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Endorsed by

University of Cambridge International Examinations

Physics
Revision
Guide
Sarah Lloyd

OXFORD
U N I V E R S I T Y PRESS

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Tips for effective revision

1 General physics
1.1 L e n g t h , v o l u m e a n d t i m e

1.2 Speed, velocity a n d acceleration

1.3 Mass a n d w e i g h t

15

1.4 Density

16

1.5 Forces

18

1.6 Energy, w o r k a n d p o w e r

33

1.7 Pressure

41

2 Thermal physics
2.1

Kinetic t h e o r y

50

2.2 T h e r m a l properties

56

2.3 Transfer of t h e r m a l e n e r g y

67

Properties of waves
3.1 General w a v e properties

80

3.2

85

Light

3.3 Sound

96

Electricity and magnetism


4.1

Magnetism

105

4.2

Electrical quantities

110

4.3

Electric circuits

118

4 . 4 Dangers of electricity

129

4.5

131

Electromagnetic effects

4 . 6 C a t h o d e ray oscilloscope

139

Atomic physics
5.1 Radioactivity

150

5.2 The nuclear a t o m

158

How to use this revision guide


This b o o k is designed t o be used w i t h Complete

Physics for IGCSE. It offers brief notes a n d

simplified explanations, along w i t h practice questions, t o help y o u understand t h e physics


principles required f o r t h e C a m b r i d g e IGCSE syllabus. The notes, examples, s u m m a r y
questions and e x a m i n a t i o n questions are divided into sections t h a t relate t o t h e syllabus areas.
The e x a m i n a t i o n questions t h a t a c c o m p a n y each subsection (e.g. transfer of t h e r m a l
energy, w h i c h is p a r t o f t h e t h e r m a l physics section) w i l l a l l o w y o u t o test yourself a t regular
intervals. There are also questions a t t h e e n d of each section so t h a t y o u can test y o u r
k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w h o l e t o p i c . In this w a y y o u can revise t o p i c by t o p i c
until y o u have covered t h e entire syllabus.

KEY

IDEAS

Begin y o u r revision w e l l in advance o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n

</

Find a q u i e t place t o w o r k , f r e e f r o m distractions

Stud y in e x a m - l e n g t h sessions b r o k e n u p by 1 0 m i n u t e breaks, w h e n y o u leave


y o u r desk

Process t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t y o u are t r y i n g t o learn: m a k e y o u r o w n notes , d r a w


a t a b l e a n d categorise t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , d r a w m i n d m a p s (spider diagrams) t o
s u m m a r i s e t h e key p o i n t s

Test yourself o f t e n using e x a m i n a t i o n questions

Active Revision for Physics


Making

revision

notes

D o n ' t j u s t w r i t e o u t y o u r notes. Try t o m a k e t h e m as brief as possible, j u s t p i c k i n g o u t t h e


essential p o i n t s . This is q u i t e c h a l l e n g i n g ! You c o u l d tr y w r i t i n g y o u r revision notes o n t o cue
cards. They are t h e n m o r e p o r t a b l e t o read o n t h e b u s / t r a m t o school or o n t h e w a y t o see
y o u r friends .
Drawing

revision

mind maps (spider

diagrams)

This is a g o o d w a y t o visually s u m m a r i s e i n f o r m a t i o n . You can link ideas, w h i c h w i l l help


y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e t o p i c . Simplifying d i f f i c u l t concepts i n t o d i a g r a m s w i l l help y o u
t o reduce t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t y o u have t o learn f o r t h e e x a m . D r a w i n g o u t a m i n d m a p o n
a large sheet of paper will a l l o w y o u t o p u t in m o r e diagrams a n d h i g h l i g h t t h e i m p o r t a n t
points in colour. Belo w is an e x a m p l e o f a simple m i n d m a p o n radioactivity.

Radioactive particles
ionise atoms in cells,
which leads to cell
damage or cell death.
Can cause cancer in the
future.

Dangerous!

Alpha, tx (helium nucleus).

Beta, 0 (electron).

Gamma, -y
(electromagnetic wave).

J
Unstable nucleus, emits
radioactive particles.

-#-

Background radiation is
all around us.

RADIOACTIVITY

People who work with


radiation are monitored
to check that they have
not been exposed to
unsafe levels. They wear
a film badge.

Useful!

Gamma emitters are used as


tracers in medicine. Beta emitters
are used to measure the thickness
of paper in factories. Alpha
emitters are used in smoke alarms.

Sources of background radiation

cosmic rays
10.0% ,

medical
12.0%

fallout
0.3%
industrial
0.7%

the body
12.0%

gammas from
rocks etc,
14.0%

radon and
thoron
51.0%

Writing your own

test

W r i t e d o w n questions as y o u g o t h r o u g h this Revision Guide. W h e n y o u reach t h e e n d o f


t h e t o p i c y o u can use t h e questions t o test y o u r k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d check
y o u r progress.
Getting

someone

else to test you

Y o u c o u l d give o n e of y o u r classmates y o u r revision notes a n d ask t h e m t o test y o u . Or y o u


c o u l d get t h e m t o ask y o u a b o u t parts of t h e syllabus t h e y d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . This is a g o o d
test o f y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h a t t o p i c !
Using your

syllabus

Y o u can d o w n l o a d a copy o f t h e syllabus f r o m t h e CIE w e b s i t e . M a k e check lists f o r revision


using t h e syllabus t o indicate w h e n y o u have m a d e revision notes, practised e x a m questions
etc. D o n ' t f o r g e t t o include a c o l u m n t o tick w h e n y o u feel y o u have u n d e r s t o o d a t o p i c .
Doing past exam

questions

There are lots o f e x a m i n a t i o n questions t h r o u g h o u t this b o o k f o r y o u t o try. Try revising a


small part o f a t o p i c , say f o r a b o u t 3 0 m i n u t e s a n d t h e n test yourself o n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n
style questions provided here. W h e n y o u feel ready, full past papers are available o n t h e
HE website
Making

revision

posters

If y o u m a k e y o u r revision notes into posters a n d p u t t h e m in places w h e r e y o u w i l l see t h e m


o f t e n , y o u w i l l read t h e m w i t h o u t even realising! This w i l l help t o keep topics fresh in y o u r
m i n d . Your f a m i l y a n d friends w i l l see w h a t y o u have been revising a n d m i g h t talk t o y o u
a b o u t it, w h i c h w i l l help t h e i n f o r m a t i o n in stick y o u r m i n d .

Essential quantities and units

Time

second (s)

Force

newton (N)

Weight

)< newton (N)

Velocity

metres per second (m/s)

Speed

; metres per second (m/s)

Distance

dor s

- mtre (m)

Acceleration

metres per second squared (m/s )

Mass

kilogram (kg)

Moment

'} newton metre (Nm)

Energy

joule (J)

Work done

joule (J)

Power

1 watt(W)

Current

ampere (A)

Potential difference (voltage)

volt (V)

Resistance

ohm(0)

Charge

coulomb (C)

Frequency

hertz (Hz)

Pressure

newton per metre squared (N/m )

Temperature

degrees Celsius (C)

Density

p or

g/cm or kg/m
3

Wavelength

metre (m)

Specific heat capacity

joules per kilogram degree Celsius

Specific latent heat

joules per kilogram (J/kg)

Formulae and magic triangles


These magic triangles are a useful w a y o f r e m e m b e r i n g h o w t o use an e q u a t i o n , b u t are n o
s u b s t i t u t e f o r r e m e m b e r i n g t h e e q u a t i o n itself.
To use a m a g i c t r i a n g l e , cover t h e q u a n t i t y y o u are t r y i n g t o f i n d . The relationship left
b e h i n d s h o w s y o u h o w t o calculate it. For e x a m p l e , cover up s p e e d , u in t h e first t r i a n g l e
a n d y o u are left w i t h j .

/ d \

/ \

/ f \

</= ux

ax

F=

777 x a

PE=

W X h

X
M=

FX

WD=Fxd

Q=

p =

mXv

F=pXA

I x t

m = px

KE = \ x

V=

IXR

v=

f x \

pgh

E=

mc&T

E=pXt

P =

E=

IXV

Ami

1 General physics

. / I U > f K j i ; f l , yrj|ijrr>f-' .;]fK.I i i r r K !

