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Question Bank Topic 4

Acids and Alkalis

Name: ___________________________ Class: ____________ Class No: __________


Mark: ___________

Date:______________

Multiple choice questions


Unit 13
13.1: Acids in our daily lives
13.2: Acids in the laboratory
(CDC guide: Common acids in daily life and in the laboratory)

Which of the following acids can be found in lemons?


A Ethanoic acid
B Citric acid
C Hydrochloric acid
D Sulphuric acid

Which of the following substances is NOT acidic?


A Soap solution
B Vinegar
C Rain water
D Orange juice

Citric acid is commonly found in

A
B
C
D

milk.
vinegar.
tea.
fruits.

Which of the following statements concerning dilute hydrochloric acid is INCORRECT?


A It is made by dissolving hydrogen chloride gas in water.
B It reacts with silver nitrate solution to give a white precipitate.
C It is commonly found in soft drinks.
D The following hazard warning label should be displayed on a bottle of dilute hydrochloric
acid.

Which of the following acids is a solid at room temperature and pressure?


A Sulphuric acid
B Nitric acid
C Ethanoic acid
D Citric acid

Which of the following substances are acidic?


(1) Window cleaner
(2) Gastric juice
(3) Soft drink
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following acids are commonly used reagents in the laboratory?
(1) Hydrochloric acid
(2) Citric acid
(3) Nitric acid

A
B
C
D

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following substances contain(s) carbonic acid?


(1) Rain water
(2) Orange
(3) Soft drink
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following substances contain citric acid?


(1) Toilet bowl cleaner
(2) Orange
(3) Grapefruit
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

10

Which of the following statements concerning nitric acid are correct?


(1) In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is commonly stored in brown bottles.
(2) Pure nitric acid is a colourless liquid.
(3) The following hazard warning label should be displayed on a bottle of dilute nitric acid.

A
B
C
D

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

13.3: Characteristics of dilute acids


(CDC guide: Characteristics and chemical reactions of acids as illustrated by
dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulphuric acid)

Which of the following is NOT a general property of dilute hydrochloric acid?


A It conducts electricity.
B It tastes sour.
C It turns red litmus paper blue.
D It reacts with magnesium to give hydrogen gas.

Which of the following substances reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give a gas?
A Copper
B Zinc
C Iron(II) oxide
D Potassium hydroxide

Which of the following substances will NOT react with dilute hydrochloric acid?
A Magnesium chloride
B Copper(II) hydroxide
C Silver nitrate solution
D Sodium hydrogencarbonate

Which of the following substances are produced when magnesium reacts with dilute sulphuric
acid?
A Magnesium sulphate, sulphur dioxide and water
B Magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen
C Magnesium sulphate and hydrogen
D Magnesium oxide and sulphur dioxide

The reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate is represented by the

following equation:
Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(x) 2NaCl(y) + CO2(z) + H2O(l)
Which of the following combinations of state symbols is correct?
x
y
z
A aq s
g
B l
g
s
C l
aq aq
D aq aq g

The reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxide is represented by the
following equation:
wMgO(s) + xHCl(aq) yMgCl2(aq) + zH2O(l)
What are the values of w, x, y and z so that this equation is balanced?
w x
y
z
A 1
2
1
1
B 2
1
2
1
C 1
2
2
1
D 2
1
1
2

When iron is added to dilute sulphuric acid, a gas is given off. Which of the following
statements concerning the gas given off is correct?
A It turns limewater milky.
B It turns moist litmus paper blue.
C It gives a pop sound with a burning splint.
D It dissolves in water to form an acidic solution.

When sodium hydrogencarbonate is added to dilute sulphuric acid, a gas is given off. Which
of the following statements concerning the gas given off is INCORRECT?
A It dissolves in water to form an alkaline solution.
B It turns limewater milky.
C It extinguishes a burning splint.
D It is odourless.

A powder X gives a brick-red flame in flame test. It shows effervescence on the addition

of
dilute hydrochloric acid. X is probably
A K2SO4.
B Na2CO3.
C CaSO4.
D CaCO3.

10

Which of the following metals can be used to make a container for dilute sulphuric acid?
A Zinc
B Magnesium
C Iron
D Copper

11

Solution X reacts with zinc to give a gas which gives a pop sound with a burning splint.
When silver nitrate solution is added to solution X, a white precipitate is formed. What could
solution X be?
A Ammonia solution
B Ethanoic acid
C Hydrochloric acid
D Sodium hydroxide solution

12

The rust on the surface of iron can be removed by


A sodium hydroxide pellets.
B ammonia solution.
C dilute hydrochloric acid.
D sodium carbonate solution.

13

Which of the following pairs will NOT produce water when they react?
A Sodium carbonate solution and ethanoic acid
B Silver nitrate solution and hydrochloric acid
C Magnesium oxide and dilute sulphuric acid
D Copper(II) hydroxide and dilute nitric acid

14 Which of the following should NOT be used with dilute hydrochloric acid to prepare
hydrogen?
A Zinc
B Magnesium
C Sodium
D Calcium

15

What gas will be liberated when zinc is added to lemon juice?


A Hydrogen
B Oxygen
C Carbon dioxide
D Chlorine

16

The table below shows the results of an experiment testing the solubilities of some pure solids.
Which one of them could be copper(II) oxide?
Solubility in water
Solubility in dilute nitric acid
A Insoluble
Insoluble
B Insoluble
Dissolves to give a blue solution
C Insoluble
Dissolves to give a blue solution and a colourless gas
D Dissolves to give
Dissolves to give a blue solution
a blue solution

17

An element X melts at room temperature. It forms an oxide which reacts with water to form as
acidic solution.
Which of the following statement concerning X is probably true?
A X conducts electricity.
B The oxide of X is a covalent compound.
C The oxide of X has a high melting point.
D X has a covalent network structure.

18

Which of the following pairs of substances would NOT react when mixed?
A Copper and vinegar
B Copper and dilute nitric acid
C Copper(II) oxide and dilute nitric acid

Copper(II) hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid

19

Which of the following equations best represents the reaction between magnesium oxide and
dilute sulphuric acid?
A MgO2(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)
B MgO(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l)
C MgO(aq) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(s) + H2O(l)
D MgO(aq) + H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + OH-(aq)

20

Which of the following experiments would produce a gas which turns limewater milky?
A Heating sodium carbonate
B Adding calcium to water
C Heating zinc oxide with carbon
D Mixing calcium oxide with dilute nitric acid

21

Which of the following substances reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give a colourless
solution only?
A Calcium carbonate
B Copper(II) oxide
C Iron(II) hydroxide
D Potassium hydroxide

22

Which of the following pairs of substances would NOT produce a gas when mixed?
A Magnesium and ethanoic acid
B Magnesium hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid
C Magnesium carbonate and dilute sulphuric acid
D Magnesium and steam

23

Which of the following statements concerning dilute sulphuric acid is / are correct?
(1) It cannot conduct electricity.
(2) It tastes sour.
(3) It has a slippery feeling.
A (1) only

B
C
D

(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

24

Which of the following substances can conduct electricity?


(1) Dilute hydrochloric acid
(2) Sodium nitrate solution
(3) Pure sulphuric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

25

Which of the following statements about acids is / are correct?


(1) All acids turn wet blue litmus paper red.
(2) All acids are liquids under room conditions.
(3) All acids are ionic compounds.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

26

Which of the following substances are produced when sodium carbonate reacts with dilute
hydrochloric acid?
(1) Water
(2) Sodium chloride
(3) Carbon dioxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

27

Which of the following substances would react with dilute hydrochloric acid to give a gas?
(1) Sodium hydrogencarbonate

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

Iron
Zinc oxide
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

28

Which of the following substances would react with zinc to give hydrogen?
(1) Dilute nitric acid
(2) Dilute sulphuric acid
(3) Dilute ethanoic acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

29

What will be observed when iron granules are put into dilute sulphuric acid?
(1) The iron granules dissolve.
(2) Gas bubbles are liberated.
(3) Heat energy is given out.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

30

Which of the following substances can react with dilute sulphuric acid?
(1) Copper(II) carbonate
(2) Zinc
(3) Iron(II) hydroxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

31

Which of the following are observations of the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and
copper(II) oxide?
(1) Copper(II) oxide dissolves.
(2) Gas bubbles are liberated.
(3) The solution turns blue.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

32

What will be produced when calcium oxide is added to dilute hydrochloric acid?
(1) Hydrogen
(2) Calcium chloride
(3) Water
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

33

Which of the following substances are produced when dilute sulphuric acid reacts with zinc
hydroxide?
(1) Hydrogen
(2) Water
(3) Zinc sulphate
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

34

Which of the following combinations will produce water and magnesium chloride?
(1) Magnesium oxide and dilute hydrochloric acid
(2) Magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid
(3) Magnesium hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid
A (1) only
B (2) only

C
D

(1) and (3) only


(2) and (3) only

35

Which of the following statements about dilute sulphuric acid is / are correct?
(1) It reacts with copper.
(2) When magnesium is added to it, gas bubbles are given off.
(3) Carbon dioxide is prepared by its reaction on calcium carbonate.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

36

Which of the following equations can represent the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid
and calcium carbonate?
(1) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(2) CO32-(aq) + 2H+(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(3) HCO3-(aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g)
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

37

In which of the following experiments would a gas be produced?


(1) Mixing sodium carbonate powder with dilute sulphuric acid
(2) Adding iron to dilute hydrochloric acid
(3) Heating lead(II) sulphide in the air
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

38

Which of the following substances can react with magnesium to give a gas which burns with a
pop sound?
(1) Grapefruit juice

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

Carbonic acid
Vinegar
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

39

Which of the following properties are common to vinegar and lemon juice?
(1) They have a slippery feel.
(2) They turn moist blue litmus paper red.
(3) They react with sodium carbonate to give carbon dioxide gas.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

40

Which of the following pairs of substances can be distinguished by dilute sulphuric acid?
(1) Calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate
(2) Iron and copper
(3) Magnesium and magnesium oxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

41

Which of the following substances can be used to distinguish between dilute sulphuric acid
and dilute hydrochloric acid?
(1) Iron
(2) Barium chloride solution
(3) Potassium carbonate solid
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

13.4: The role of water for acids


(CDC guide: Role of water in exhibiting characteristic properties of acid)

Which of the following is the best definition of an acid?


A Acid is a compound which reacts with a base.
B Acid is a substance which turns moist blue litmus paper red.
C Acid is a hydrogen-containing compound.
D Acid is a hydrogen-containing compound which gives hydrogen ions as the only positive
ion when dissolved in water.

Why is citric acid considered an acid?


A It is corrosive.
B It turns blue litmus paper red.
C It dissolves in water to give hydrogen ions as the only positive ion.
D It tastes sour.

The liberation of hydrogen from the reaction between metals and dilute acids is an indication
of the existence of
A hydrogen atoms in dilute acids.
B hydrogen ions in dilute acids.
C hydrogen gas in dilute acids.
D hydroxide ions in dilute acids.

Solid citric acid does NOT turn dry blue litmus paper red because
A hydrogen ions are not formed when there is no water.
B the ions in solid citric acid are not mobile.
C there are no hydrogen atoms in solid citric acid.
D citric acid is an ionic compound when it is a solid.

Which of the following substances can conduct electricity?

A
B
C
D

Tetrachloromethane
Dilute sulphuric acid
Solid citric acid
Silicon dioxide

Which of the following substances can turn a piece of dry pH paper red?
A Sodium chloride solution
B Solid citric acid
C Dilute ethanoic acid
D Hydrogen chloride gas

What will be observed when a magnesium ribbon is put into a solution of hydrogen chloride in
methylbenzene (a non-aqueous solvent) and a solution of hydrogen chloride in water
separately?
Hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene
Hydrogen chloride in water
A No observable change
No observable change
B Gas bubbles are given off
No observable change
C No observable change
Gas bubbles are given off
D Gas bubbles are given off
Gas bubbles are given off

Why does aqueous citric acid conduct electricity while solid citric acid does not?
A Aqueous citric acid is an ionic compound while solid citric acid is a covalent compound.
B Aqueous citric acid has mobile ions while solid citric acid does not.
C Aqueous citric acid has hydrogen atoms while solid citric acid does not.
D Aqueous citric acid has mobile electrons while solid citric acid does not.

