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Chapter 2

Space Statics:

(Concurrent Forces)

Resultant and Equilibrium of a Particle

Forces in Space (in 3D)

TBG

TBH

FD

FA
P, TBG , TBH . three Nonconcurrent
Forces (known)
[Resultant ? ??]
P, TBG , TBH and FA , FD five Nonconcurrent
[Find F and T for Equilibrium]
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

P, Q1 ,Q2 . three concurrent Known


Forces
[Resultant ]
or: Add F =? To get [Equilibrium] for
the four forces

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Statics in Space [3D]?

Forces in Space ? The forces are called in space as long as they


are not contained in one plane.
The tensions in the

cables supporting the


platform are in space.
The platform is
considered as a particle.

Lines of action of
forces intersect at
a point

Concurrent Forces
The tensions in the
cables supporting the
container are also
space forces. The
tensions intersect at
one point.
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

We study:
Resultant of

concurrent forces
Equilibrium of a
particle.
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The plane forces exerted by the


four tugboats on the sub-marine
can be replaced by a single
equivalent force exerted by one
tugboat. (Resultant)

Non-concurrent
Three or more space forces direct
the shipping boat along certain
direction. They could be replaced by
two boats for the same action.
(Resultant)

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(4)

Three space forces act


on a bracket. It is
required to replace them
by an equivalent effect
at O.

Non-concurrent

We need to study:
Equivalent Systems
Equilibrium of

Rigid Body.
The sign plate is kept in
Equilibrium in the shown
position by means of two
cables and a support at A

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(5)

Force ( F ) in Vector Form

Consider a force F acting at the origin O

of the orthogonal rectangular frame. The

angle defines the plane containing


F
while y defines the position of F in that plane.

Resolve F into horizontal and

vertical components:

Then, resolve Fh into rectangular components:


Fx = Fh cos
= (F sin y) cos
and
Fz = (F sin y))sin

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

Finally, F has been resolved into three


rectangular components Fx , Fy , and Fz
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Therefore:

Where:

F Fxi Fy j Fz k
Fx , Fy , Fz

Force in vector form

are called Rectangular Components of F

x , y , z are called the direction angles of F

cos x , cos y , cos z are the direction cosines


i , j , k are the unit vectors along x, y, and z, respectively
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

(7)

In general, the space can be divided

into eight regions as shown in the figure.


The regions are generated using three
intersecting planes which are mutually
orthogonal. Their point of intersection is
the origin O of the shown chosen frame.
The location of any force, given in vector
form, can be easily specified in space.


Three forces F1 , F2 , F3 are shown in
3N
4N
4N
6N

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

figure. Although they have the same


magnitude (see later), however they are
completely different in their effects due to
the different signs of the components.

F1 6i 4 j 3k

F2 6i 4 j 3k

F3 6i 4 j 3k

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Basic Relations

Magnitude and Direction of ( F )


Given: The force in vector form

F Fxi Fy j Fz k

Required: its magnitude,


its direction
2
2
2
Magnitude: F Fx Fy Fz

Direction:

F 30i 60 j 20k
F 302 602 202 70 N

and the direction angles are:

Fx
F
Fy

cos x 30

F
F
cos z z
F

cos x
cos y

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

For example: a force is given by:

70

x = 64.6o

cos y 60

70

y= 31o

cos z 20

70

z = 73.4o
(9)

y
More Details

B
Fy
x

D
Fx

z
The Three direction
angles can be
obtained as:

Fx

Fz

E
C

Fz

Fy

Fx
cos x
F
Fy
cos y
F
F
cos z z
F

y
B
Fy

A
Fx

D
x

E
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

Fz

C
(10)

B
unit vector F

Unit Vector of a Force ( F )

Given : The force in vector form

F F i F j F k
x

Required : a unit vector (F ) directed


x

along its line of action.


In general the unit vector is obtained by
dividing the vector by its magnitude.

F
F
F
For example, find the unit vector for the
vector given in the previous example

Note that the components of the


unit vector are the direction
cosines of the same vector
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

F 30i 60 j 20k
70
3
6
2
i j k
7
7
7
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Determination of ( F ) on the bases


of its magnitude and direction

Given : the magnitude F, of a force, as


well as its direction (x , y , z)
Required : F in vector form.

We have:

Fx F cos x
Fy F cos y

Fz F cos z

Therefore, only two angles are


sufficient for determination of
the direction of any force in
space (fact).
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

Direction Angles are dependent


The direction angles of the force vector
are dependent. They are related by:

cos 2 x cos 2 y cos 2 z 1

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Example (1)
The magnitude of the shown force is
300 N. Write down this force in vector form
and hence find its rectangular components.

