temporarily. Then he
presses CTRL+C to enter into interactive mode. Then he will get the Import> prompt
where he can type interactive commands
Now he wants to stop this export job so he will type the following command
Import> STOP_JOB=IMMEDIATE
Are you sure you wish to stop this job ([y]/n): y

The job is placed in a stopped state and exits the client.

After finishing his other work, the DBA wants to resume the export job and the client
machine from where he actually started the job is locked because, the user has locked
his/her cabin. So now the DBA will go to another client machine and he reattach to
the job by typing the following command
$impdp hr/hr@mydb ATTACH=myfulljob

After the job status is displayed, he can issue the CONTINUE_CLIENT command to
resume logging mode and restart the myfulljob job.
Import> CONTINUE_CLIENT

A message is displayed that the job has been reopened, and processing status is output
to the client.
Note: After reattaching to the Job a DBA can also kill the job by typing KILL_JOB, if
he doesnt want to continue with the import job

Flash Back Features


From Oracle Ver. 9i Oracle has introduced Flashback Query feature. It is useful to
recover from accidental statement failures. For example, suppose a user accidently
deletes rows from a table and commits it also then, using flash back query he can get
back the rows.
Flashback feature depends upon on how much undo retention time you have specified.
If you have set the UNDO_RETENTION parameter to 2 hours then, Oracle will not
overwrite the data in undo tablespace even after committing until 2 Hours have
passed. Users can recover from their mistakes made since last 2 hours only.
For example, suppose John gives a delete statement at 10 AM and commits it. After 1
hour he realizes that delete statement is mistakenly performed. Now he can give
a flashback AS.. OF query to get back the deleted rows like this.
Flashback Query

SQL>select * from emp as of timestamp sysdate-1/24;


Or
SQL> SELECT * FROM emp AS OF TIMESTAMP
TO_TIMESTAMP('2007-06-07 10:00:00', 'YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MI:SS')

To insert the accidently deleted rows again in the table he can type
SQL> insert into emp (select * from emp as of timestamp
sysdate-1/24)
Using Flashback Version Query

You use a Flashback Version Query to retrieve the different versions of specific rows
that existed during a given time interval. A new row version is created whenever a
COMMIT statement is executed.
The Flashback Version Query returns a table with a row for each version of the row
that existed at any time during the time interval you specify. Each row in the table
includespseudocolumns of metadata about the row version.
The pseudocolumns available are
VERSIONS_XID
VERSIONS_OPERATION
D for Delete
VERSIONS_STARTSCN
was created
VERSIONS_STARTTIME
created
VERSIONS_ENDSCN
VERSIONS_ENDTIME

:Identifier of the transaction that created the row version


:Operation Performed. I for Insert, U for Update,
:Starting System Change Number when the row version
:Starting System Change Time when the row version was
:SCN when the row version expired.
:Timestamp when the row version expired

To understand lets see the following example


Before Starting this example lets us collect the Timestamp
SQL> select to_char(SYSTIMESTAMP,YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS)
from dual;
TO_CHAR(SYSTIMESTAMP,YYYYY
--------------------------2007-06-19 20:30:43
Suppose a user creates a emp table and inserts a row into it and commits the row.
SQL> Create table emp (empno number(5),name
varchar2(20),sal
number(10,2));

SQL> insert into emp values (101,Sami,5000);


SQL>commit;
At this time emp table has one version of one row.
Now a user sitting at another machine erroneously changes the Salary from 5000 to
2000 using Update statement
SQL> update emp set sal=sal-3000 where empno=101;
SQL> commit;
Subsequently, a new transaction updates the name of the employee from Sami to
Smith.
SQL>update emp set name=Smith where empno=101;
SQL> commit;
At this point, the DBA detects the application error and needs to diagnose the
problem. The DBA issues the following query to retrieve versions of the rows in
the emp table that correspond to empno 101. The query uses Flashback Version
Query pseudocolumns
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>

Connect / as sysdba
column versions_starttime format a16
column versions_endtime format a16
set linesize 120;

SQL>
select versions_xid,versions_starttime,versions_endtime,
versions_operation,empno,name,sal from emp versions
between
timestamp to_timestamp(2007-06-19 20:30:00,yyyy-mmdd hh:mi:ss)
and to_timestamp(2007-06-19 21:00:00,yyyy-mmdd hh:mi:ss);
VERSION_XID
----------0200100020D
11323
02001003C02
0002302C03A

V STARTSCN ENDSCN
- -------- -----U
101
SMITH
U 11345
I 12320

EMPNO NAME
SAL
----- -------- ---2000
101
101

SAMI
SAMI

2000
5000

The Output should be read from bottom to top, from the output we can see that an
Insert has taken place and then erroneous update has taken place and then again
update has taken place to change the name.
The DBA identifies the transaction 02001003C02 as erroneous and issues the
following query to get the SQL command to undo the change
SQL> select operation,logon_user,undo_sql
from flashback_transaction_query
where xid=HEXTORAW(02001003C02);
OPERATION
-----------U

LOGON_USER UNDO_SQL
---------- -----------------------------------

SCOTT

update emp set sal=5000 where ROWID =


'AAAKD2AABAAAJ29AAA'

Now DBA can execute the command to undo the changes made by the user
SQL> update emp set sal=5000 where ROWID ='AAAKD2AABAAAJ29AAA'
1 row updated

Using Flashback Table to return Table to Past States.