When a fizzy drink tablet (contains a solid acid and sodium hydrogencarbonate) is added to
water, effervescence occurs. Which of the following is a reason for this phenomenon?
A Sodium hydrogencarbonate reacts with water to give hydrogen gas.
B There are impurities in the tablet which react with water to give a gas.
C The solid acid gives hydrogen ions when dissolved in water and the hydrogen ions

react
with the hydrogencarbonate to give carbon dioxide gas.
D The solid acid gives hydrogen atoms when dissolved in water and the hydrogen

atoms
react with the hydrogencarbonate to give carbon dioxide gas.

10

Five labelled jars contain the following chemicals:


Jar 1
Solid sodium hydrogencarbonate
Jar 2
Solid sodium chloride
Jar 3
Citric acid crystals
Jar 4
Hexane (a non-aqueous solvent)
Jar 5
Water
Contents of which jars should be mixed in order to produce carbon dioxide gas?
A Jars 1 and 3
B Jars 1, 2 and 5
C Jars 1, 2 and 4
D Jars 1, 3 and 5

11

All acids
A are covalent compounds when pure.
B are compounds containing hydrogen and oxygen.
C can be obtaind by dissolving oxides of non-metals in water.
D completely ionize when dissolved in water.

12

Which of the following statements concerning dilute acids is / are correct?


(1) All dilute acids turn blue litmus paper red.
(2) Aqueous ammonia is an acid because ammonia molecules have hydrogen atoms.
(3) The acidic properties of a dilute acid is due to the presence of hydrogen ions in the acid
when dissolved in water.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

13

Which of the following statements concerning citric acid are correct?


(1) Citric acid is an electrolyte.
(2) Citric acid is commonly found in lemon juice.

(3)
A
B
C
D

When citric acid crystals are dissolved in water, citric acid molecules become mobile.
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

14

When hydrogen chloride gas is bubbled into water, a colourless solution is formed.
Which of the following statements concerning the solution are correct?
(1) The hydrogen chloride exists as molecules in the solution.
(2) The solution can conduct electricity better than water.
(3) Effervescence occurs when the solution is mixed with calcium carbonate.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

15

Which of the following statements concerning the solution formed by dissolving hydrogen
chloride in methylbenzene (a non-aqueous solvent) is / are correct?
(1) The solution turns dry blue litmus paper red.
(2) The solution cannot conduct electricity.
(3) The pH value of the solution is smaller than 7.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

16

Which of the following equations represent the ionization of acids correctly?


(1) HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
(2) CH3COOH(aq) CH2COOH-(aq) + H+(aq)
(3) H2SO4(aq) H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

17

Which of the following would react with zinc to give hydrogen?


(1) Citric acid in water
(2) Cold water
(3) Hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene (a non-aqueous solvent)
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

18

Hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water. Which ions are present in the resulting solution?
(1) Hydrogen ions, H+(aq)
(2) Chloride ions, Cl-(aq)
(3) Hydroxide ions, OH-(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

19

Which of the following substances will react with iron?


(1) Citric acid crystals
(2) Dilute sulphuric acid
(3) Steam
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13.5: Basicity of an acid


(CDC guide: Basicity of acid)

What is the basicity of ethanoic acid?

A
B
C
D

1
2
3
4

Which of the following is the best definition of basicity of an acid?


A Basicity of an acid is the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in an acid molecule.
B Basicity of an acid is the maximum number of hydrogen ions produced by an acid
molecule.
C Basicity of an acid is the maximum number of hydrogen ions in 1 mole of the acid.
D Basicity of an acid is the maximum number of hydrogen atoms produced by an acid
molecule.

The basicity of an acid is


A a measure of the strength of the acid.
B the maximum number of hydroxide ions produced from one acid molecule.
C the maximum number of hydrogen ions produced from one acid molecule.
D directly proportional to the concentration of the acid.

H3PO4 is a tribasic acid. Which of the following formulae is INCORRECT?


A (NH4)2HPO4
B NaH2PO4
C AlPO4
D KPO4

Which of the following acids are monobasic?


(1) Hydrochloric acid
(2) Ethanoic acid
(3) Carbonic acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements are correct?


(1) The basicity of nitric acid is 1.
(2) Equal number of moles of hydrogen chloride and sulphuric acid give the same number of
hydrogen ions when they are dissolved in water.
(3) The basicity of phosphoric acid is greater than that of ethanoic acid.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following has / have a basicity of three?


(1) NH3(aq)
(2) H3PO4(aq)
(3) CH3COOH(aq)
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following statements is / are correct?


(1) Ethanoic acid is monobasic.
(2) The basicity of ammonia is three.
(3) Basicity of an acid is the number of hydrogen atoms in an acid molecule.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following statements concerning sulphuric acid is / are correct?


(1) It is a dibasic acid.
(2) Pure sulphuric acid can turn dry blue litmus paper red.
(3) Every sulphuric acid molecule ionizes in water to give two hydrogen atoms and one
sulphate ion.
A (1) only

B
C
D

(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

13.11: Concentrated acids


13.12: Corrosive nature of concentrated acids and alkalis
(CDC guide: Corrosive nature of concentrated acids)

Which of the following hazard warning labels should be displayed on a bottle of concentrated
sulphuric acid?
A Flammable
B Corrosive
C Explosive
D Carcinogen

What should we do if a concentrated acid is spilt on our hands?


A Wash the hands with dilute sodium hydroxide solution.
B Wash the hands with ammonia solution.
C Wash the hands with a large amount of water.
D Wash the hands with sodium hydrogencarbonate solution.

When handling concentrated hydrochloric acid, protective gloves must be worn because
concentrated hydrochloric acid is
A irritating.
B toxic.
C flammable.
D corrosive.

Which of the following is the most appropriate way of diluting concentrated sulphuric acid?
A Add water into the acid as quickly as possible.

B
C
D

Add water into the acid slowly with constant stirring.


Add the acid into water as quickly as possible.
Add the acid into water slowly with constant stirring.

What will happen if water is added to a large amount of concentrated sulphuric acid?
(1) A lot of heat energy will be given out.
(2) The acid may splash out.
(3) A brown gas will be given off.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements about concentrated hydrochloric acid and dilute
hydrochloric acid are correct?
(1) Concentrated hydrochloric acid reacts more vigorously with zinc than dilute hydrochloric
acid.
(2) They react with calcium carbonate to give the same products.
(3) They are electrolytes.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements concerning concentrated sulphuric acid is / are correct?
(1) It gives an acid mist in air.
(2) Safety glasses and protective gloves must be worn when handling it.
(3) It tends to decompose to a brown gas.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following hazard warning labels should be displayed on a bottle of concentrated

nitric acid?

(1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

13.6: Bases and alkalis


13.7: Alkalis in the home
13.8: Alkalis in the laboratory
(CDC guide: Common alkalis in daily life and in the laboratory)

Which of the following substances is NOT a base?


A Sodium hydroxide
B Calcium carbonate
C Copper(II) oxide
D Ammonia solution

What is a base?
A A base is a compound that contains hydroxide ions.
B A base is a compound that can react with acids.
C A base is a compound that turns moist red litmus paper blue.
D A base is a compound that reacts with an acid to give a salt and water as the only
products.

Which of the following substances is NOT alkaline?


A Milk of magnesia
B Limewater
C Soft drink

Window cleaner

Which of the following is NOT a common alkali found in the laboratory?


A Sodium hydroxide solution
B Aluminium hydroxide
C Ammonia solution
D Potassium hydroxide solution

An element X was burnt in oxygen. The product formed was mixed with water to give an
alkaline solution. What might X be?
A Sulphur
B Sodium
C Carbon
D Hydrogen

Which of the following is a common base found in drain cleaners?


A Bleach
B Calcium carbonate
C Vinegar
D Sodium hydroxide solution

Which of the following substances are alkaline?


(1) Oven cleaner
(2) Toothpaste
(3) Caustic soda
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements concerning alkalis is / are correct?


(1) An alkali reacts with an acid to give water and a salt as the only products.
(2) All metal hydroxides are alkalis.

(3)
A
B
C
D

All alkalis are soluble in water.


(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

Which of the following substances is / are alkali(s)?


(1) Ammonia
(2) Iron(III) hydroxide
(3) Zinc hydroxide
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

10

Which of the following substances are bases?


(1) Calcium oxide
(2) Copper(II) hydroxide
(3) Potassium hydroxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

11

The following hazard warning symbol is displayed on a bottle containing a reagent X.

What could X be?


(1) Dilute ammonia solution
(2) Dilute sodium hydroxide solution
(3) Calcium hydroxide solution
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only

12

(2) and (3) only

Which of the following substances would give alkaline solution(s) when dissolved in water.
(1) Barium oxide
(2) Carbon dioxide
(3) Calcium oxide
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

13.9: Characteristics of solutions of alkalis


(CDC guide: Characteristics and chemical reactions of alkalis as illustrated by
sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia )

Which of the following is NOT a general property of an alkali?


A It can conduct electricity.
B It feels slippery.
C It turns moist red litmus paper blue.
D It has a sweet taste.

Which of the following statements concerning ammonia is correct?


A Aqueous ammonia turns blue litmus paper red.
B Ammonia gas dissolves in water to give hydroxide ions.
C Aqueous ammonia tastes sour.
D Aqueous ammonia cannot conduct electricity.

Which of the following statements concerning sodium hydroxide is INCORRECT?


A Its concentrated solution is corrosive.
B It can be obtained from electrolysis of sea water.
C It absorbs carbon dioxide when exposed to air.

It can be used as an active ingredient in antacids.

Which of the following solutions does NOT produce a precipitate when mixed with potassium
hydroxide solution?
A Sodium chloride
B Copper(II) nitrate
C Iron(III) sulphate
D Calcium nitrate

When dilute sodium hydroxide solution is slowly added to an unknown solution, a dirty green
precipitate is formed. The unknown solution probably contains
A iron(II) ions.
B iron(III) ions.
C aluminium ions.
D copper(II) ions.

Which of the following reagents, when mixed, will produce a precipitate?


A Ammonium chloride solution and sodium hydroxide solution
B Iron(III) chloride solution and ammonia solution
C Potassium chloride solution and sodium hydroxide solution
D Dilute hydrochloric acid and calcium hydrogencarbonate solution

When ammonium chloride solution is heated with calcium hydroxide solution, a gas is given
off. Which of the following statements concerning the gas is correct?
A The gas turns limewater milky.
B The gas relights a glowing splint.
C The gas turns moist red litmus paper blue.
D The gas gives a 'pop' sound with a burning splint.

When ammonium sulphate solution is heated with a solution, a gas which turns moist red
litmus paper blue is given off. The solution probably contains
A H+(aq) ions.
B OH-(aq) ions.

C
D

Na+(aq) ions.
NH4+(aq) ions.

Metal X reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form a colourless solution. When dilute
sodium hydroxide solution is added to the solution, a white precipitate is formed. The
precipitate dissolves in excess alkali. X may be
A aluminium.
B iron.
C magnesium.
D copper.

10

Which of the following ions can be distinguished from the other three by dilute sodium
hydroxide solution?
A Al3+(aq)
B Fe2+(aq)
C Zn2+(aq)
D Pb2+(aq)

11

When ammonium chloride is heated with caustic soda, a gas is given off. What should the gas
be?
A Hydrogen
B Chlorine
C Ammonia
D Oxygen

12

The reaction between potassium hydroxide and iron(II) sulphate is represented by the
following equation:
FeSO4(x) + 2KOH(y) Fe(OH)2(z) + K2SO4(aq)
Which of the following combinations of state symbols is correct?
x
y
z
A s
l
s
B aq aq s
C s
l
aq
D aq aq aq

13

When ammonium chloride solution is heated with sodium hydroxide solution, the following
reaction will take place:
NH4Cl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NH3(x) + H2O(y) + NaCl(z)
Which of the following combinations of state symbols is correct?
x
y
z
A g
l
aq
B aq l
s
C g
aq aq
D aq aq s

14

When dilute sodium hydroxide solution is added to a solution of Y, a blue precipitate is


formed. What might Y be?
Zinc nitrate
Ammonium chloride
Copper(II) sulphate
Iron(II) nitrate

A
B
C
D

15

Dilute sodium hydroxide solution is added successively to four different solutions. Which of
the following combinations is correct?
Solution
Observation
A Ammonium chloride
White precipitate
B Iron(III) sulphate
Blue precipitate
C Potassium dichromate
Orange precipitate
D Nickel(II) sulphate
Green precipitate

16

Which of the following solutions forms a precipitate with excess ammonia solution?
A Aluminium nitrate solution
B Copper(II) chloride solution
C Potassium sulphate solution
D Zinc chloride solution

17

Which of the following substances will NOT react with dilute sodium hydroxide solution?

