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TIME AND COST STUDY ON COLD-FORMED

STEEL AND REINFORCED


CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
COMPARISON
-A

HU WET KJET

in fulfillment

A thesis submitted
of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering

Faculty of Engineering
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK
2008

For my beloved parents.

11

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Hereby,

I wish to attribute

and co-supervisor,
during

I would

Associated

gratitude

Professor

Dr. Ng Chee Khoon on their

and advice

guidance

this research.

also like to express

advice, guidance
the following
1. Multi
2.

greatest

Ms. Ting Sim Nee

to my thesis supervisor,

my appreciation

and encouragement

companies

for their

to those who assisted

me in every aspect,

to make this thesis a success. I would like to thank

assistance

and cooperation.

Resources Group of Company

EcoSteel Sdn Bhd

3. Sarawak Housing Development Corporation, and


4. All the companies which provided information

during interview

session

Lastly, I would like to thank everyone who had helped me in completing


thesis, for their meaningful information

and substantial moral support.

111

this master

ABSTRACT

Nowadays,
countries

in building

especially
is still

construction
industry,

as a new

is

steel

method,

construction

There are some barriers


barrier

is market

that limit

design

to cold-formed

steel. Thirdly,

formed

steel construction

in time

familiar

traditional

exposure

The aim
Malaysian

with

the market

experience

cold-formed

favoured

a relatively

expensive

have limited

knowledge

lacks of information

local market

The

steel in Malaysia.

is

steel

and architects

engineers

about the cold-

So, local market

was

still

the

prefers

project,

cold-formed

on the

practice

of site engineers.

material

on real

life

of low-cost

cost for the project

The design of cold-formed

of the reinforced

carried

out based on a pilot

derived

from the sizes of development

project

suppliers

of project

was conducted
on

and architects

steel.

conducted

and the total

2 principles

time and cost. An interview

developers,

method,

construction

done
with
was

in

steel

use of cold-formed

traditional

with

A comparison

based

Based

Sarawak.

the potential

as compared

contractors,

towards

research

on the dimensions

is to study

industry

engineers,

the project

complete

In

construction.

is still greatly

construction

and cost aspects.

for a successful

reactions

This
in

research

construction.

criteria

consulting

project

of this

concrete

management

construction

method.

construction

reinforced

concrete

truss

roof

the usage of cold-formed

that

perception

the local

Secondly,

material.

reinforced

in

seen

commonly

In local

method.

construction

steel

cold-formed

industry.

by local construction

first

only

in some developed

common

in Malaysia,

However,

construction.

considered

cold-formed

traditional

steel is quite

the usage of cold-formed

concrete

Costing

for both cold-formed

project.

IV

housing
were

Time

structure

concrete
the

project,

estimated

framed
steel

structure.

in Kuching.

reinforced

time

based

structure

on the

was based

and cost estimates

and time

estimation

steel and reinforced

to

were

could

be

concrete

Comparative
relatively
material
than

shorter

analysis
than

reinforced

cost for the cold-formed

the reinforced
for

machinery
concrete

the

showed that the time for cold-formed

the

construction.

construction

concrete

Generally,

steel
the

method.

construction
total

than the reinforced

From

construction.

steel construction

construction

cold-formed

was still higher

concrete

method

construction

cost

labour,

cost

cost of plant

than

cheaper

of

concrete construction.

aspect,

was
the

more expensive

was slightly

However,
are

steel construction

the

and

reinforced

cold-formed

steel

ABSTRAK
Gelek Sejuk dalam

Keluli

Struktur

"Pengunaan

di

umum

ini

sebagai
keluli

tempatan,

pembinaan

kekuda

bumbung

pembinaan

konkrit

bertulang

pembinaan

bagi

cara

gelek

baru

hanya

bangunan.

banyak

masih

gelek sejuk adalah


pembinaan.

Tetapi,

di Malaysia.

Dalam

dalam

bidang

industri

pembinaan
sejuk

sesebuah

keluli

rangka

dalam

terutamanya

dianggap

masih

pembinaan

dalam

maju

negara-negara

pembinaan
industri

kegunaan

masa kini,

Pada

dan Kos"

Masa

Kajian
-

Tempatan

Pembinaan

Industri

digunakan

Cara

digunakan

tradisional,

pembinaan

dalam

industri

pembinaan

tempatan.

beberapa

Terdapat
Malaysia.

Halangan

maklumat
aspek

terhad
yang

tentang

kos.

