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ITIL 2011 FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION COURSE

ITIL is a Registered Trade Mark of The Cabinet Office in the United Kingdom and other countries.
"The Swirl logo is a Trade Mark of The Cabinet Office ".

ITIL 2011 Foundation Course Objectives


2

At the end of the course, you should be able to


Discuss the ITIL 2011 qualification scheme
Explain the practice of Service Management
Describe Service Lifecycle
Identify key principles and models of ITIL 2011
Define generic concepts in ITIL 2011
Discuss the processes, roles and functions in ITIL 2011
Summarise the use of technology with ITIL 2011
Successfully clear your ITIL 2011 foundation exam.

ITIL 2011 Foundation Course Agenda


3

Module 1: Introduction to Service Management Lifecycle


Principles of Service Management, Processes, The ITIL Service Lifecycle

Module 2: Service Strategy


Concepts and Models, Processes
Module 3: Service Design
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 4: Service Transition
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 5: Service Operations
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes and Functions
Module 6: Continual Service Improvement
Concepts and Models, Key Principles, Processes
Module 7 : Summary and Exam Preparation
Review of Key Concepts and Practice Exam

Module 1
4

Introduction
To Service
Management
Lifecycle

Lesson 1.0: What is ITIL ?


5

What is ITIL ?
A set of publications for good practices in IT service Management.
Why ITIL ?
Focuses on descriptive guidance on IT Service Management thats
easily adapted.
Emphasizes Quality Management approach, standards
ITIL goals
Consistent, comprehensive, hygienic set of Best-Practice guidance
Platform independent discussion of processes
Common Language, Standardized vocabulary
Flexible framework, adaptable to different IT environments.

Lesson 1.1: ITIL 2011 Components


6

Lesson 1.2: ITIL Core Publications


7

Each lifecycle phase of ITIL 2011 Core


is represented by a Volume in the
Library
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Service Strategy
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Continual Service Improvement

Lesson 1.3: ITIL 2011 Qualification


Scheme: Credits System
8

Lifecycle Modules
Service Strategy
Service Design
Service Transition
Service Operation
Continual Service Improvement

Capability Modules
Operational Support and Analysis (OSA)
Planning Protection & Optimization (PPO)
Release Control and Validation (RCV)
Service Offerings & Agreements (SOA)
http://www.itil-officialsite.com/Qualifications/ITILV3QualificationScheme.asp

Lesson 1.4: ITIL 2011 Foundation Exam Format


9

Type

Online, Multiple choice, 40 questions. The questions are selected from


the full ITIL Foundation in IT Service Management examination
question bank.

Duration

Maximum 60 minutes. Candidates sitting the examination in a language


other than their native language have a maximum of 75 minutes

Supervised

Yes

Open Book

No

Pass Score

65% (26 out of 40)

Where ?

AEC Authorized Examination Centers

10

Lesson 2.0: Principles of IT Service


Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
Explain the concept of good practice
Define the concepts of service, Service
Management, Functions, Roles &Processes, and
RACI
The role of IT Governance across the Service
Lifecycle

Lesson 2.1: ITIL is presented as


Good Practice. What are good Practices?
11

Good Practices are generally commoditized, generally accepted, proven effective ways of
doing things which were previously considered best practices of the pioneering
organizations.

Successful Innovations applied diligently become Best


Practices

Best practice accepted and adopted by others become


common, Good Practices

Good Practices are Commoditized, generally accepted


principles, or regulatory requirements
11

Lesson 2.2: Why Choose Good


practices over Proprietary ones?
12

Good Practices, Public Standards


and frameworks

Proprietary knowledge

Wide Community Distribution


Public Training and Certification

Difficult to adopt
Difficult to replicate and transfer
Hard to document

Valid in Different applications


Peer Reviewed
Used by different parties

Highly customized
Specific to business needs
Hard to adapt or reuse

Free and publicly available


Labor market skills easy to find

Owners expect compensation

12

Lesson 2.3: What is a Service?


13

A means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customer want to


achieve, without the ownership of specific costs or risks.

Costs and Risks are transferred to service provider.


Customers focus on outcomes versus means.

Customer
Transfer costs and Risks
Retains focus and accountability for
outcomes

Service Provider
Takes on Costs and Risks
Responsible for the means of achieving
outcomes

Lesson 2.4: What is a Service Management?