A
B
C
D

Vinegar
Ammonium nitrate
Potassium sulphate solution
Copper(II) nitrate solution

18

When X is heated with dilute sodium hydroxide solution, a colourless gas which turns moist
red litmus paper blue is given off. When calcium chloride solution is added to the reaction
mixture, a white precipitate is formed. What might X be?
A Ammonium sulphate
B Ammonium chloride
C Potassium sulphate
D Potassium chloride

19

Which of the following reagents can be used to distinguish between sodium nitrate solution
and zinc nitrate solution?
A Dilute hydrochloric acid
B Copper
C Ammonia solution
D Magnesium sulphate solution

20

Which of the following solutions can be used to distinguish between ammonia solution and
sodium hydroxide solution?
A Sodium sulphate solution
B Iron(II) chloride solution
C Lead(II) nitrate solution
D Magnesium chloride solution

21

Metal X reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give a colourless solution. On addition of
aqueous ammonia to the solution, a white precipitate is formed which dissolves in excess
aqueous ammonia to give a colourless solution. X is
A calcium.
B copper.
C aluminium.
D zinc.

22

A metal dissolves in dilute sulphuric acid. When dilute sodium hydroxide solution is added to
the resulting solution, a white precipitate forms. The precipitate does not dissolve in excess
sodium hydroxide solution. The metal could be
A aluminium.
B lead.
C magnesium.
D zinc.

The table below shows the results of two tests on the solution of a substance X.
Test

Description

Observation

Adding barium
chloride solution

A white precipitate forms.

II

Adding dilute sodium


hydroxide solution

A white precipitate soluble in excess


sodium hydroxide solution forms.

X could be
A calcium sulphate.
B calcium nitrate.
C zinc nitrate.
D zinc sulphate.

24

Which of the following hydroxides is insoluble in both excess dilute sodium hydroxide
solution and excess ammonia solution?
A Cu(OH)2
B Fe(OH)3
C Pb(OH)2
D Zn(OH)2

25

When dilute sodium hydroxide solution is added to a solution of Z, a white precipitate is


formed. The precipitate is insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide solution. What could Z be?
A Calcium chloride
B Aluminium nitrate
C Zinc sulphate

Copper(II) sulphate

26

Which of the following substances can react with dilute sodium hydroxide solution?
(1) Aluminium chloride solution
(2) Solid citric acid
(3) Ammonium sulphate
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

27

In a flame test, solid X gives a purple flame. When the solid is dissolved in water, the solution
formed turns red litmus paper blue. What might solid X be?
(1) Potassium oxide
(2) Sodium hydroxide
(3) Potassium hydrogencarbonate
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

28

Which of the following are characteristics of dilute sodium hydroxide solution?


(1) It reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride and water.
(2) It conducts electricity.
(3) It feels slippery.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

29

Which of the following combinations are correct when dilute sodium hydroxide solution is
added to the solutions separately?
Solution
Colour of the precipitate formed
(1) CuSO4(aq)
blue

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

Pb(NO3)2(aq)
Fe(NO3)2(aq)
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

white
brown

30

Which of the following substances would react with dilute potassium hydroxide solution?
(1) Vinegar
(2) Copper(II) chloride solution
(3) Ammonium chloride solution
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

31

Which of the following substances will form a precipitate with calcium hydroxide solution?
(1) Sodium carbonate solution
(2) Zinc nitrate solution
(3) Carbon dioxide gas
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

32

When ammonium sulphate is heated with sodium hydroxide, which of the following
substances will be formed?
(1) Water
(2) Hydrogen
(3) Sodium sulphate
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

33

Which of the following solutions will form a white precipitate with dilute potassium
hydroxide solution?
(1) Calcium nitrate
(2) Copper(II) chloride
(3) Zinc sulphate
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

34

Which of the following methods can be used to distinguish between sodium chloride solution
and magnesium nitrate solution?
(1) Adding acidified silver nitrate solution
(2) Observing their colours
(3) Adding dilute potassium hydroxide solution
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

35

Which of the following hydroxides are coloured?


(1) Fe(OH)3
(2) Cu(OH)2
(3) KOH
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

36

Which of the following statements concerning aqueous ammonia are correct?


(1) It contains both ammonia molecules and ammonium ions.
(2) It is commonly used as the active ingredient in domestic window cleaners.
(3) It reacts with zinc nitrate solution to give a yellow precipitate.
A (1) and (2) only

B
C
D

(1) and (3) only


(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

37

Which of the following pairs of solutions would form a precipitate when mixed?
(1) Ca2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
(2) Cu2+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
(3) Pb2+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

38

Which of the following pairs of solutions would form a coloured precipitate when mixed?
(1) NH3(aq) and Pb(NO3)2(aq)
(2) NaOH(aq) and FeSO4(aq)
(3) AgNO3(aq) and NaCl(aq)
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

39

Which of the following substances would react with dilute sodium hydroxide solution?
(1) Ammonium sulphate solid
(2) Carbon dioxide gas
(3) Nickel(II) chloride solution
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

40

Which of the following tests can be used to distinguish between iron(II) chloride solution and
iron(III) chloride solution?
(1) Observing their colours
(2) Adding dilute sodium hydroxide solution

(3)
A
B
C
D

Adding silver nitrate solution


(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

13.10: The role of water for alkalis


(CDC guide: Alkaline properties and hydroxide ions OH-(aq))

Which of the following substances can turn dry red litmus paper blue?
A Sodium hydroxide pellets
B Calcium hydroxide solution
C Ammonia gas
D Sodium chloride solution

Which of the following equations is correct?


A NH3(g) NH2-(aq)+ H+(aq)
B NaOH(aq) Na(s) + OH(l)
C NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
D NaOH(aq) + H2O(l) NaOH2+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Which of the following do(es) NOT turn dry red litmus paper blue?
(1) Sodium carbonate solution
(2) Dry ammonia gas
(3) Limewater
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Ammonia gas is passed into water to give a solution. Which of the following particles would

be present in the solution?


(1) Ammonia molecules
(2) Ammonium ions
(3) Hydroxide ions
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13.12: Corrosive nature of concentrated acids and alkalis


(CDC guide: Corrosive nature of concentrated alkalis)

Which of the following labels should be displayed on a bottle containing concentrated sodium
hydroxide solution?
A Flammable
B Oxidizing
C Carcinogen
D Corrosive

When concentrated sodium hydroxide solution gets into the eyes, what should be done?
A Wash the eyes with very dilute hydrochloric acid.
B Wash the eyes with plenty of water.
C Wash the eyes with aqueous ammonia.
D Wash the eyes with vinegar.

When a chickens foot is immersed in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution for a few days,
it becomes translucent and the flesh becomes soft. Which of the following properties of
concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is shown?
A Corrosiveness
B Oxidizing property
C Flammability
D Toxicity

Which of the following statements is / are correct?


(1) Acids do more damage to the skin and eyes than alkalis.
(2) Sodium hydroxide is often called caustic soda.
(3) Dilute sodium hydroxide solution gives a white precipitate with zinc nitrate solution
while concentrated sodium hydroxide solution does not.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Unit 14
14.1: Indicators
(CDC guide: Acid-base indicators as exemplified by litmus, methyl orange and
phenolphthalein)

When a few drops of methyl orange is added to limewater, what will be the colour of the
solution?
A Red
B Yellow
C Colourless
D Blue

2
When a few drops of methyl orange is added to vinegar, what will be the colour of the
solution?
A Red
B Yellow
C Colourless
D Blue

When a few drops of phenolphthalein is added to a bottle of glass cleaner, what will be the

colour of the solution?


A Red
B Yellow
C Colourless
D Blue

When a few drops of phenolphthalein is added to dilute nitric acid, what will be the colour of
the solution?
A Red
B Yellow
C Colourless
D Blue

A group of students produced a red solution by boiling red cabbage leaves in water. When
dilute sodium hydroxide solution was added to the red solution, it turned purple. When dilute
hydrochloric acid was added to the red solution, no colour change occurred.
Which of the following substances, when added, is most likely to cause the red solution to
change colour?
A Domestic glass cleaner
B Concentrated hydrochloric acid
C Orange juice
D Vinegar

Which of the following is a property of dilute hydrochloric acid?


A It reacts with metal carbonates.
B It turns methyl orange yellow.
C It reacts with copper.
D It has a slippery feel.

Which of the following substances can tell whether a solution is acidic or alkaline?
(1) Methyl orange
(2) Phenolphthalein
(3) Litmus solution
A (1) and (2) only

B
C
D

(1) and (3) only


(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following combinations are correct?


Colour in
Colour in
Indicator
acidic solution
alkaline solution
(1) Litmus
Red
Blue
(2) Phenolphthalein
Red
Colourless
(3) Methyl orange
Red
Yellow
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

14.2: The pH scale


(CDC guide: pH scale as a measure of acidity and alkalinity)

Which of the following substances has the greatest pH value?


A Lemon juice
B Soft drink
C Vinegar
D Distilled water

Which of the following substances has the lowest pH value?


A Grape juice
B Milk
C Window cleaner
D Soap solution

Which of the following solutions with the same volume and concentration has the lowest pH

value?
A Sodium hydroxide solution
B Sodium chloride solution
C Hydrochloric acid
D Sulphuric acid

Which of the following substances is the most acidic?


A Orange juice
B Shampoo
C Gastric juice
D Sea water

The sourness of a substance is a reasonable guide to its acidity. If solution A is more sour than
solution B, then it is likely that
A solution A has a higher pH value than solution B.
B solution A has more hydroxide ions than solution B.
C solution B is a stronger acid than solution A.
D solution A has a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than solution B.

Which of the following substances gives a neutral solution when dissolved in water?
A (NH4)2SO4
B NaCl
C CH3COOH
D Na2CO3

Which of the following combination is correct?


Substance
pH value
A Limewater
14
B Normal rain water
7
C Vinegar
4
D Washing soda solution 6

Which of the following combination is INCORRECT?

A
B
C
D

Substance
pH value
Ammonia solution 11
Car battery acid
1
Lemon juice
2
Oven cleaner
8

Arrange the following substances in descending order of pH values.


(1) Milk
(2) Lemon juice
(3) Glass cleaner
(4) Sodium chloride solution
A (4) > (3) > (2) > (1)
B (3) > (1) > (4) > (2)
C (3) > (4) > (1) > (2)
D (2) > (1) > (3) > (4)

10

Which of the following statements concerning pH values are correct?


(1) The more acidic the solution is, the lower the pH value of the solution.
(2) pH values indicate the concentration of H+(aq) ions in the solution.
(3) The higher the concentration of H+(aq) ions in a solution, the greater its pH value.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

11

Which of the following substances have a pH value lower than 7?


(1) Oven cleaner
(2) Lemon juice
(3) Rain water
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

12

Which of the following substances have a pH value greater than 7?


(1) Limewater
(2) Gastric juice
(3) Toothpaste
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13

Which of the following statements concerning limewater are correct?


(1) Limewater is formed by dissolving solid calcium carbonate in water.
(2) Limewater has a pH value greater than 7.
(3) Limewater turns milky when it reacts with carbon dioxide.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

14

Which of the following would occur when solid sodium oxide is added to distilled water?
(1) The pH value of the resulting solution is greater than 7.
(2) The solution is green in colour.
(3) Gas bubbles are given off.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

15

Which of the following statements concerning an ammonia solution are correct?


(1) It has a pH value greater than 7.
(2) It contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.
(3) It reacts with dilute acids to give ammonia gas.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

16

Which of the following substances when mixed with 100 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid would
result in a change of pH value?
(1) 100 cm3 of water
(2) 100 cm3 of 1 M sodium chloride solution
(3) 100 cm3 of 1 M sulphuric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

14.3: Determining pH values of solutions


(CDC guide: Use of universal indicator and an appropriate instrument to
measure the pH of solutions )

Which of the following reagents can be used to measure the pH value of a solution?
A Litmus solution
B Universal indicator
C Phenolphthalein
D Methyl orange

Which of the following CANNOT be used to measure the pH value of a solution?