Jadi,

Ketiga,

ini.

tempatan

pasaran

tempatan

tidak

ada

gelek sejuk dalam

keluli

banyak

masih

mempunyai

tempatan

pasaran

pembinaan

persembahan

harga keluli

menganggap

pereka dan arkitek

Kedua, jurutera
pembinaan

sentiasa

gelek sejuk di

menggunakan

cara

tradisional.

pembinaan

Tujuan

utama

gelek sejuk

dalam

pembinaan

konkrit

dibandingkan.

industri

2 aspek projek

ini

bahan

terhadap

dijalankan

mentah

i. e. masa

dengan
dan

jurutera

arkitek

kos telah

dan

pereka,

telah

keluli

tradisional,

cara pembinaan

pengurusan,

tem. uduga

perbandingan,

pembekal

dengan

pengunaan

potensi

membandingkan

Malaysia

pembinaan

bertulang.

reaksi pasaran

Penyelidikan

ini ialah

penyelidikan

Sebelum

tempatan,

mengetahui

tentang

mencukupi

dan

masa

pembina

pertama

tempatan

keluli

pengunaan

yang menghadkan

ialah pasaran

lebih tinggi.

gelek sejuk adalah


pengetahuan

halangan

kontraktor,

diadakan

untuk

sebenar

konkrit

keluli gelek sejuk.

dengan

menggunakan

projek

bertulang di Sarawak. Dengan project rumah kos rendah ini, masa untuk pembinaan
dan kos untuk projek ini dapat dijangka
keluli

gelek sejuk

direka

mengikut

dengan pengalaman jurutera.


dimensi

vi

yang

sama

dengan

Struktur

rangka

struktur

konkrit

bertulang.
gelek

Jangkaan

berlainan

kos penyewaan

sejuk adalah

untuk

adalah

untuk

konkrit

pembinaan

bertulang.

ini, jangkaan

Secara

lebih tinggi

dan

masa

kos bahan

termasuk

pertama

keluli

saiz projek

yang

projek

kos untuk

kos pemasangan,

mentah,

pembinaan
Tetapi

daripada

konkrit

pembinaan
keluli

gelek

sejuk

bagi kos pekerja


lebih

gelek sejuk adalah

keseluruhan,

ini, masa pembinaan

penyelidikan

daripada

bertulang.
keluli

berdasarkan

kos

kos
dan
dan
rekaan.
mesin
alat

lebih pendek

mentah

pembinaan

Selain

kepada keputusan

Merujuk

dibuat

kos projek

Kos tersebut

dijalankan.

pekerja,

bahan

masa

di Sarawak.

sejuk

dan

jumlah

pembinaan

kos projek
konkrit

vii

bertulang.
adalah

untuk
Bagi

lebih

rendah

bagi pembinaan

bertulang.

