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MAJOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN

Process Design Of Chlorobenzene Distillation Column

For simplicity of calculation let us assume that the feed entering the distillation
or chlorobenzene column is a binary mixture of MCB and p-dichlorobenzene
and the o-dichlorobenzene is not entering as feed.

Vapour Pressure Data (Pressure =48269.00 Pa) :


Temperature
(K)
405
408
411
415
418
422
426
429
433
437
441
444
448
453

Vapour pressure of
MCB
(mm Hg)
700
810
900
1000
1050
1150
1300
1400
1500
1700
1800
2000
2200
2400

Vapour pressure of
DCB
(mm Hg)
190
210
240
260
300
330
370
400
450
500
575
625
680
740

Vapour-liquid equilibrium data:


Temperature
(K)
419.637
416.329
413.256
410.394
407.722
405.220
402.873
400.665
398.584
396.617
394.755
392.989
391.311
389.714
388.190
386.735
385.344
384.011
382.733
381.506
380.326

We have,
F = 27.04 kmols/hr
D = 23.52 kmols/hr
W = 3.52 kmols/hr
XF = 0.865
XD = 0.865

xa
( mole fraction of
MCB in liquid )
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00

ya
( mole fraction of
MCB in vapor )
0.00
0.135
0.251
0.351
0.436
0.511
0.575
0.632
0.683
0.727
0.766
0.803
0.833
0.862
0.888
0.911
0.932
0.951
0.969
0.985
1.00

XW = 0.865
Average molecular weight of Feed = 117.15 kg/kmol
Average molecular weight of Distillate = 112.84 kg/kmol
Average molecular weight of Residue = 145.96 kg/kmol
D = 2653 kg/hr
W = 513.77 kg/hr

Assume that the feed is a saturated liquid at its boiling point.


So q = Hv Hf ;
Hv Hl
q = 1.
Slope = (q\q-1) =
From the graph ;
minimum ( Xd \Rm +1) = 0.73
minimum reflux Rm = 0.3561 mol reflux/mol D
Operating reflux ratio (1.5 Rm ) = 0.5341
Intercept = 0.64
No. of ideal stages = 11
No. of stages in the enriching section = 4
No. of stages in the stripping section = 7
L = RD = 12.56 kmol/hr
G = L+D = 36.08 kmol/hr

L = L +qF = 39.6 Kmols \hr


G = G +(q-1)F = 36.08 Kmols \hr

PROPERTIES :

Temp. liq, K
Temp. vap, K
Liq. Flowrate,kmol/hr
Vap. Flowrate,kmol/hr
Vap density,kg/m3
Liq density,kg/m3
Avg. mol.wt. (vap.)
Avg. mol wt. (liq.)
Mole fraction, x
Mole fraction, y
/* */ 
Liq. flow rate ,kg/hr
Vap. flow rate , kg/hr

ENRICHING SECT
Top
Bottom
380.56
382.99
380.12
382.67
12.56
12.56
36.08
36.08
1.723
1.733
1012.0
1031.7
112.84
114.23
112.84
116.29
0.99
0.89
0.99
0.95
0.014
0.015
1417.27
1495.49
4071.27
4121.42

STRIPPING SECT
Top
Bottom
382.99
445.27
382.67
446.46
39.6
39.6
36.08
36.08
1.733
1.898
1031.7
1105.2
114.23
145.96
116.29
145.96
0.89
0.03
0.95
0.03
0.046
0.045
4605.08
5780.02
4121.42
5266.24

AVERAGE PROPERTIES

Enriching Section

Stripping Section

12.56

39.6

Liq. flow rate : kg/hr.

1456.38

5192.55

Vap. flow rate : kmol/hr

36.08

36.08

Vap. flow rate : kg/hr.

4096.34

4693.83

L (kg/m3)

1021.85

1068.45

V (kg/m3)

1.728

1.8155

Tliq ( oK )

381.77

414.13

Tvap ( oK )

381.39

414.565

liq , Pas

3.5415 x 10-4

3.3155 x 10-4

vap , cP

1.44 x 10-5

1.244 x 10-5

DL , cm2/s

5.6961 x 10-5

6.49050 x 10-5

DG , cm2/s

8.169 x 10-2

9.45 x 10-2

(liquid,dynes/cm)

28.4914

22.3476

Liq. flowrate : kmol/hr.

ENRICHING SECTION
TRAY HYDRAULICS :
(1) Plate spacing , ts = 305 mm
(2) Hole diameter , dh =5 mm
(3) Hole pitch , lp =15 mm
(4) Tray thickness , tT =3 mm
(5)

A
Hole area
= h = 0.10
Perforated area A p

Assume equilateral triangular pitch


(6) Column dia ,Dc :

Based on entrainment flooding.


All relations from Perrys handbook, 6th edition.