A pH meter
B Universal indicator
C pH paper
D Litmus paper

Which of the following can be used to measure the pH value of a solution accurately?
A Universal indicator
B pH meter
C Phenolphthalein

Litmus solution

Which of the following can be used to measure the pH value of a sample of rain water?
(1) pH meter
(2) Universal indicator
(3) Methyl orange
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following substances CANNOT be used to measure the pH value of a sample of
soft drink?
(1) Phenolphthalein
(2) Litmus paper
(3) Data-logger
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

100 cm3 of a sample of sulphuric acid is diluted to 200 cm3 with distilled water. Which of the
following statements concerning changes upon dilution is / are correct?
(1) The pH value of the acid increases.
(2) The amount of hydroxide ions in the acid decreases.
(3) The concentration of hydrogen ions in the acid increases.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

A sample of ethanoic acid has a pH value of 4. Which of the following substances, when
added to this sample, would increase its pH value?
(1) Ammonia solution

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

Dilute hydrochloric acid


Solid calcium carbonate
(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

14.4: Strong and weak acids


14.5: Strong and weak alkalis
(CDC guide: Meaning of strong and weak acids as well as strong and weak
alkalis in terms of their extent of dissociation )

The strength of an acid is determined by


A the number of hydrogen ions present.
B its concentration.
C its degree of ionization in aqueous solution.
D its ability to change the colour of litmus solution.

Which of the following acids is a strong acid?


A Ethanoic acid
B Citric acid
C Carbonic acid
D Hydrochloric acid

Which of the following acids is a weak acid?


A Sulphuric acid
B Citric acid
C Nitric acid
D Hydrochloric acid

Which of the following statements concerning citric acid is correct?

A
B
C
D

It is a strong acid.
It is present in lemons.
Its aqueous solution does not conduct electricity.
It exists as a liquid at room temperature and pressure.

Which of the following particles is NOT a main constituent of dilute hydrochloric acid?
A Hydrogen chloride molecules
B Hydrogen ions
C Water molecules
D Chloride ions

Which of the following statements is the best definition of a strong acid?


A It is an acid that can react with all bases.
B It is a highly corrosive acid.
C It is a concentrated acid.
D It is an acid that almost completely ionizes in water.

A weak alkali can be defined as


A an alkali without corrosive nature.
B an alkali that does not give hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.
C an alkali that partially ionizes in water.
D an alkali that does not react with strong acids.

Vinegar is a weak acid because


A it is not corrosive.
B it has a pH value lower than 7.
C it slightly ionizes in water.
D it is an organic acid.

Which of the following species is NOT present in dilute sodium hydroxide solution?
A H2O(l)
B OH-(aq)
C Na+(aq)

NaOH(l)

10

Which of the following dilute solutions of the same concentration has the lowest pH value?
A CH3COOH(aq)
B NH3(aq)
C H2SO4(aq)
D HCl(aq)

11

Which of the following statements about ethanoic acid is correct?


A It does not react with zinc hydroxide.
B It completely ionizes in water.
C It is a dibasic acid.
D It is an electrolyte.

12

Which of the following species is NOT present in ammonia solution?


A H2O(l)
B OH-(aq)
C NH3(aq)
D NH4OH(aq)

13

Which of the following statements concerning dilute sulphuric acid is correct?


A It is a strong acid.
B It is present in pineapples.
C It reacts with magnesium to give sulphur dioxide.
D It turns phenolphthalein red.

14

Citric acid is a weak acid. Sulphuric acid and perchloric acid HClO4(aq) are strong acids.
Dilute acid solutions of the same concentration are prepared. The order of increasing pH value
of the three acid solutions is
A citric acid, perchloric acid, sulphuric acid.
B perchloric acid, sulphur acid, citric acid.
C sulphuric acid, citric acid, perchloric acid.
D sulphuric acid, perchloric acid, citric acid.

15

Consider the following solutions:


(1) 1 M ethanoic acid
(2) 1 M sulphuric acid
(3) 1 M hydrochloric acid
(4) 1 M sodium hydroxide solution
Which of the following represents the descending order of pH values of the above solutions?
A (1) > (2) > (3) > (4)
B (2) > (3) > (1) > (4)
C (4) > (1) > (3) > (2)
D (4) > (3) > (2) > (1)

16

Which of the following statements concerning weak acids are correct?


(1) Weak acids react with zinc to give hydrogen.
(2) Hydrogen ions exist in the solution of weak acids.
(3) Weak acids do not turn moist blue litmus paper red.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

17

Which of the following particles are the main species in dilute sulphuric acid?
(1) Water molecules
(2) Hydrogen ions
(3) Sulphate ions
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

18

Which of the following statements concerning weak alkalis are correct?


(1) Weak alkalis do not conduct electricity.
(2) Weak alkalis react with hydrochloric acid to form water and salt.
(3) Weak alkalis turn moist red litmus paper blue.

A
B
C
D

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

19

Which of the following statements concerning ammonia solution is / are correct?


(1) It reacts with copper(II) sulphate solution to form a precipitate.
(2) It has a pH value lower than 7.
(3) There is no ammonia molecule in it.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

20

Which of the following solutions have the same pH value as that of 10 cm3 of 1 M H2SO4(aq)?
(1) 10 cm3 of 2 M HCl(aq)
(2) 10 cm3 of 2 M CH3COOH(aq)
(3) 10 cm3 of 2 M HNO3(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

21

Which of the following acids is / are strong acid(s)?


(1) 0.1 M HCl(aq)
(2) 5 M CH3COOH(aq)
(3) 10 M HNO3(aq)
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

22

When carbon dioxide is bubbled into water, a colourless solution is formed. Which of the
following statements concerning the solution are correct?

(1)
(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

23

The solution conducts electricity better than water.


The solution can react with dilute sodium hydroxide solution.
The solution contains carbon dioxide molecules and hydrogen ions.
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements concerning citric acid are correct?


(1) It is a weak acid.
(2) It is an electrolyte.
(3) Citric acid crystals can react with magnesium to give hydrogen gas.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

14.4: Strong and weak acids


14.5: Strong and weak alkalis
(CDC guide: Methods to compare the strength of acids / alkalis )

The pH value of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid is about 1 but that of 0.1 M ethanoic acid is about 4.
This is because
A ethanoic acid is a covalent compound.
B ethanoic acid contains more hydrogen atoms per molecule.
C ethanoic acid does not ionize completely in water.
D ethanoic acid is a strong acid.

Which of the following solutions will make the bulb the brightest?
A 25 cm3 of 0.5 M H2SO4(aq)
B 25 cm3 of 0.5 M HCl(aq)
C 25 cm3 of 0.5 M CH3COOH(aq)
D 25 cm3 of 0.5 M NH3(aq)

Which of the following solutions, when added to 10 g of sodium carbonate powder, would
have the lowest initial rate of reaction?
A 100 cm3 of 1 M H2SO4
B 100 cm3 of 1 M HCl
C 100 cm3 of 1 M CH3COOH
D 100 cm3 of 1 M HNO3

Why does magnesium react faster with 20 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid than with 20 cm3 of
1 M ethanoic acid?
A There are more mobile ions in 20 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid.
B The concentration of hydrochloric acid is higher than that of ethanoic acid.
C There are more hydrogen ions in 20 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid.
D There are more mobile electrons in 20 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid.

Why does 30 cm3 of 2 M sodium hydroxide solution have a higher electrical conductivity than
30 cm3 of 2 M ammonia solution?
A There are more mobile electrons in 30 cm3 of 2 M sodium hydroxide solution.
B There are more molecules in 30 cm3 of 2 M sodium hydroxide solution.
C Ammonia solution does not have hydroxide ions.
D There are more mobile ions in 30 cm3 of 2 M sodium hydroxide solution.

Which of the following substances CANNOT be used to distinguish between 1.5 M HCl(aq)
and 1.5 M CH3COOH(aq) of the same volume?
A pH paper
B Magnesium strips
C Calcium carbonate powders
D Copper strips

Which of the following statements concerning the two solutions, 10 cm3 of 1 M ethanoic acid
and 10 cm3 of 1 M nitric acid, is correct?
A Nitric acid has a higher pH value.
B They contain the same number of ions.
C Nitric acid requires more sodium hydroxide solution for neutralization than ethanoic acid.
D Nitric acid reacts with copper while ethanoic acid cannot.

Which of the following statements concerning 25 cm3 of 1 M sulphuric acid and 50 cm3 of
1 M ethanoic acid is INCORRECT?
A They require the same volume of 1 M ammonia solution for complete neutralization.
B They give the same colour on pH paper.
C They react with zinc granules at different rates.
D The sulphuric acid has a lower pH value.

9
Which of the following is the same for equal volumes of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide
solution and
0.1 M ammonia solution?
A pH value
B Mass of solute present
C Electricity conductivity
D Number of moles of hydrochloric acid required for neutralization

10

Which of the following solutions has the lowest electrical conductivity?


A 0.1 M carbonic acid
B 0.1 M nitric acid
C 0.1 M potassium hydroxide solution
D 0.1 M sulphuric acid

11

Compare two solutions of 1 M ethanoic acid and 1 M hydrochloric acid of the same volume.
Which of the following properties will be the same for both solutions?
(1) Electrical conductivity
(2) The number of moles of sodium hydroxide needed for complete neutralization
(3) The rate of their reacions with excess sodium carbonate
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

12

Which of the following methods can be used to compare the strength of two acids with same
volume and concentration?
(1) Phenolphthalein
(2) Zinc strips
(3) pH meter
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13

When a strip of magnesium is added to 30 cm3 of 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and 30 cm3 of
0.5 M ethanoic acid separately, what will be observed?
(1) The magnesium strips dissolve in both solutions.
(2) Gas bubbles are given off at a faster rate in hydrochloric acid.
(3) White precipitate is formed in both solutions.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

14

Which of the following statements concerning the set-ups are correct?


(1) The light bulbs in both set-ups will glow.
(2) The light bulb in set-up Y will glow brighter.
(3) Both solutions in the set-ups contain mobile electrons.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

15

Which of the following statements concerning 1 M sulphuric acid and 1 M ethanoic acid is /
are correct?
(1) They ionize completely in water to give hydrogen ions.
(2) Both of them are electrolytes.
(3) Both undergo neutralization with sodium hydroxide solution.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Unit 15
15.1: Acid-base reactions
15.2: Neutralization of acid and alkali
15.3: Neutralization of acid and insoluble base
(CDC guide: Neutralization as the reaction between acid and base/alkali to form
water and salt only)

Which of the following substances will NOT undergo neutralization with dilute hydrochloric
acid?
A Aluminium oxide
B Sulphur dioxide
C Zinc hydroxide
D Ammonia solution

Which of the following would NOT occur when copper(II) oxide is added to dilute
hydrochloric acid?
A Copper(II) oxide dissolves.
B The pH value of the solution increases.
C The solution turns blue.
D Gas bubbles are given off.

Which of the following is NOT a neutralization reaction?


A CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
B Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
C NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
D MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l)

Which of the following equations represents a neutralization reaction?


A Al3+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) Al(OH)3(s)
B Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
C KOH(aq) K+(aq) + OH-(aq)
D ZnO(s) + 2H+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + H2O(l)

A student added dilute hydrochloric acid dropwise to sodium hydroxide solution continuously.
Which of the following statements concerning the reaction is INCORRECT?
A The pH of the solution increases.
B Water is formed in the reaction.
C Neutralization takes place in the solution.
D The solution remains colourless.

Which of the following methods is best for separating copper powder from a mixture of
copper and magnesium oxide?
A Add warm water, stir, filter and dry the residue.
B Add hot dilute sulphuric acid, filter and dry the residue.
C Add warm water, filter and heat the residue strongly.
D Add hot dilute sodium hydroxide solution, filter and dry the residue.

Which of the following pairs of substances, when mixed, will undergo neutralization?
(1) Ethanoic acid and magnesium
(2) Dilute sulphuric acid and ammonia solution
(3) Concentrated hydrochloric acid and zinc oxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following are neutralization reactions?


(1) Adding copper(II) oxide to dilute ethanoic acid
(2) Adding copper(II) hydroxide to dilute nitric acid
(3) Adding copper(II) carbonate to dilute sulphuric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following pairs of substances will undergo neutralization when they are mixed?
(1) Dilute sodium hydroxide solution and vinegar
(2) Sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid
(3) Ammonia solution and citric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

10

Solution

pH

10

13

Which of the following pairs of solutions will probably give a solution with a pH value the
same as that of solution r when they are mixed?
(1) p and s
(2) q and t
(3) s and t
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

11

Which of the following statements concerning neutralization is / are correct?