L e n g t h is measure d w i t h a ruler, t a p e measure , vernier callipers o r m i c r o m e t e r


screw g a u g e

V o l u m e m a y be measure d w i t h a m e a s u r i n g cylinder

T i m e is measured w i t h a s t o p clock o r s t o p w a t c h

L e n g t h m e a s u r e m e n t s can be m a d e m o r e p r e c i s e by using an i n s t r u m e n t w i t h a vernier


scale such as vernier callipers or a m i c r o m e t e r screw g a u g e . A ruler measures t o t h e nearest
m i l l i m e t r e , vernier callipers t o 1/10 m m a n d a m i c r o m e t e r 1/100 m m . Lengt h m e a s u r e m e n ts
can be m a d e m o r e a c c u r a t e by m e a s u r i n g multiples, such as t h e thickness o f 5 0 0 sheets o f
paper, t h e n divide by 5 0 0 t o g e t t h e thickness o f o n e sheet. Check t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f y o u r
m e a s u r e m e n t s by repeating t h e m . If t h e repeate d results are similar, t h e y are reliable. W h e n
m e a s u r i n g t h e l e n g t h , / o f a p e n d u l u m as in t h e f i g u r e (right), y o u need t o measure t o t h e
centre o f gravity. O n e w a y o f d o i n g this is t o t a k e t w o m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d average t h e m :
f r o m t h e fixed e n d o f t h e string t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e b o b , /, a n d f r o m t h e fixed e n d o f
t h e string t o t h e far e n d of t h e b o b /

gap ben
ig
measured

fixed
scale

fixed

mm 0

10
_u_L

J_L

p-trr

Read the highest scale See where divisions coincide.


division before f :
Read this on sliding scale,
puting a decm
i al point in front:
I
0.4
I

Add:
A

Read the highest scale


division that can be seen:

Read the scale on the


barrel, puting a decm
i al
point in front:
I
0.32

5.5

7.4 mm

Reading a vernier

scale on
revolving barrel

Add:
A

L_

5.82 mm

Reading a micrometer

The v o l u m e o f a regular solid can be f o u n d by measuring its dimensions. For e x a m p l e,


recording t h e l e n g t h , w i d t h a n d h e i g ht o f a c u b o i d (box) a n d m u l t i p l y i n g these
m e a s u r e m e n t s together. The v o l u m e o f an irregularly shaped objec t can also be measured
using a measuring cylinder w i t h a eureka c a n . Place t h e objec t in t h e eureka can a n d use t h e
m e a s u r i n g cylinder t o measure h o w m u c h w a t e r is displaced. The v o l u m e of w a t e r displaced
is equal t o t h e v o l u m e o f t h e object.
A d i g i t al s t o p w a t c h measures t i m e t o a p r e c i s i o n of 0.01 s. This is far m o r e precise t h a n
h u m a n error w i l l allow, w h i c h is a b o u t 0.2 s. If possible, t i m e over as l o n g a p e r i o d as
possible. W h e n t i m i n g t h e t i m e p e r i o d f o r a simple p e n d u l u m , f o r e x a m p l e , it is m o r e
a c c u r a t e t o t i m e 1 0 0 s w i n g s w i t h a s t o p w a t c h a n d t h e n divide by t h e n u m b e r of s w i n g s.
This reduces t h e error d u e t o h u m a n reaction t i m e . Repeat t i m e m e a s u r e m e n ts t o check f o r
reliability of data.

Eureka can and measuring


cylinder

KEY
y

IDEAS

Speed = d | t a n e
time
M

/
/

,
i
i
c h a n g e in velocity
Acceleration =
^
Velocity a n d acceleration can have b o t h positive a n d negative values

. . . .
Speed (m/s) K

distance (m)
, \
t i m e (s)

d
t

Worked examples
1. A car travels at a speed of 2 0 m/s f o r 3 0 s. H o w far does it travel in this t i m e ?

2.

A cyclist travels 1 0 0 0 m in 3 m i n u t e s . W h a t is his speed?

3.

A girl w a l k s 3 k m at 1.5 m/s. H o w l o n g does her j o u r n e y take?

Answers
1. d = u x

= 20 X 30
= 600 m

2. u = d/f
= 1000 T ( 3 X

60)

= 1 0 0 0 + 180
= 5.56 m/s

3.

t =

dlu

= (3 X 1 0 0 0 ) -

1.5

= 3 0 0 0 1.5
= 2 0 0 0 s (33 m i n 2 0 s)
N o t e : in e x a m p l e 2 , t i m e in m i n u t e s m u s t be c o n v e r t e d t o s e c o n d s . In e x a m p l e 3, distance
in kilometres m u s t be c o n v e r t ed t o m e t r e s .

Distance-time graphs
A j o u r n e y can be represented o n a g r a p h by p l o t t i n g t h e distance travelled o n t h e y - a x i s a n d
t h e t i m e t a k e n o n t h e x-axis. The shape of t h e g r a p h describes t h e j o u r n e y .

y step
The gradient of the graph

distance/m

_ y step
~ x step
= speed

xstep
time/s

Distance-time graph

Examples of distance-time graphs


1.

In a crash test, a car travels at steady speed a n d t h e n stops s u d d e n l y as it hits a w a l l

The gradient suddenly


changes to zero (horizontal
line), which means the speed
is zero and the object has
stopped.

There is a constant gradient


because the object travels
at steady speed.
distance/m

time/s

2.

A r u n n e r sets o f f in a race, increasing her speed until she reaches her m a x i m u m s p e e d.

The gradient gradually


increases because the
speed is increasing.

distance/m
Initially, the gradient is low,
which means the speed is low.

time/s

Revision guide: Physics

Velocity and acceleration


V e l o c i t y is a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y ; it is e q u a l t o s p e e d in a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n . Speed is a
m e a s u r e m e n t o f h o w fast an o b j e c t is m o v i n g .
A c c e l e r a t i o n is also a vector quantity. It is equal t o t h e c h a n g e in v e l o c i t y p e r s e c o n d .
W h e n an o b j e c t is s l o w i n g d o w n , if its velocity is d e c r e a s i n g , t h e acceleration is n e g a t i v e .
W e say t h a t it is d e c e l e r a t i n g . See section 1.5 (scalars a n d vectors).
A c c e l e r a t i o n ( m / s ) = c h a n g e in velocity (m/s)
2

t i m e (s)

__ v - u
a - r

initial velocity = u, f i n a l velocity = v,


t i m e t a k e n f o r t h e c h a n g e in velocity =
c h a n g e in velocity = v u =

t,

Av

Worked examples
1. A car increases its velocity f r o m 10 m/s t o 2 0 m/s in 5 s. W h a t is its acceleration?

2.

A r u n n e r has an acceleration o f 10 m/s . H o w l o n g does it t a k e h i m t o reach a speed o f


2

5 m/s f r o m rest? ( N o t e 'rest' means zero velocity.)

3.

A t r a i n accelerates at 9 m/s f o r 5 s. If its initial velocity is 5 m/s, w h a t is its final


2

velocity?

Answers
1. a =

Av+t

= (20 = 2 m/s

2.

t=

10) ^ 5
2

Av + a

= 5 + 10
= 0.5 s

3.

Av=

a X f
=

9 X 5

= 4 5 m/s
v = u + Av
= 5 + 45
= 50 m/s

Speed-time graphs

The gradient of the speed-time

.
y step
9 P
3FItep
r a

speed
m/s

= acceleration

y step

The area under the


graph = distance
travelled.

xstep
time/s

Speed-time graph.

The area u n d e r t h e g r a p h is a calculation involving t h e units o n t h e t w o axes. It is n o t a


physical area.

Examples of speed-time graphs


1. A car accelerating until it reaches its m a x i m u m speed.

At the maximum speed the


graph is horizontal (gradient
is zero) indicating the car has
reached a steady speed.

The car starts with its greatest


acceleration (the gradient is
highest). The acceleration
decreases with time as the car
approaches its maximum speed
(the gradient decreases).

time/s

2.

A r u n n e r w h o accelerates w i t h c o n s t a n t acceleration t o his m a x i m u m speed a n d


t h e n decelerates steadily t o a s t o p a t t h e e n d o f t h e race.

As the runner reaches a


steady speed, the gradient
becomes zero (horizontal line
on graph).

At the start of the race


the acceleration of
the runner is greatest
(gradient is maximum).
This acceleration is
constant and so the
gradient of the graph is
constant (a straight line).

At the end of the race, the


runner decelerates (negative
gradient) to rest (zero velocity).
The straight line shows that the
deceleration is constant.

time/s

3.

A skydiver f r o m t h e t i m e she j u m p s f r o m a helicopte r until t h e m o m e n t she


reaches t h e g r o u n d .

Initially the skydiver


accelerates but the
acceleration decreases
with time as air resistance
increases (gradient is
positive but decreasing).

When she opens her parachute, the


acceleration changes from positive to negative
as she decelerates (negative gradient).
speed
Finally, the deceleration
decreases and she reaches a
steady velocity (zero gradient).
This is the t e r m i n a l velocity.
time/s

ni.- .'.

'Revision guide: Physics

Examination style questions


1.

The g r a p h abov e is f o r a 6 0 m i n u t e car j o u r n e y .


a.

B e t w e e n w h i c h t i m e s is t h e car speed a t its highest?

b.

Calculate t h e t o t a l t i m e f o r w h i c h t h e car is s t o p p e d .

c.

State w i t h o u t calculation h o w t h e g r a p h c o u l d be used


i)

t o f i n d t h e distance travelled in t h e first 12V2 m i n u t e s .

ii)

t o f i n d t h e average speed f o r t h e j o u r n e y .
G r a p h a d a p t e d f r o m C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e '05 P a p e r 2 Q 2

A s t o n e falls f r o m t h e t o p o f a b u i l d i n g a n d hits t h e g r o u n d a t a speed of 3 2 m/s.


The air resistance f o r c e o n t h e s t o n e is very small a n d m a y be n e g l e c t e d .
a.

Calculate t h e t i m e o f fall.

b.

C o p y a n d d r a w t h e s p e e d - t i m e g r a p h f o r t h e f a l l i n g stone .
40

30

speed
20
m/s

10

time/s

C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "06 P a p e r 3 Q 1 a

General physics

3.

The f i g u r e b e l o w s h o w s t h e s p e e d - t i m e g r a p h f o r a j o u r n e y travelled by a tractor.

50

100

170

200

time/s
a.

Use t h e g r a p h t o describe t h e m o t i o n o f t h e t r a c t o r d u r i n g t h e sections OP, PQ, QR


a n d RS.

b.

W h i c h t w o points o n t h e g r a p h s h o w w h e n t h e t r a c t o r is stationary?

c.

State t h e greatest speed reached by t h e tractor.

d.

For h o w l o n g w a s t h e t r a c t o r travelling a t c o n s t a n t speed?

e.

State h o w t h e g r a p h may be used t o f i n d t h e t o t a l distance travelled d u r i n g t h e


2 0 0 s j o u r n e y . Do n o t a t t e m p t a calculation .
C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r '06 P a p e r 2 Q 3

4.