20
Fig. 18-10 , Csb = Unf

/* [ g/

0.2

l g

l)0.5 = 0.015

Csb =0.23 m\s


Unf = 5.9982 ft\s
Assume Un =0.8 Unf = 1.4511 m/s.
Net area for flow , An = Ac - Ad
Vapour flow rate = 0.6583 m3/s
An = 0.6585 / 1.4511 = 0.4538 m2.
Ad = 0.0988 m2
Assume

Lw
= 0.77
Dc

Lw
c
2
Sin
=
2 Dc
2
c = 100.7 0

D 2c
2
Ac =
= 0.785 D c
2
Ad = 0.0988 Dc2
An = 0.785 Dc2 0.0988 Dc2
Dc = 0.81 m , Corrected Ad = 0.0622 m2
Ac = 0.5153 m2
Lw= 0.62 m
Active area, Aa = Ac 2Ad =0.3909 m2.
(7)Perforated area,Ap

0.5

ft/s.

corrected c = 99.9 0
= 180 - c = 80.1 0
Area of calming + distribution zone, Acz
Acz =2(Lw * t) , t=thickness
Acz = 0.0351 m2 (that is 6.81% of Ac )
Awz = 0.0327 m2 .
let w = 20 mm
Aw = 0.0221 m2 (that is 4.3% of Ac )
Ad = 0.0622 m2
Ap = Ac 2 Ad Acz - Awz
= 0.3231 m2

Ah = 0.1 Ap = 0.03231 m2
(8) No. of holes, nh = 1646 holes.
(9) Weir height , hw = 12 mm
(10) Weeping check :

h d = K1 + K 2

g U 2h
l

Assume sieve plates


K1 = 0 , K2 = 50.8/Cv2
Ah / Aa = 0.083
tT/dh = 0.6
Cv = 0.73
hd =66.95 mm
Frances Weir Equation :
q
how= Fw x 664 x
LW

q( liquid load ) = 3.459 x 10-4 m3/s = 6.275 gal/min


Fw = 1.005
how = 4.95 mm

Head loss due to bubble formation ,



h = 409

l d n
h = 2.28 mm liq.
Now, hd + h = 59.23 mm liq.
hw + how =16.95 mm
Since from the graph; actual design > minimum design there is no weeping (
from fig. 18-11)

(11) Downcomer flooding :


hdc =ht + hw+ how+ hda+ hhg
Dynamic Seal; hds = hw + how +hhg/2

q= 4.02165 x 10-4 m3/s = 6.382 gal/min


Lw = 0.62 m = 2.05 ft ; Fw = 1.005
how =5.00 mm
hds = 12 +5+0.15\2 =17.075 mm
ht = hd+hl1
hl1 = hds
Ua = 1.6845 m/s = 5.5707 ft/s

a = 0.1079 lb/ft3
0.5
Fa = U a g

= 1.83
= 0.59
t = 0.2
hl= 0.59 x17.075 = 10.074 mm
ht = 66.95 + 10.074 = 77.024 mm.
Loss under downcomer, h da
hda = 165.2 ( q/Ada)2

Assume clearance C = 13 mm.


hap = 17.075 C = 4.075 mm
Ada = Lwhap = 2.5265 x 10-3 m2
hda = 3.92 mm
hdc = ht + hw + how + hda + hhg
=77.024+12+5+3.92+0.15
= 98.094 mm
ts = 305 mm
As hdc < ts ,there is no downcomer flooding.

Summary of tray calculations


Dc = 0.81m
Lw = 0.62m
hw = 12 mm
ts = 305 mm
dh = 5 mm
lp = 15 mm, triangular pitch.

tt = 3 mm
nh = 1646
% flooding = 80

(12) Column Efficiency


(a)Point Efficiency, EOG

Ng =

0.776 + 0.2285 h W 0.238 U a 0g.5 + 105 W


N 0scg.5

W = liq. flow rate = (3.9589 x 10-4 /0.715)


= 8.13 x 10-3 m3 /s
Ua = 1.6845 m/s
hw = 12 mm, NScg = (g\g Dg) = 1.02
Ng = 0.3548
NL = KLaL
KLa = ( 3.875 x 108DL)0.5 (0.4 Uag0.5 + 0.17 )
= 1.568 /s
L = (hfAat) / (1000q)
hf = 193.90 mm
L = 38.29 s
NL = 60.038