Oracle Flashback Table provides the DBA the ability to recover a table or set of tables
to a specified point in time in the past very quickly, easily, and without taking any part
of the database offline. In many cases, Flashback Table eliminates the need to perform
more complicated point-in-time recovery operations.
Flashback Table uses information in the undo tablespace to restore the table.
Therefore, UNDO_RETENTION parameter is significant in Flashing Back Tables to a
past state. You can only flash back tables up to the retention time you specified.
Row movement must be enabled on the table for which you are issuing the
FLASHBACK TABLE statement. You can enable row movement with the following
SQL statement:
ALTER TABLE table ENABLE ROW MOVEMENT;

The following example performs a FLASHBACK TABLE operation the table emp

FLASHBACK TABLE emp TO TIMESTAMP


TO_TIMESTAMP('2007-06-19 09:30:00', `YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS');

The emp table is restored to its state when the database was at the time specified by the
timestamp.

Example:At 17:00 an HR administrator discovers that an employee "JOHN" is missing from the
EMPLOYEE table. This employee was present at 14:00, the last time she ran a report. Someone
accidentally deleted the record for "JOHN" between 14:00 and the present time. She uses
Flashback Table to return the table to its state at 14:00, as shown in this example:
FLASHBACK TABLE EMPLOYEES TO TIMESTAMP
TO_TIMESTAMP('2007-06-21 14:00:00','YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS')
ENABLE TRIGGERS;

You have to give ENABLE TRIGGERS option otherwise, by default all database
triggers on the table will be disabled.

Recovering Drop Tables (Undo Drop Table)


In Oracle Ver. 10g Oracle introduced the concept of Recycle Bin i.e. whatever tables
you drop the database does not immediately remove the space used by table. Instead,
the table is renamed and placed in Recycle Bin. The FLASHBACK TABLE
BEFORE DROP command will restore the table.

This feature is not dependent on UNDO


TABLESPACE so UNDO_RETENTION parameter has no impact on this feature.
For Example, suppose a user accidently drops emp table
SQL>drop table emp;

Table Dropped
Now for user it appears that table is dropped but it is actually renamed and placed in
Recycle Bin. To recover this dropped table a user can type the command
SQL> Flashback table emp to before drop;
You can also restore the dropped table by giving it a different name like this
SQL> Flashback table emp to before drop rename to emp2;
Purging Objects from Recycle Bin
If you want to recover the space used by a dropped table give the following command
SQL> purge table emp;
If you want to purge objects of logon user give the following command
SQL> purge recycle bin;
If you want to recover space for dropped object of a particular tablespace give the
command
SQL> purge tablespace hr;
You can also purge only objects from a tablespace belonging to a specific user, using the
following form of the command:

SQL>PURGE TABLESPACE hr USER scott;


If you have the SYSDBA privilege, then you can purge all objects from the recycle bin,
regardless of which user owns the objects, using this command:
SQL>PURGE DBA_RECYCLEBIN;

To view the contents of Recycle Bin give the following command


SQL> show recycle bin;

Permanently Dropping Tables


If you want to permanently drop tables without putting it into Recycle Bin drop tables
with purge command like this
SQL> drop table emp purge;

This will drop the table permanently and it cannot be restored.


Flashback Drop of Multiple Objects With the Same Original
Name
You can create, and then drop, several objects with the same original name, and they will all be
stored in the recycle bin. For example, consider these SQL statements:
CREATE TABLE EMP ( ...columns ); # EMP version 1
DROP TABLE EMP;
CREATE TABLE EMP ( ...columns ); # EMP version 2
DROP TABLE EMP;
CREATE TABLE EMP ( ...columns ); # EMP version 3
DROP TABLE EMP;

In such a case, each table EMP is assigned a unique name in the recycle bin when it is dropped.
You can use a FLASHBACK TABLE... TO BEFORE DROP statement with the original name of the
table, as shown in this example:
FLASHBACK TABLE EMP TO BEFORE DROP;

The most recently dropped table with that original name is retrieved from the recycle bin, with
its original name. You can retrieve it and assign it a new name using a RENAME TO clause. The
following example shows the retrieval from the recycle bin of all three dropped EMP tables from
the previous example, with each assigned a new name:
FLASHBACK TABLE EMP TO BEFORE DROP RENAME TO EMP_VER_3;
FLASHBACK TABLE EMP TO BEFORE DROP RENAME TO EMP_VER_2;
FLASHBACK TABLE EMP TO BEFORE DROP RENAME TO EMP_VER_1;