F
45o

First Method

60o

Solution:
From the figure x= 60o and y= 45o

cos 2 x cos 2 y cos 2 z 1

Consider z= 120o
Fx F cos x 150 N

cos 2 z 0.25
cos z 0.5

Fy F cos y 212.13 N

z = 60o or 120o
refused

Fz F cos z 150 N

F 150i 212.13j 150k


Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

(13)

Example (2)

Second Method

Express each force in vector form and


hence determine its direction with
respect to the coordinate frame.

Solution:

Force F1

The
angles 60 and 45 defining the direction of
F1 are not direction angles. Therefore, we must
use the geometry to resolve this force.
As shown: F1 is resolved into F1y and F1h. Then,
F1h is resolved into F1x and F1z:
F1y= 100 sin 60 = +86.6 lb
and F1h= 100 cos 60= 50 lb

F1 y
F1h

F1x = 50 sin45 = 35.36 N


F1z = + 50 cos45= + 35.36 N
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

F1x

F1z

F1 35.36i 86.8 j 35.36k


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Direction

35.36
100
86.8
cos y
100
35.36
cos z
100

cos x

x 111o
y 30 o
z 69.3o

Force F2 :

F2 y 300 sin 45 212.13

Ib

F2 x 212.13 cos 30 183.71

Ib

and

F2 h 300 cos 45 212.13

Ib

F2 z 212.13 sin 30 106.07 Ib

F2 183.71i 212.13 j 106.07 k


direction :

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

183.71
300
212.13
cos y
300
106.07
cos z
300
cos x

x 52.2 o

y 135 o
z

z 69.3o
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In many applications, the forces are applied along certain defined directions.
For example the tension in the chain AB is directed through the shown
direction where the two points A and B are well defined.
Also, the force in the cable AB is directed as shown.

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

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Position Vector

The position vector ( rB / A ) is the vector that specifies the position


of point B with respect to point A. In other words, the position of
B as seen from point A. It is drawn from A to B.
y

rB / A
O

z B z A k

rB / A
O

xB x A i

y B y A j
x

rA rA / O x Ai y A j z A k and rB rB / O x B i y B j z B k


rB / A rB rA

rB / A ( x B x A )i ( y B y A ) j ( z B z A )k

Note that if a force F is applied along AB and directed from A to B,


then, both F and rB / A will have the same unit vector.
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

(17)

Third Method

Very Important
Force Defined by its Magnitude and
Two Points on its Line of Action

In this case, the force is known in


magnitude (F) and its line of action
passes through two given points, for
example M and N .
F

Find the unit vector F from:

x2 x1 i y2 y j z2 z1 k
x2 x1 2 y2 y1 2 z2 z1 2

Then, find the force in vector form as:

The two steps


are carried out
in one step.

F FF
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

(18)

Example (3)
A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a
bolt at A. The tension in the wire is 2500 N.
Determine: (a) the rectangular components
the force acting on the bolt,
(b) the angles defining the
direction of the force.
Solution:

(a) Determination of F

(0, 80, 0)

A = (40,0,-30)
B = (0,80,0)

0 40i 80 0j 0 30k
F 2500

2
2
2
40

80

30

1060i 2120j 795k

(40, 0, -30)
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

Rectangular components
(19)


F 1060 i 2120 j 795 k
F 2500 N

(b) Direction angles at A:


1060
2500
2120
cos y
2500
795
cos z
2500
cos x

x 115.1o
y 32o
z 71.5o

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(20)

Example (4)

(2,3,-2)

The tension in the shown cable is 700 N. Find the


cartesian components of the tension at A.
Determine its direction.
z

2 i 6 j 3k
T 700

200 i 600 j 300 k


Check
Direction :

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(0,-3,1)

T 200 2 600 2 300 2 700 N

200
700
600
cos y
700
300
cos z
700

cos x

x 73.4 o

y 31.0 o

y=31.0o

z 115.4

z=115.4o

x=73.4o
x

z
(21)

Resultant of Concurrent Forces


When the particle is acted upon by several
forces, then, these forces can be replaced by
one force called the equivalent or the Resultant.

F1 F1x i F1 y j F1z k

F2 F2 x i F2 y j F2 z k
.......................
.......................

