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# Chapter 2

Space Statics:

(Concurrent Forces)

## Forces in Space (in 3D)

TBG

TBH

FD

FA
P, TBG , TBH . three Nonconcurrent
Forces (known)
[Resultant ? ??]
P, TBG , TBH and FA , FD five Nonconcurrent
[Find F and T for Equilibrium]
Prof. Imam Morgan

## P, Q1 ,Q2 . three concurrent Known

Forces
[Resultant ]
or: Add F =? To get [Equilibrium] for
the four forces

(2)

## Forces in Space ? The forces are called in space as long as they

are not contained in one plane.
The tensions in the

## cables supporting the

platform are in space.
The platform is
considered as a particle.

Lines of action of
forces intersect at
a point

Concurrent Forces
The tensions in the
cables supporting the
container are also
space forces. The
tensions intersect at
one point.
Prof. Imam Morgan

We study:
Resultant of

concurrent forces
Equilibrium of a
particle.
(3)

## The plane forces exerted by the

four tugboats on the sub-marine
can be replaced by a single
equivalent force exerted by one
tugboat. (Resultant)

Non-concurrent
Three or more space forces direct
the shipping boat along certain
direction. They could be replaced by
two boats for the same action.
(Resultant)

(4)

## Three space forces act

on a bracket. It is
required to replace them
by an equivalent effect
at O.

Non-concurrent

We need to study:
Equivalent Systems
Equilibrium of

Rigid Body.
The sign plate is kept in
Equilibrium in the shown
position by means of two
cables and a support at A

(5)

## angle defines the plane containing

F
while y defines the position of F in that plane.

## Resolve F into horizontal and

vertical components:

## Then, resolve Fh into rectangular components:

Fx = Fh cos
= (F sin y) cos
and
Fz = (F sin y))sin

## Finally, F has been resolved into three

rectangular components Fx , Fy , and Fz
(6)

Therefore:

Where:

F Fxi Fy j Fz k
Fx , Fy , Fz

## cos x , cos y , cos z are the direction cosines

i , j , k are the unit vectors along x, y, and z, respectively
Prof. Imam Morgan

(7)

## into eight regions as shown in the figure.

The regions are generated using three
intersecting planes which are mutually
orthogonal. Their point of intersection is
the origin O of the shown chosen frame.
The location of any force, given in vector
form, can be easily specified in space.

Three forces F1 , F2 , F3 are shown in
3N
4N
4N
6N

## figure. Although they have the same

magnitude (see later), however they are
completely different in their effects due to
the different signs of the components.

F1 6i 4 j 3k

F2 6i 4 j 3k

F3 6i 4 j 3k

(8)

Basic Relations

## Magnitude and Direction of ( F )

Given: The force in vector form

F Fxi Fy j Fz k

## Required: its magnitude,

its direction
2
2
2
Magnitude: F Fx Fy Fz

Direction:

F 30i 60 j 20k
F 302 602 202 70 N

Fx
F
Fy

cos x 30

F
F
cos z z
F

cos x
cos y

## For example: a force is given by:

70

x = 64.6o

cos y 60

70

y= 31o

cos z 20

70

z = 73.4o
(9)

y
More Details

B
Fy
x

D
Fx

z
The Three direction
angles can be
obtained as:

Fx

Fz

E
C

Fz

Fy

Fx
cos x
F
Fy
cos y
F
F
cos z z
F

y
B
Fy

A
Fx

D
x

E
Prof. Imam Morgan

Fz

C
(10)

B
unit vector F

F F i F j F k
x

x

## along its line of action.

In general the unit vector is obtained by
dividing the vector by its magnitude.

F
F
F
For example, find the unit vector for the
vector given in the previous example

## Note that the components of the

unit vector are the direction
cosines of the same vector
Prof. Imam Morgan

F 30i 60 j 20k
70
3
6
2
i j k
7
7
7
(11)

## Determination of ( F ) on the bases

of its magnitude and direction

## Given : the magnitude F, of a force, as

well as its direction (x , y , z)
Required : F in vector form.