gelek

aspek kos, kos


daripada

tinggi

dan kos penyewaan


daripada

keluli

dn
mesin
alat

pembinaan
keluli

konkrit

gelek

sejuk

TABLE

OF CONTENTS
Page

CONTENT
TITLE

PAGE

DEDICATION

11

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

ABSTRACT

iv

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

viii

LIST OF TABLES

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

xv

Chapter

INTRODUCTION
1.1

General

1.2

What is Cold-Formed Steel

1.2.1 Common

Shapes of Session

4
6

1.2.2 Connections
1.2.3 Common

Applications

10

1.2.4 Code/Regulatory
1.2.5 Properties

1.3

of Cold-Formed

Steel

11

1.2.6 Installation

11

1.2.7 Fire Protection

12

Aim and Objectives

12

viii

Chapter

LITERATURE
2.1

2.2

REVIEW

General

15

2.1.1 Time

17

2.1.2 Cost

18

2.1.3 Quality

19

Comparison

between

Cold-Formed

Steel and

21

other materials
21

2.2.1 Cold-Formed

Steel and Wood

2.2.2 Cold-Formed

Steel and Hot-Rolled

2.2.3 Cold-Formed

Steel and Reinforced

Steel

29
31

Concrete

2.3
Chapter

33

Case Study

METHODOLOGY
3.1

General

3.2

Information

39

39

Sources

39

Information

3.2.1 Background

40

3.2.2 Interview
3.3

Data Collection

41

and Analysis

41

3.3.1 Case Study


3.3.2 Cold-Formed

Steel Framing

Design

43

3.3.3 Assumptions
3.3.4 Time, Cost, and Quality
3.3.5 Comparison

43

Analysis

3.3.6 Project Cost Projection

ix

Analysis

50
54

55

Chapter

RESULTS
4.1

General

4.2

Project

4.3

Results

56
62

Description
Steel

Cold-Formed

of

Framing

63

Construction

4.4

4.5

Chapter

4.3.1 Time

64

4.3.2 Cost

71

Result for Reinforced

Concrete

Construction

85

4.4.1 Time

85

4.4.2 Cost

92

Quality

111

DISCUSSIONS
5.1

Time

116

5.2

Cost

120

5.2.1 Total Construction

121

Cost

5.2.4 Installation

123

Cost

5.2.5 Plant and Machinery

5.3

120
120

Cost

5.2.2 Material
5.2.3 Labour

Cost

Costs

123

5.2.6 Design Charges

124

5.2.7 Other Costs

124

5.2.8 Cost Projection

125

Quality

127

Chapter 6

130

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

138

APPENDICES

143

Appendix A-

Questionnaire

Appendix B-

Drawings

Appendix

C-

Cold-Formed

Appendix

D-

Bondek

Steel Design

Design

Appendix E-

Labour Daily Working Schedule

Appendix F-

Plant and Machinery Rental Duration

Appendix

G-

Grant

Chart

Format

Time

Schedule

(10 houses)

xi

for CFS and RC

LIST OF TABLES
Page

Table
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.1
3.2
3.3
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.28
4.29
4.30
4.31

Summary of Blower Door Tests


Comparison of Steel and Wood Framing
Light Steel Building versus Reinforced Concrete Building
Cost Comparison between Light Steel Building and Reinforced Concrete
Building
Material Pricing Schedule
Labour Wage Rates Schedule
Machinery Rental Rate Schedule
Steel Structure (1 house)
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed
Construction
Steel Structure (10 houses)
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed
Construction
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (20 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (60 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (120 houses)
Construction
Steel Structure (180 houses)
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed
Construction
Steel Structure (240 houses)
Time Schedule for Cold-Formed
Construction
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (1 house)
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (10 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (20 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (60 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (120 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (180 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (240 houses)
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (1 house)
Installation
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (10 houses)
Installation
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (20 houses)
Installation
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (60 houses)
Installation
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (120 houses)
Installation
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (180 houses)
Installation
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (240 houses)
Installation
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (1 house)
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (10 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (20 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (60 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (120 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (180 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure (240 houses)
Steel Structure
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed
(1 house)
Steel Structure
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed
Plant and Machinery
(10 houses)
Steel Structure
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed
(20 houses)

4.32

Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure


(60 houses)

4.33

Plant and Machinery


(120 houses)
Plant and Machinery
(180 houses)
Plant and Machinery
(240 houses)

4.34
4.35

4.36 Total Construction


(1 house)
4.37

Total Construction
(10 houses)

4.38 Total Construction


(20 houses)
4.39 Total Construction

26
27
31
33
45
46
47
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
78
78
79
79
79
79
79
80
80
80
80
81
81
81
82
82

82

Cost Schedule

for Cold-Formed

Steel Structure

83

Cost Schedule

for Cold-Formed

Steel Structure

83

Cost Schedule

for Cold-Formed

Steel Structure

83

Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure


Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed

Steel Structure

84
84

Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure

84

Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure

84

xii

(60 houses)
4.40
4.41
4.42
4.43
4.44
4.45
4.46
4.47
4.48
4.49
4.50
4.51
4.52
4.53
4.54
4.55
4.56
4.57
4.58
4.59
4.60
4.61
4.62
4.63
4.64
4.65
4.66
4.67
4.68
4.69
4.70
4.71
4.72
4.73
4.74
4.75
4.76
4.77
4.78

5.1
5.2
5.3

Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure


Total Construction
(120 houses)
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure
Total Construction
(180 houses)
Cost Schedule for Cold-Formed Steel Structure
Total Construction
(240 houses)
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (1 house)
Construction
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (10 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (20 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (60 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (120 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (180 houses)
Construction
Time Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (240 houses)
Construction
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (1 house)
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (10 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (20 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (60 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (120 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (180 houses)
Material Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (240 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Installation
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (1 house)
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (10 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (20 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (60 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (120 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (180 houses)
Labour Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure (240 houses)
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
(1 house)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Plant and Machinery
(10 houses)
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
(20 houses)
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
(60 houses)
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
(120 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Plant and Machinery
(180 houses)
Plant and Machinery Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
(240 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(1 house)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(10 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(20 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(60 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(120 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(180 houses)
Cost Schedule for Reinforced Concrete Structure
Total Construction
(240 houses)