Important Points:
1.
There is no guarantee that objects will remain in Recycle Bin. Oracle might
empty recycle bin whenever Space Pressure occurs i.e. whenever tablespace
becomes full and transaction requires new extents then, oracle will delete
objects from recycle bin
2.
A table and all of its dependent objects (indexes, LOB segments, nested
tables, triggers, constraints and so on) go into the recycle bin together, when
you drop the table. Likewise, when you perform Flashback Drop, the objects
are generally all retrieved together.
3. There is no fixed amount of space allocated to the recycle bin, and no guarantee
as to how long dropped objects remain in the recycle bin. Depending upon
system activity, a dropped object may remain in the recycle bin for seconds, or
for months.

Flashback Database: Alternative to Point-In-Time Recovery

Oracle Flashback Database, lets you quickly recover the entire database from logical
data corruptions or user errors.
To enable Flashback Database, you set up a flash recovery area, and set a flashback
retention target, to specify how far back into the past you want to be able to restore
your database with Flashback Database.
Once you set these parameters, From that time on, at regular intervals, the database
copies images of each altered block in every datafile into flashback logs stored in the
flash recovery area. These Flashback logs are use to flashback database to a point in
time.
Enabling Flash Back Database

Step 1. Shutdown the database if it is already running and set the following
parameters
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST=/d01/ica/flasharea
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE=10G
DB_FLASHBACK_RETENTION_TARGET=4320

(Note: the db_flashback_retention_target is specified in minutes here we have specified 3 days i.e.
3x24x60=4320)

Step 2. Start the instance and mount the Database.


SQL>startup mount;
Step 3. Now enable the flashback database by giving the following command
SQL>alter database flashback on;
Now Oracle start writing Flashback logs to recovery area.
To how much size we should set the flash recovery area.
After you have enabled the Flashback Database feature and allowed the database to generate
some flashback logs, run the following query:
SQL> SELECT ESTIMATED_FLASHBACK_SIZE FROM V$FLASHBACK_DATABASE_LOG;

This will show how much size the recovery area should be set to.
How far you can flashback database.
To determine the earliest SCN and earliest Time you can Flashback your
database, give the following query:
SELECT OLDEST_FLASHBACK_SCN, OLDEST_FLASHBACK_TIME
FROM V$FLASHBACK_DATABASE_LOG;

Example: Flashing Back Database to a point in time

Suppose, a user erroneously drops a schema at 10:00AM. You as a DBA came to


know of this at 5PM. Now since you have configured the flashback area and set up the
flashback retention time to 3 Days, you can flashback the database to 9:50AM by
following the given procedure

1.

Start RMAN
$rman target /

2.

Run the FLASHBACK DATABASE command to return the database


to 9:59AM by typing the following command
RMAN> FLASHBACK DATABASE TO TIME timestamp('2007-06-21 09:59:00');
or, you can also type this command.
RMAN> FLASHBACK DATABASE TO TIME (SYSDATE-8/24);

3. When the Flashback Database operation completes, you can evaluate the results by

opening the database read-only and run some queries to check whether your Flashback
Database has returned the database to the desired state.
RMAN> SQL 'ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY';

At this time, you have several options

Option 1:If you are content with your result you can open the database by
performing ALTER
DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS

SQL>ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;

Option 2:If you discover that you have chosen the wrong target time for your
Flashback Database operation, you can use RECOVER DATABASE
UNTIL to bring the database forward, or perform FLASHBACK

DATABASE again with an SCN further in the past. You can completely undo
the effects of your flashback operation by performing complete recovery of
the database:
RMAN> RECOVER DATABASE;

Option 3:If you only want to retrieve some lost data from the past time, you can open
the database read-only, then perform a logical export of the data using an
Oracle export utility, then run RECOVER DATABASE to return the database
to the present time and re-import the data using the Oracle import utility
4.

Since in our example only a schema is dropped and the rest of database is
good, third option is relevant for us.
Now, come out of RMAN and run EXPORT utility to export the whole schema
$exp userid=system/manager
file=scott.dmp owner=SCOTT

5.

Now Start RMAN and recover database to the present time


$rman target /
RMAN> RECOVER DATABASE;

6.

After database is recovered shutdown and restart the database in normal


mode and import the schema by running IMPORT utility
$imp userid=system/manager file=scott.dmp

Log Miner
Using Log Miner utility, you can query the contents of online redo log files and
archived log files. Because LogMiner provides a well-defined, easy-to-use, and
comprehensive relational interface to redo log files, it can be used as a powerful data
audit tool, as well as a tool for sophisticated data analysis.