We have:

Fx F cos x
Fy F cos y

Fz F cos z

## Therefore, only two angles are

sufficient for determination of
the direction of any force in
space (fact).
Prof. Imam Morgan

## Direction Angles are dependent

The direction angles of the force vector
are dependent. They are related by:

## cos 2 x cos 2 y cos 2 z 1

(12)

Example (1)
The magnitude of the shown force is
300 N. Write down this force in vector form
and hence find its rectangular components.

F
45o

First Method

60o

Solution:
From the figure x= 60o and y= 45o

## cos 2 x cos 2 y cos 2 z 1

Consider z= 120o
Fx F cos x 150 N

cos 2 z 0.25
cos z 0.5

Fy F cos y 212.13 N

z = 60o or 120o
refused

Fz F cos z 150 N

## F 150i 212.13j 150k

Prof. Imam Morgan

(13)

Example (2)

Second Method

## Express each force in vector form and

hence determine its direction with
respect to the coordinate frame.

Solution:

Force F1

The
angles 60 and 45 defining the direction of
F1 are not direction angles. Therefore, we must
use the geometry to resolve this force.
As shown: F1 is resolved into F1y and F1h. Then,
F1h is resolved into F1x and F1z:
F1y= 100 sin 60 = +86.6 lb
and F1h= 100 cos 60= 50 lb

F1 y
F1h

## F1x = 50 sin45 = 35.36 N

F1z = + 50 cos45= + 35.36 N
Prof. Imam Morgan

F1x

F1z

(14)

Direction

35.36
100
86.8
cos y
100
35.36
cos z
100

cos x

x 111o
y 30 o
z 69.3o

Force F2 :

Ib

Ib

and

Ib

direction :

## Prof. Imam Morgan

183.71
300
212.13
cos y
300
106.07
cos z
300
cos x

x 52.2 o

y 135 o
z

z 69.3o
(15)

In many applications, the forces are applied along certain defined directions.
For example the tension in the chain AB is directed through the shown
direction where the two points A and B are well defined.
Also, the force in the cable AB is directed as shown.

(16)

Position Vector

## The position vector ( rB / A ) is the vector that specifies the position

of point B with respect to point A. In other words, the position of
B as seen from point A. It is drawn from A to B.
y

rB / A
O

z B z A k

rB / A
O

xB x A i

y B y A j
x

rA rA / O x Ai y A j z A k and rB rB / O x B i y B j z B k

rB / A rB rA

rB / A ( x B x A )i ( y B y A ) j ( z B z A )k

## Note that if a force F is applied along AB and directed from A to B,

then, both F and rB / A will have the same unit vector.
Prof. Imam Morgan

(17)

Third Method

Very Important
Force Defined by its Magnitude and
Two Points on its Line of Action

## In this case, the force is known in

magnitude (F) and its line of action
passes through two given points, for
example M and N .
F

## Find the unit vector F from:

x2 x1 i y2 y j z2 z1 k
x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 z2 z1 2

## The two steps

are carried out
in one step.

F FF
Prof. Imam Morgan

(18)

Example (3)
A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a
bolt at A. The tension in the wire is 2500 N.
Determine: (a) the rectangular components
the force acting on the bolt,
(b) the angles defining the
direction of the force.
Solution:

(a) Determination of F

(0, 80, 0)

A = (40,0,-30)
B = (0,80,0)

0 40i 80 0j 0 30k
F 2500

2
2
2
40

80

30

## 1060i 2120j 795k

(40, 0, -30)
Prof. Imam Morgan

Rectangular components
(19)

F 1060 i 2120 j 795 k
F 2500 N

1060
2500
2120
cos y
2500
795
cos z
2500
cos x

x 115.1o
y 32o
z 71.5o

(20)

Example (4)

(2,3,-2)

## The tension in the shown cable is 700 N. Find the

cartesian components of the tension at A.
Determine its direction.
z

2 i 6 j 3k
T 700

Check
Direction :

(0,-3,1)

200
700
600
cos y
700
300
cos z
700

cos x

x 73.4 o

y 31.0 o

y=31.0o

z 115.4

z=115.4o

x=73.4o
x

z
(21)

## Resultant of Concurrent Forces

When the particle is acted upon by several
forces, then, these forces can be replaced by
one force called the equivalent or the Resultant.