Palm trees are g r o w i n g every 2 5 m alongside t h e h i g h w a y in a holiday resort.

T h e IGCSE school bus drives a l o n g t h e h i g h w a y .


a.

It takes 2 s f o r t h e bus t o travel b e t w e e n p a l m t r ee 1 a n d p a l m tree 2 .


Calculate t h e average speed of t h e bus b e t w e e n tree 1 a n d tree 2 .

b.

It takes m o r e t h a n 2s f o r t h e bus t o travel f r o m t r e e 2 t o tree 3.


State w h a t this i n f o r m a t i o n indicates a b o u t t h e speed of t h e bus.

c.

The speed o f t h e bus c o n t i n u e s t o d o w h a t y o u have said in (b). State h o w t h e


t i m e t a k e n t o g o f r o m tree 3 t o t r e e 4 compares w i t h t h e t i m e in (b).
C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r '05 P a p e r 2 Q 2

jy

I Revision guide: Physics

5.

In a t r a i n i n g session, a racing cyclist's j o u r n e y is in t h r e e stages.


Stage 1

He accelerates u n i f o r m l y f r o m rest t o 12 m/s in 2 0 s.

Stage 2

He cycles a t 12 m/s f o r a distance of 4 8 0 0 m .

Stage 3

He decelerates u n i f o r m l y t o rest.

The w h o l e j o u r n e y takes 5 0 0 s.
a.

Calculate t h e t i m e t a k e n f o r stage 2.

b.

C o p y t h e g r i d b e l o w a n d d r a w a s p e e d - t i m e g r a p h of t h e cyclist's ride.

100

200

300

400

500

time/s

c.

S h o w t h a t t h e t o t a l distance travelled by t h e cyclist is 5 4 0 0 m .

d.

Calculate t h e average speed o f t h e cyclist.


C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e '07 P a p e r 2 Q 2

'1,3 M'ji-r; wk.I

y./r:Hg:l'ti:

# f E V / D > S
/

Mass is a q u a n t i t y related t o t h e inertia o f a n o b j e c t , m e a s u r e d in k g

W e i g h t is t h e f o r c e , in N, o n a mass d u e t o a g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d

O n Earth, t h e g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d s t r e n g t h is 10 N/kg

M a s s is t h e a m o u n t o f m a t t e r t h a t makes up an object. It is measure d in kilogram s (kg). All


masses have a quality called " i n e r t i a " , t h e t e n d e n c y t o keep m o v i n g if already m o v i n g a n d
stay still if already still.
For e x a m p l e, a car in a crash test: w h e n t h e car hits t h e w a l l , it decelerates t o rest in a s h o r t
t i m e . The crash test d u m m y has inertia d u e t o its mass a n d so it keeps m o v i n g f o r w a r d s a t
t h e same speed as b e f o r e t h e car hit t h e w a l l . A l t h o u g h it looks as t h o u g h t h e d u m m y has
been t h r o w n f o r w a r d , t h e r e is no net f o r w a r d f o r c e o n it.

" *

fc*

, i t T T mmrnrnt

W e i g h t is t h e f o r c e o n a mass d u e t o gravity. It is measure d in n e w t o n s (N).


w e i g h t (N) = mass (kg) X g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d s t r e n g t h (N/kg )
W

O n Earth, t h e g r a v i t a t i o n al field s t r e n g t h , g = 10 N / k g . This is also called t h e acceleration


d u e t o gravity or t h e acceleration o f freefall a n d has an alternative u n i t o f m/s .
2

Examination style question


Some IGCSE s t u d e n t s w e r e asked t o w r i t e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t mass a n d w e i g h t .
Their s t a t e m e n t s are p r i n t e d b e l o w . C h o o se t h e t w o correct s t a t e m e n t s .
Mass and w e i g h t are the s a m e thing.
M a s s is m e a s u r e d in k i l o g r a m s .
W e i g h t is a t y p e o f f o r c e .
W e i g h t is t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n c a u s e d b y g r a v i t y .
CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "06 P a p e r 2 Q 2

KEY
/

IDEAS

Density =
3

"?
, m e a s u r e d in g / c m or k g / m
volume
a s s

D e n s i t y is a q u a n t i t y related t o h o w closely p a c k e d t h e particles in a material are as w e l l as


h o w m u c h t h e particles w e i g h .
i
, .
density ( g / c m ) =

mass (g)

<

m
t/

>
'

A simple m e t h o d o f m e a s u r i n g t h e density o f an o b j e c t (if its density is greater t h a n t h a t


of w a t e r ) :

measuring
cylinder

< new volume


reading

reading

water

object

Find t h e mass o f t h e o b j e c t using a balance.


A p p r o x i m a t e l y half fill a m e a s u r i n g cylinder w i t h water. Read t h e v o l u m e of w a t e r f r o m
t h e m e a s u r i n g cylinder scale.
Place t h e o b j e c t in t h e m e a s u r i n g cylinder a n d t a k e t h e n e w v o l u m e r e a d i n g .
Calculate ( n e w v o l u m e reading - initial v o l u m e reading) t o f i n d t h e v o l u m e of t h e
object.
Calculate t h e density by d i v i d i n g t h e mass by t h e v o l u m e .

Worked examples
1. The mass of a s t o n e is f o u n d o n a t o p p a n balance. It has a mass o f 1 2 0 . 0 2 g . A
m e a s u r i n g cylinder is filled t o a v o l u m e of 6 0 c m w i t h w a t e r . W h e n t h e ston e is placed
3

in t h e m e a s u r i n g cylinder, t h e n e w w a t e r level is 9 5 c m . Find t h e density of t h e s t o n e .


3

2.

A n o b j e c t o f k n o w n density of 2.7 g / c m is placed i n t o a m e a s u r i n g cylinder o f water.


3

The level of t h e w a t e r rises f r o m 4 5 c m t o 7 2 c m . W h a t is t h e mass of t h e object?


3

3.

A metal block of density 3.2 g / c m a n d mass 9 0 g is placed in a m e a s u r i n g cylinder


3

c o n t a i n i n g 65 c m o f w a t e r . W h a t is t h e n e w w a t e r level?
3

Answers
1. V o l u m e = 9 5 -

60 = 35 c m

= [R =

= 3.4 g /

c m

35
2.

Volume = 72 - 45 = 27 c m

m = V X p = 2 7 X 2.7 = 73 g

3.

\/=m = | |

= 28cm

N e w w a t e r level = 6 5 + 2 8 = 93 c m

Examination style question


1. A s t u d e n t is given a spring balance w i t h a N e w t o n scale. She is t o l d t h a t t h e
acceleration d u e t o gravity is 10 m/s .
2

Describe h o w she c o u l d f i n d t h e mass of a t o y car.


Describe h o w she c o u l d g o o n t o f i n d t h e average density o f t h e t o y car.
A d a p t e d f r o m C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "05 P a p e r 3 Q 1 b

2.

A s t u d e n t used a suitable m e a s u r i ng cylinder a n d a spring balance t o f i n d t h e density o f


a sample o f a s t o n e .
i)

Describe h o w t h e m e a s u r i ng cylinder is used, a n d state t h e readings t h a t are t a k e n .

ii)

Describe h o w t h e sprin g balance is used, a n d state t h e reading t h a t is t a k e n .

iii)

W r i t e d o w n an e q u a t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e density o f t h e s t o n e is c a l c u l a t e d .

iv)

The s t u d e n t t h e n wishes t o f i n d t h e density of cork. Suggest h o w t h e a p p a r a t us


a n d t h e m e t h o d w o u l d need t o be c h a n g e d .
CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r '06 P a p e r 3 Q 1 b

3.

Fig. (a) s h o w s a m e a s u r i n g cylinder, c o n t a i n i n g s o m e w a t e r, o n a balance.


Fig. (b) s h o w s t h e s a m e a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h a s t o n e a d d e d t o t h e w a t e r .

a.

W h i c h t w o readings s h o u l d be s u b t r a c t e d t o give t h e v o l u m e o f t h e stone?

b.

W h i c h t w o readings s h o u l d be s u b t r a c t e d t o give t h e mass o f t h e stone?

c.

In a certain e x p e r i m e n t ,
mass of s t o n e = 57.5 g ,
v o l u m e of s t o n e = 2 5 c m .
3

i)

W r i t e d o w n t h e e q u a t i o n linking density, mass a n d v o l u m e .

ii)

Calculate t h e density of t h e stone .


CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e '06 P a p e r 2 Q 3

Practical question
A n IGCSE s t u d e n t is d e t e r m i n i n g t h e density o f a meta l alloy.
The s t u d e n t is p r o v i d e d w i t h several metal rods, as s h o w n o n t h e right.

1.

Measure w i t h a ruler t h e l e n g t h , /, o f o n e of t h e rods.

2.

The s t u d e n t measured t h e d i a m e t e r o f o n e o f t h e rods w i t h a ruler a n d f o u n d it t o be


0.6 c m . Calculate t h e cross-sectional area, A, of t h e r o d .

3.

Use this value t o calculate t h e v o l u m e , V, o f o n e r o d a n d hence t h e w h o l e b u n d l e .


The s t u d e n t used a balance t o f i n d t h e mass of t h e b u n d l e a n d f o u n d it t o be 59.1 g .
Calculate t h e density o f t h e metal alloy.