Total Construction Time for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and


Reinforced Concrete Structure
Construction End Date for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced
Concrete Structure
Total Construction Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced

xiii

84
85
85
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
94
96
97
99
101
102
104
104
105
105
105
106
106
106
107
107
108
108
108
109
109
109
110
110
110
110
111
111

116
116
120

5.4
5.5
5.6

5.7
5.8
5.9
6.1

6.2
6.3

Concrete Structure
Total Construction Cost per Unit for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and
Reinforced Concrete Structure

Material Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced Concrete


Structure
Labour Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced Concrete
Structure

Installation Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced


Concrete Structure

Plant and Machinery Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure


Reinforced Concrete Structure
Comparison of CFS and RC on Percentage for the Cost
Earlier Completion Time for Cold-formed Steel Construction
With Reinforced Concrete Construction

and
Compared

Total Construction Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced


Concrete Structure
Percentage of Material Cost for Cold-Formed Steel Structure and Reinforced
Concrete Structure

xiv

120
121
122

123
123
126
130

132
132

LIST OF FIGURES
Page

Figure
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2

Roll Forming Machine


Cold-Roll Forming
Basic Shapes of Cold-Formed Steel
Common Shapes of Cold-Formed Steel Sections
Framing
Cold-Formed Sections Used in Structural
Decks, Panels and Corrugated Sheets
Wall framing
Whole House Framing
Storage Racking
by Application
U. S. Houses Using Steel Framing
1997-1999
for
Colorbond
Steel
Roofing
Low Cost Housing in Australia
using
and Walling

3
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
10
16
34

2.3

The Coddington House at Bayview features LYSAGHT MINI ORB


Wall Cladding in COLORBOND Steel

35

2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.1

Steel
Wall Cladding in COLORBOND
Steel
Wall Cladding in COLORBOND
Home in Corio Bay Geelong Victoria
Steel Framed House
Lightweight
Steel Framed House
Lightweight
Steel in the Local Building Industry
The Usage of Cold-Formed
Cold-Formed Steel Roofing
Important
Criteria that Industry Considered
Construction
Industry
in
Malaysian
Suitability
Cold-Formed
Steel
of
in Different
Total Construction
Time for CFS and RC Construction
Scale
Construction
Cost Difference per Unit of House

35
35
36
37
37
56
57
59
60
117

5.2

xv

125

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL
industry

The construction

one should

in

consider

in the

evolution

human

chain.

cold-formed

products,

as the fourth

beauty

and

economy

in construction

century

of

along

has been

B. C, iron

bearing

to PATH
walls

and curtain

steel only attracts

in residential
to design

the

cold formed

(2002), steel framing

structures
could

buildings

More

with

cold-formed

provide

and more
steel

a relatively

for many

and various

stable

floor and roof

wall,

main

However,

years.

architects

as the
more

towers

storage

had been used in interior

for use in load bearing

recently.

to Yu (1997),

and bridge construction,

grain bins, transmission

in commercial

in some

common

and Japan. According

Australia

the attention

construction

steel

has been quite

building
in
used

facilities,

drainage

According

types of equipment.

cold-formed

were widely

steel members

highway
racks,

because

As early

utility,

is a basic ingredient

creation,

States of America,

such as United

countries

prefer

quality,

steel in construction

The use of cold-formed

framing

the

aspects that

is one of the important

of construction

for more

look forward

in China.

discovered

non-load

a new era and one should

to fulfill

order

Steel, a modern

construction.
the way

The material

structures.

advanced

has entered

and engineers
materials.

framework

It

is

for

structure.

According to Wagner (2003), Melbourne's Colonial Stadium in Australia


a great steel structure.

The most challenging

feature for this well-built

is one of

stadium

in

The
300
is
The
the
is
the roof.
m.
nearly
roof span
main arch of
engineering perspective
design of the long span roof structure was made of extensive use of cold formed tabular
had
thorough
experimental
undergone
members which

testings and research. The main

arch

has
the
a structural
roof
of
efficient

extremely

frequent

experience
earthquakes.

because it has higher

locations
it

can resist

the

natural

lightness,

strength,

and installation,

erection

that

industry

would

and quality
formed

advantages.

method

Usually,

construction

hardly
One
can
stage.
cold-formed

steel truss

Thus

during

such

structures

such as timber
of

fast and easy

there are still other barriers


is the cost. The construction

only if they manage

see many

in terms

advantages

is how the thermal

The second barrier

than lumber.

and handling.

barrier

Malaysia,
In
homes.
in
steel affects energy use

the very beginning


around.