LogMiner Configuration

There are three basic objects in a LogMiner configuration that you should be familiar
with: the source database, the LogMiner dictionary, and the redo log files containing
the data of interest:

The source database is the database that produces all the redo log files that you want LogMiner
to analyze.

The LogMiner dictionary allows LogMiner to provide table and column names, instead of
internal object IDs, when it presents the redo log data that you request.

LogMiner uses the dictionary to translate internal object identifiers and datatypes to
object names and external data formats. Without a dictionary, LogMiner returns
internal object IDs and presents data as binary data.
For example, consider the following the SQL statement:
INSERT INTO HR.JOBS(JOB_ID, JOB_TITLE, MIN_SALARY,
MAX_SALARY) VALUES('IT_WT','Technical Writer', 4000,
11000);

Without the dictionary, LogMiner will display:


insert into "UNKNOWN"."OBJ# 45522"("COL 1","COL 2","COL 3","COL 4") values
(HEXTORAW('45465f4748'),HEXTORAW('546563686e6963616c20577269746572'),
HEXTORAW('c229'),HEXTORAW('c3020b'));

The redo log files contain the changes made to the database or database dictionary.

LogMiner Dictionary Options

LogMiner requires a dictionary to translate object IDs into object names when it
returns redo data to you. LogMiner gives you three options for supplying the
dictionary:

Using the Online Catalog

Oracle recommends that you use this option when you will have access to the source
database from which the redo log files were created and when no changes to the
column definitions in the tables of interest are anticipated. This is the most efficient
and easy-to-use option.

Extracting a LogMiner Dictionary to the Redo Log Files

Oracle recommends that you use this option when you do not expect to have access to
the source database from which the redo log files were created, or if you anticipate
that changes will be made to the column definitions in the tables of interest.

Extracting the LogMiner Dictionary to a Flat File

This option is maintained for backward compatibility with previous releases. This
option does not guarantee transactional consistency. Oracle recommends that you use
either the online catalog or extract the dictionary from redo log files instead.
Using the Online Catalog
To direct LogMiner to use the dictionary currently in use for the database, specify the
online catalog as your dictionary source when you start LogMiner, as follows:
SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.START_LOGMNR(OPTIONS => DBMS_LOGMNR.DICT_FROM_ONLINE_CATALOG);

Extracting a LogMiner Dictionary to the Redo Log Files


To extract a LogMiner dictionary to the redo log files, the database must be open and
in ARCHIVELOG mode and archiving must be enabled. While the dictionary is being
extracted to the redo log stream, no DDL statements can be executed. Therefore, the
dictionary extracted to the redo log files is guaranteed to be consistent (whereas the
dictionary extracted to a flat file is not).
To extract dictionary information to the redo log files, use
the DBMS_LOGMNR_D.BUILD procedure with
the STORE_IN_REDO_LOGS option. Do not specify a filename or location.
SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR_D.BUILD(OPTIONS=> DBMS_LOGMNR_D.STORE_IN_REDO_LOGS);

Extracting the LogMiner Dictionary to a Flat File

When the LogMiner dictionary is in a flat file, fewer system resources are used than
when it is contained in the redo log files. Oracle recommends that you regularly back
up the dictionary extract to ensure correct analysis of older redo log files.
1. Set the initialization parameter, UTL_FILE_DIR, in the initialization parameter file. For example,
to set UTL_FILE_DIR to use /oracle/database as the directory where the dictionary file is
placed, enter the following in the initialization parameter file:
UTL_FILE_DIR = /oracle/database

2. Start the Database


SQL> startup
3. Execute the PL/SQL procedure DBMS_LOGMNR_D.BUILD. Specify a filename for the
dictionary and a directory path name for the file. This procedure creates the dictionary file. For
example, enter the following to create the file dictionary.ora in /oracle/database:
SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR_D.BUILD('dictionary.ora','/oracle/database/',
DBMS_LOGMNR_D.STORE_IN_FLAT_FILE);

Redo Log File Options

To mine data in the redo log files, LogMiner needs information about which redo log
files to mine.
You can direct LogMiner to automatically and dynamically create a list of redo log
files to analyze, or you can explicitly specify a list of redo log files for LogMiner to
analyze, as follows:
Automatically
If LogMiner is being used on the source database, then you can direct LogMiner to
find and create a list of redo log files for analysis automatically. Use
the CONTINUOUS_MINE option when you start LogMiner.
Manually
Use the DBMS_LOGMNR.ADD_LOGFILE procedure to manually create a list of redo
log files before you start LogMiner. After the first redo log file has been added to the
list, each subsequently added redo log file must be from the same database and

associated with the same database RESETLOGS SCN. When using this method,
LogMiner need not be connected to the source database.
Example: Finding All Modifications in the Current Redo Log File

The easiest way to examine the modification history of a database is to mine at the
source database and use the online catalog to translate the redo log files. This example
shows how to do the simplest analysis using LogMiner .
Step 1 Specify the list of redo log files to be analyzed.
Specify the redo log files which you want to analyze.
SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.ADD_LOGFILE( LOGFILENAME => '/usr/oracle/ica/log1.ora',
OPTIONS => DBMS_LOGMNR.NEW);

SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.ADD_LOGFILE( LOGFILENAME => '/u01/oracle/ica/log2.ora',


OPTIONS => DBMS_LOGMNR.ADDFILE);

Step 2 Start LogMiner.