14

Business Outcomes
Value
Customer Assets
Performance

Services
Capabilities Resources

Service Assets

Capabilities

Resources

A5 Management

Financial Capital

A4 Organization

Infrastructure

A3 Processes

Applications

A2 Knowledge

Information

A1

People
14

Lesson 2.5: Process, Functions and Roles


15

Process
- A set of activities designed to accomplish a specific
objective. A process takes defined inputs and turns them
into defined outputs. A process may include roles,
responsibilities, tools and management controls required
to deliver the outputs

15

Lesson 2.6: A Basic Process


16

Data, Information
and Knowledge

Desired
Outcome

Process

Suppliers

Activity 1

Customer

Activity 2

Activity 3

Service Control & Quality


Trigger
16

Lesson 2.7: Process Characteristics


17

It is measurable
It delivers specific result
Primary result are delivered to customers or stakeholders
It responds to specific events (triggers)

17

Lesson 2.8: Functions


18

Function
- A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry
out one or more processes or activities

18

Lesson 2.10: Service Management Roles :


Service Owner
20

Service Owner :
The person who is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT Service. They are
responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services
under their care. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service

Responsibilities:
To act as prime Customer contact for all Service related enquiries and issues
To ensure that the ongoing Service delivery and support meet agreed Customer
requirements
To identify opportunities for Service Improvements, discuss with the customer
and to initiate changes for improvements if appropriate.
To liaise with the appropriate Process Owners throughout the Service
Management lifecycle
To solicit required data, statistics and reports for analysis and to facilitate effective
Service monitoring and performance
20

Lesson 2.11: Service Management Roles :


Process Owner
21

Process Owner :
The person responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for the desired
purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. Example: The
owner for the Availability Management Process

Responsibilities:
Assisting with process design

Documenting the process


Make sure the process is being performed as documented
Making sure process meetings it aims
Monitoring and improving the process over time
21

Lesson 2.12: Connecting with


Processes and Functions: RACI
22
RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of:

Responsible - the person or people responsible for getting the job done
Accountable - only one person can be accountable for each task
Consulted - the people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought
Informed - the people who are kept up-to-date on progress.
Service
owner

Process
Owner

Security
Manager

IT
Head

Chief
Architect

Process
Manager

Create a framework for defining IT services

A/R

Build an IT service catalogue

A/R

Define SLA for critical IT services

Monitor and report SL performance

A/R

Review SLAs, OLAs and UCs

Review and Update IT service catalogue

A/R

Create service improvement Plan

A/R

Activities

Example RACI matrix

22

Lesson 2.13: Key Terminology: Service Provider


23

Service Provider :
An Organization supplying Services to one or more Internal Customers or
External Customers. Service provider is often used as an short form for IT
Service provider.
There are three types of business models service providers:
Type I
Internal Service Provider
An internal service provider that
is embedded within a business
unit e.g. one IT organization
within each of the business
units. The key factor is that the
IT Services provide a source of
competitive advantage in the
market space the business
exists in.

Type II
Shared Services Provider
An internal service provider that
provides shared IT service to
more than one business unit
e.g. one IT organization to
service all businesses in an
umbrella organization. IT
Services typically dont provide
a source of competitive
advantage, but instead support
effective and efficient business
processes.

Type III
External Service Provider
Service provider that provides IT
services to external customers
i.e. outsourcing

23

Lesson 2.14: Key Terminology: Supplier


24

Supplier:
A Third party responsible for supplying goods or Services that are required
to deliver IT services. Examples of suppliers include commodity hardware
and software vendors, network and telecom providers, and outsourcing
Organizations.
Business

Contract:
A legally binding agreement between two or more
parties to supply goods or services

Service Provider

Supplier
Fig: A Basic value Chain
24

25

Lesson 3.0: The Service Lifecycle


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
Understand the value of the Service Lifecycle
How the processes integrate with each other,
throughout
the Lifecycle
Explain the relationship between Governance
and IT Service Management

Lesson 3.2: The Lifecycle Interactions


26

The Business / Customers

Requirements

SLPs from
Requirements

Resources &
Constraints

Service Strategy
Policies
Strategy

SDPs

Service Design

Standards

Architectures
Solution
Design

SKMS Updated

Service Transition

Tested Solutions
Transition plans

Service Operation

Operations Plan

Continual Service
Improvement

Operational
Services

Improvement
Plans & Actions
26

Lesson 3.3: Relationship between


Governance and ITSM
27

Relationship between Governance and ITSM


Corporate Governance
Ensures the provision strategy and business
plans. Establishes the Corporate policies and
enables strategic direction, objectives, critical
success factors and key result areas.