The primary

building
the
new
use

Steel is used in such

and mass production,

framing,
steel

of cold-formed

and

to other materials

the following

ease of prefabrication

its usage in construction.

limit

offer

in
transportation
and economy

Besides the availability

such as hurricanes

strength

residential

to Yu (1997), as compared

stiffness,

disasters

bending

upon

exerted

that

found in Hawaii.

and greater

steel members

cold-formed

and concrete,

forces

destructive
According

disasters.

damage or natural

tensile

locations

used in geographical

is more commonly

homes are commonly

Steel framed

an

represents

steel for such a span.

related

weather

of only

steel weight

use of cold-formed

steel framing

Currently,

85 kg/m2. This

to exhibit

of cold-

conductivity

use of cold-formed

steel is still

element

that

at

buildings

steel framed

cold-formed

is the most common

clear cost

is used in

here.

1.2 What is Cold-Formed


For building constructions,

Steel ?
there are two main types of structural

steels: hot-rolled steel

Structures
Steel
Homes
Sunway
According
to
and cold-formed steel.
formed
temperature.
an
elevated
at
steel shapes are
are formed at room temperature.
plate, sheet and strip material.

(2005), hot-rolled

For cold-formed steel, the shapes

The cold-formed steel is generally shaped from steel


to Chen (NA), the manufacturing

According

involves forming the material by either press-braking

process

or cold roll forming to achieve the

floor
and
roof
steel

desired shape. Examples of the cold-formed steel are corrugated


decks, steel wall panels, storage racks and steel wall studs.

Press-braking
Cold rolling-forming
wall

panels.

method
method

is often used to produce


is the most widely

It is also used for production

hat
sections.
and

Sections

can usually

small

used method

of structural

quantity

of simple

in producing

components

shapes.

roof, floor and

Zees,
Cees,
such as

be made from sheets up to 60 inches (1.5 m) wide

long.
feet
(1,000
3,000
from
than
m)
coils more
and

During
rolls,

cold rolled

each of which

works

simple section may require

forming,

sheet stock is fed longitudinally

the sheet progressively

until

of material

formed

can generally

forming
duty
Heavy
(0.79
inches
0.312
cold
mm).
mm) to

mills

thick.

Figure 1.1: Roll Forming Machine

a series of

the desired

it reaches

but
few
a complex
as six pairs of roll,
as

The
30.
thickness
24
to
as
many

of an inch (19mm)

through

shape. A

shape can require

as

range from 0.004 (0.10


can handle

3/4
to
steel up

Figure 1.2: Cold-Roll Forming


(Source: Chen, NA. An Overview

Cold-formed
a number

of useful

can be produced
tension
equal

material

structural

It is a strong

1.2.1 Common

loads, and is fully

shapes

shaped

loading

member.

aspects, which

precisely.
member

that

It carries

both

is approximately

deformation

Its

recovered

on removal

at normal

temperature.

is directly

of the loading.

cold-formed

are used in many

steel sections

the particular

application.

In building

industries

purpose,

There
Z
C
the
the
shapes.
are a whole range of variety
and
sections are
those with

edge lips, internal

Other section shapes are the "top-hat"

stiffeners

stiffeners

because unstiffened

compression

inefficient.

However, a highly

stiffened

the most
of these

section and the modified I section. The

wide thin

lips and

plates are not able to resist

the use of steel in the section becomes

and consequently

significant

and

bends
in the webs.
and

sections can also be joined together to form compound members. The additional
are included

It will

of sections

to suit

basic shapes, including

exhibits

material

and reliable

of tension

strength

of compression

strength

to Corus (2003),

are specially
common

crushing

in many

and it can be fabricated

loads. The yield

stable under long-term

also remain

According

characteristics.

to meet specifications

to applied

proportioned

Steel Structures)

steel is an ideal structural

and compression
to the

of Cold-Formed

section is not easy to form and is often not

between
Therefore,
its
from
the
a
compromise
connections.
point of view of
practicable
section efficiency and practicability

is often necessary.