Start LogMiner and specify the dictionary to use.
SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.START_LOGMNR(
OPTIONS => DBMS_LOGMNR.DICT_FROM_ONLINE_CATALOG);

Step 3 Query the V$LOGMNR_CONTENTS view.


Note that there are four transactions (two of them were committed within the redo log
file being analyzed, and two were not). The output shows the DML statements in the
order in which they were executed; thus transactions interleave among themselves.
SQL> SELECT username AS USR, (XIDUSN || '.' || XIDSLT || '.' || XIDSQN) AS
XID,SQL_REDO, SQL_UNDO FROM V$LOGMNR_CONTENTS WHERE username IN ('HR', 'OE');

USR

XID

SQL_REDO

SQL_UNDO

---HR

--------1.11.1476

---------------------------------------------------set transaction read write;

HR

1.11.1476

insert into "HR"."EMPLOYEES"(


"EMPLOYEE_ID","FIRST_NAME",
"LAST_NAME","EMAIL",
"PHONE_NUMBER","HIRE_DATE",
"JOB_ID","SALARY",
"COMMISSION_PCT","MANAGER_ID",
"DEPARTMENT_ID") values
('306','Mohammed','Sami',
'MDSAMI', '1234567890',
TO_DATE('10-jan-2003 13:34:43',
'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss'),
'HR_REP','120000', '.05',
'105','10');

OE

1.1.1484

set transaction read write;

OE

1.1.1484

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set "WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00') where
"PRODUCT_ID" = '1799' and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+01-00') and
ROWID = 'AAAHTKAABAAAY9mAAB';

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set "WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+01-00') where
"PRODUCT_ID" = '1799' and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00') and
ROWID = 'AAAHTKAABAAAY9mAAB';

OE

1.1.1484

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set "WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00') where
"PRODUCT_ID" = '1801' and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+01-00') and
ROWID = 'AAAHTKAABAAAY9mAAC';

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set "WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+01-00') where
"PRODUCT_ID" = '1801' and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00') and
ROWID ='AAAHTKAABAAAY9mAAC';

HR

1.11.1476

insert into "HR"."EMPLOYEES"(


"EMPLOYEE_ID","FIRST_NAME",
"LAST_NAME","EMAIL",
"PHONE_NUMBER","HIRE_DATE",
"JOB_ID","SALARY",
"COMMISSION_PCT","MANAGER_ID",
"DEPARTMENT_ID") values

jan('307','John','Silver',
'JSILVER', '5551112222',
TO_DATE('10-jan-2003 13:41:03',

delete from "HR"."EMPLOYEES"


where "EMPLOYEE_ID" = '306'
and "FIRST_NAME" = 'Mohammed'
and "LAST_NAME" = 'Sami'
and "EMAIL" = 'MDSAMI'
and "PHONE_NUMBER" = '1234567890'
and "HIRE_DATE" = TO_DATE('10-JAN-2003
13:34:43', 'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss')
and "JOB_ID" = 'HR_REP' and
"SALARY" = '120000' and
"COMMISSION_PCT" = '.05' and
"DEPARTMENT_ID" = '10' and
ROWID = 'AAAHSkAABAAAY6rAAO';

delete from "HR"."EMPLOYEES"


"EMPLOYEE_ID" = '307' and
"FIRST_NAME" = 'John' and
"LAST_NAME" = 'Silver' and
"EMAIL" = 'JSILVER' and
"PHONE_NUMBER" = '5551112222'
and "HIRE_DATE" = TO_DATE('102003
13:41:03', 'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss')
and "JOB_ID" ='105' and
"DEPARTMENT_ID"
= '50' and ROWID =
'AAAHSkAABAAAY6rAAP';

'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss'),
'SH_CLERK','110000', '.05',
'105','50');
OE