Establishes IT policy, Standards and Principles,


Assures alignment of IT strategy to corporate
business strategy

IT Governance
Corporate Compliance
Assures adherence to Legal, Industrial and regulatory
requirements.
Assures the design and
operability of IT
policies , processes
and key controls

IT Compliance

Establishes, enables and executes the IT


strategy. Establishes Operations to assure
high-quality, compliant IT service
provisioning. Ensures effective key result
Areas.

IT Service Management
27

End of Module 1
28

Covered so far
What it ITIL

Process, Function, Technology

Life Cycle of Service i.e. SS,

SD, ST, SO and CSI

We are covering hereon


Lifecycle Phases

Processes and Functions

Tools used for ITSM

But before that a quiz !


28

Module 1: Quiz
29

Sample question 1:
Which of the following is NOT one of the ITIL 2011 core
publications?
a) Service Operation
b) Service Transition
c) Service Derivation
d) Service Strategy

29

Module 1: Quiz
30

Sample question 2:
What is the RACI model used for?

a) Documenting the roles and relationships of stakeholders in a


process or activity
b) Defining requirements for a new service or process
c) Analyzing the business impact of an incident
d) Creating a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of
Service Management
30

Module 1: Quiz
31

Sample question 3:
A service owner is responsible for which of the following?
a) Designing and documenting a Service
b) Carrying out the Service Operations activities needed to
support a Service
c) Producing a balanced scorecard showing the overall status of
all Services
d) Recommending improvements
31

Module 1: Quiz
32

Sample question 4:
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
1. Only one person can be responsible for an activity
2. Only one person can be accountable for an activity

a) All of the above


b) 1 only
c) 2 only

d) None of the above


32

Module 1: Quiz
33

Sample question 5:
Which of the following statements are CORRECT about Functions?
1. They provide structure and stability to organizations
2. They are self-contained units with their own capabilities and resources
3. They rely on processes for cross-functional coordination and control
4. They are costlier to implement compared to processes
a) 1, 2 and 3 only
b) 1, 2 and 4 only
c) All of the above
d) None of the above
33

Module 1: Quiz
34

Sample question 6:
Which of the following is a characteristic of every process?
1. It is measurable
2. It is timely
3. It delivers a specific result
4. It responds to a specific event
5. It delivers its primary result to a customer or stakeholder
a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
b) 1, 2, 4 and 5 only
c) 1, 3, 4 and 5 only
d) All of the above
34

35

End of Module 1

Module 2
36

Service
Strategy

36

37

Lesson 1: Service Strategy

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service

Strategy

Lesson 1.1: Service Strategy Objectives


38

Shows organization how to transform Service Management into a strategic


asset and then think and act in a strategic manner
Helps clarify the relationship between various services, systems or processes
and the business models, strategies or objectives they support

KEY ROLE: To stop and think about WHY something has to be done, before
thinking HOW.

38

Lesson 1.2: Key Strategy Questions


39

The objectives of service Strategy are to answer questions such as :


What services should we offer and to whom?
How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
How do we truly create value for our customers?
How do we capture value for our stakeholders?
Process in Service Strategy:
Demand management
Service portfolio Management, and
Financial management
Business Relationship Management

39

40

Lesson 2.0: Key concepts of service


strategy
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Describe basics of Value Creation through


Services
Explain Business Case

Lesson 2.1 Key Principles and Models


41

Service Value Creation : Utility & Warranty


Performance Supported ?

OR

Fit for Purpose ?

Constraints removed ?

Utility

Value
Available enough ?
Capacity enough ?
Continuous enough ?

AND

Fit for Use ?

Secure Enough ?

Warranty
41

Lesson 2.2: Service Value creation:


Utility & Warranty
42
42

Utility

Warranty

Functionality offered by
product /service as the
customer views it

Promise that the product/service will meet agreed requirements

What the customer gets

How it is delivered

Fitness for purpose

Fitness for use


Three Characteristics of warranty
>Provided in terms of availability/capacity of services
>Ensures customer assets continue to receive utility, even if
degraded, through major disruptions
> Ensures Security for value-creating potential of customer
assets

Increases performance
average

Reduces performance variation

Lesson 2.3: Basics of Value Creation:


Service Assets
43
43

Service Assets - Resources and capabilities available to an organization.