(1) In neutralization, only water and salt are produced.
(2) The solution formed from complete neutralization must have a pH value of 7.
(3) There are no ions left when the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute
sodium hydroxide solution is completed.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

12

Which of the following substances can decrease the pH value of a dilute sodium hydroxide
solution?
(1) Vinegar
(2) Water
(3) Solid citric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

13

A sample of dilute sulphuric acid has a pH value of 2. Which of the following substances,
when added to the dilute sulphuric acid, will increase its pH value?

(1) Magnesium
(2) Concentrated hydrochloric acid
(3) Iron(II) oxide
(4) Carbon dioxide
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (4) only
D (1), (3) and (4)

15.4: Heat change during neutralization


(CDC guide: Exothermic nature of neutralization)

Which of the following would NOT be observed when solid sodium hydroxide is added to
dilute hydrochloric acid?
A Heat energy is released.
B Sodium hydroxide dissolves.
C A colourless solution is formed.
D Gas bubbles are given off.

Which of the following statements concerning an experiment of adding 20 cm3 of 1 M


ammonia solution to 20 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid is correct?
A A white precipitate is formed.
B The temperature of the mixture decreases.
C The pH value of the mixture increases.
D The concentration of chloride ions in the mixture remains the same.

3. 1 M of sodium hydroxide solution is added continuously to 25 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric


acid. Which of the following graphs represents the relationship between the temperature of the
mixture and the volume of sodium hydroxide solution added?

10 cm3 of 1 M nitric acid were mixed with 10 cm3 of 1 M sodium hydroxide solution in a
plastic cup. The maximum rise in temperature was recorded. Which of the following pairs of
solutions, upon mixing, would produce a similar rise in temperature?
A 10 cm3 of 1 M ethanoic acid and 10 cm3 of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution
B 10 cm3 of 1 M ethanoic acid and 10 cm3 of 1 M ammonia solution
C 10 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid and 10 cm3 of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution
D 10 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid and 10 cm3 of 1 M ammonia solution

Which of the following will be observed when solid copper(II) hydroxide is added to dilute
hydrochloric acid?
(1) Copper(II) hydroxide dissolves.
(2) Heat energy is given out.
(3) The solution becomes blue.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements concerning neutralization is / are correct?


(1) Neutralization is an exothermic reaction.
(2) Only salt is formed in neutralization.

(3) The reaction between sodium hydrogencarbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid is a
neutralization reaction.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

15.5: Formation of salts


15.6: Normal salts and acid salts
15.7: Naming of salts
(CDC guide: Naming of common salts)

Which of the following is NOT a salt?


A Sodium sulphate
B Calcium carbonate
C Potassium hydrogenphosphate
D Copper(II) hydroxide

Which of the following is the chemical formula of silver nitrate?


A AuNO3
B AgNO2
C AgNO3
D Ag(NO3)2

Which of the following is a salt formed from the reaction between dilute sulphuric acid and
copper(II) oxide?
A Cu(OH)2
B H2O
C Cu2SO4
D CuSO4

When Cu(OH)2(s) is added to HCl(aq), a salt is formed. Which of the following should be the
systemic name of the salt?
A Copper chloride
B Copper(I) chloride
C Copper(II) chloride
D Copper dichloride

Which of the following is the systemic name of (NH4)2SO4?


A Ammonia sulphate
B Ammonium sulphate
C Ammonia sulphide
D Ammonium sulphite

Which of the following statements concerning normal salts is correct?


A Normal salts are formed only by the reaction between strong acids and strong alkalis.
B Normal salts always form a neutral solution.
C Normal salts can only be made by reactions involving an acid.
D Normal salts must not contain any replaceable hydrogen atoms.

Which of the following substances are salts?


(1) Copper(II) sulphate
(2) Sodium carbonate
(3) Magnesium chloride
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following combinations is / are correct?


Salt
Name of salt
(1) FeSO4 Iron(II) sulphate
(2) K2CO3 Potassium hydrogencarbonate
(3) NH4Cl Ammonia chloride
A (1) only

B
C
D

(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

Which of the following substances is / are acid salt(s)?


(1) Sodium hydrogencarbonate
(2) Sodium chloride
(3) Sodium hydrogensulphate
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

10

Which of the following statements concerning acid salts is / are correct?


(1) All acid salts are acidic.
(2) A monobasic acid does not give acid salts.
(3) (NH4)2SO4 is an acid salt.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

11

Which of the following are coloured salts?


(1) CuO
(2) Fe2(SO4)3
(3) NiCl2
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

12 Which of the following statements concerning ammonium ethanoate CH 3COONH4 are


correct?
(1) It is an ionic compound.

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

It is an acid salt.
Its aqueous solution can conduct electricity.
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

15.8: Soluble and insoluble salts


(CDC guide: Preparation of soluble and insoluble salts based on neutralization)

Solid zinc chloride CANNOT be prepared by mixing


A zinc oxide and dilute hydrochloric acid.
B zinc sulphate and dilute hydrochloric acid.
C zinc and copper(II) chloride solution.
D zinc hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid.

Which of the following salts can be prepared directly by reacting a metal with a dilute acid?
A Calcium sulphate
B Magnesium chloride
C Lead(II) sulphate
D Silver chloride

Which of the following salts is soluble in water?


A Silver chloride
B Magnesium carbonate
C Lead(II) chloride
D Iron(II) sulphate

Which of the following substances reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give a colourless
solution?
A Iron(II) oxide

B
C
D

Copper(II) carbonate
Iron(III) hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide

Which of the following salts is insoluble in water?


A Ammonium chloride
B Copper(II) nitrate
C Lead(II) carbonate
D Sodium carbonate

Which of the following is the best way to produce calcium sulphate?


A Adding calcium to zinc sulphate solution
B Adding calcium chloride solution to copper(II) sulphate solution
C Adding calcium oxide to dilute sulphuric acid
D Adding calcium carbonate to dilute sulphuric acid

Hydrochloric acid is NOT used to prepare carbon dioxide from lead(II) carbonate because
A the reaction is explosive.
B hydrochloric acid is an oxidizing agent.
C an insoluble layer is formed which stops further reaction.
D side-products of the reaction are highly toxic.

Which of the following pairs of solutions would NOT give a precipitate on mixing?
A NaCl(aq) and MgSO4(aq)
B KCl(aq) and AgNO3(aq)
C NH3(aq) and FeSO4(aq)
D Na2CO3(aq) and Ca(NO3)2(aq)

Which of the following pairs of ions would react together to form a white precipitate?
A Ba2+(aq) and Cl-(aq)
B Mg2+(aq) and CO32-(aq)
C Na+(aq) and NO32-(aq)
D Ni2+(aq) and OH-(aq)

10

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?


A All metal carbonates are insoluble in water.
B All metal nitrates are soluble in water.
C All hydrogencarbonates are soluble in water.
D Most metal hydroxides are insoluble in water.

11

Dilute sulphuric acid was added to barium hydroxide solution until the acid was in excess.
Which of the following curves shows the variation in the total number ions in the solution
mixture?

12

The table below shows the results of two tests on the solution of substance X.
Test

Description

Observation

Adding dilute sodium hydroxide solution

A green precipitate is formed.

II

Mixing with barium nitrate solution

A white precipitate is formed.

X could be
A copper(II) chloride.
B copper(II) sulphate.
C nickel(II) chloride.
D nickel(II) sulphate.

13

The table below shows the results of two tests on the solution of substance X.
Test

Description

Observation

Adding sodium chloride solution

A white precipitate is formed.

II

Adding dilute sodium hydroxide A white precipitate which is soluble in


solution
excess alkali is formed.

X could be
A silver nitrate.
B lead(II) nitrate.
C copper(II) sulphate.
D zinc chloride.

14

Large crystals of copper(II) sulphate can best be obtained by


A evaporating a copper(II) sulphate solution to dryness.
B adding copper(II) nitrate solution to potassium sulphate solution and evaporating the
resulting solution to dryness.
C putting an unsaturated copper(II) sulphate solution in an ice bath.
D evaporating off water from a copper(II) sulphate solution until it becomes saturated, then
allowing it to cool slowly.

15

Calcium sulphate is NOT prepared by adding calcium carbonate to dilute sulphuric acid.
Which of the following is the best explanation?
A Insoluble calcium sulphate formed will coat on the surface of calcium carbonate which
prevents further reaction.
B Calcium carbonate is insoluble in water.
C Calcium carbonate does not react with dilute sulphuric acid.
D Toxic gas will be produced in the reaction between calcium carbonate and dilute
sulphuric acid.

16

Which of the following methods can be used to separate silver chloride from a solution
containing sodium nitrate?
A Evaporation
B Filtration
C Distillation

Sublimation

17

Which of the following methods can be used to obtain large crystals of hydrated nickel(II)
sulphate from a saturated solution of nickel(II) sulphate?
A Evaporation
B Filtration
C Crystallization
D Distillation

18

Which processes are involved in the preparation of copper(II) chloride crystals from dilute
hydrochloric acid and an excess of copper(II) oxide?
A Decomposition, followed by filtration
B Decomposition, followed by crystallization and oxidation
C Neutralization, followed by filtration and crystallization
D Neutralization, following by decomposition and evaporation

19

Lead(II) sulphate can best be prepared by adding dilute sulphuric acid to


A lead(II) carbonate solid.
B lead.
C lead(II) nitrate solution.
D lead(II) oxide solid.

20

Which of the following methods can be used to separate zinc from a mixture of zinc and zinc
chloride?
A Add water, filter and dry the residue.
B Add dilute hydrochloric acid, evaporate, filter and dry the residue.
C Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution, filter and dry the residue.
D Add ammonia solution, crystallize, filter and dry the residue.

21

A mixture of white solids X is treated with an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid. A colourless
gas is evolved and some, but not all, of the mixture dissolves.
Which of the following mixture could be X?
A Ba(NO3)2 and Ca(OH)2

B
C
D

BaSO4 and CaCO3


CaCO3 and Na2SO4
Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3

Directions: Questions 22 and 23 refer to the following experiment.


A student planned to prepare hydrated sodium sulphate. Enough dilute acid was added to neutralize
100 cm3 of 1 M sodium hydroxide solution. Hydrated sodium sulphate was obtained from the
resulting sodium sulphate solution.
22

Which of the following acids should be used for the preparation?


A Ethanoic acid
B Hydrochloric acid
C Nitric acid
D Sulphuric acid

23

Which of the following methods can be used to obtained hydrated sodium sulphate from the
resulting sodium sulphate solution?
A Crystallization
B Distillation
C Filtration
D Fractional distillation

24 Four students analyzed a sample of fertilizer to determine its percentage by mass of


sulphate.
Each student:
weighted an amount of fertilizer;

dissolved this amount in 100 cm3 of water;

added excess barium nitrate solution;

filtered, dried and weighed the barium sulphate precipitate.

Their results and calculations are shown in the table.


Student

Mass of fertilizer
used (g)

Mass of BaSO4
weighted (g)

Percentage by mass of
sulphate in fertilizer (%)

11.6

19.5

69.2

10.4

16.9

66.9

10.268

22.612

90.6

11.1

18.2

67.5

The percentage of sulphate calculated by Student C was significantly higher than of the other
students. Which is the most likely reason for this?
A Student C did not dry the sample for long enough.
B Student C added more barium nitrate solution than the other students.
C Student C used a balance capable of measuring mass to more decimal places.
D Student C waited longer than the other students for the barium nitrate to react
completely
with the sulphate.

25

Which of the following salts are insoluble in water?


(1) Calcium sulphate
(2) Lead(II) chloride
(3) Lead(II) sulphate
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

26

Which of the following compounds is / are soluble in water?


(1) Calcium hydrogencarbonate
(2) Barium sulphate
(3) Iron(III) hydroxide
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

27

Which of the following salts are soluble in water?


(1) Copper(II) carbonate
(2) Calcium nitrate
(3) Zinc chloride
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only

C
D

(2) and (3) only


(1), (2) and (3)

28

Which of the following pairs of solutions will give a white precipitate when they are mixed?
(1) AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq)
(2) CuSO4(aq) + KOH(aq)
(3) MgSO4(aq) + CaCl2(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

29

From which of the following pairs of substances can copper(II) sulphate crystals be obtained?
(1) Copper and dilute sulphuric acid
(2) Copper(II) oxide and dilute sulphuric acid
(3) Copper(II) nitrate and dilute sulphuric acid
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

30

Which of the following methods can be used to produce magnesium chloride?