F1 F1x i F1 y j F1z k

F2 F2 x i F2 y j F2 z k
.......................
.......................

Rx Fx

R y Fy
Rz Fz

## Fn Fnx i Fny j Fnz k

R Rx i Ry j Rz k
As shown, this resultant must pass through
the point of intersection (Cocurrent Forces)

## Prof. Imam Morgan

(22)

Example (5 )
A wall section of precast concrete is
temporarily held by the cables shown.
Knowing that the tension in cables AB and
AC are 840 lb and 1200 lb, respectively,
determine the magnitude and direction of the
resultant of the forces at A.
Solution
Choose the coordinate frame as shown and
then write each force in vector form.

T1

16i 8 j 11k
T1 840

2
2
2
16 8 11
16i 8 j 11k
840

21

(0,8,-27)

T2

(0,8,0)

T1

(16,0,-11)

(23)

(0,8,-27)
T2

T2

16i 8 j 16k
T2 1200
2
2
2
(16,0,-11)
16 8 16

T1

16i 8 j 11k
1200

24

## 800i 400 j 800k and we have T1 640i 320 j 440k

So, the resultant which must pass through A is:

R T1 T2

## 1440i 720 j 360k

Draw a sketch to show the direction of
the resultant and try to find its point of
intersection, D, with the wall (Option)
Answer: D (0, 8, - 15) ft
Prof. Imam Morgan

R = 1650 lb
x = 150.8o
y = 64.1o
z = 102.6o

(24)

F2

## Consider a particle A under the

action of several space forces:
F1 , F2 , , Fn.

## Find the resultant R, then:

If R is R Rx i R y j Rz k
If

If

R Rx i R y j 0

R R x i 0 0

A
Fn

F3

## the particle will move along

a space curve.
the particle will move along a
curvilinear pass contained in xy plane
the particle will perform a
rectilinear motion along x direction.

However, if

R0

F1

The particle
is in case of
equilibrium

Rx Fx 0

R y Fy 0
Rz Fz 0

Conditions of
Equilibrium

(25)

Example (6)
A 200 kg cylinder is hung by means of
two cables AB and AC. A horizontal force
P holds the cylinder in the shown
position. Determine the magnitude of P
and the tension in each cable.
Solution:
Write
down each force in vector form:

P Pi 0 0

W 0 mg j 0

1.2i 10 j 8k
T1 T1

12
.
86

1.2i 10 j 10k
T2 T2

14.13

## (0.085T2 )i (0.705T2 ) j (0.705T2 )k

Prof. Imam Morgan

(0,12,-10)

(0,12,8)

2
1

(1.2,2,0)

(26)

P Pi 0 0

W 0 mg j 0

1.2i 10 j 8k
T1 T1

12.86

2
1

1.2i 10 j 10k
T2 T2

14.13

## Then, apply the conditions of equilibrium:

P 0.093T1 0.085T2 0

## Prof. Imam Morgan

0.622T1 0.705T2 0

(27)

P 0.093T1 0.085T2 0

## Fy 0 1962 0.778T1 0.705T2 0

0.622T1 0.705T2 0

T1 = 1402 N
T2 = 1238 N

P = 235 N

Think over!!!
Determine the location of point C such that the
two tensions will have the same value and find
the tension in this case (distance 1.2 is kept constant).
If the distance 1.2 is required to be doubled,
find P, T1, and T2 in this case (same cables lengths).
Comment on theobtained results.
If the two points B and C coincide at one point,
determine the location of this point such that
the particle keeps its equilibrium in the shown
position (consider variable lengths of cables).
Prof. Imam Morgan

(28)

Example (7)
The 100 kg cylinder is suspended from
the ceiling by cables attached at points
B, C, and D. What are the tensions in
the cables AB, AC, and AD?

## Prof. Imam Morgan

(29)

Solution:

4i 4 j 2k
T AB TAB
TAB 0.667i o.667 j 0.333k

36

2i 4 j 2k
T AC TAC
TAC 0.408i 0.816 j 0.408k

24

3i 4 j 3k

34

W 1009.81 j
0
981 j
0
From Conditions of Equilibriu m

Solving these equations , we get :
TAB 519.1 N
TAB 636.1 N

TAC

TAB