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Bureaucracy and the

Public Sector
Bureaucracy
When we say bureacracy, it refers
to the entire organization of our
government consisting of the
different departments, bureaus,
divisions, employees, hierarchy of
authority designed to dispose
or perform large body of work
in a routine manner.
Origin
Bureacracy was coined by Jacques
Claude Marie Vincent de
Gournay, a french economist
from the mid 18th century. It
came from the old french term:
Bureau-a broad cloth used to
matle a desk or an agency.
Kratos-power, might:mighty with
great power; a mighty deed; a work
of power; to rule.
Bureacracy literaly means rule by
officials.
Characteristic of Bureaucracy
Hierarchy
In a Bureaucracy there is a clear
and established chain of
command. Each member of the
bureacracy has a clear
description of their
positions/roles/jobs in the chain.
The power flows from top to
bottom and diminishes as it goes
lower in the chain, in other word as
an individual goes higher up in the
ranks he/she gains more power.
Those in the higher part of the
chain, oversees the work of those
in the lower part.
Specialization

Each member of the


bureaucracy has a specific job
to do. Members are assigned in
different departments based on
their specialization, this way
work can be efficiently and
effectively done since members
specialize in fields that are
appropriate for their works.
Division of Labor
In a bureacracy every task is
broken down into smaller task,
different people work on different
parts of the task, this way the job is
done with maximum efficiency.
Rules
Bureaucracies implement rules
called standard operating
procedures. These are clear
written instructions for each
specialized job and task for all
the levels of the hierarchy.
Functions of the bureaucracy
The bureaucracy implements
the laws and policies made by
elected officials. For example,
the administration devised a plan
to decrease the amount of traffic in
edsa, however this officials do not
have the time or specialization to
implement this plan, so they pass
the task to implement it to the
department of the highway patrol
group.
Bureaucracy provides the
necessary administrative
functions (e.g. Conducting
examinations, issuing permits and
licenses, and collecting fees).
Basically the bureacracy handles
the paperwork of everyday
government.

Bureaucracy regulates various


government activities by
devising rules for each task in the
bureacracy.
Bureaucrat
An official in the department,
bureau or division who is perceived
to have the grasp and knowledge
of its laws, rules and procedures. In
the Philippine context, it is referring
to the people in the government
services.
Criteria in forming a
Bureaucracy
1.There must be a department,
bureau, or office.
2. It is created to perform specific
work or goal.
3. Individuals are emplyed or hired
to attain the goals of efficiency,
economy and greater reliability and
producing its outputs.
Qualifications to be in a
bureaucracy
Under the civil service code (PD no.
807), there are two classes of
position in a bureaucracy:
a.Career Service
under article IV section 5 of PD
no.807, Career service is
characterized by:
1. entrance based on merit and
fitness to be determined as far as
practicable by competitive
examinations, or based on highly
technical qualifications
2.opportunity for advancement to
higher career positions
3. security of tenure.
b. Non-Career Service

under article IV section 6 of PD


no.807, Non Career services is
characterized by:
1. entrance on bases other than
those of the usual tests of merit
and fitness utilized for the career
service
2. tenure which is limited to a
period specified by law, or which is
coterminous with that of the
appointing authority or subject to
his pleasure, or which is limited to
the duration of a particular project
for which purpose employment was
made.
Benefits of being a member of
a bureaucracy
1. Security of tenure for career
service
2. removal or dismissal is with just
cause
3. covered by salry standardization
of compensation of government
officials and employees.
4. Opportunity for advancement in
higher career levels.
Modern concept of Bureacracy
The modern concept of
bureaucracy refers to the current
state of the bureaucracy and
primarily focus on the public sector
the public service or public
administration.
Public Sector is identified as any
organization that are funded
directly or indirectly by public
fund. The public sector covers all
government employees, armed
forces, public school teachers,
etc...
Modern Bureaucracy has become a
dominant form or organization,
however modern bureaucracy is

often viewed negatively,


ironically due to its inability to
produce results with adequate
efficiency and its vulnerability
to corruption. Due to this modern
bureaucracies are often related to
negative terms such as red tape.
Red Tape is a an idiom that refers
to execessive regulation or
strict compliance to formal
rules that is often redundant
and hinders or prevents action
or decision making. Red tape
generally includes filling out
paperwork, obtaining licenses,
having multiple people or
committees approve a decision and
various low-level rules that make
conducting one's affairs slower,
more difficult, or both. Red tape
can also include "filing and
certification requirements,
reporting, investigation, inspection
and enforcement practices, and
procedures.
Seven types of concepts in
modern bureaucracy
Bureaucracy as a rational
organization
Bureaucracy as organizational
inefficiency
Bureacracy as a rule by officials
Bureaucracy as public
administration
Bureacracy as administration by
officials
Bureaucracy as organization
Bureaucracy as modern society
Goodnow and Wilsons Public
Administration
Woodrow Wilson an american
president and Frank Goodnow an