(1) Add excess magnesium ribbons to dilute hydrochloric acid.
(2) Add excess magnesium oxide to dilute hydrochloric acid.
(3) Add excess magnesium ribbons to zinc chloride solution.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

31

A solid mixture contains only iron(III) oxide and iron(III) chloride. Which of the following
methods can be used to separate iron(III) oxide from the mixture?
(1) Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution to the mixture and then filter.
(2) Add water to the mixture and then filter.

(3)
A
B
C
D

Add dilute hydrochloric acid and then filter.


(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

32

Which of the following chemical tests can be used to distinguish between iron(II) chloride and
iron(III) sulphate solutions?
(1) Add acidified silver nitrate solution
(2) Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution
(3) Add ammonia solution
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

33

Which of the following statements concerning salts is / are correct?


(1) Salts can be formed from neutralization reaction between particular acids and bases.
(2) All salts are composed of metal ions and anions.
(3) All salts are soluble in water.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

15.9: Uses of neutralization


(CDC guide: Applications of neutralization)

Which of the following substances is the most suitable to be used as the active ingredient in an
antacid?
A Sodium hydroxide
B Magnesium hydroxide

C
D

Silver oxide
Ammonia solution

Why is quicklime (CaO) sometimes added to soil?


A It acts as a fertilizer.
B It removes the acidity of the soil.
C It removes the alkalinity of the soil.
D It kills the bacteria in the roots of plants.

Which of the following substances is added to neutralize the acidic waste water produced by a
factory?
A Iron(II) hydroxide
B Potassium chloride
C Calcium hydroxide
D Hydrochloric acid

Which of the following is NOT an application of neutralization?


A Relieving stomach aches
B Relieving insect stings
C Treating acidic soils
D Using ammonia to remove oil stain

Why calcium carbonate is rarely used as a active ingredient in antacids?


A Calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid in stomach to produce carbon dioxide
which builds up pressure in the stomach.
B Calcium carbonate attacks the wall of the stomach.
C Calcium carbonate cannot neutralize hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
D Calcium carbonate is carcinogenic.

The pain caused by insect sting can be relieved by


A dilute sodium hydroxide solution.
B dilute sodium hydrogencarbonate solution.
C dilute sodium chloride solution.

dilute potassium hydroxide solution.

Consider a box of drug show below.

Which of the following ingredients can cure indigestion?


A Aspirin
B Sodium hydrogencarbonate
C Citric acid
D Sugar

Which of the following are uses of neutralization reactions?


(1) Soil pH control
(2) Treatment of sewage
(3) Manufacture of common salt (sodium chloride)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following metal ions can be removed from industrial liquid waste by adding
sodium hydroxide solution followed by filtration?
(1) Cu2+(aq)
(2) K+(aq)
(3) Fe2+(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

10

Which of the following are applications of neutralization?


(1) Manufacture of fertilizers
(2) Industrial waste disposal
(3) Medical use of antacids
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

11

Which of the following substances can be used to remove the alkalinity of soil?
(1) Ammonium sulphate
(2) Concentrated sulphuric acid
(3) Sodium carbonate
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

12

Which of the following substances when mixed, will undergo a reaction?


(1) Vinegar and antacid
(2) Bleach and table salt
(3) Iron nail and lemon juice
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Unit 16
16.1: Concentration of a solution
16.2: Dilution
(CDC guide: Concentration of solutions in g dm-3 and in mol dm-3 (molarity))

What is the concentration of a solution formed by dissolving 18.0 g of sodium chloride to


make 900.0 cm3 of solution?
A 0.200 g dm-3
B 3.42 g dm-3
C 20.0 g dm-3
D 200 g dm-3

What is the concentration of a solution formed by dissolving 34.0 g of zinc sulphate to make
75.0 cm3 of solution?
(Relative atomic masses: O = 16.0, S = 32.1, Zn = 65.4)
A 0.00281 M
B 2.81 M
C 0.453 M
D 453 M

5.04 g of oxalic acid crystals (COOH)22H2O are dissolved in distilled water and made up to
250.0 cm3. What is the molarity of the oxalic acid solution?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0)
A 0.010 M
B 0.040 M
C 0.160 M
D 0.224 M

2.00 g of calcium chloride are used to make 50.0 cm3 of solution. What is the concentration of
ions in the solution?
(Relative atomic masses: Cl = 35.5, Ca = 40.1)
A 0.360 M.
B 0.720 M.
C 1.08 M.
D 1.59 M.

A solution of potassium hydroxide contains 11.2 g of potassium hydroxide in 500.0 cm3 of the
solution. What is its molarity?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, K = 39.1)

A
B
C
D

0.224 M
0.305 M
0.399 M
0.488 M

What is the molarity of a nitric acid sample with a concentration of 12.6 g dm-3?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, N = 14.0, O = 16.0)
A 0.100 M
B 0.200 M
C 0.300 M
D 0.400 M

6.65 g of solid calcium nitrate are dissolved in water and the solution is made up to 250.0 cm3.
What is the concentration of Ca2+(aq) ions in the solution?
(Relative atomic masses: N = 14.0, O = 16.0, Ca = 40.1)
A 0.0460 M
B 0.0840 M
C 0.162 M
D 0.266 M

1.00 mole of magnesium chloride and 1.5 moles of sodium chloride are dissolved in water and
the solution is made up to 700.0 cm3. The concentration of the chloride ion in the solution is
A 0.00360 M.
B 0.00500 M.
C 3.60 M.
D 5.00 M.

Solution of X has a density of 2.42 g cm-3 and contains 55.0% of X by mass. What is the
concentration of the solution?
(Molar mass of X = 106.0 g mol-1)
A 12.6 M
B 13.3 M
C 22.8 M
D 44.6 M

10

A sample of concentrated sulphuric acid has a density of 1.75 g cm-3 and contains 92.0% of
sulphuric acid by mass. What is the concentration of sulphuric acid in the sample?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.1)
A 16.1 M
B 16.4 M
C 17.8 M
D 19.0 M

11

A 0.500 M zinc sulphate solution is prepared by dissolving 14.4 g of zinc sulphate-7-water


crystals (ZnSO47H2O) in distilled water. What is the volume of the solution formed?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.1, Zn = 65.4)
A 50 cm3
B 100 cm3
C 250 cm3
D 500 cm3

12

What is the mass of solute present in 500.0 cm3 of 0.400 M sodium hydroxide solution?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 2.00 g
B 4.00 g
C 8.00 g
D 16.0 g

13

What is the mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate required to prepare 500.0 cm3 of 0.200 M
sodium carbonate solution?
(Relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 4.15 g
B 5.30 g
C 8.30 g
D 10.6 g

14

What is the mass of ethanoic acid CH3COOH in 2.00 dm3 of 0.200 M solution?

(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0)


A 8.00 g
B 16.0 g
C 24.0 g
D 48.0 g

15

What is mass of oxalic acid H2C2O42H2O required to prepare 250.0 cm3 of 0.180 M solution?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0)
A 5.67 g
B 22.7 g
C 31.5 g
D 45.0 g

16

What volume of water is required to dilute 100 cm3 of 8.00 M sulphuric acid to a
concentration of 1.60 M?
A 400 cm3
B 500 cm3
C 600 cm3
D 700 cm3

18

What volume of water should be added to dilute 30.0 cm3 of 3.50 M magnesium sulphate
solution to a molarity of 2.10 M?
A 10.0 cm3
B 20.0 cm3
C 30.0 cm3
D 50.0 cm3

18

50.0 cm3 of 2.40 M copper(II) sulphate solution is diluted to a molarity of 0.800 M. What is
the volume of the new solution?
A 50 cm3
B 100 cm3
C 150 cm3
D 200 cm3

19

25.0 cm3 of water are added to 3.50 M hydrochloric acid so that the new molarity of the
solution is 1.26 M. What is the volume of the original solution?
A 7.00 cm3
B 14.0 cm3
C 21.0 cm3
D 28.0 cm3

20

42.0 cm3 of water are added to 35.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution so that the new
molarity of the solution is 2.10 M. What is the molarity of the original solution?
A 2.55 M
B 3.43 M
C 4.25 M
D 4.62 M

21

When 50.0 cm3 of 0.0100 M sodium hydroxide solution is mixed with 10.0 cm3 of 0.100 M
sodium hydroxide solution, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution becomes
A 0.0250 M.
B 0.0550 M.
C 0.0750 M.
D 0.0950 M.

22

0.100 dm3 of 0.200 M potassium sulphate solution is added to 100.0 cm3 of water and mixed
thoroughly. What is the molarity of potassium ions in the resulting solution?
A 0.100 M
B 0.150 M
C 0.200 M
D 0.400 M

23 Solution X is prepared by mixing 100.0 cm 3 of 2.50 M Na2CO3(aq) with 150.0 cm3 of


1.00 M
NaCl(aq). What is the concentration of Na+(aq) ions in X?
A 1.25 M
B 1.60 M

C
D

2.60 M
3.25 M

24

A solution is prepared by mixing 100.0 cm3 of 2.00 M NaNO3(aq) with 50.0 cm3 of 0.250 M
Zn(NO3)2(aq). What is the concentration of NO3-(aq) ions in the solution?
A 1.13 M
B 1.25 M
C 1.40 M
D 1.50 M

25

Which of the following solutions has the greatest mass of solute?


(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 10.0 cm3 of 3.00 M sodium hydroxide solution
B 20.0 cm3 of 2.00 M sodium hydroxide solution
C 80.0 cm3 of 6.00 g dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution
D 100.0 cm3 of 8.00 g dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution

26

Which of the following solutions has the highest concentration of ions?


A 1 M ammonia solution
B 1 M ethanoic acid
C 1 M hydrochloric acid
D 1 M sulphuric acid

27

Which of the following solutions contains the greatest number of ions?


A 60 cm3 of 0.1 M Na3PO4(aq)
B 60 cm3 of 0.1 M K2SO4(aq)
C 90 cm3 of 0.05 M KNO3(aq)
D 120 cm3 of 0.05 M AgNO3(aq)

28

Which of the following solutions contains the smallest amount of ions?


A 30 cm3 of 2 M HCl(aq)
B 40 cm3 of 3 M NaCl(aq)
C 50 cm3 of 2 M Na2CO3(aq)

60 cm3 of 1 M H2SO4(aq)

29

Which of the following substances will produce a solution of the highest concentration when
they are made up to a 500 cm3 solution?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, N = 14.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0, Mg = 24.3,
S = 32.1, Cl = 35.5, Cu = 63.5, Ag = 107.9)
A 10 g silver nitrate
B 20 g sodium hydrogencarbonate
C 30 g magnesium sulphate
D 40 g copper(II) chloride

30

Which of the following procedures will give a solution of sodium carbonate with a molarity of
exactly 1.00 M?
(Relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A Dissolve 10.6 g of sodium carbonate in 10.0 cm3 of water.
B Dissolve 10.6 g of sodium carbonate in 50.0 cm3 of water and add more water up to
100.0 cm3.
C Dissolve 106.0 g of sodium carbonate in 1 000.0 cm3 of water.
D Dissolve 106.0 g of sodium carbonate in 500.0 cm3 of water and then add another
500.0 cm3 of water.

31

Which of the following are the units of concentration of a solution?


(1) g dm-3
(2) M
(3) mol dm-3
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

32

Which of the following solutions contain the same amount of ions?


(1) 35 cm3 of 2.5 M KOH(aq)
(2) 42 cm3 of 2.0 M NH4Cl(aq)
(3) 28 cm3 of 2.0 M Na2SO4(aq)

A
B
C
D

(1) and (2) only


(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

16.3: Volumetric analysis


16.4: Preparing a standard solution of an acid/alkali
(CDC guide: Standard solutions)

A standard solution can be defined as


A a solution with known molarity.
B a solution with known volume.
C a molar solution.
D a saturated solution.

Which of the following pieces of apparatus can be used to deliver 25.0 cm3 of dilute
hydrochloric acid accurately?
A Beaker
B Measuring cylinder
C Pipette
D Conical flask

Which of the following pieces of apparatus is NOT required in preparing a standard solution
from solid anhydrous sodium carbonate?
A Weighing bottle
B Electronic balance
C Volumetric flask
D Pipette

The following diagrams show the steps in the preparation of an acid solution from a solid acid.