KEY IDEAS
/

Forces are v e c t o r q u a n t i t i e s t h a t can c h a n g e t h e shape o f an o b j e c t , accelerate it o r


c h a n g e its d i r e c t i o n

M o m e n t o f a f o r c e a b o u t a p i v o t = f o r c e x p e r p e n d i c u l ar distance f r o m t h e p i v o t

A n o b j e c t is in e q u i l i b r i u m if t h e r e is zero n e t f o r c e o n it a n d zero n e t m o m e n t

A n o b j e c t w i l l n o t f a l l o v e r if t h e line o f a c t i o n o f its w e i g h t acts t h r o u g h its base;


t h i s d e p e n d s o n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c e n t r e o f mass

/"

T h e resultant o f t w o forces can be f o u n d by d r a w i n g a scale d i a g r a m

Forces can p r o d u c e a c h a n g e in s i z e o r s h a p e o f a n o b j e c t . For e x a m p l e , l o a d i n g a spring


w i l l increase its l e n g t h .

An experiment to find how the extension of a spring varies with


the force applied

M e a s u r e t h e original positio n of t h e sprin g using t h e p o i n t e r a n d ruler, t o t h e


nearest m m .

A d d a 100 g mass h a n g e r a n d measure t h e n e w p o s i t i o n .

Repeat 6 t i m e s , a d d i n g a 1 0 0 g mass each t i m e .

Calculate t h e extension by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e original positio n f r o m each s u b s e q u e n t


position reading.

Plot a g r a p h of extension against f o r c e , w h e r e force = mass x 10 N/kg.

Graph of results
Conclusion
From 0 t o P, extension is directly
proportional t o the force applied.
B e y o n d P, t h e extensions are larger
extension/m

f o r t h e same increase in f o r c e .
A t E, t h e elastic limit is reached.
Beyond this p o i n t , t h e sprin g w i l l
force/N

n o t retur n t o its original l e n g t h


w h e n t h e f o r c e is r e m o v e d .

Hooke's Law
If a material obeys H o o k e ' s Law, t h e extension is directly p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e ,
provided t h a t t h e elastic l i m i t is n o t e x c e e d e d ,
F=kx
W h e r e F = a p p l i e d f o r c e (N), k = f o r c e c o n s t a n t f o r o b j e c t u n d e r test ( N / m ) ,
x = extension (m)

Force, mass and acceleration


A f o r c e can a c c e l e r a t e an o b j e c t . The larger t h e f o r c e o n t h e o b j e c t , t h e greater t h e
acceleration if t h e mass stays c o n s t a n t . The larger t h e mass o f t h e o b j e c t , t h e smaller t h e
acceleration if t h e f o r c e stays c o n s t a n t.
Force (N) = mass (kg) X acceleration ( m / s )
2

Worked examples
1. A force o f 10 N acts o n an o b j e c t o f mass 5 k g . W h a t is t h e acceleration o f t h e object?

2.

A force o f 15 N causes an o b j e c t t o accelerate at 2 m/s . W h a t is its mass?

3.

A mass o f 3 kg has a deceleration o f 5 m/s . W h a t f o r c e acts o n it?

Answers
1.

a = F + m
= 10
5
= 2 m/s

2.

m = F
=

-r-

I l
2

= 7.5 k g

3.

F = m X a
= 3 X

-5

= -15 N
N o t e : in e x a m p l e 3, t h e o b j e c t is decelerating so acceleration is negative.

'Revision guide: Physics

Resultant force
The r e s u l t a n t f o r c e a c t i n g o n an o b j e c t is t h e n e t or o v e r a l l f o r c e w h e n t h e s i z e a n d
d i r e c t i o n o f all t h e forces a c t i n g are t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . F o r c e is a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y.

Examples
1
2N

Resultant f o r c e = 5 N + 2 N =

7N

The forces are a d d e d t o g e t h e r because t h e y act in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n .

Resultant f o r c e = 15 N 10 N
= 5 N (to t h e left)
The forces are s u b t r a c t e d because t h e y act in o p p o s i t e directions.
A f o r c e can cause an o b j e c t t o c h a n g e d i r e c t i o n . The o b j e c t w i l l m o v e in a circle if t h e
f o r c e acts p e r p e n d i c u l ar (at a r i g h t angle) t o t h e direction t h a t t h e o b j e c t is travelling .

The f o r c e acts at r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e d i r e c t i on t h a t t h e o b j e c t is m o v i n g . The f o r c e does n o t


d o any w o r k o n t h e o b j e c t because t h e o b j e c t does n o t m o v e in t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f o r c e .
The f o r c e c o n s t a n t l y changes t h e d i r e c t i on o f t h e objec t w h i c h means its v e l o c i t y c h a n g e s
b u t its s p e e d s t a y s c o n s t a n t . The o b j e c t accelerates t o w a r d s t h e centre of t h e circle.
The f o r c e w h i c h causes an o b j e c t t o m o v e in a circle is called t h e
c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e . The c e n t r i p e t al force increases if:

t h e mass o f t h e o b j e c t increases

t h e speed o f t h e o b j e c t increases

t h e radius o f t h e circle decreases

If t h e f o r c e w h i c h is p r o v i d i n g t h e centripetal acceleration is suddenly r e m o v e d ,


t h e o b j e c t w i l l m o v e o n a t a n g e n t t o t h e original circle.

Examination style questions


1.
.3

90
ZU

length/cm

15
m

()

05

10

15

20

25

30

Ic ad/N
T h e g r a p h a b o v e w a s o b t a i n e d by a s t u d e n t w h o loaded a spring f r o m 0.5 N t o 3.0 N
a n d measured its l e n g t h .
a.

Find t h e l e n g t h o f t h e spring w h e n a load o f 2.0 N is applied

b.

Find t h e load required t o stretch t h e spring t o a l e n g t h o f 18 c m

c.

Find t h e extension o f t h e spring w h e n it is stretched by a load o f 1.5 N


A d a p t e d f r o m C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "05 P a p e r 2 Q1

2.

A mass o f 5.0 k g accelerates at 3 m/s in a s t r a i g h t line.


2

a.

State w h y acceleration is described as a vector quantity.

b.

Calculate t h e f o r c e required t o accelerate t h e mass.


A d a p t e d f r o m C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e "05 P a p e r 3 Q 3

3.

The l e n g t h o f a spring is measured w h e n various loads f r o m 1 .ON t o 6.ON are h a n g i n g


f r o m it. The g r a p h b e l o w gives t h e results.

!
! 1

20

\
l
1 1

_t_.,

i ;
| i

1
1

i i

15
length/cm

i
[

1
1

_}.

i l

1
_

T"

i
I

[
1

1
*~

I
1
[
1

1
1

1
1

i i

1
I

load/N

Use t h e g r a p h t o f i n d
a.

t h e l e n g t h o f t h e sprin g w i t h no load a t t a c h e d ,

b.

t h e l e n g t h o f t h e spring w i t h 4 . 5 N a t t a c h e d ,

c.

t h e extension caused by a 4 . 5 N l o a d.
CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r ' 0 5 P a p e r 2 Q1

(Revision guide: Physics

4.

In an e x p e r i m e n t , forces are a p p l i e d t o a spring as s h o w n in (a). The results o f this


e x p e r i m e n t are s h o w n in (b).

a.
b.

W h a t is t h e n a m e given t o t h e p o i n t m a r k e d Q in (b)?
For t h e p a r t OP of t h e g r a p h , t h e sprin g obeys Hooke's Law.
State w h a t this means.

c.

The spring is stretche d until t h e f o r c e a n d extension are s h o w n by t h e p o i n t R o n


t h e g r a p h . C o m p a r e h o w t h e spring stretches, as s h o w n by t h e p a r t o f t h e g r a p h
O Q , w i t h t h a t s h o w n by QR.

d.

The p a r t OP o f t h e g r a p h s h o w s t h e spring stretchin g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e expression


F=

kx.

Use values f r o m t h e g r a p h t o calculate t h e value of k.


CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r '06 P a p e r 3 Q 2

5. The points p l o t t e d o n t h e g r i d b e l o w w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m a s p r i n g - s t r e t c h i n g
experiment.

100

80

60

length/mm

40 *

20

load/N

a.

Using a s t r a i g h t e d g e , d r a w a s t r a i g ht line t h r o u g h t h e first 5 p o i n t s . Extend y o u r

b.

Suggest a reason w h y t h e sixth p o i n t does n o t lie o n t h e line y o u have d r a w n .

line t o t h e e d g e o f t h e g r i d .

c.

Calculate t h e extension caused by t h e 3 N load .

d.

A small o b j e c t is h u n g o n t h e u n l o a d e d s p r i n g , a n d t h e l e n g t h o f t h e spring
becomes 6 2 m m .
Use t h e g r a p h t o f i n d t h e w e i g h t o f t h e o b j e c t .
CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "06 P a p e r 2 Q 9

Practical question
A n IGCSE class is investigating t h e e f f e c t of a load o n a m e t r e rule a t t a c h e d t o a s p r i n g . The
apparatus is s h o w n in t h e d i a g r a m b e l o w .

zero end of rule


taped to bench

f Revision guide: Physics

The zero e n d of t h e m e t r e rule is t a p e d t o t h e bench t o s t o p it s l i p p i n g . T h e spring is


a t t a c h e d t o t h e rule at t h e 4 0 . 0 c m m a r k a n d t h e masses are a t t a c h e d at t h e 9 0 . 0 c m m a r k .
The masses are a d d e d 10 g a t a t i m e a n d t h e angle, 6, b e t w e e n t h e b e n c h a n d t h e rule
measured w i t h a protractor.
O n e student's results are s h o w n b e l o w

29

10

28

20

26

30

25

40

22

50

19

1.

C o m p l e t e t h e c o l u m n headings.

2.