Rx Fx

R y Fy
Rz Fz

Fn Fnx i Fny j Fnz k

R Rx i Ry j Rz k
As shown, this resultant must pass through
the point of intersection (Cocurrent Forces)

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(22)

Example (5 )
A wall section of precast concrete is
temporarily held by the cables shown.
Knowing that the tension in cables AB and
AC are 840 lb and 1200 lb, respectively,
determine the magnitude and direction of the
resultant of the forces at A.
Solution
Choose the coordinate frame as shown and
then write each force in vector form.

T1

16i 8 j 11k
T1 840

2
2
2
16 8 11
16i 8 j 11k
840

21

640i 320 j 440 k

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(0,8,-27)

T2

(0,8,0)

T1

(16,0,-11)

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(0,8,-27)
T2

T2

16i 8 j 16k
T2 1200
2
2
2
(16,0,-11)
16 8 16

T1

16i 8 j 11k
1200

24

800i 400 j 800k and we have T1 640i 320 j 440k


So, the resultant which must pass through A is:


R T1 T2

1440i 720 j 360k


Draw a sketch to show the direction of
the resultant and try to find its point of
intersection, D, with the wall (Option)
Answer: D (0, 8, - 15) ft
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

R = 1650 lb
x = 150.8o
y = 64.1o
z = 102.6o

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Equilibrium of Concurrent Forces

F2

Consider a particle A under the


action of several space forces:
F1 , F2 , , Fn.

Find the resultant R, then:

If R is R Rx i R y j Rz k
If

If

R Rx i R y j 0

R R x i 0 0

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

A
Fn

F3

the particle will move along


a space curve.
the particle will move along a
curvilinear pass contained in xy plane
the particle will perform a
rectilinear motion along x direction.

However, if

R0

F1

The particle
is in case of
equilibrium

Rx Fx 0

R y Fy 0
Rz Fz 0

Conditions of
Equilibrium

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Example (6)
A 200 kg cylinder is hung by means of
two cables AB and AC. A horizontal force
P holds the cylinder in the shown
position. Determine the magnitude of P
and the tension in each cable.
Solution:
Write
down each force in vector form:

P Pi 0 0

W 0 mg j 0

1.2i 10 j 8k
T1 T1

12
.
86

(0.093T1 )i (0.778T1 ) j (0.622T1 )k

1.2i 10 j 10k
T2 T2

14.13

(0.085T2 )i (0.705T2 ) j (0.705T2 )k


Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

(0,12,-10)

(0,12,8)

2
1

(1.2,2,0)

(26)


P Pi 0 0

W 0 mg j 0

1.2i 10 j 8k
T1 T1

12.86

(0.093T1 )i (0.778T1 ) j (0.622T1 )k

2
1

1.2i 10 j 10k
T2 T2

14.13

(0.085T2 )i (0.705T2 ) j (0.705T2 )k

Then, apply the conditions of equilibrium:

P 0.093T1 0.085T2 0

Fy 0 1962 0.778T1 0.705T2 0

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

0.622T1 0.705T2 0

(27)

P 0.093T1 0.085T2 0

Fy 0 1962 0.778T1 0.705T2 0

0.622T1 0.705T2 0

T1 = 1402 N
T2 = 1238 N

P = 235 N

Think over!!!
Determine the location of point C such that the
two tensions will have the same value and find
the tension in this case (distance 1.2 is kept constant).
If the distance 1.2 is required to be doubled,
find P, T1, and T2 in this case (same cables lengths).
Comment on theobtained results.
If the two points B and C coincide at one point,
determine the location of this point such that
the particle keeps its equilibrium in the shown
position (consider variable lengths of cables).
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

(28)

Example (7)
The 100 kg cylinder is suspended from
the ceiling by cables attached at points
B, C, and D. What are the tensions in
the cables AB, AC, and AD?

Prof. Imam Morgan


Head of MCTR Department

(29)

Solution:

4i 4 j 2k
T AB TAB
TAB 0.667i o.667 j 0.333k

36

2i 4 j 2k
T AC TAC
TAC 0.408i 0.816 j 0.408k

24

3i 4 j 3k
T AD TAB
TAD 0.514i 0.686 j 0.514k

34

W 1009.81 j
0
981 j
0
From Conditions of Equilibriu m
0.667TAB 0.408TAC 0.514TAD 0

0.667TAB 0.816TAC 0.868TAD 981


0.333TAB 0.408TAC 0.514TAD 0
Solving these equations , we get :
TAB 519.1 N
TAB 636.1 N

TAC

TAB

TAD

TAB 168.7 N
Prof. Imam Morgan
Head of MCTR Department

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