The logical sequence of the diagram is


A I, IV, III, II
B III, I, IV, II
C III, IV, I, II
D IV, III, II, I

Solid sodium hydroxide CANNOT be weighed accurately for preparing a standard solution
because
A it is corrosive.
B it decomposes easily.
C it absorbs moisture from the air.
D it is volatile.

In order to prepare 250.0 cm3 of 1.00 M sodium chloride solution from sodium chloride
crystals, which of the following combinations of apparatus should be used?
A Burette, pipette, wash bottle
B Wash bottle, volumetric flask, beaker
C Pipette, volumetric flask, measuring cylinder
D Pipette, burette, conical flask

The correct way of using a pipette is


A suck in the solution at once after washing the pipette with distilled water.

B
C
D

blow off the last drop of solution left in the pipette.


always close the end of the pipette with your finger.
allow the tip of the pipette to touch the side of the flask during solution transfer.

Which of the following pieces of apparatus should be used to prepare 250.0 cm3 of 0.250 M
potassium hydroxide solution from 2.50 M potassium hydroxide solution?
(1) Pipette
(2) Electronic balance
(3) Volumetric flask
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

16.5: Acid-alkali titration


16.6: How do we know when to stop a titration?
16.7: Preparing a soluble salt by titration
(CDC guide: Acid-alkali titrations)

A student performed a titration experiment in which he added an acid from a burette to an


alkali in a conical flask. The following diagrams show the initial and final readings of the
burette.

What was the volume of the acid added from the burette to the conical flask?
A 25.1 cm3
B 25.2 cm3
C 25.3 cm3
D 29.9 cm3

Which of the following apparatus is most suitable to transfer exactly 17.4 cm3 of a solution?
A Pipette
B Burette
C Measuring cylinder
D Conical flask

In the titration of dilute potassium hydroxide solution against dilute hydrochloric acid, the
burette containing dilute hydrochloric acid should be washed with
A distilled water only.
B dilute hydrochloric acid only.
C distilled water and then dilute hydrochloric acid.
D dilute hydrochloric acid and then distilled water.

In a titration experiment, the conical flask should be washed with


A distilled water only.
B the solution it is going to hold only.
C distilled water and then the solution it is to hold.
D the solution it is going to hold and then distilled water.

Why is a white tile placed under the conical flask in titrations?


A It is easier to observe the colour change of the indicator at the end point with the white
tile.
B It fixes the position of the conical flask during titration.
C It prevents the bench from being attacked by the chemicals spilt out during titration.
D It protects the bench from the heat energy released during titration.

Which of the following curves would represent the change in pH value when 25.0 cm3 of a
sodium hydroxide solution in a conical flask is titrated with dilute hydrochloric acid?

Which of the following are correct ways of using a burette?


(1) When taking the reading, the eyes of the observer should be on the same level as the
meniscus of the liquid.
(2) The jet of the burette must be filled before taking the initial reading.
(3) Filter funnel should be placed on top of the burette during titration.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following apparatus should be washed with distilled water only before titration?
(1) Conical flask
(2) Burette
(3) Pipette
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Which of the following indicators can be used for the titration of dilute hydrochloric acid
against dilute sodium hydroxide solution?

(1)
(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

Litmus solution
Methyl orange
Phenolphthalein
(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

10

In a titration experiment, dilute hydrochloric acid is added to 25.0 cm3 of 1.00 M sodium
hydroxide solution in a conical flask. Methyl orange is used as an indicator. Which of the
following statements concerning the experiment are correct?
(1) The pH value of the solution in the conical flask decreases.
(2) The concentration of sodium ions in the conical flask remains unchanged throughout the
experiment.
(3) The indicator changes from yellow to red.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

11

In a titration experiment, 25.0 cm3 of diluted vinegar is titrated against a standard solution of
sodium hydroxide. Phenolphthalein is used as an indicator. Which of the following statements
concerning the experiment are correct?
(1) The colour of phenolphthalein changes from colourless to pink at the end point.
(2) Litmus solution can be used instead of phenolphthalein as an indicator.
(3) A burette is used to contain the standard solution of sodium hydroxide.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

16.8: Calculations in acid-alkali titrations


(CDC guide: Performing calculations on titrations)

25.0 cm3 of a dibasic acid requires 40.0 cm3 of 0.10 M potassium hydroxide solution for
complete neutralization. The molarity of the acid is
A 0.040 M.
B 0.080 M.
C 0.120 M.
D 0.160 M.

What is the volume of 0.700 M sodium hydroxide solution required to neutralize 34.0 cm3 of
1.24 M ethanoic acid completely?
A 15.0 cm3
B 30.1 cm3
C 60.2 cm3
D 120.4 cm3

30.0 cm3 of 1.52 M sodium hydroxide solution is added to 20.0 cm3 of 1.14 M sulphuric acid.
What is the molarity of the resulting sodium sulphate solution?
A 0.456 M
B 0.760 M
C 0.912 M
D 1.14 M

0.200 M dilute hydrochloric acid was added to 25.0 cm3 of 0.400 M calcium hydroxide
solution until complete neutralization. What is the concentration of calcium chloride in the
resulting solution?
A 0.0100 M
B 0.0800 M
C 0.133 M
D 0.266 M

2.63 g of anhydrous sodium hydrogencarbonate are dissolved in water and is made up to


250.0 cm3. 25.0 cm3 of this solution require 28.9 cm3 of hydrochloric acid for complete

reaction. What is the molarity of the acid?


(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 0.108 M
B 0.217 M
C 1.08 M
D 2.17 M

The chemical formula of a metal carbonate is X2CO3. 1.59 g of the carbonate are dissolved in
50.0 cm3 of distilled water. This solution requires 20.0 cm3 of 1.50 M hydrochloric acid for
complete reaction. What is the relative atomic mass of metal X?
(Relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0)
A 23.0
B 39.0
C 46.0
D 78.0

14.0 g of a dibasic acid are dissolved in water and the solution is made up to 250.0 cm3.
25.0 cm3 of the solution are titrated against 0.500 M sodium hydroxide solution. 29.2 cm3 of
the hydroxide solution are required for complete neutralization. What is the molar mass of
the acid?
A 52.1 g mol-1
B 146 g mol-1
C 192 g mol-1
D 204 g mol-1

1.80 g of an impure sample of sodium hydroxide is dissolved in water and titrated against
0.500 M sulphuric acid. 20.3 cm3 of the acid are required for complete neutralization. What is
the percentage by mass of sodium hydroxide in the sample?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 11.3%
B 22.6%
C 45.1%
D 72.0%

Magnesium hydroxide is the active ingredient of an antacid. A 6.00 g tablet of this antacid is
dissolved in water and made up to 250.0 cm3. 25.0 cm3 of the solution are titrated against
1.45 M hydrochloric acid. 7.00 cm3 of the acid are required for complete neutralization.
What is the percentage by mass of magnesium hydroxide in a tablet of the antacid?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, Mg = 24.3)
A 43.5%
B 49.3%
C 87.0%
D 98.1%

10

8.30 g of a hydrated sodium carbonate Na2CO3nH2O are dissolved in water and the solution
is made up to 250.0 cm3. 25.0 cm3 of this solution require 29.0 cm3 of 0.200 M hydrochloric
acid for complete reaction. What is the value of n?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 1
B 2
C 9
D 10

11

25.0 cm3 of a 0.200 M acid solution require 30.0 cm3 of 0.500 M potassium hydroxide
solution for complete neutralization. What is the basicity of the acid?
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4

12

25.0 cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution are titrated against 0.100 M sulphuric acid. The
following table shows the titration results:
Burette readings (cm3)

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

Final reading

37.4

32.6

34.5

33.6

Initial reading

4.3

1.1

3.1

2.0

The molarity of the potassium hydroxide solution is


A 0.126 M.
B 0.128 M.

C
D

0.252 M.
0.255 M.

13 What is the volume ratio of 1 M phosphoric acid H3PO4 to 1 M sodium hydroxide solution
when they completely neutralize each other?
A 1:1
B 1:2
C 3:1
D 1:3

14

What is the volume ratio of 0.2 M sodium carbonate solution to 0.1 M hydrochloric acid when
they completely react with each other?
A 1:1
B 1:2
C 1:4
D 4:1

15

Excess copper(II) oxide is dissolved in 54.0 cm3 of 1.35 M sulphuric acid. What is the
theoretical mass of hydrated copper(II) sulphate (CuSO45H2O) obtained from the resulting
solution?
(Relative atomic masses: H = 1.0, O = 16.0, S = 32.1, Cu = 63.5)
A 9.10 g
B 11.6 g
C 18.2 g
D 36.4 g

16

34.0 cm3 of 2.40 M hydrochloric acid are added to 27.0 cm3 of 3.10 M sodium hydroxide
solution. What mass of sodium chloride can be obtained theoretically?
(Relative atomic masses: Na = 23.0, Cl = 35.5)
A 4.77 g
B 4.89 g
C 9.54 g
D 9.79 g

17

100.0 cm3 of a solution contain 1.33 g of a mixture of anhydrous sodium carbonate and
sodium chloride. 25.0 cm3 of the solution require 25.0 cm3 of 0.100 M hydrochloric acid for
complete reaction. What is the percentage by mass of sodium carbonate in the mixture?
(Relative atomic masses: C = 12.0, O = 16.0, Na = 23.0)
A 9.95%.
B 20.0%.
C 39.8%.
D 79.7%.

18

A solid mixture consists of 0.100 mole of sodium hydrogencarbonate and 0.100 mole of
sodium carbonate. What is the volume of 2.00 M sulphuric acid required for complete reaction
of the mixture?
A 25.0 cm3
B 50.0 cm3
C 75.0 cm3
D 100.0 cm3

19

Excess dilute hydrochloric acid was added to a mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium
hydrogencarbonate. 1.0 mole of carbon dioxide was collected.
The mixture could have contained
A 0.25 mole of NaHCO3 and 0.25 mole of Na2CO3.
B 0.50 mole of NaHCO3 and 1.0 mole of Na2CO3.
C 0.50 mole of NaHCO3 and 0.50 mole of Na2CO3.
D 0.50 mole of NaHCO3 and 0.25 mole of Na2CO3.

20

17.8 cm3 of a sulphuric acid of molarity Y M will completely neutralize 25.0 cm3 of a sodium
hydroxide solution. What is the molarity of the alkali?
A

17.8 Y
25.0

25.0 Y
17.8

2 25.0 Y
M
17.8

2 17.8 Y
M
25.0

Directions: Questions 21 and 22 refer to the following experiment.


A student added 20.0 cm3 of 1.20 M sodium hydroxide solution, in 2.00 cm3 portions, to 10.0 cm3
of nitric acid. He measured the temperature of the mixture immediately after each addition of the
sodium hydroxide solution.
21

Which of the following graphs represents the relationship between the temperature of the
mixture and the volume of sodium hydroxide solution added?

22

What is the molarity of the nitric acid?


A 0.800 M
B 1.20 M
C 1.80 M
D 2.40 M

Directions: Questions 23 and 24 refer to the following experiment.


In an experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution in a brand of drain
cleaner, 25.0 cm3 of the cleaner were first diluted to 250.0 cm 3 with distilled water. Upon titration
with 0.250 M sulphuric acid using phenolphthalein as indicator, 25.0 cm 3 of the diluted cleaner

required 16.4 cm3 of the acid to reach the end point.


23

What is the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution in the undiluted drain cleaner?
A 1.64 M
B 2.05 M
C 3.28 M
D 4.10 M

24

Which of the following statements concerning the experiment are correct?


(1) The colour of phenolphthalein changed from pink to colourless at the end point.
(2) A pipette was used to deliver 25.0 cm3 of the drain cleaner.
(3) The conical flask for holding the diluted cleaner was washed with the diluted cleaner
before titration.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Directions: Questions 25 to 27 refer to the following experiment.


The following experiment was carried out to determine the concentration of sulphuric acid in a
sample of battery acid.
Step 1
25.0 cm3 of the battery acid were diluted and the solution was made up to 250.0 cm3.
Step 2
25.0 cm3 of the diluted acid were delivered to a conical flask. A suitable acid-alkali
indicator was added.
Step 3
1.00 M sodium hydroxide solution from a burette was run into the diluted acid.
22.5 cm3 of the alkali were required to reach the end point.
25

What is the molarity of sulphuric acid in the sample of battery acid?