=M

Gm
Lm

Gm 36.08
=2.886 ; M= 0.385
=
Lm 12.56



N og =

= 0.974

+
Ng NL

EOG = 1 e-NOG = 0.2970


(b) Murphree Plate Efficiency, Emv
EOG = 0.32967
NPe =

Z 2L
DE L

ZL = Dc cos (L/2) = 0.52 m


DE = 6.675 * 10-3 (Ua)1.44 + 0.922 * 10-4 hL 0.00562
= 0.0120 m/s
NPe = 2.2669

From fig. 18.29a

E mv
= 1.09
EOG

Emv = 0.3237

(c) Overall column efficiency, Eoc

Eoc =

N T log [1 + E a ( 1 )]
=
NA
log

Ea
=
E MV

1

1 + E MV

Considering 80% flooding,


From fig,

= 0.2

Ea = 0.29946
Eoc = 0.30789
Eoc = Nt \ NA
NA = 12.66 12 trays
NA = 12 trays
Tower height, = ts * NA
= 305 * 12 = 3660 mm
H = 3.66 m

STRIPPING SECTION

TRAY HYDRAULICS :
(1) Plate spacing , ts = 305 mm
(2) Hole diameter , dh =5 mm
(3) Hole pitch , lp =15 mm
(4) Tray thickness , tT =3 mm
(5)

A
Hole area
= h = 0.10
Perforated area A p

Assume equilateral triangular pitch


(6) Column dia ,Dc :

Based on entrainment flooding.


All relations from Perrys handbook, 6th edition.

20
Fig. 18-10 , Csb = Unf

/* [ g/

l)0.5 = 0.046

Csb =0.21 m\s

0.2

l g

0.5

ft/s.

Unf = 5.204 ft\s


Assume Un =0.8 Unf = 1.2590 m/s.
Net area for flow , An = Ac - Ad
An = 0.6121 m2.
Ad = 0.0988 m2
Assume

Lw
= 0.77
Dc

Lw
c
2
Sin
=
2 Dc
2
c = 100.7 0

D 2c
2
Ac =
= 0.785 D c
2
Ad = 0.0988 Dc2
An = 0.785 Dc2 0.0988 Dc2
Dc = 0.94 m , Corrected Ad = 0.0883 m2
Ac = 0.6939 m2
Lw= 0.73 m
Active area, Aa = Ac 2Ad =0.5173 m2.
(7)Perforated area,Ap
corrected c = 99.9 0
= 180 - c = 80.1 0
Area of calming + distribution zone, Acz
Acz =2(Lw * t) , t=thickness
Acz = 0.05446 m2 (that is 7.85% of Ac )
Awz = 0.0251 m2 (that is 3.6 % of Ac)
let w = 40 mm
Ad = 0.0883 m2
Ap = Ac 2 Ad Acz - Awz

= 0.4377 m2

Ah = 0.1 Ap = 0.043774 m2
(8) No. of holes, nh = 2230 holes.
(9) Weir height , hw = 12 mm
(10) Weeping check :

h d = K1 + K 2

g U 2h
l

Assume sieve plates


K1 = 0 , K2 = 50.8/Cv2
Ah / Aa = 0.0846
tT/dh = 0.6
Cv = 0.73
hd =50.75 mm
Frances Weir Equation :
q
how= Fw x 664 x
LW

q( liquid load ) = 1.239 x 10-3 m3/s = 19.68 gal/min


Fw = 1.02
how = 9.616 mm
Head loss due to bubble formation ,

h = 409

l d n
h = 1.7109 mm liq.

Now, hd + h = 52.54 mm liq.

hw + how =21.616 mm
Since from the graph; actual design > minimum design(10 mm) there is no
weeping ( from fig. 18-11)

(11) Downcomer flooding :


hdc =ht + hw+ how+ hda+ hhg
Dynamic Seal; hds = hw + how +hhg/2

q= 1.4527 x 10-3 m3/s = 22.5973 gal/min


Lw = 0.73 m = 2.395 ft ; Fw = 1.025
how =10.74 mm
hds = 12 +10.74+0.15\2 =22.815 mm
ht = hd+hl1
hl1 = hds
Ua = 1.388 m/s = 4.5548 ft/s
a = 0.1133 lb/ft3
0.5
Fa = U a g

= 1.5331
= 0.6
t = 0.22
hl= 0.6 x22.815 = 13.689 mm
ht = 50.75 + 13.689 = 64.439 mm.
Loss under downcomer, h da
hda = 165.2 ( q/Ada)2
Assume clearance C = 13 mm.
hap = 22.815 C = 9.815 mm
Ada = Lwhap = 7.164 x 10-3 m2
hda = 4.94 mm

hdc = ht + hw + how + hda + hhg


=64.439+12+10.74+4.94+0.15
= 92.269 mm
ts = 305 mm
As hdc < ts ,there is no downcomer flooding.