O n e s t u d e n t suggests t h a t m a n d 6 s h o u l d be directly p r o p o r t i o n a l t o each other. Plot a


g r a p h o f 6 (y-axis) against m (x-axis). Using y o u r g r a p h s h o w w h e t h e r this p r e d i c t i o n is
correct. State y o u r reason.

Turning effect and equilibrium


The t u r n i n g e f f e c t or m o m e n t o f a f o r c e a b o u t a pivot is equal t o t h e f o r c e m u l t i p l i e d by its
perp e n d i c u l ar distance f r o m t h e p i v o t .

M o m e n t ( N m ) = Force (N) x distance (m)


M

If an object is in e q u i l i b r i u m t h e r e is n o resultant t u r n i n g e f f e c t a n d n o resultant f o r c e .

Worked example
1. A f o r c e of 2.0 N acts a t distance o f 3.0 m f r o m a pivot. Find t h e m o m e n t of t h e f o r c e .

2.

A f o r c e o f 5.0 N provides a m o m e n t o f 15 N m a b o u t a pivot. W h a t is t h e distance of


t h e f o r c e f r o m t h e pivot?

3.

A f o r c e provides a m o m e n t o f 2 0 N m a b o u t a pivot at a distance of 2.0 m. W h a t is t h e


size of t h e force?

General physics I

Answers

1.

M = F X d
= 2.0 X 3.0
= 6.0 N m

2.

d =

= 15.
5.0
= 3.0 m

3.

F =

M
d

20
2.0

= 10 N

Examples of objects in equilibrium


20 N
30 N
5N

2N
r+1 m * ~ -

1N
-3m

-4m-4m-

-6 m-

Xr-

k-1 ITU
7 \

6N
25 N

3N
Clockwise moment = 2 X 3 = 6 Nm
Anticlockwise moment = 1 X 6 = 6 Nm
Net moment = 6 6 = 0 Nm

24 N

Clockwise moment = 20 X 1 = 20 Nm
Anticlockwise moment = 5 X 4 = 20 Nm
Net moment = 20 - 20 = 0 Nm

Taking m o m e n t s a b o u t t h e pivot in each case.

An experiment to show that there is no net moment on an object


in equilibrium

spring
balance

horizontally balanced
metre rule

2
10

C)

20

30

40

9N
weight

1
50 \ ^

o _
60

70

80

90

horizontal pivot

A n t i c l o c k w i s e m o m e n t d u e t o t h e 9 N w e i g h t = 9 x 0.4 = 3.6 N m
Reading o n t h e spring balance = 12 N
M o m e n t due t o t h e f o r c e o f t h e spring balance = 12 X 0.3 = 3.6 N m
C o n c l u s i o n : in e q u i l i b r i u m , clockwis e m o m e n t = anticlockwis e m o m e n t

100

Clockwise moment = 24 X 1 = 24 Nm
Anticlockwise moment = 6 X 4 = 24 Nm
Net moment = 24 - 24 = 0 Nm

Revision guide: Physics

Examination style questions


1. a.
b.

State t h e t w o factor s o n w h i c h t h e t u r n i n g e f f e c t of a f o r c e d e p e n d s .
Forces F, a n d F are a p p l i e d vertically d o w n w a r d s at t h e ends of a b e a m resting o n
2

a pivot P. Th e b e a m has w e i g h t W. Th e b e a m is s h o w n in t h e d i a g r a m b e l o w .

A
.

C o m p l e t e t h e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e t w o requirement s f o r t h e b e a m t o
be in e q u i l i b r i u m .

ii)

1.

There m u s t be n o resultant

2.

There m u s t be n o resultant

The b e a m is in e q u i l i b r i u m . F is t h e f o r c e exerted o n t h e b e a m by t h e p i v o t P.
C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n a b o u t t h e forces o n t h e b e a m .
F=

iii) W h i c h o n e o f t h e f o u r forces o n t h e b e a m does n o t exert a m o m e n t a b o u t P?


CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r ' 0 6 P a p e r 2 Q 5

2.

The d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s a p p a r a t u s f o r investigating m o m e n t s o f forces.

F 1 spring
r j i j l balance

horizontally balanced
. metre rule

V
0
10

20

30

40

6.0 N
weight

50 \

60

70

80

90

100

horizontal pivot

The u n i f o r m m e t r e rule s h o w n is in e q u i l i b r i u m .
a.

W r i t e d o w n t w o c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e m e t r e rule t o be in e q u i l i b r i u m .

b.

S h o w t h a t t h e value o f t h e reading o n t h e spring balance is 8.0 N.

c.

The w e i g h t o f t h e u n i f o r m m e t r e rule is 1.5 N. Calculate t h e f o r c e exerted by t h e


p i v o t o n t h e m e t r e rule a n d state its d i r e c t i o n .
CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r ' 0 5 P a p e r 3 Q 2

Practical question
T h e IGCSE class is d e t e r m i n i n g t h e w e i g h t o f a m e t r e rule.
B e l o w is a d i a g r a m o f t h e apparatus

newton
meter

j ^ l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I | I I hf metre

rule

bench

\ m e t r e rule is s u p p o r t e d at o n e e n d by a p i v o t t h r o u g h t h e 1.0 c m m a r k . The o t h e r e n d is


s u p p o r t e d at t h e 9 1 . 0 c m m a r k by a n e w t o n m e t e r h a n g i n g f r o m a c l a m p .

1-

Describe h o w y o u w o u l d check t h a t t h e metre rule is h o r i z o n t a l . You may d r a w a


d i a g r a m if y o u w i s h .

2.

The s t u d e n t s record t h e f o r c e F s h o w n o n t h e n e w t o n m e t e r a n d t h e distance d f r o m


t h e pivo t t o t h e 91 c m m a r k . They t h e n repeat t h e e x p e r i m e n t several t i m e s using a
range o f values o f t h e distance d. The readings are s h o w n in t h e t a b l e .

0.74

0.900

0.78

0.850

0.81

0.800

0.86

0.750

0.92

0.700

C o p y t h e t a b l e . Calculate a n d record o n y o u r t a b l e t h e values of 1/d

3.

a.

On g r a p h paper, p l o t a g r a p h o f F/N (y-axis) against l / i (x-axis).


Start t h e y-axis at 0.7 a n d t h e x-axis at 1.0.

4.

b.

D r a w t h e line o f best f i t o n y o u r g r a p h .

c.

D e t e r m i n e t h e g r a d i e n t G o f t h e line.

Calculate t h e w e i g h t of t h e m e t r e rule using t h e e q u a t i o n


1 / 1 / w h e r e k = 0.490 m.

Revision guide: Physics

Centre of mass
T h e c e n t r e o f mass o f a n o b j e c t is t h e p o i n t o n t h e o b j e c t w h e r e t h e mass c a n be
considered t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d a n d hence w h e r e t h e w e i g h t o f t h e o b j e c t can be
c o n s i d e r e d t o act.
T h e centre o f mass o f a very t h i n o b j e c t (a lamina) can be f o u n d by e x p e r i m e n t ;

Push a pin t h r o u g h a p o i n t o n t h e e d g e o f t h e lamina a n d a l l o w it t o s w i n g freely. Use a


p l u m b line (a small mass o n a piece of string) t o m a r k a vertical line f r o m t h e pin p o i n t
across t h e l a m i n a . Repeat f o r a s e c o n d p o i n t o n t h e e d g e of t h e lamina. W h e r e t h e t w o
lines cross is t h e positio n o f t h e centre o f mass.
The position of t h e centre o f mass affects t h e s t a b i l i t y o f an o b j e c t

For example:
If o b j e c t 1 is t i l t e d t h r o u g h a small a n g l e , t h e w e i g h t w i l l a c t o u t s i d e t h e b a s e .
There w i l l be a net m o m e n t o n o b j e c t 1 t h a t w i l l cause it t o fall over. If o b j e c t 2 is t i l t e d
t h r o u g h a small angle t h e w e i g h t w i l l still a c t i n s i d e t h e b a s e . There w i l l be a net m o m e n t
o n o b j e c t 2 t h a t w i l l cause it t o g o back t o its original positio n a n d it w i l l n o t fall over.

Examination style questions


1. A piece o f stiff c a r d b o a r d is stuck t o a p l a n k o f w o o d by means o f t w o sticky-tape
" h i n g e s " . This is s h o w n b e l o w .

a.

Initially, t h e c a r d b o a rd is f l a t o n t h e plank of w o o d . A box o f matches is placed o n


it. The c a r d b o a r d is t h e n s l o w l y raised at t h e left h a n d e d g e , as s h o w n b e l o w . State
t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e box of matches t o fall over.

i)

C o m p l e t e t h e sentence b e l o w , using either t h e w o r d s " g r e a t e r t h a n " or " t h e


same a s " or "less t h a n " .

In (b), t h e a n g l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e c a r d b o a r d can be lifted befor e t h e


b o x of matches falls is

t h e a n g le

b e f o r e t h e box o f matches falls in (a).

ii)

Give a reason f o r y o u r a n s w e r t o (i).


A d a p t e d f r o m C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e "07 P a p e r 2 Q 3

Revision guide: Physics

2.

a.

A ligh t vertical t r i a n g u l a r piece of rigid plastic PQR is p i v o t e d a t c o r n e r P.


A h o r i z o n t al 5N f o r c e acts a t Q, as s h o w n in b e l o w .

Describe w h a t , if a n y t h i n g , w i l l h a p p e n t o t h e piece of plastic,


b.