A 4.50 M
B 5.60 M
C 9.00 M
D 11.1 M

26

Which of the following can be used as an acid-alkali indicator in Step 2?


(1) Methyl orange

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

27

Phenolphthalein
Universal indicator
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements concerning the experiment are correct?


(1) The burette was washed with distilled water and then 1.00 M sodium hydroxide solution.
(2) The temperature of the mixture in the conical flask increased.
(3) The mixture could not conduct electricity at the end of the experiment.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Directions: Questions 28 and 29 refer to the following experiment.


1.0 cm3 portions of a lead(II) nitrate solution are added successively to 10.0 cm 3 of 1.2 M
potassium sulphate solution in a test tube. After each addition, the height of the precipitate formed
is measured. The following graph is obtained.

28

What is the concentration of the lead(II) nitrate solution?


A 1.0 M
B 1.2 M
C 1.8 M
D 2.0 M

29

Which of the following statements concerning the experiment are correct?


(1) The precipitate is white in colour.
(2) The maximum height of precipitate would be the same if 0.5 cm3 portions of the lead(II)
nitrate solution are used instead of 1.0 cm3 portions.
(3) A measuring cylinder is used to measure the 1.0 cm3 portions of the lead(II) nitrate
solution.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Directions: Questions 30 to 32 refer to the following experiment.


This experiment was carried out to determine the concentration of a nickel(II) sulphate solution.
Step 1
25.0 cm3 of 0.820 M sodium hydroxide solution were added to 25.0 cm3 of the nickel(II)
sulphate solution to produce nickel(II) hydroxide.
Step 2
The nickel(II) hydroxide produced was removed from the mixture.
Step 3
The excess alkali in the mixture was titrated against 0.250 M sulphuric acid with methyl
orange as an indicator. 15.8 cm3 of the acid were required to reach the end point.
30

What is the number of moles of OH-(aq) ions present in the mixture in Step 3?
A 0.00198 mole
B 0.00395 mole
C 0.00790 mole
D 0.0158 mole

31

What is the molarity of the nickel(II) sulphate solution?


A 0.126 M
B 0.252 M
C 0.504 M
D 0.756 M

32

Which of the following statements concerning the experiment is / are correct?


(1) The nickel(II) hydroxide formed in Step 1 was green in colour.
(2) The nickel(II) hydroxide was removed from the mixture by crystallization in Step 2.
(3) The colour of the indicator changed from colourless to pink at the end point in Step 3.

A
B
C
D

(1) only
(2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only

33

When potassium carbonate solution and magnesium chloride solution are mixed, magnesium
carbonate is precipitated. Which of the following mixtures would produce the greatest amount
of precipitate?
A 10 cm3 of 1 M K2CO3(aq) + 30 cm3 of 1 M MgCl2(aq)
B 15 cm3 of 1 M K2CO3(aq) + 25 cm3 of 1 M MgCl2(aq)
C 20 cm3 of 1 M K2CO3(aq) + 20 cm3 of 1 M MgCl2(aq)
D 30 cm3 of 1 M K2CO3(aq) + 10 cm3 of 1 M MgCl2(aq)

34

Different volumes of 1.00 M sodium hydroxide solution and 1.00 M sulphuric acid are mixed
in a plastic cup. In which of the following combinations would the temperature rise be the
greatest?
Volume of 1.00 M
Volume of 1.00 M
3
KOH(aq) (cm ) H2SO4(aq) (cm3)
A
10.0
20.0
B
15.0
15.0
C
20.0
10.0
D
25.0
5.0

35

Which of the following pairs of solutions will give an acidic solution when they are mixed?
(1) 30 cm3 of 2.5 M HCl(aq) + 20 cm3 of 3.75 M NaOH(aq)
(2) 25 cm3 of 1.5 M CH3COOH(aq) + 30 cm3 of 1.2 M NaOH(aq)
(3) 20 cm3 of 2.0 M KOH(aq) + 15 cm3 of 3.5 M HCl(aq)
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

36

Which of the following pairs of solutions will give a neutral solution when they are mixed?
(1) 25 cm3 of 0.20 M sulphuric acid and 50 cm3 of 0.20 M sodium hydroxide solution

(2)
(3)
A
B
C
D

37

25 cm3 of 0.20 M sulphuric acid and 20 cm3 of 0.25 M calcium hydroxide solution
25 cm3 of 0.20 M sulphuric acid and 25 cm3 of 0.40 M potassium hydroxide solution
(1) and (2) only
(1) and (3) only
(2) and (3) only
(1), (2) and (3)

Which of the following statements concerning 10.0 cm3 of 1.0 M sulphuric acid and 20.0 cm3
of 1.0 M ethanoic acid is / are correct?
(1) They contain the same number of hydrogen ions.
(2) They require the same volume of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide solution for complete
neutralization.
(3) They have the same electrical conductivity.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

Unit 17
17.1: Fast and slow reactions
17.2: Measuring reaction rates
17.3: Determining the rate of a reaction measuring the volume of a gaseous
product
17.4: Determining the rate of a reaction measuring the loss in mass of the
reactants
17.5: Determining the rate of a reaction measuring the time taken to reach an
easily seen stage
17.6: Determining the rate of a reaction measuring the change of pressure
during the reaction
17.7: Factors affecting the rate of a reaction
(CDC guide: Effects of concentration, surface area and temperature on the rate
of reaction)

Which of the following chemical reactions is slowest?


A A firework exploded
B An egg frying
C A match burning
D A limestone status damage caused by acid rain

Excess marble chips was added to 25 cm3 of 2 M hydrochloric acid in a beaker. Which
measurement, taken at regular intervals and plotted against time, would give the curve shown
below?

A
B
C
D

Temperature
Volume of gas produced
pH value of the reaction mixture
Mass of the beaker and its contents

The rate of most reactions decreases with time because


A reactions are usually reversible.
B temperatures of the reaction mixtures decrease.
C concentrations of reactants decrease.
D the surface areas of reactants decrease.

The reaction between 10 g of zinc granules and 20 cm3 of 1 M sulphuric acid is slower than
that between 10 g of zinc powder and 20 cm3 of 1 M sulphuric acid. Which of the following
statements is a reason for this phenomenon?
A The concentration of zinc powder is higher than that of zinc granules in the solution.
B Zinc powder has a greater surface area than zinc granules with the same mass.
C An insoluble layer is coated on zinc granules which prevents further reaction.
D Zinc powder acts as a catalyst in the reaction.

Which of the following methods CANNOT speed up the reaction between limestone lumps
and dilute hydrochloric acid?
A Warm the mixture in hot water bath.
B Use a more concentrated hydrochloric acid.
C Use powdered limestone.
D Add distilled water to the mixture.

When 20 cm3 of 1 M HCl are added to 10 g of calcium carbonate chips, carbon dioxide is
given off. Which of the following will NOT increase the initial rate of the reaction?
A Using 10 cm3 of 2 M HCl instead of 20 cm3 of 1 M HCl
B Using 20 cm3 of 3 M HCl instead of 20 cm3 of 1 M HCl
C Using 30 cm3 of 1 M HCl instead of 20 cm3 of 1 M HCl
D Using 10 g of calcium carbonate powder instead of calcium carbonate chips

The time taken for zinc granules to dissolve in dilute hydrochloric acid can be increased by
A increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture.
B using a more concentrated hydrochloric acid.
C adding water to the reaction mixture.
D using equal mass of zinc powder.

The rate of reaction usually doubles for a 10 oC increase in temperature. If the temperature of a
reaction is increased from 30 oC to 70 oC, the rate of the reaction should be increased by
A 2 times.
B 8 times.
C 12 times.
D 16 times.

Excess magnesium ribbons are added to dilute sulphuric acid. Which of the following graphs
represents the relationship between the concentration of sulphuric acid and time of the
reaction?

10

Excess calcium carbonate is added to dilute hydrochloric acid. Which of the following graphs
shows the relationship between the loss in mass of the mixture and time of the reaction?

11

Consider the following experiment.

Which of the following graphs shows the relationship between the loss in mass of the

mixtures
and time?

12

Consider the following experiment.

Experiment

Dilute sulphuric acid used

20 cm3 of 1.5 M sulphuric acid

60 cm3 of 1.0 M sulphuric acid

In each experiment, the volume of gas given off was recorded at regular time intervals.
Which of the following graphs represents the data obtained from experiments X and Y?

13

Students 1 and 2 separately investigated the rate of reaction of powdered magnesium with
excess dilute sulphuric acid. They measured how quickly hydrogen was given off. The graph
shows the results of their work. The same mass of magnesium was used in both experiments.

Which conditions were used in the experiment of student 2?


Temperature of acid
Concentration of acid
A lower than experiment of student 1
same as experiment of student 1
B higher than experiment of student 1 higher than experiment of student 1
C same as experiment of student 1
same as experiment of student 1
D same as experiment of student 1
higher than experiment of student 1

14

The same mass of marble chips was added to 100 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid and 100 cm3
of 1 M ethanoic acid separately. The marble was in excess.
Which of the following would have been the same for both experiments?
A The time taken for the reaction to complete
B The rate at which the first 10 cm3 of gas were evolved
C The mass of marble clips left over when the reaction stopped
D The average rate of the reaction

15

16

1 M hydrochloric acid is progressively diluted by the addition of water.


Which property of the acid would increase with increasing dilution?
A The pH value
B The electrical conductivity
C The rate of its reaction with chalk
D The volume of alkali which it will neutralize

Excess calcium carbonate powder was added to dilute hydrochloric acid. The total volume of
carbon dioxide given off was recorded at regular time intervals and the following graph was
obtained.

Which of the following statements are correct?


(1) The reaction was completed at point X.
(2) The rate of reaction decreased with time.
(3) The rate of reaction reached a minimum at point X.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

17

Which of the following are fast reactions?


(1) Precipitation
(2) Rusting
(3) Neutralization
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

18

Which of the following reactions can have their reaction rates followed by measuring the

volume of gas given off during the reaction?


(1) The reaction between dilute sodium hydroxide solution and dilute sulphuric acid
(2) The reaction between calcium and water
(3) The reaction between zinc and dilute sulphuric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)
19

Which of the following factors would affect the rate of reaction between dilute hydrochloric
acid and calcium carbonate?
(1) Temperature
(2) Particle size of calcium carbonate
(3) Concentration of hydrochloric acid
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

20

Which of the following methods can speed up the reaction between magnesium ribbons and
dilute hydrochloric acid?
(1) Put the flask containing dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium in ice bath.
(2) Use magnesium powder instead of magnesium ribbons.
(3) Use more dilute hydrochloric acid.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

21

Which of the following methods can be used to follow the rate of the reaction between dilute
hydrochloric acid and copper(II) oxide?
(1) Measuring the colour intensity of the reaction mixture
(2) Measuring the pH value of the reaction mixture
(3) Measuring the volume of gas given off
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only

C
D

(2) and (3) only


(1), (2) and (3)

22 Which of the following methods can be used to follow the rate of the reaction between zinc
and copper(II) sulphate solution?
(1) Weighing the mass of the reaction mixture
(2) Measuring the colour intensity of the reaction mixture
(3) Measuring the volume of gas given off
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only

23

24

Which of the following methods can be used to follow the rate of the reaction between dilute
hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate solution?
(1) Put a paper with a cross under the beaker containing the reaction mixture and measure the
time taken for the cross to disappear.
(2) Measure the degree of turbidity of the reaction mixture using a light sensor and
data-logger.
(3) Measure the mass of water formed in the reaction.
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only
C (2) and (3) only
D (1), (2) and (3)

Nitrogen monoxide NO is a colourless gas. It reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide
NO2, a brown gas.
2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g)
Which of the following methods can follow the progress of the reaction in a closed
system?
(1) Measuring the colour intensity of the reaction mixture
(2) Measuring the change in pressure inside the system
(3) Measuring the total mass of the system
A (1) and (2) only
B (1) and (3) only

C
D

(2) and (3) only


(1), (2) and (3)

25 Which of the following statements concerning 100 cm3 of 1 M CH3COOH(aq) and 50


cm3 of
1 M H2SO4(aq) is / are correct?
(1) They react with zinc granules at the same rate.
(2) They require the same number of moles of NaOH for complete neutralization.
(3) They have the same electrical conductivity.
A (1) only
B (2) only
C (1) and (3) only
D (2) and (3) only