Summary of tray calculations


Dc = 0.94m
Lw = 0.73m
hw = 12 mm
ts = 305 mm
dh = 5 mm
lp = 15 mm, triangular pitch.
tt = 3 mm
nh = 2230
% flooding = 80

(12) Column Efficiency


(a)Point Efficiency, EOG

Ng =

0.776 + 0.2285 h W 0.238 U a 0g.5 + 105 W


N 0scg.5

W = liq. flow rate = (1.3499 x 10-3 /0.835)


= 1.6166 x 10-3 m3 / s
Ua = 1.3883 m/s
hw = 12 mm, NScg = (g\g Dg) = 0.725
Ng = 0.6522
NL = KLaL

KLa = ( 3.875 x 108DL)0.5 (0.4 Uag0.5 + 0.17 )


= 1.4562 /s
L = (hfAat) / (1000q)
hf = 133.242 mm
L = 11.23 s
NL = 16.353

=M

Gm
Lm

G m 36.08
=
=0.911 ; M= 1.635
39.6
Lm



N og =

1
1

+
Ng NL

= 0.6156

EOG = 1 e-NOG = 0.4596


(b) Murphee Plate Efficiency, Emv
EOG = 0.6843
NPe =

Z 2L
DE L

ZL = Dc cos (L/2) = 0.59 m


DE = 6.675 * 10-3 (Ua)1.44 + 0.922 * 10-4 hL 0.00562
= 7.78838 x 10-3 m/s
NPe = 3.979

From fig. 18.29a

E mv
= 1.23
EOG

Emv = 0.565
(c) Overall column efficiency, Eoc

Eoc =

N T log [1 + E a ( 1 )]
=
NA
log

Ea
=
E MV

1

1 + E MV

Considering 80% flooding,


From fig,

= 0.22

Ea = 0.4873
Eoc = 0.5368
Eoc = Nt \ NA
NA = 13.04 13 trays
NA = 13 trays
Tower height, = ts * NA
= 305 * 13 = 3965 mm
H = 3.965 m
Overall tower height = 3.66 + 3.965 = 7.625 m
Total number of plates =12+13 = 25 plates.

PROCESS DESIGN OF CONDENSER

Hot fluid enters at 380.12 K and leaves at 380.12 K


Cold fluid enters at 298 K and leaves at 313 K.

PROCESS DESIGN :

(Vapor)
F 1.130 Kg/s

F
(liq.)

Cooling

Condensation occurs at isothermal condition, correction factor Ft =1.


Assume feed is saturated vapor at 380.12 K
=Latent Heat =324.86 KJ/Kg
Vapor flow rate = 1.130 Kg/s
Heat load =m=1.130 x 324.86=367 x 103 J\sec
Properties are evaluated for cold fluid water
= Viscosity = 1 CP
= Density = 1000 kg/m3.
cp = Heat capacity =4.187 KJ/kg K
k = 0.578 W/m K
Using this,
Mass of process water required = 5.849 kg/s.
The range of U for organic solvent and water is (289.3 to 567.8 w\m2k )
Assuming counter current operation Tln = 74.36
Assuming U heat transfer coefficient = 300 W/m2K
A = Q /U (Tln) =( 367.38x103 )\300x74.36 =16.468 m2.
Assuming length of pipe to be 10 ft. and we take 3/4 inch O.D.,16 BWG tube,
I.D. of tube =0.01574 m
External area =0.05987 m2\m
Nt =16.468\0.05487x3.048 = 90.19
From Perry for 1-4 TEMA P or S for 3/4 inch OD on 15/16 inch Triangular pitch
Nt = 106 for Shell diameter = 0.337 m.
So corrected area =19.34 m2.
Corrected U =254.59 W/m2K
Flow area = 3.14/4 X 0.015742 = 194.7 X 10-6 m 2 /tube.
at = 106 x 194.7 x10-6 /4 = 5.156 x 10-9 m 2 /pass
Gt = 5.589/5.156 x 10-9 = 1134.20 kg/m 2 s

velocity =1134.2/1000
=1.134 m\sec
Therefore the velocity is above the minimum value.

Tube side heat transfer coefficient:

Prandtl number

( NPr ) = (cp )\k

= 7.24

Reynoldss number ( NRe) =(Div)\

= 17858.23

For turbulent conditions Dittus Boelter equation.

hide
= 0.023 ( NRe )0.8 ( NPr )0.33
k
hi = 4091.04 W/m2K

FILM TRANSFER COEFFICIENT


Shell side Distillate
Temp. of wall= 69.75 deg C
Film temp.

= 88.375 deg C or 361.37 K

Property of condensing vapor at this temp.