1.1.1484

HR

1.15.1481

HR

1.15.1481

commit;
set transaction read write;
delete from "HR"."EMPLOYEES"
where "EMPLOYEE_ID" = '205' and
"FIRST_NAME" = 'Shelley' and
"LAST_NAME" = 'Higgins' and
"EMAIL" = 'SHIGGINS' and
"PHONE_NUMBER" = '515.123.8080'
and "HIRE_DATE" = TO_DATE(
'07-jun-1994 10:05:01',
'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss')
and "JOB_ID" = 'AC_MGR'
and "SALARY"= '12000'
and "COMMISSION_PCT" IS NULL
and "MANAGER_ID"
= '101' and "DEPARTMENT_ID" =
'110' and ROWID =

insert into "HR"."EMPLOYEES"(


"EMPLOYEE_ID","FIRST_NAME",
"LAST_NAME","EMAIL","PHONE_NUMBER",
"HIRE_DATE", "JOB_ID","SALARY",
"COMMISSION_PCT","MANAGER_ID",
"DEPARTMENT_ID") values
('205','Shelley','Higgins',
and
'SHIGGINS','515.123.8080',
TO_DATE('07-jun-1994 10:05:01',
'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss'),
'AC_MGR','12000',NULL,'101','110');

'AAAHSkAABAAAY6rAAM';
OE

1.8.1484

set transaction read write;

OE

1.8.1484

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set "WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+12-06') where
"PRODUCT_ID" = '2350' and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+20-00') and
ROWID = 'AAAHTKAABAAAY9tAAD';

HR

1.11.1476

commit;

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set "WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+20-00') where
"PRODUCT_ID" = '2350' and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" =
TO_YMINTERVAL('+20-00') and
ROWID ='AAAHTKAABAAAY9tAAD';

Step 4 End the LogMiner session.


SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.END_LOGMNR();

Example of Mining Without Specifying the List of Redo Log


Files Explicitly

The previous example explicitly specified the redo log file or files to be mined.
However, if you are mining in the same database that generated the redo log files, then
you can mine the appropriate list of redo log files by just specifying the time (or SCN)
range of interest. To mine a set of redo log files without explicitly specifying them,
use theDBMS_LOGMNR.CONTINUOUS_MINE option to
the DBMS_LOGMNR.START_LOGMNR procedure, and specify either a time range or
an SCN range of interest.
Example : Mining Redo Log Files in a Given Time Range
This example assumes that you want to use the data dictionary extracted to the redo
log files.
Step 1 Determine the timestamp of the redo log file that contains the start of the
data dictionary.
SQL> SELECT NAME, FIRST_TIME FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG
WHERE SEQUENCE# = (SELECT MAX(SEQUENCE#) FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG
WHERE DICTIONARY_BEGIN = 'YES');

NAME

FIRST_TIME

--------------------------------------------

--------------------

/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_207_482701534.dbf

10-jan-2003 12:01:34

Step 2 Display all the redo log files that have been generated so far.
This step is not required, but is included to demonstrate that
the CONTINUOUS_MINE option works as expected, as will be shown in Step 4.
SQL> SELECT FILENAME name FROM V$LOGMNR_LOGS
WHERE LOW_TIME > '10-jan-2003 12:01:34';

NAME
---------------------------------------------/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_207_482701534.dbf
/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_208_482701534.dbf
/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_209_482701534.dbf
/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_210_482701534.dbf

Step 3 Start LogMiner.


Start LogMiner by specifying the dictionary to use and
the COMMITTED_DATA_ONLY, PRINT_PRETTY_SQL, and
CONTINUOUS_MINE options.
SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.START_LOGMNR(STARTTIME => '10-jan-2003 12:01:34', ENDTIME => SYSDATE, OPTIONS => DBMS_LOGMNR.DICT_FROM_REDO_LOGS + DBMS_LOGMNR.COMMITTED_DATA_ONLY + DBMS_LOGMNR.PRINT_PRETTY_SQL + DBMS_LOGMNR.CONTINUOUS_MINE);

Step 4 Query the V$LOGMNR_LOGS view.


This step shows that the DBMS_LOGMNR.START_LOGMNR procedure with the
CONTINUOUS_MINE option includes all of the redo log files that have been
generated so far, as expected. (Compare the output in this step to the output in Step 2.)
SQL> SELECT FILENAME name FROM V$LOGMNR_LOGS;

NAME
-----------------------------------------------------/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_207_482701534.dbf
/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_208_482701534.dbf
/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_209_482701534.dbf
/usr/oracle/data/db1arch_1_210_482701534.dbf

Step 5 Query the V$LOGMNR_CONTENTS view.


To reduce the number of rows returned by the query, exclude all DML statements
done in the sys or system schema. (This query specifies a timestamp to exclude
transactions that were involved in the dictionary extraction.)
Note that all reconstructed SQL statements returned by the query are correctly
translated.
SQL> SELECT USERNAME AS usr,(XIDUSN || '.' || XIDSLT || '.' || XIDSQN) as XID,
SQL_REDO FROM V$LOGMNR_CONTENTS
WHERE SEG_OWNER IS NULL OR SEG_OWNER NOT IN ('SYS', 'SYSTEM') AND
TIMESTAMP > '10-jan-2003 15:59:53';

USR

XID

SQL_REDO

-----------

--------

-----------------------------------

SYS

1.2.1594

set transaction read write;