O n a n o t h e r occasion, t w o h o r i z o n t a l 5 N forces act o n t h e piece of plastic, as


s h o w n in b e l o w .

i)

Describe w h a t , if a n y t h i n g , w i l l h a p p e n t o t h e piece of plastic.

ii)

C o p y t h e d i a g r a m a b o v e a n d m a r k t h e f o r c e t h a t t h e pivot exerts o n t h e piece


o f plastic. S h o w t h e direction of t h e f o r c e by means of an a r r o w a n d w r i t e t h e
m a g n i t u d e of t h e f o r c e next t o t h e a r r o w .
CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e ' 0 5 P a p e r 2 Q 3

General physics

Scalars and vectors


A s c a l a r q u a n t i t y has s i z e only.
A v e c t o r q u a n t i t y has s i z e a n d d i r e c t i o n .

tSBSMSiSSMSISR
Mass

Velocity

Energy

Acceleration

Time

Force

Resultants
To calculate t h e resultant (overall) f o r c e o n a p o i n t acte d o n by t w o forces, f, a n d F y o u can
2

d r a w a scale d i a g r a m .
Choose a scale e.g. a line of 1 cm
represents a force of 1 N

^ ^ Y P l ^ T ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ p i . n n p
0
mm

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

;,|,

90

100

110

120

130

140

90

100

110

120

130

140

1 N = 1 cm
Draw the forces F, and F acting
on the point
2

Put the forces "nose to tail" i.e.


so the arrows follow on.

Draw the resultant force line from


the tail of one arrow to the head
of the second arrow.

Measure the length of the


resultant force line in cm and
then convert this value back to
newtons.

0
mm

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

1cm = 1N

80

Revision guide: Physics

Examination style question


1. A s t u d e n t sets up t h e apparatus s h o w n b e l o w in order t o f i n d t h e resultant of t h e t w o
tensions 7", a n d T a c t i n g a t P. W h e n t h e tensions T
2

T a n d T are b a l a n c e d , t h e angles
2

b e t w e e n 7" a n d t h e vertical a n d T a n d t h e vertical are as m a r k e d o n t h e d i a g r a m .


1

D r a w a scale d i a g r a m o f t h e forces 7", a n d T . Use t h e d i a g r a m t o f i n d t h e resultant o f t h e


2

t w o forces.
State:
a.

The value o f t h e resultant

b.

The d i r e c t i on o f t h e resultant

c.

The scale used in t h e d r a w i n g


CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e ' 0 6 P a p e r 3 Q 2

KEY
S

IDEAS

Energy ca n be transformed from one type to another but it cannot be created


or destroyed

Different types of stored energy can be transformed into electrical energy in power
stations

W o r k done = force x distance, powe r = energy/time


kinetic energy = j

mass x velocity

chang e in gravitational potential energy = mass X gravitational field


X change in height

Energy
A n object may have energy because it is moving or because of its position. Energy can be
t r a n s f e r r e d from one place to another, t r a n s f o r m e d from one type to another or s t o r e d .
The unit of energy is the j o u l e (J).

Types of energy
The energy gained as an object is moved away from the Earth
e.g. a book being lifted onto a shelf
The energy an object has due to its movement
e.g. a person running
Stored energy that can be released in a chemical reaction
e.g. a battery, fuel such as coal
The energy stored when an object changes shape
e.g. a stretched rubber band

The energy carried by an electric current


The energy canied by a sound wave
:

-I'M

; The total kinetic and potential energies of all of the particles in an


object
The energy released when the temperature of a hot object decreases
due to a decrease in its internal energy
Stored energy that can be released in a nuclear reaction
e.g. energy stored in the sun.
; Energy given off, for example, by very hot objects

Heat energy can be t r a n s f e r r e d from a hot object to a cooler one.


Kinetic energy can be t r a n s f e r r e d from one car to another in a collision.

Energy transformations
In an energy transformation, energy is converted from one type to another. For example:
Light bulb

Waterfall

gravitational potential

Bow and arrow

Cell

chemical

electrical

> kinetic

Revision guide: Physics

Principle of conservation of energy


Energy c a n n o t be created or destroyed. It is t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m o n e f o r m t o another.

Example
Heat energy out = 98 J
Electrical energy
in = 100 J
Light energy out = 2 J
100 J in = (98 J + 2 J) o u t

Examination style questions


1. A piece of f r u i t is f a l l i n g f r o m a t r e e.

T h e list b e l o w contains t h e names o f s o m e d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f energy,


chemical
electrical
g r a v i t a t i o n a l (PE)
internal ( t h e r m a l )
k i n e t i c (KE)
light
sound
strain
a.

W h i c h f o u r f o r m s o f energy are possessed by t h e falling f r u i t ?

b.

W h i c h f o r m o f energy increases as t h e f r u i t falls?

c.

W h i c h f o r m o f e n e r g y decreases as t h e f r u i t falls?

d.

W h i c h f o r m of energy is stored in t h e b o d y o f a person as a result of eating t h e fruit?


CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e '06 P a p e r 2 Q 4

A child is sittin g o n an oscillating s w i n g , as s h o w n b e l o w . A t t h e t o p o f t h e oscillation,


t h e child a n d s w i n g are m o m e n t a r i l y at rest.

i)

Use t h e names of a p p r o p r i a t e types o f e n e r g y t o c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d


equation.

gravitational
p o t e n t i a l energy

ii)

a t t h e t o p of t h e

energy at the

oscillation

bottom of the

b o t t o m of the

oscillation

oscillation

energy at t h e

e n e r g y losses

The child c o n t i n u e s t o sit still o n t h e s w i n g . The a m p l i t u d e o f t h e oscillations s l o w l y


decreases.
Explain w h y this h a p p e n s .
C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "06 P a p e r 2 Q 4 b a n d c

'Revision guide: Physics

Energy resources
Energy resources are used t o p r o d u c e electrical energy f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f energy.
Coal, oil and gas fired power stations

11

The chemical energy in the fuel is released by burning.


The chemical energy is transformed to heat energy
which is used to heat water and increase its internal
energy, turning it into steam. The steam turns turbines,
transferring its k i n e t i c energy to them. The kinetic
energy is transformed to electrical energy in the
generator.

Geothermal power stations

Water is pumped underground and gains heat energy


from the hot rocks deep underground. The heat energy is
then converted to kinetic energy in the turbines, which
turn the generator to produce electrical energy.

Hydroelectric power stations

The gravitational potential energy of the falling water


is transformed to kinetic energy as the water passes
through the turbines. The turbines turn the generator to
produce electrical energy.

The light energy from the Sun is transformed to


electrical energy in the solar cell.

Solar cells

Solar power station

The heat energy from the Sun is concentrated by a


series of curved mirrors, which focus the energy into
one place. This heat energy converts water to steam,
which turns the turbines, giving them kinetic energy. The
kinetic energy is transformed to electrical energy in the
generator.

Wave power

As the turbines bob on the surface of the sea,


gravitational potential energy is transformed to
kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is then transformed
into electrical energy in the generators.

Tidal power

As the tide comes in, the water builds up behind the


dam and gains gravitational potential energy. When
the water is released the gravitational potential energy
is transformed to kinetic energy and then to electrical
energy in the generator.

Nuclear power

i ,
; j

The nuclear energy stored in uranium-235 is released


when the uranium nuclei split in a process called nuclear
fission. The nuclear energy is transformed to heat energy
which is used to turn water to steam. The steam turns
the turbines and then this kinetic energy is transformed

j i

to electrical energy in the generator.

Nuclear fusion
The process of nuclear f u s i o n is carried o u t in t h e Sun. H y d r o g e n nuclei collide a t great
speed in t h e Sun a n d fuse t o g e t h e r t o f o r m h e l i u m nuclei. This releases energy in t h e f o r m
of heat a n d light.

Examination style question


1. The d i a g r a m b e l o w represents a hydroelectric system f o r g e n e r a t i n g electricity.

A n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g questions, using w o r d s f r o m this list.


chemical
electrical
gravitational
internal (heat)
:

kinetic
light
nuclear
sound
strain

a.

W h a t sort o f energy, possessed by t h e w a t e r in t h e reservoir, is t h e main source of


energy f o r thi s system?

b.

W h e n t h e w a t e r f l o w s d o w n t h e pipe, it is m o v i n g . W h a t sort o f energy does it

c.

The w a t e r makes t h e t u r b i n e s in t h e p o w e r station r o t a t e . W h a t sort of e n e r g y d o

possess because o f this m o v e m e n t ?

t h e t u r b i n e s possess because of t h e i r r o t a t i o n ?
d.
e.

W h a t sort o f energy does t h e p o w e r s t a t i o n generate?


N o n e o f t h e e n e r g y transfer processes is perfect. In w h a t f o r m is m o s t o f t h e
w a s t e d e n e r g y released?
CIE 0625 J u n e '05 P a p e r 2 Q 4

Revision guide: Physics

Work and power


The w o r k d o n e in j o u l e s by a f o r c e a c t i n g o n an o b j e c t = f o r c e X distance m o v e d by t h e
o b j e c t in t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f o r c e .
w o r k d o n e (J) = f o r c e (N) X distance (m)
W

F X d

The p o w e r in w a t t s is t h e w o r k d o n e per second or t h e e n e r g y t r a n s f o r m e d per s e c o n d .

power

' - !
Worked examples
1. A car e n g i n e produces a f o r c e of 2 0 0 0 N w h i l e accelerating t h e car t h r o u g h a distance
o f 2 0 0 m in a t i m e o f 10 s.
a.

W h a t is t h e w o r k d o n e o n t h e car by t h e e n g i n e force?

b. W h a t is t h e p o w e r d e v e l o p e d by t h e engine?

Answers
a.

W=

Fx

= 2000 X 200
= 400 000 J
= 4 0 0 kJ
b.