Figure 1.3: Basic Shapes of Cold-Formed Steel


(Source: NAHB, NA. Designing Homes Using Cold-Formed Steel)

Figure 1.4: Common Shapes of Cold-Formed


(Source: Chen, NA. An Overview of Cold-Formed

Steel Sections
Steel Structures)

IL

CEZ ILLJF.
I
(b)

(a)
J-1

tcf

(i)

tdt

-V

(j)

1.5: Cold-Formed

Figure

Inur1

t"" w"`"'1

L...JA.
_J
4 k)

vL
tmi

(I)

(r)

(h}

(4

ffi

(q)

lp)

toi

(fY

iel

(g)

(n)

(t)

Sections Used in Structural

(c)

(b)

(a)

Framing

Roof decks

tf

{e}

(d)

Lo1,g- span roof decks

TL

LJUJ

(1)

(i)
(h)
Floor and roof panels

(g}

(1G)
Curtain wall panels

Figure

i. l U LJ 1J

(1)
Ribbed panels

(m)
Corrugated sheets

1.6: Decks, Panels and Corrugated

Sheets

1.2.2 Connections

According to Yu (1997), welds, bolts, screws, rivets, and other special devices such as
The
for
connections.
steel
cold-formed
metal stitching and adhesives are generally used
AISI Specification

bolted
for
design
the
connections,
welded
provisions
contains only

connections, and screw connections.

1.2.3 Common

Applications

to Corus Construction

According
cold-formed

Centre

(2003) and Chen (NA), the structural

these features

sections that utilize

usage of

are as follows:

(a) Roof and Wall Members


Traditionally,
rails

to support

in industrial

the cladding

the Z section (and its variants),


improve

use of cold-formed

predominant

the efficiency

made for eaves members

which

of the members

steel has been as purlins

type buildings.

facilitates

These are generally

incorporation

in multi-span

applications.

Special

Figure 1.7: Wall Framing

(Source: AISI,

1.8: Whole House Framing

NA. Cold-Formed

based on

of sleeves and overlaps

and so on.

Figure

and side

Steel Design Gallery)

shapes

to
are

(b) Steel Framing

An increasing

market

for
and panels
walls
in

light

industrial

buildings.
framing

system

column framing

commercial

to Gaylord

to replace
members

is the site-assembled

steel sections

and roofs, and stand-alone


and

According

for cold-formed

buildings.

buildings

and

(1990), cold-formed

the use of lumber

and other structural

in

This approach
mezzanine

frames

has been used

floors

of existing

steel is also used in residential

in the individual

beams,

joists,

steel
studs,

components.

(c) Wall Partitions


A special application

for very light sections is used in conjunction

board panels in stud wall partitioning

with plaster

to form a thin robust wall.

(d) Large Panels for Housing

Storey-high panels can be factory-built

and assembled into housing units on site.

This is an extension of the approach used for timber framing.


(e) Lintels

A significant

lintels
formed
for
is
as
cold-formed sections
specially
market

over

doors and windows in low rise masonry walls. These products are often powder coated
for extra corrosion protection.
(f) Floor

Joist

Cold-formed sections may be used as an alternative

for timber joists in floors of

modest span in domestic and small commercial buildings.


(g) Modular

Frames

A prefabricated

for Commercial

modular framing

Buildings

and panel system using cold-formed channels

had
been
developed
lattice
for use in buildings up to 4-storied height. Although
joists
and

developed for commercial building, this modular system has broad application

primarily

in the areas as educational and apartment buildings.


(h) Trusses
(i) Space Frames
(j) Curtain

Walling

A modern
in standard
glazing

application

glazing

framing

steel buildings,

systems,

to multi-storied

and as mullions

mullions

and transoms
in standard

and transoms

systems.

Buildings

(k) Prefabricated

The transportable
a common
prefabricated
(1) Frameless

application

that

prefabricated

use of cold-formed

Steel

steel. Other

applications

site hut) is

are used as

buildings.

Buildings

plates,

barrel

have been developed

beams and which rely partly

(m) Storage

building unit (such as the ubiquitous

"toilet pod" units in multi-storied

Steel folded
systems

in cladding

vaults

and truncated

as so-called

on a "stressed

frameless

pyramid

roofs are examples

buildings

of

(i. e. those without

skin" action).

Racking
buildings

are made

steel sections, mostly consist of special clip attachments,

bolted
or

Storage racking systems used in warehouses and industrial


from cold-formed

joints for easy assembly.