= 1050 kg/m3
k = 0.115 W/mK
= 0.0004 Pas.
Cp= 1.549 KJ/kg K

Reynolds number ( NRe ) =

4 Mass flow rate of condensate

=168.97
hs = 1.151[

]1 3 [N Re ]1 3

N t 3 Length of tube

hs =1279.27 W/m2K
the dirt factor = 5.283x10-4 W/m2K

Overall heat transfer cofficient :


1\U =(Do\Di)x1\hi +1\ hs +5.283x10-4
U = 622.79 W/m2K
Calculated U = 622.79 W/m2K

assuming U= 300 W/m2K

Design is okay.
PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION
TUBE SIDE
NRe = 17858.23
f = 0.079 ( NRe )-1/4 = 6.833 x 10-3
H=(4 x f x v2 x L )\(2gD)
=03.378
P= gH
=3.378 kN\ m2
P =(2.5 v2)\2
=1.596 kN\ m2
PTotal = 4(1.596+3.378)
=19.896 kN\ m2
which is very less than permissible, therefore design is okay
SHELL SIDE
TVapour =380.12 K
m = (p1- D)ls Ds \ p1
here ,
p1 = pitch =23.81 mm
ls = 0.89 Ds = 300 mm
Ds = shell diameter = 337 mm
m =0.021 m2

PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION


End zones pe ,two end zones.
Cross flow zones pc ,( Nb 1) cross
Window zones pw , Nb zones
pc =b fk w2 Nc (w\ b)
b =5 x 10-4
w = 1.13 Kg\s
m =0.021 m2
Nc = Ds (1 2(lc\ Ds) )\ Pp
Pp = (1.732\2) p1 mm
=20.61 mm
lc = 30% of shell dia.
Nc = 6.54
pc =13.1 KN\ m2
pw =( b x ( W)2 (2 +0.6 x Ncw ) )\ (Sw x m x )
Ncw = 0.8 lc \ Pp
= 3.92
Sw = Swg - Swt
Swg =0.0258 m2
Swt =( (Nt) ( 1 - Fc )D02)\8
Swt = 4.22 x x 10-3 m2
pw =3.57 KN\m2
pe = pc x 2
= 13.1 x 2
= 26.2 KN\ m2
Total pressure drop = 0 +3.57 +26.2
= 29.77 KN\m2
But actual pressure is 40% of this = 11.908 KN\m2

As 11.908 < 14 , so the design is okay.

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN

a) SPECIFICATION:
1.

inside

diameter

0.94

design

with

the

maximum dia for safety)


2.

height of top disengaging section: 0.3 m

3.

height of bottom separation section: 0.4 m

4.

design pressure: 0.4925 kgf/cm2

5.

Since the vessel operated under vacuum,subjected to external

pressure,external pressure:0.5405 kgf/cm2


6.

design pressure: 1.033 kgf/cm2

7.

design temperature: 120oC

8.

shell material: carbon steel(sp. Gr.=7.7) (IS:2002-1962, GRADE I)

9.

permissible tensile stress: 950 kgf/cm2

10. insulation material: asbestos


11. density of insulation: 2700 kg/m3
12. insulation thickness: 50 mm
13. tray spacing: 305 mm
14. down comer plate material: stainless steel(sp. Gr.: 7.8)

SHELL THICKNESS CALCULATION:

Let the thickness of the shell= 6 mm


Using stiffener channels of C-60, 18x4, of CSA=18 in2

Wt =51.9 lb/ft
At a distance of 305 mm, (below each tray)
, Do = 0.952 m
L = 0.305 m
, L/Do = 0.3203
&, Do/t = 158.66

, B= 13100

, pallowable= B/( 14.22*( Do/t)), t= 1.067 mm 6 mm


Which, suggest the thickness is allowable under the operating condition.
Therefore, allowing corrosion correction of 2mm, thickness choosen= 6+2=8 mm

HEAD:
Design for torispherical head.
The head is under external pressure(design pressure).
Let, th = 6 mm
Rc = Do = 0.952 m
, Rc/(100*th) = 1.586
, B= 10500
,pallowable= B/(14.22*Rc/th), , th= 1.3318
Since th < 6 mm ,so a design thickness of 6mm is sufficient for the head.
The design thickness chosen with a corrosion allowance :th= 6 mm
The approximate weight of the head is calculated= 50 kg

CHECK FOR SHELL THICKNESS:


Material specification:
Carbon steel (sp. Gr. =7.7) (IS: 2002-1962, GRADE I)
Tensile strength(R20)= 37 kgf/mm2
Yield stress (E20)= 0.55R20
Since, the vessel operated under vacuum, compressive axial stress:

fap= pd/(4*(ts-c)) = 40.975 kgf/cm2

i) Dead wt calculation:

Total dead load can be calculated as:

W = head wt+ liquid wt(X)+ wt of the attachment(X)

head wt= 50 kg
liquid hold up in each tray= l*( Aa*hl + Ad*hdc)
= 20 kg
wt of attachment per plate= 110 kg (approx.)
,W= (50+ 426X) kg
Where, X is the distance in meter from the top tangent.
Further, the wt of the insulation and shell also exerts a compressive stress:
*di*X*t*s + /4*(D0,ins2 d02)*X*ins = 561.39X kg
, total compressive stress on the shell due to dead wt:
fdsx= W/(*di*(ts-c)) = (0.282+5.578X) kg/cm2

ii) Wind pressure calculation:


Assume Pw = 130 kg/m2 (maximum)
Moment at a distance X from the top tangent:

Mwx= *Pw*X2*deff = 68.38X2 kg-m

Where, deff= effective outer diameter of the vessel including insulation= 1.052 m

, fwx= tensile stress on the upwind side

= Mwx/(*ro2*(ts-c)) = 1.6422 X2 kg/cm2

STRESS BALANCE FOR THE UPWIND SIDE:

Ft,max = fwx- fdsx- fap

Where, Ft,max= 50% of the maximum allowable stress


= 475 kg/cm2

there for upwind side solution gives: X= 19.5 m(>7.625 m)

STRESS BALANCE FOR THE DOWNWIND SIDE:

FC,max = fwx+ fdsx+ fap


Where, FC,max= maximum allowable compressive stress.
= 1/3* yield stress
= 1/3* 2035 kgf/cm2
Therefore, the solution to the quadratic equation:
X= 18.07086 m (> 7.625 m )
N.B. the wind moment on the downwind side act as a compressive force on the
tower.
Since, the thickness of 8 mm with corrosion allowance is enough to with stand
the load of the tower of 7.625 m height, the thickness of the shell is maintained 8
mm through out the entire tower length.

SKIRT SUPPORT

Diameter of column = 1.056 m


Height of vessel = 8.325 m
Height of skirt = 2 m
Diameter of skirt (straight) = 1.056 m
Dead weight of empty vessel = 5080 kgs (assumed)
Total dead weight = 5080 + 180 = 5260 kgs

(a) Due to dead weight :


fd = w/( x Dok x tsk )
= 5260/(3.14 x 105.6 x tsk)
= (15.855/ tsk ) kg/cm2

(b) Stress due to the wind load :


fwb = (Mw/z) = (4 x Mw)/( x Do2 x tsk)
Mw = pbw x (H/2) for H <= 20 m
= k x p1 x h1 x Do x (h1/2)
= 3329.99 x 100
fwb = (38.02/ tsk) kg/cm2

(c) Stress due to seismic load :


fhb = (Msb / x Rok x tsk) = (2/3) x (CWH/ /Roktsk)
= (0.032/ tsk) kg/cm2
(d) Tensile stress at bottom of skirt
= fwb - fd
= (38.02/ tsk) - (15.855/ tsk )
ftmax = (22.165/ tsk ) kg/cm2
Assume skirt material ; IS- 2002-1962; GRADE I

Permissible stress = 950 kgf/cm2


Yield Stress = 0.55 x 37 = 2035 kgf/cm2
So,
tsk = (22.165/950) = 0.23 mm
(e) Maximum compressive stress :
fcmax = fwb + fd
= (53.875/tsk) kgf/cm2
fc permissible <= (1/3) x yield stress
<= 678.33 kgf/cm2
tsk = (53.875/ 678.33) = 0.79 mm
So, we use a minimum thickness of 6 mm.

SKIRT BEARING PLATE


Assume bolt circle diameter = skirt dia +32.5 cm
=105.6 + 32.5
=138.1 cm
Compressive stresses between bearing plate and concrete foundation :
fc = (w/A) + (Mw/z)
where z = ( x Do2 x tsk)
fc = 2.8015 kgf/cm2
Permissible value for concrete is 35 kgf/cm2.
Thus 2.8015 kgf/cm2 is less than the permissible value for concrete.

Maximum bending moment in bearing plate :


Stress f = (6 x fc x l2)/(tb2 x 20
Where l is the difference between the outer radius of the bearing plate
and the outer radius of shirt.
= (138.1/2) (105.6/2)
= 16.25 cm

f = (2219.31 / tb2 ) kgf/cm2


Permissible stress in bending = 1125 kgf/cm2 (assume)
tb2 = 2219.31/1125
tb= 19.72 mm
As tb>18 so a bolting chair is necessary.

ANCHOR BOLTS :
The minimum stress between the bearing plate and the concrete foundation will
be
fcmin = (wmin/A) (Mw/z)
where wmin =5080 kgs=is the minimum weight of the empty vessel.
fcmin = -1.139 kgf/cm2
Since fcmin is found to be negative ,the vessel skirt must be anchored to the
concrete foundation by bolts.
Assuming 24 bolts ;
Pbolt = fcmin x A/24
= 93.64 kgs or considered approximate to 100 kgs.