P =
=

|
400 000
10

= 40 000 W
= 40 kW

Kinetic energy
K i n e t i c e n e r g y can b e calculated f r o m t h e f o r m u l a :

w h e r e m = mass in k g ; v = velocity in m/s


W h e n an o b j e c t is lifted higher above t h e Earth's surface w o r k m u s t be d o n e .
Since w o r k = f o r c e X distance
a n d f o r c e = w e i g h t of t h e object
w o r k d o n e = w e i g h t x h e i g h t lifted
w h e r e w e i g h t = mass x gravitational fiel d =

mg.

Gravitational potential energy


It f o l l o w s t h a t t h e c h a n g e in g r a v i t a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y ( t h e w o r k d o n e in l i f t i n g
t h e o b j e c t ) is given by t h e f o r m u l a :
PE =

mgh

w h e r e m = mass in k g ; g = acceleration d u e t o gravity 1 0 m / s ;


2

h -

c h a n g e in h e i g h t in m

Worked examples
1. A car o f mass 1 0 0 0 kg is travelling at a velocity o f 2 0 m/s. Calculate its kinetic energy.

2.

Calculate t h e c h a n g e in p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y o f a 7 0 kg parachutist as she falls t h r o u g h a


h e i g h t of 100 m .

3.

A ball o f mass 0.5 kg is d r o p p e d f r o m rest at a h e i g h t o f 5 m above t h e g r o u n d . Find its


velocity w h e n it hits t h e g r o u n d .

Answers
1. KE =

mv

= 1 X

1000 X 2 0

= 200 000 J
= 2 0 0 kJ

2.

PE

mgh

= 7 0 X 10 x

100

= 70 000 J
= 7 0 kJ

3.

PE =

mgh

= 0.5 X 10 X 5
= 25 J
loss o f PE = gain o f KE
v = V(2K/m)
= V(2 X 2 5 / 0 . 5 )
= 10 m/s

Examination style questions


1. A n electric p u m p is used t o raise w a t e r f r o m a w e l l , as s h o w n b e l o w .

pump
ground

a.

The p u m p does w o r k in raising t h e water . State an e q u a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be used t o


calculate t h e w o r k d o n e in raising t h e w a t e r.

Revision guide: Physics

b.

The w a t e r is raised t h r o u g h a vertical distance o f 8.0 m . The w e i g h t o f w a t e r raised


in 5.0 s is 100 N.
i)

Calculate t h e w o r k d o n e in raising t h e w a t e r in this t i m e .

ii)

Calculate t h e p o w e r t h e p u m p uses t o raise t h e water.

iii) T h e e n e r g y transferred by t h e p u m p t o t h e w a t e r is greater t h a n y o u r


a n s w e r t o (i).
Suggest w h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a l e n e r g y is used for.
C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e '06 P a p e r 3 Q 3

2.

A s t u d e n t wishes t o w o r k o u t h o w m u c h p o w e r she uses t o lift her b o d y w h e n c l i m b i n g


a f l i g h t o f stairs.
Her b o d y mass is 50 k g a n d t h e vertical h e i g h t of t h e stairs is 4 . 0 m . She takes 2 0 s t o
w a l k up t h e stairs.
a.

b.

Calculate
i)

t h e w o r k d o n e in raising her b o d y mass as she climbs t h e stairs,

ii)

t h e o u t p u t p o w e r she develops w h e n raising her b o d y mass.

A t t h e t o p of t h e stairs she has gravitational p o t e n t i a l energy. Describe t h e energy


t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t a k i n g place as she w a l k s back d o w n t h e stairs a n d stops a t
the bottom.
CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e '07 P a p e r 3 Q 3

3.

The d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s w a t e r f a l l i n g over a d a m .

a.

The vertical h e i g h t t h a t t h e w a t e r falls is 7.0 m .


Calculate t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y lost by 1.0 k g of w a t e r d u r i n g t h e fall.

b.

A s s u m i n g all this p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y loss is c h a n g e d t o kinetic e n e r g y o f t h e w a t e r,

c.

The vertical speed of t h e w a t e r is less t h a n t h a t calculated in b. Suggest o n e reason

calculate t h e speed o f t h e w a t e r , in t h e vertical d i r e c t i o n , at t h e e n d o f t h e fall.

f o r this.
CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r ' 0 6 P a p e r 3 Q 3

1,/ FVf^ijr*
KEY

IDEAS

Pressure =

te

Pressure is m e a s u r e d in Pascals (Pa) w i t h 1 Pa =

A t m o s p h e r i c pressure c a n b e m e a s u r e d using a b a r o m e t e r

T h e pressure a t a d e p t h h u n d e r t h e surface o f a liquid o f density p =

Th e pressure o f a gas c a n b e m e a s u r e d using a m a n o m e t e r

pgh

T h e p r e s s u r e o n a surface d u e t o a f o r c e is t h e f o r c e o n 1 m of t h e surface.
2

,KU
f o r c e (N)
pressure (Nftrf) -

he u n i t of pressure, N / m is also k n o w n as t h e p a s c a l (Pa)


2

Worked examples
1. A force of 10 kN acts o n t h e surface o f a l i q u i d , o f area 0.08 m . W h a t is t h e pressure
2

o n t h e surface of t h e liquid?

2.

A person o f w e i g h t 6 0 0 N exerts a pressure of 2 0 0 kPa o n t h e g r o u n d . W h a t is t h e area


o f t h e i r feet?

3.

T h e area o f a d o g ' s p a w is 10 c m . The pressure u n d e r t h e p a w is 50 kPa w h e n it


2

exerts half o f its b o d y w e i g h t o n t h e p a w . W h a t is its w e i g h t ?

Answers
1.

P =
10 0 0 0
0.08
125 0 0 0 Pa
125 kPa

2. ^ =
600
200 000
0.003 m

3. F = p

XA

= 50 0 0 0 X (10 + 10 0 0 0 )
= 50 N
Total w e i g h t = 2 x 50 = 1 0 0 N
N o t e : In q u e s t i on 1, 1 kN = 1 0 0 0 N
In q u e s t i o n 3, area in c m is c o n v e r t e d t o area in m by d i v i d i n g by ( 1 0 0 x 100) ie
2

by 10 0 0 0

'Revision guide: Physics

A t m o s p h e r i c (air) pressure can be measured w i t h a b a r o m e t e r .


r
The glass tube is evacuated
and so the mercury can move
up inside. The greater the
air pressure, the higher the
mercury rises up the tube.
The height of the mercury
column is proportional to
the outside air pressure.

> <

air pressure

vacuum

There is pressure on the


surface of the mercury
due to the force of the
air molecules hitting the
surface.

air pressure

_Jv'
The air pressure on the
surface forces the mercury
up the glass tube.

mercury

T h e pressure a t t h e base o f t h e m e r c u r y c o l u m n = density o f m e r c u r y x g x


=

height

pgh

w h e r e p = density o f m e r c u r y in k g / m

g = acceleration d u e t o gravity in m / s

h = h e i g h t o f c o l u m n in m
The pressure b e l o w t h e surface o f all liquids increases p r o p o r t i o n a l l y t o d e p t h . For e x a m p l e ,
t h e f o r m u l a above can be used t o calculate t h e pressure u n d e r t h e surface o f t h e sea.
A m a n o m e t e r can be used t o measure t h e pressure o f a gas:

The gas whose pressure is


to be measured enters the
manometer here

This end of the tube is


open to the air.

The air exerts a pressure


on the surface of the
liquid here.

The gas exerts a pressure


on the surface of the
liquid.

T h e pressure d u e t o t h e gas = a t m o s p h e r i c pressure +

pgh

W h e r e p = density o f liquid in k g / m ; h = d i f f e r e n c e in h e i g h t o f t w o l i q u id surfaces in m


3

Examination style questions


1.

a.

The d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s t w o examples o f f o o t w e a r b e i n g w o r n by people of


equal w e i g h t a t a W i n t e r Olympics c o m p e t i t i o n .
W h i c h f o o t w e a r creates t h e greatest pressure b e l o w it, a n d w h y ?

b.

Drivers o f high-sided vehicles, like t h e o n e b e l o w , are s o m e t i m e s w a r n e d n o t t o


drive w h e n it is very w i n d y .

Suggest w h y t h e y receive this w a r n i n g .


CIE 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "05 P a p e r 2 Q 3

2.

The d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s a p o n d t h a t is k e p t a t a c o n s t a n t d e p t h by a pressureo p e r a t e d valve in t h e base.

water

pressure-operated
valve
spring

The p o n d is k e p t a t a d e p t h o f 2.0 m . The density o f w a t e r is 1 0 0 0 k g / m .


3

Calculate t h e w a t e r pressure o n t h e valve.


The f o r c e required t o o p e n t h e valve is 50 N. T h e valve w i l l o p e n w h e n t h e w a t e r
d e p t h reaches 2.0 m. Calculate t h e area o f t h e valve.
The w a t e r supply is t u r n e d o f f a n d t h e valve is held o p e n so t h a t w a t e r drains o u t
t h r o u g h t h e valve. State t h e energy changes o f t h e w a t e r t h a t occur as t h e d e p t h
of t h e w a t e r drops f r o m 2.0 m t o zero.
C I E 0 6 2 5 N o v e m b e r "05 P a p e r 3 Q 3

Revision guide: Physics

Summary questions on unit 1


1. Fill in t h e blanks
The speed of an o b j e c t can be calculated by w o r k i n g o u t
divided by
The u n i t o f speed is

of a

. Speed is equal t o t h e

and

d i s t a n c e - t i m e g r a p h . Velocity is equal t o speed in a certain

.. T he acceleration o f an o b j e c t is equal t o

it has t h e same

o f velocity a n d has units o f

the

o f a v e l o c i t y - t i m e g r a p h . The

A c c e l e r a t i o n can be calculated f r o m t h e
area u n d e r a v e l o c i t y - t i m e g r a p h is equal t o t h e

2.