american scholar believed that


politics(Policy Making) and
administration(Enforcement) are
different entities tied to the
political system. Wilson and
Goodnow theorized that to ensure
elected officials always run a
democratic system, political
officials must always control
administrative official on the
individual and agency level. This
way, administrators will never
initiate policy and only follow the
guidelines and policies laid down
by politicians.
However due to the emergence of
bureacracy, the theoretical base
may not apply anymore. Since the
implementation of bureaucracy,
administrative officials
(bureaucrats) can actualy initiate
policies while still following
guidelines of the politicians. Policy
decisions of the administrative
officials mainly root from their
specialization in their respective
fields.
Spoil and Merit System
Spoil system is a term deriving
from the phrase to the victor the
spoils. Spoils meant that
candidates that suceeded
using this system is expected
to reward their supporters by
giving them government jobs,
grants or other special favors.
An example of this system is the
INC, due to the immense loyalty
and numbers of the members,
public officials that are backed by
the INC can expect that most of the
members will support them,
however in return the INC expects
the officials to hire members of

their community that are currently


unemployed.
Merit System is a system by which
governement job, grants, and
position are appointed based on
their performance. It is
characterized based on competitive
transparent process of selection
and open to all citizens. In a merit
system position is a lifetime tenure
with removal only through due
process and the appointee is
insulated from politics.
Weberian Concept of
Bureaucracy
Max Weber, viewed bureaucracy as
a unique form of organization
found in all aspect of human
organization. For Weber
bureaucracy in its ideal form was
an excellent piece of administrative
machinery.
Weber pointed out a set of
principles that should characterize
bureaucratic organizations:
1. There is a firmly order
hierarchy that ensures that
lower offices are supervised
by specified higher ones
within a chain of command.
2. Each office has its own area
of expertise, specialization or
competence
3. Authority is impersonal
vested in the rules that
govern official business.
Decisions are reached by
methodically applying rules
to particular cases; where
privae motives are
impertinent.
4. People recruited to serve in
the bureaucracy on the basis
of merits and fitness;

5. Bureaucratic rules are strict


enough to regulate personel
discretions;
6. The office in the bureaucracy
is considered a public trust.
7. Civil servants are salaried
employees according to rank.

Theories of Bureaucracy
Liberal or Rational
Administrative model
The liberal administrative model
argued that the weberian
bureaucratic frame work assumes
that bureaucracy manifests
effective, efficient, and predictable
social organizations. However
those who worked in the weberian
framework would argue that it is
not predictable or simple since
bureaucrats are psycological
beings and seldom act in a
predictable manner. Bureaucracy
like other organizations
improvises,informality and
entreprenuership in the decision
making process are common.
The model argues that bureaucracy
is far too difficult to control or
manage that is why it is often
denoted negatively.
Conservative or power bloc
model
This models is socialist in nature. It
argues that bureaucracy as an
instrument through which
bourgeoisie interests are promoted
and defends a capitalist system.

New Right or government


Oversupply Model
This model argues that top
bureaucrat officials are primarily
motivated by self interest and
unless it is managed or checked
carefully it will always end in
failure.
Organizations of Bureaucracy
Department
Refers to an administrative unit
over which a minister exercises
control.
Division
Sections or bureaus in which the
department is divided.
Non-Departmental Public Body
Quasi- non governmental
organizations (Quango) are
detached organizations that
combines public funding with
operational autonomy thus making
them efficient partners for
administrative goals.
Civil Service
Civil service can refer to either
branch of governmental service
where an individual are employed
on the basis of professional merit
or the employee in any
government agency except military
since it is a seperate extension
from any national government.
Civil Servant is a person in the
public sector emplyed for a
government department or agnecy.
Scope of Civil Service
As stated in the article IV section 4
of the PD. No. 807 the civil service
embraces every branch,
agency,subdivision and
instrumentality of the government,
including every government-owned
or controlled corporations whether

performing governmental or
proprietary function.
Positions under Civil Service
Under the article IV section 5
Career service includes:
1. Open Career positions for
appointment to which prior
qualification in an appropriate
examination is required;
2. Closed Career positions which
are scientific or highly technical in
nature; these include the faculty
and academic staff of state
colleges and universities, and
scientific and technical positions in
scientific or research institutions
which shall establish and maintain
their own merit systems;
3. Positions in the Career Executive
Service; namely, Undersecretary,
Assistant Secretary, Bureau
Director, Assistant Bureau Director,
Regional Director, Assistant
Regional Director, Chief of
Department Service and other
officers of equivalent rank as may
be identified by the Career
Executive Service Board, all of
whom are appointed by the
President;
4. Career officers, other than those
in the Career Executive Service,
who are appointed by the
President, such as the Foreign
Service Officers in the Department
of Foreign Affairs;
5. Commissioned officers and
enlisted men of the Armed Forces
which shall maintain a separate
merit system;
6. Personnel of government-owned
or controlled corporations, whether
performing governmental or
proprietary functions, who do not
fall under the non-career service;
and