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF CONDENSER

(a) Shell Side:

Material carbon steel (Corrosion allowance = 3mm)


Number of shells passes =1
Working pressure = 48269 Pa = 0.0483 N/mm2
Design pressure = 1 atm = 0.101 N/mm2
Temperature of the inlet = 107.12 0C
Temperature of the outlet = 107.12 0C
Permissible Strength for Carbon steel

= 95 N/mm2

(b)Tube side :

Number of tubes = 106


Outside diameter = 19.05 mm
Inside diameter = 15.75 mm
Length = 4.88 m
Pitch,

lar

= 15/16 inches = 23.8 x 10-3 m

Feed =Water.
Working Pressure = 48269 Pa = 0.0483 N/ mm2
Design Pressure =0.101 N/mm2
Inlet temperature =25 0C.
Outlet temperature = 40 0C

Shell Side :
Let the assumed thickness of shell be 6 mm
Do = 349 mm
L = 4876 mm
(Do/t) = 58.166
(L/ Do) = 13.97
From IS : 2825-1969, table F2, B = 14000
Pau = B/(14.22 X (Do/t))
t = 0.366 mm
As 0.366 mm < 6 mm ,so we can design a shell of thickness 6 mm
tS = 6+3(corrosion allowance) = 9 mm. We assume a thickness of 10 mm.

Head : (Torispherical head)


Let us assume a torispherical dished head is to be designed under external
pressure or the design pressure. Let the assumed thickness of shell be 6 mm
Do = rc = 349 mm
L= 4876 mm
(Do/t) = 58.166
(L/ Do) = 13.97
From IS : 2825-1969, table F2, B = 12200
Pau = B/(14.22 X (Do/t))
t = 0.420 mm
As 0.420 mm < 6 mm ,so we can design a head of thickness 6 mm
th = 6+3(corrosion allowance) = 9 mm. We assume a thickness of 10 mm.
Since for the shell, there are no baffles, tie-rods & spacers are not required.

Flanges :

Loose type except lap-joint flange.


Design pressure (p) =0.101 N/mm2
Flange material : IS:2004 1962 class 2
Bolting steel : 5% Cr Mo steel.
Gasket material = Asbestos composition
Shell side diameter =337 mm
Shell side thickness =10 mm
Outside diameter of shell =337 + 10x 2 = 357mm

Determination of gasket width :

do =

y- pm

di

y-p(m+1)

y= Yield stress
m= gasket factor
Gasket material chosen is asbestos with a suitable binder for the operating
conditions.
Thickness = 10mm
m= 2.75
y=2.60 x 9.81

= 25.5 N/mm2

do =

25.5 - 0.101 (2.75 )

di

25.5 0.101 (2.75 +1)

= 1.004

di = inside diameter of gasket = outside diameter of shell


= 357 + 5mm

=362 mm

do = outside diameter of the gasket


= 1.004 (362)
= 364 mm
Minimum gasket width = 364 362

= 1 mm

2
But minimum gasket width = 6mm
G= 362 + 2 (0.006) = 0.374 m
Where G = diameter at the location of gasket load reaction

Estimation of bolt loads :


Load due to design pressure (H) = G2 P
4
H = (0.374)2

(0.101 x 106 ) = 11095.69 N

4
Load to keep the joint tight under operating conditions.
Hp = g (2b) m p
b= Gasket width = 6mm = 0.006m
Hp = (0.374 ) ( 2 x 0.006) 2.75 x 0.101 x 106

7161.7 N

Total operating load (Wo) = H+Hp


= 15012.39 N
Load to seat gasket under bolt up condition =Wg.
Wg. = g b y
= x 0.374 x 0.006 x 25.5 x 106
Wg = 179768.21 N
Wg

> W0

Wg is the controlling load

Controlling load = 179768.21 N

Calculation of minimum bolting area :


Minimum bolting area (Am) = Ag=

Wg

Sg
Sg = Tensile strength of bolt material (MN/m2)
Consider , 5% Cr-Mo steel, as design material for bolt
At 107.12 0C.
Sg = 138 x 10 6

N/m2

Am = 1.32182 x 10 -3m2

Calculation for optimum bolt size :


g1 = go

= 1.415 go

0.707

gl = thickness of the hub at the back of the flange


go = thickness of the hub at the small end = 10+ 2.5 =12.5mm
Selecting bolt size M18x2
R = Radial distance from bolt circle to the connection of hub & back of flange
R= 0.027
C= Bolt hole diameter = ID +2 (1.415 go + R)
C= 0.337 +2 (1.415 (0.0125) + 0.027) = 0.4263 m
Actual flange outside diameter (A) = C+ bolt diameter + minimum left out

= 0.4263 +0.018+ 0.02


= 0.4643

Check for gasket width :

Ab = minimum bolt area = 44 x 1.54 x 10-4 m2

Ab Sg = (44 x 1.54 x 10-4 )138


GN

N/mm2

= 49.740

x 0.628 x 0.016

2y = 2 x 25.5 = 51

N/mm2

A bS g

< 2y

GN
i.e., bolting condition is satisfied.