SYS

1.2.1594

create table oe.product_tracking (product_id number not null,


modified_time date,
old_list_price number(8,2),
old_warranty_period interval year(2) to month);

SYS

1.2.1594

commit;

SYS

1.18.1602

set transaction read write;

SYS

1.18.1602

create or replace trigger oe.product_tracking_trigger


before update on oe.product_information
for each row
when (new.list_price <> old.list_price or
new.warranty_period <> old.warranty_period)
declare
begin
insert into oe.product_tracking values
(:old.product_id, sysdate,
:old.list_price, :old.warranty_period);
end;

SYS

1.18.1602

commit;

OE

1.9.1598

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" = TO_YMINTERVAL('+08-00'),
"LIST_PRICE" = 100
where
"PRODUCT_ID" = 1729 and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" = TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00') and
"LIST_PRICE" = 80 and

ROWID = 'AAAHTKAABAAAY9yAAA';
OE

1.9.1598

insert into "OE"."PRODUCT_TRACKING"


values
"PRODUCT_ID" = 1729,
"MODIFIED_TIME" = TO_DATE('13-jan-2003 16:07:03',
'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss'),
"OLD_LIST_PRICE" = 80,
"OLD_WARRANTY_PERIOD" = TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00');

OE

1.9.1598

update "OE"."PRODUCT_INFORMATION"
set
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" = TO_YMINTERVAL('+08-00'),
"LIST_PRICE" = 92
where
"PRODUCT_ID" = 2340 and
"WARRANTY_PERIOD" = TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00') and
"LIST_PRICE" = 72 and
ROWID = 'AAAHTKAABAAAY9zAAA';

OE

1.9.1598

insert into "OE"."PRODUCT_TRACKING"


values
"PRODUCT_ID" = 2340,
"MODIFIED_TIME" = TO_DATE('13-jan-2003 16:07:07',
'dd-mon-yyyy hh24:mi:ss'),
"OLD_LIST_PRICE" = 72,
"OLD_WARRANTY_PERIOD" = TO_YMINTERVAL('+05-00');

OE

1.9.1598

commit;

Step 6 End the LogMiner session.


SQL> EXECUTE DBMS_LOGMNR.END_LOGMNR();

BACKUP AND RECOVERY

Opening or Bringing the database in Archivelog mode.


To open the database in Archive log mode. Follow these steps:
STEP 1: Shutdown the database if it is running.
STEP 2: Take a full offline backup.
STEP 3: Set the following parameters in parameter file.
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=ica%s.%t.%r.arc
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1=location=/u02/ica/arc1
If you want you can specify second destination also
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2=location=/u02/ica/arc1
Step 3: Start and mount the database.
SQL> STARTUP MOUNT
STEP 4: Give the following command
SQL> ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG;
STEP 5: Then type the following to confirm.
SQL> ARCHIVE LOG LIST;
STEP 6: Now open the database
SQL>alter database open;
Step 7: It is recommended that you take a full backup after you brought the database in archive log mode.
To again bring back the database in NOARCHIVELOG mode. Follow these steps:
STEP 1: Shutdown the database if it is running.

STEP 2: Comment the following parameters in parameter file by putting " # " .
# LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1=location=/u02/ica/arc1
# LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2=location=/u02/ica/arc2
# LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=ica%s.%t.%r.arc
STEP 3: Startup and mount the database.
SQL> STARTUP MOUNT;
STEP 4: Give the following Commands
SQL> ALTER DATABASE NOARCHIVELOG;
STEP 5: Shutdown the database and take full offline backup.

TAKING OFFLINE BACKUPS. ( UNIX )


Shutdown the database if it is running. Then start SQL Plus and connect as SYSDBA.
$sqlplus
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> Shutdown immediate
SQL> Exit
After Shutting down the database. Copy all the datafiles, logfiles, controlfiles, parameter file and password
file to your backup destination.
TIP:
To identify the datafiles, Logfiles query the data dictionary tables V$DATAFILE and V$LOGFILE before
shutting down.
Lets suppose all the files are in "/u01/ica" directory. Then the following command copies all the files to
the backup destination /u02/backup.
$cd /u01/ica
$cp * /u02/backup/
Be sure to remember the destination of each file. This will be useful when restoring from this backup. You
can create text file and put the destinations of each file for future use. Now you can open the database.

TAKING ONLINE (HOT) BACKUPS.(UNIX)


To take online backups the database should be running in Archivelog mode. To check whether the
database is running in Archivelog mode or Noarchivelog mode. Start sqlplus and then connect as
SYSDBA.
After connecting give the command "archive log list" this will show you the status of archiving.
$sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL> ARCHIVE LOG LIST
If the database is running in archive log mode then you can take online backups.
Let us suppose we want to take online backup of "USERS" tablespace. You can query the V$DATAFILE
view to find out the name of datafiles associated with this tablespace. Lets suppose the file is
"/u01/ica/usr1.dbf ".
Give the following series of commands to take online backup of USERS tablespace.
$sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL> alter tablespace users begin backup;
SQL> host cp /u01/ica/usr1.dbf

/u02/backup

SQL> alter tablespace users end backup;


SQL> exit;

RECOVERING THE DATABASE IF IT IS RUNNING IN NOARCHIVELOG MODE.