7. Permanent laborers, whether


skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled.
Under Section 6 article IV of the PD
no. 807 Non Career Services
includes:
1. Elective officials and their
personal or confidential staff;
2. Department Heads and other
officials of Cabinet rank who hold
positions at the pleasure of the
President and their personal or
confidential staff(s);
3. Chairman and members of
commissions and boards with fixed
terms of office and their personal
or confidential staff;
4. Contractual personnel or those
whose employment in the
government is in accordance with a
special contract to undertake a
specific work or job, requiring
special or technical skills not
available in the employing agency,
to be accomplished within a
specific period, which in no case
shall exceed one year, and
performs or accomplishes the
specific work or job, under his own
responsibility with a minimum of
direction and supervision from the
hiring agency; and
5. Emergency and seasonal
personnel.
Classes of Positions on the
Career Service
Article 4 section 7 of the PD no.
807 classes of postions are
divided into three levels and
require examination to be
appointed.
Level one includes clerical, trades,
crafts, and custodial service
postions which involves non

professional or subprofessional
work in a non-supervisory capacity
requiring less than four years of
collegiate studies.
Level two includes professional,
technical and scientific positions
which requires professional,
technical, or scientific work with at
least four years collegiate studies.
And level 3 covers all positions in
the career executive service.
Goals of Civil Service
1. To establish a career
services.
2. Adopt measures to promote
morale, efficiency, integrity,
responsiveness
progressiveness and courtesy
in the civil service.
3. Strengthen the merit and
reward system.
4. Integrate all human resource
development programs for all
level and ranks.
5. Institutionalize a
management climate
conducive to public
accountability.
6. Submit to the President and
the Congress an annual
report on its annual
personnel programs.
7. To establish and promote
professionalism and
efficiency in public service.

Accountability in Civil Service


Under the section one article
eleven of the Philippine

constitution public officers and


employees (e.g. The president, vice
president members of the supreme
court, members of the
constitutional commisions,
etc..)must all times be accountable
to the people.
Ombudsman
The ombudsman is a legislative
branch lawyer who intervenes on
behalf of citizens treated wrongly
by the bureaucracy.
Section 5 of the article 11 states
the creation of the office of the
Ombudsman, to be composed of
the ombudsman A.K.A Tanodbayan
and at least one deputy each for
luzon, visayas, and mindanao.
Power of the Ombudsman

Under section 13, article 11 of the


Philippine constituions enumerates the
power of the ombudsman
(1) Investigate on its own, or on
complaint by any person, any act or
omission of any public official,
employee, office or agency, when such
act or omission appears to be illegal,
unjust, improper, or inefficient.
(2) Direct, upon complaint or at its
own instance, any public official or
employee of the Government, or any
subdivision, agency or instrumentality
thereof, as well as of any governmentowned or controlled corporation with
original charter, to perform and
expedite any act or duty required by
law, or to stop, prevent, and correct
any abuse or impropriety in the
performance of duties.

(3) Direct the officer concerned to take


appropriate action against a public
official or employee at fault, and
recommend his removal, suspension,
demotion, fine, censure, or
prosecution, and ensure compliance
therewith.
(4) Direct the officer concerned, in any
appropriate case, and subject to such
limitations as may be provided by law,
to furnish it with copies of documents
relating to contracts or transactions
entered into by his office involving the
disbursement or use of public funds or
properties, and report any irregularity
to the Commission on Audit for
appropriate action.
(5) Request any government agency
for assistance and information
necessary in the discharge of its
responsibilities, and to examine, if
necessary, pertinent records and
documents.
(6) Publicize matters covered by its
investigation when circumstances so
warrant and with due prudence.
(7) Determine the causes of
inefficiency, red tape,
mismanagement, fraud, and
corruption in the Government and
make recommendations for their
elimination and the observance of
high standards of ethics and efficiency.
(8) Promulgate its rules of procedure
and exercise such other powers or
perform such functions or duties as
may be provided by law.