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Acousticfingerprint

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Anacousticfingerprintisacondenseddigitalsummary,deterministicallygeneratedfromanaudio
signal,thatcanbeusedtoidentifyanaudiosampleorquicklylocatesimilaritemsinanaudio
database.[1]
Practicalusesofacousticfingerprintingincludeidentifyingsongs,melodies,tunes,oradvertisements
soundeffectlibrarymanagementandvideofileidentification.Mediaidentificationusingacoustic
fingerprintscanbeusedtomonitortheuseofspecificmusicalworksandperformancesonradio
broadcast,records,CDsandpeertopeernetworks.Thisidentificationhasbeenusedincopyright
compliance,licensing,andothermonetizationschemes.

Contents
1Attributes
2Seealso
2.1Technology
2.2Companies
3References
4Externallinks

Attributes
Arobustacousticfingerprintalgorithmmusttakeintoaccounttheperceptualcharacteristicsofthe
audio.Iftwofilessoundaliketothehumanear,theiracousticfingerprintsshouldmatch,eveniftheir
binaryrepresentationsarequitedifferent.Acousticfingerprintsarenotbitwisefingerprints,whichmust
besensitivetoanysmallchangesinthedata.Acousticfingerprintsaremoreanalogoustohuman
fingerprintswheresmallvariationsthatareinsignificanttothefeaturesthefingerprintusesaretolerated.
Onecanimaginethecaseofasmearedhumanfingerprintimpressionwhichcanaccuratelybematched
toanotherfingerprintsampleinareferencedatabaseacousticfingerprintsworkinasimilarway.
Perceptualcharacteristicsoftenexploitedbyaudiofingerprintsincludeaveragezerocrossingrate,
estimatedtempo,averagespectrum,spectralflatness,prominenttonesacrossasetofbands,and
bandwidth.
Mostaudiocompressiontechniques(AAC,MP3,WMA,Vorbis)willmakeradicalchangestothe
binaryencodingofanaudiofile,withoutradicallyaffectingthewayitisperceivedbythehumanear.A
robustacousticfingerprintwillallowarecordingtobeidentifiedafterithasgonethroughsuch
compression,eveniftheaudioqualityhasbeenreducedsignificantly.Foruseinradiobroadcast
monitoring,acousticfingerprintsshouldalsobeinsensitivetoanalogtransmissionartifacts.
Ontheotherhand,agoodacousticfingerprintalgorithmmustbeabletoidentifyaparticularmaster
recordingamongalltheproductionsofanartistorgroup.Foruseasevidenceinacourtoflaw,an
acousticfingerprintmethodmustbeforensicinitsaccuracy.

Seealso

Technology
Automaticcontentrecognition
Digitalvideofingerprinting
Featureextraction

Companies
ACRCloud
Gracenote

References
1. ISOIECTR2100011(2004),Multimediaframework(MPEG21)Part11:EvaluationToolsfor
PersistentAssociationTechnologies

Externallinks
AudioFingerprintatMusicBrainz
AReviewofAlgorithmsforAudioFingerprinting(P.Canoetal.InInternationalWorkshopon
MultimediaSignalProcessing,USVirginIslands,December2002)
(http://mtg.upf.edu/files/publications/MMSP2002pcano.pdf)
Wang,AveryLiChun(2003)."AnIndustrialStrengthAudioSearchAlgorithm"
(http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~dpwe/papers/Wang03shazam.pdf)(PDF).ShazamEntertainment.
Retrieved20120904.
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