Option 1: When you dont have a backup.
If you have lost one datafile and if you don't have any backup and if the datafile does not contain
important objects then, you can drop the damaged datafile and open the database. You will loose all
information contained in the damaged datafile.
The following are the steps to drop a damaged datafile and open the database.
(UNIX)
STEP 1: First take full backup of database for safety.
STEP 2: Start the sqlplus and give the following commands.

$sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL> STARTUP MOUNT
SQL> ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE

'/u01/ica/usr1.dbf '

offline drop;

SQL>alter database open;


Option 2:When you have the Backup.
If the database is running in Noarchivelog mode and if you have a full backup. Then there are two options
for you.
i . Either you can drop the damaged datafile, if it does not contain important information which you can
afford to loose.
ii . Or you can restore from full backup. You will loose all the changes made to the database since last
full
backup.
To drop the damaged datafile follow the steps shown previously.
To restore from full database backup. Do the following.
STEP 1: Take a full backup of current database.
STEP 2: Restore from full database backup i.e. copy all the files from backup to their original locations.
(UNIX)
Suppose the backup is in "/u2/oracle/backup" directory. Then do the following.
$cp /u02/backup/*

/u01/ica

This will copy all the files from backup directory to original destination. Also remember to copy the control
files to all the mirrored locations.

RECOVERING FROM LOST OF CONTROL FILE.


If you have lost the control file and if it is mirrored. Then simply copy the control file from mirrored location
to the damaged location and open the database
If you have lost all the mirrored control files and all the datafiles and logfiles are intact. Then you can
recreate a control file.
If you have already taken the backup of control file creation statement by giving this command. "
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE; " and if you have not added any tablespace
since then, just create the controlfile by executing the statement

Buf If you have added any new tablespace after generating create controlfile statement. Then you have to
alter the script and include the filename and size of the file in script file.
If your script file containing the control file creation statement is "CR.SQL"
Then just do the following.
STEP 1: Start sqlplus
STEP 2: connect / as sysdba
STEP 3: Start and do not mount a database like this.
SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT
STEP 4: Run the "CR.SQL" script file.
STEP 5: Mount and Open the database.
SQL>alter database mount;
SQL>alter database open;
If you do not have a backup of Control file creation statement. Then you have to manually give the
CREATE CONTROL FILE statement. You have to write the file names and sizes of all the datafiles. You
will lose any datafiles which you do not include.
Refer to "Managing Control File" topic for the CREATE CONTROL FILE statement.

Recovering Database when the database is running in ARCHIVELOG Mode.


Recovering from the lost of Damaged Datafile.
If you have lost one datafile. Then follow the steps shown below.
STEP 1. Shutdown the Database if it is running.
STEP 2. Restore the datafile from most recent backup.
STEP 3. Then Start sqlplus and connect as SYSDBA.
$sqlplus
Enter User:/ as sysdba
SQL>Startup mount;
SQL>Set autorecovery on;

SQL>alter database recover;


If all archive log files are available then recovery should go on smoothly. After you get the "Media
Recovery Completely" statement. Go on to next step.
STEP 4. Now open the database
SQL>alter database open;
Recovering from the Lost Archived Files:
If you have lost the archived files. Then Immediately shutdown the database and take a full offline
backup.

Time Based Recovery (INCOMPLETE RECOVERY).


Suppose a user has a dropped a crucial table accidentally and you have to recover the dropped table.
You have taken a full backup of the database on Monday 13-Aug-2007 and the table was created on
Tuesday 14-Aug-2007 and thousands of rows were inserted into it. Some user accidently drop the table
on Thursday 16-Aug-2007 and nobody notice this until Saturday.
Now to recover the table follow these steps.
STEP 1. Shutdown the database and take a full offline backup.
STEP 2. Restore all the datafiles, logfiles and control file from the full offline backup which was taken on
Monday.
STEP 3. Start SQLPLUS and start and mount the database.
STEP 4. Then give the following command to recover database until specified time.
SQL> recover database until time '2007:08:16:13:55:00'
using backup controlfile;
STEP 5. Open the database and reset the logs. Because you have performed a Incomplete Recovery,
like this
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;
STEP 6. After database is open. Export the table to a dump file using Export Utility.
STEP 7. Restore from the full database backup which you have taken on Saturday.
STEP 8. Open the database and Import the table.

Note: In Oracle 10g you can easily recover drop tables by using Flashback feature. For further information
please refer to Flashback Features Topic in this book