Flange Moment calculations : (loose type flange)

(a) For operating conditions :


WQ = W1 +W2 +W3
W1 = B2 P = Hydrostatic end force on area inside flange.
4
W2 = H-W1
W3= gasket load =

WQ - H = Hp

B= outside shell diameter = 0.357 m


W1 = (0.357)2 x 0.101 x 106
4

= 10109.91 N

W2 = H- W1 = 11095.69 10109.91 = 985.78 N


W3 = 3916.7 N
Wo =10109.91+ 3916.7 + 985.78 = 15012.39 N
Mo = Total flange moment = W1 a1 + W2 a2 + W3 a3
a1 = C B ; a2 = a1 + a3 ;
2

a3 = C -G

C=0.6804; B=0.611; G=0.628


a1 = 0.6804 0.611

=0.0347

a3 = C G = 0.6804 0.628 = 0.0262


2

a2 = a1 + a3 = 0.0347+0.0262 = 0.0305
2

Mo =10109.91 x 0.0347 + 985.78 ( 0.0305) + 3916.7 (0.0262) = 483.49 J

(b) For bolting up condition :

Mg = Total bolting Moment =W a3


W = (Am +Ab) Sg .
2
Am = 1.3812 x 10-3 m2
Ab = 44 x 1.5 4x 10-4 = 67.76 x 10-4 m2
Sg = 138 x 106
W=562846.8 J
Mg = 562846.8 x 0.0262 = 14746.58 J

Mg > Mo
Mg is the moment under operating conditions
M= Mg = 14766.58 J

Calculation of the flange thickness:

t2 = MCFY
BSFO

CF= Bolt pitch correction factor = Bs / (2d + t)

Bs = Bolt spacing = C = (0.6804) = 0.0486


n

44

n= number of bolts.
Let CF = 1
SFO = Nominal design stresses for the flange material at design temperature.
SFO = 100 x 106 N
M = 14766.58 J
B = 0.357
K = A = Flange diameter
B

= 0.4643 = 1.3005

Inner Shell diameter

0.357

Y = 24

t = 14766.58 x 1 x 24
0.357x 100 x 106
d = 18 x 2 = 36mm

= 0.0996 m

CF = 0.0486

= 0.2883

2(36 x 10-3) + 0.0996


CF1/2 = 0.53218
t = 0.0996 x 0.53218 = 0.0530 m
Let t = 60mm = 0.06m

Tube sheet thickness :

(Cylindrical Shell) .

T1s = Gc KP / f
Gc = mean gasket diameter for cover.
P = design pressure.
K = factor = 0.25 (when cover is bolted with full faced gasket)
F = permissible stress at design temperature.

t1s = 0.374 (0.25 x 0.101 x 106) / ( 95 x 106) = 0.0061 m

Channel and channel Cover

th=Gc (KP/f)

( K = 0.3 for ring type gasket)

= 0.00667 m =6.67mm
Consider corrosion allowance = 4 mm.
th=0.004 + 0.00667= 0.0106 m.

Saddle support
Material: Low carbon steel

Total length of shell: 4.88 m


Diameter of shell: 0.357 m
Knuckle radius = 0.06 x 0.357 = 0.02142 m = ro
Total depth of head (H)= (Doro/2)
= (0.357 x 0.02142/2)
= 0.0618 m
Weight of the shell and its contents = 1077.004 kg = W
R=D/2=0.1785 mm
Distance of saddle center line from shell end = A =0.5R=0.0892 m.

Longitudinal Bending Moment

M1 = QA[1-(1-A/L+(R2-H2)/(2AL))/(1+4H/(3L))]
Q = W/2(L+4H/3)
= (1077.004/2) X (4.88 + 4 x 0.106/3)
= 2703.99 kg m
M1= 5.519 kg-m

Bending moment at center of the span


M2 = QL/4[(1+2(R2-H2)/L)/(1+4H/(3L))-4A/L]
M2 =2970.37 kg-m
Stresses in shell at the saddle
(a) At the topmost fibre of the cross section
f1 =M1/(k1 R2 t)
=5.519/(3.14 x 0.17852 x 0.008)
= 6891.98 kg/m2
The stresses are well within the permissible values.
Stress in the shell at mid point
f2 =M2/(k2 R2 t)

k1=k2=1

= 3709319.558 kg/m2
Axial stress in the shell due to internal pressure
fp= PD/4t
= 0.101 x 106 x 0.337 /4 x 0.008
= 1063656.2 kg/m2
f2 + fp = 4772976.108 kg/m2
The sum f2 and fp is well within the permissible values.