Calculate t h e speed o f an o b j e c t t h a t travels 10 m in 5 s.

3.

The initial velocity o f a car is 10 m/s. It reaches a velocity o f 25 m/s in 5 s. W h a t is its


acceleration?

4.

W h a t is t h e g r a d i e n t o f a d i s t a n c e - t i m e equal t o ?

5.

W h a t is t h e area u n d e r a v e l o c i t y - t i m e g r a p h equa l t o ?

6. W h a t is t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n mass a n d w e i g h t ?

7.

A p e b b l e o f mass 100 g is placed in a m e a s u r i ng cylinder c o n t a i n i n g 50 m l o f water.


The w a t e r level rises t o 7 5 m l . W h a t is t h e density o f t h e pebble?

8.

Fill in t h e blanks
A f o r c e can stretch an object, or c h a n g e its

. If small forces are a p p l i e d t o

a s p r i n g , t h e extension p r o d u c e d by a load is
a p p l i e d . This is t r u e u p t o t h e limit o f
an o b j e c t by causing it t o

t o the force
. A f o r c e can c h a n g e t h e velocity o f

. The acceleration is

if t h e f o r c e

o n t h e o b j e c t is d o u b l e d a n d t h e mass stays c o n s t a n t . The n e t or overall f o r c e o n an


o b j e c t is called t h e
t h e y are

f o r c e . W h e n forces act in o p p o s i t e directions


t o f i n d t h e resultant f o r c e . W h e n forces act in t h e same

d i r e c t i o n , t h e y are
the

t o f i n d t h e resultant f o r c e . A f o r c e can c h a n g e

in w h i c h an o b j e c t is travelling w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g its

This happens w h e n t h e f o r c e is
travelling a n d it causes t h e o b j e c t t o m o v e in a

9.

t o t h e direction in w h i c h t h e o b j e c t is
.

A f o r c e o f 10 N produces an extension o f 2 0 c m . W h a t extension w o u l d be p r o d u c e d


by a f o r c e o f 2.5 N?

10. Fill in t h e blanks


_. The w e i g h t o f an o b j e c t is

The mass of an o b j e c t is measure d in


a type of

. The w e i g h t can be

a n d is measured in

calculated by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e

by t h e .

The density o f an o b j e c t is equal t o its mass d i v i d ed by its


_ . The u n i t of density is

or

11. M a t c h t h e devices t o t h e e n e r g y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s

kettle

chemical to electrical

generator

kinetic to electrical

battery

light to electrical

solar cell

electrical to thermal

12. Calculate t h e kinetic e n e r g y o f a ball o f mass 0.2 kg t h r o w n a t a speed o f 7 m/s.

13. Calculate t h e increase in gravitational p o t e n t i a l energy of a b o y o f mass 50 k g


c l i m b i n g a f l i g h t o f stairs o f h e i g h t 5 m.

14. Calculate t h e distance travelled by an o b j e c t if t h e w o r k d o n e o n it by a force of 2 0 N


is 100 J.

15. W h a t is t h e p o w e r o f a kettl e t h a t t r a n s f o r m s 100 J o f electrical e n e r g y t o internal


energy in 0.5 s?

16. W h a t is t h e pressure 3 m u n d e r t h e surface o f t h e sea? Sea w a t e r has a density o f


1200 k g / m .
3

17. Calculate t h e pressure u n d e r a block of mass 0.3 kg w h e n resting o n an area o f 5 c m

Revision guide: Physics

Examination style questions on unit 1


1. A solid plastic sphere falls t o w a r d s t h e Earth.
B e l o w is t h e s p e e d - t i m e g r a p h o f t h e fall up t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e sphere hits
t h e Earth's surface.

140
i

120
-

100

80
speed
m/s
60

/
Q

40

20
7i
J\
p
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time/s

a.

Describe in detail t h e m o t i o n o f t h e sphere s h o w n by t h e g r a p h .

b.

C o p y t h e d i a g r a m b e l o w a n d , d r a w a r r o w s t o s h o w t h e directions o f t h e forces
a c t i n g o n t h e sphere w h e n it is a t t h e position s h o w n by p o i n t S o n t h e g r a p h .
Label y o u r a r r o w s w i t h t h e names of t h e forces.

c.
d.

Explain w h y t h e sphere is m o v i n g w i t h c o n s t a n t speed at S.


Use t h e g r a p h t o calculate t h e a p p r o x i m a t e distance t h a t t h e sphere falls
i)

b e t w e e n R a n d T,

ii)

b e t w e e n P a n d Q.
CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e ' 0 5 P a p e r 3 Q1

110

The d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s a simple p e n d u l u m t h a t s w i n g s b a c k w a r d s a n d f o r w a r d s
b e t w e e n P a n d Q.

The t i m e t a k e n f o r t h e p e n d u l u m t o s w i n g f r o m P t o Q is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.5 s.
Describe h o w y o u w o u l d d e t e r m i n e this t i m e as accurately as possible.
i)

State t h e t w o vertical forces a c t i n g o n t h e p e n d u l u m b o b w h e n it is at

ii)

Th e p e n d u l u m b o b moves a l o n g t h e arc of a circle. State t h e d i r e c t i on o f t h e

p o s i t i o n R.

resultant of t h e t w o forces in (i).


The mass o f t h e b o b is 0.2 k g . D u r i n g t h e s w i n g it moves so t h a t P is 0.05 m highe r
t h a n R.
Calculate t h e increase in p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y of t h e p e n d u l u m b o b b e t w e e n R a n d P.
CIE 0 6 2 5 J u n e '05 P a p e r 3 Q 2

A bus travels f r o m o n e bus s t o p t o t h e next. The j o u r n e y has t h r e e distinct parts.


Stated in order t h e y are
u n i f o r m acceleration f r o m rest f o r 8.0 s,
u n i f o r m speed f o r 12 s,
n o n - u n i f o r m deceleratio n f o r 5.0 s.
T h e g r a p h b e l o w s h o w s only t h e deceleratio n o f t h e bus.

10 H
speed
m/s

10

20
time/s

a.

C o p y t h e g r a p h a n d c o m p l e t e it t o s h o w t h e first t w o parts o f t h e journey.

b.

Calculate t h e acceleration of t h e bus 4 . 0 s a f t e r leaving t h e first bus s t o p .

25

Revision guide: Physics

c.

Use t h e g r a p h t o estimate t h e distance t h e bus travels b e t w e e n 2 0 s a n d 2 5 s.

d.

O n leaving t h e s e c o n d bus s t o p , t h e u n i f o r m acceleration o f t h e bus is 1,2 m / s .


2

The mass o f t h e bus a n d passengers is 4 0 0 0 k g .


Calculate t h e accelerating f o r c e t h a t acts o n t h e bus.
e.

The acceleration of t h e bus f r o m t h e s e c o n d bus s t o p is less t h a n t h a t f r o m t h e first


bus s t o p .
Suggest t w o reasons f o r t h i s.
C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e '06 P a p e r 3 Q1

4.

The d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s a m o d e l car m o v i n g clockwise a r o u n d a h o r i z o n t a l


circular track.

a.

A f o r c e acts o n t h e car t o keep it m o v i n g in a circle.


i)

C o p y t h e d i a g r a m a n d d r a w an a r r o w t o s h o w t h e direction o f this f o r c e .

ii)

T h e speed o f t h e car increases. State w h a t happens t o t h e m a g n i t u d e o f this

i)

The car travels t o o quickly a n d leaves t h e t r a c k a t P. O n y o u r d i a g r a m , d r a w an

force.
b.

a r r o w t o s h o w t h e d i r e c t i o n o f travel a f t e r it has left t h e track,


ii)
c.

In t e r m s of t h e forces a c t i n g o n t h e car, suggest w h y it left t h e t r a c k a t P.

T h e car, starting f r o m rest, c o m p l e t e s o n e lap of t h e t r a c k in 10 s. Its m o t i o n is


s h o w n graphically in b e l o w .

'I

i)
ii)

Describe t h e m o t i o n b e t w e e n 3.0 s a n d 10.0 s a f t e r t h e car has s t a r t e d .


Use t h e d i a g r a m a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n t o calculate t h e
c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f t h e track.

iii)

Calculate t h e increase in speed per s e c o n d d u r i n g t h e t i m e 0 t o 3.0 s.


C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e '07 P a p e r 3 Q 1

T h e d i a g r a m b e l o w s h o w s a steam safety valve. W h e n t h e pressure gets t o o h i g h , t h e


steam lifts t h e w e i g h t W a n d allows steam t o escape.

u.i m

^
r

pivot

force of
steam

a.

Explain, in t e r m s o f m o m e n t s of forces, h o w t h e valve w o r k s .

b.

The m o m e n t o f w e i g h t W a b o u t t h e pivot is 12 N m . Th e p e r p e n d i c u l ar distance of


t h e line o f a c t i o n o f t h e f o r c e o f t h e s t e a m o n t h e valve f r o m t h e pivot is 0.2 m .
The area o f t h e piston is 0 . 0 0 0 3 m .
2

Calculate
i)

t h e m i n i m u m steam f o r c e n e e d e d f o r t h e s t e a m t o escape,

ii)

t h e m i n i m u m steam pressure f o r t h e steam t o escape.


C I E 0 6 2 5 J u n e '07 P a p e r 3 Q 2