Resources - the IT infrastructure. People, money and others which
might help to deliver an IT service; the assets of an organization.
Capabilities - ability to co-ordinate, control, deploy resources; the
intangible assets of an organization.
Resources

Capabilities

Financial Capital

Management

Infrastructure

Organization

Applications

Processes

Information

Knowledge
People

Lesson 2.4: Service Packages


44

Supporting Services
Package
(Enables or Enhances the
value proposition )

Core Services Package


(Basic outcomes desired
by the customer.)

Service Level Packages


(Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package)
Availability Levels

Capacity Levels

Security Levels

Continuity
Service Features
Service Support

44

Lesson 2.5: Business Case


45
45

A decision support and planning tool that projects the likely


consequences of a business action

Justification for a significant item of expenditure.


Includes Information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks and
possible problems

Uses qualitative and quantitative terms


Type Business case structure
1. Introduction - business objectives addressed
2. Methods and assumptions- boundaries of the business case
3. Business Impacts - Financial and non financial
4. Risks and Contingencies
5. Recommendations - Specific Actions

Lesson 2.6: Risk


46

Risk
Risk is defined as uncertainty of outcome, whether positive opportunity
or negative threat.
There are two distinct phases. Risk Analysis and Risk Management.
Risk analysis is concerned with gathering information about exposure to
risk so that the organization can make appropriate decisions and
manage risk appropriately.
Risk management supports critical decision making process, in terms of
evaluating and selecting controls.
Management of risk covers a wide range of topics, including business
continuity management
(BCM), security, program/Project risk
management and operational service management.

46

Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation
47

Automation (Tools) are extremely useful to improve utility and warranty of


services:

Real time and historical data for analysis


Correlation of data from multiple devices
Service Impact analysis for prioritization
Service Performance optimization

47

Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation
48

Automation of service processes helps improve the quality of service,


reduce costs and reduce risks by reducing complexity and uncertainty, and
by efficiently resolving trade-offs.

Some of the areas where service management can benefit from automation
Design and modeling

Service catalogue
Pattern recognition and analysis
Classification, prioritization and routing
Detection and monitoring
Optimization.

48

49

Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation

Service Management Tools functionality include:

Self Help: a web front-end offering a menu-driven range of Self-Help and


Service Requests - with a direct interface into the back-end processhandling software.
Workflow or Process Engine: should allow responsibilities, activities,
timescales, escalation paths and alerting to be pre-defined and then
automatically managed.
Integrated CMS: CIs, Relationships, Records related to incidents,
problems, KE & Change
Discovery/Deployment technology: populate or verify CMS data, assist
in license management, ability to deploy new software at target locations
49

Lesson 2.9: Service Management


Technology & Automation
50

Service Management tools functionality include (contd.)

Remote Control: allow relevant support groups to take control of the user
desktops
Diagnostic scripts & utilities
Reporting & Dashboards

50

51

Lesson 3.0: Service Strategy


Process

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able Objectives
and basic concepts of the four processes in Service
Strategy:
Demand Management,
Service Portfolio Management
Financial Management
Business Relationship Management

Lesson 3.1: Demand Management: Objectives


52

The primary objective of Demand Management is to assist the IT


Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand
for services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands.

Other objectives include:

Identification and analysis of Patterns of Business Activity (PBA) and


user profiles (UP) that generate demand.
Utilizing techniques to influence and manage demand in such a way
that excess capacity is reduced but the business and customer
requirements are still satisfied.

52

Lesson 3.2: Managing Demand for Services


53

Demand Pattern

Service
Process
Service Belt

Capacity
Management
Plan

Patterns of
Business Activity

Demand
Management
53

Lesson 3.3: PBA and UP


54

Pattern of Business Activity (PBA)

Workload profile of one or more business activities


Varies over time
Represents changing business demands

User Profile

Pattern of user demand for IT services


Each user profile includes one or more PBAs

54

Lesson 3.4: What is a Service Portfolio?


55

Service Portfolio
The Service Portfolio
represents the
commitments and
investments made by a
service provider across
all customers and market
spaces.
It also includes the
ongoing service
improvement plans and
third party services.

Customer
3

Customer
2

Customer
1

Service
Improve
-ment
Plan

Service
Portfolio

Third
Party
Services

Market
Space 1

Market
Space 2

Market
Space 3

55

Lesson 3.5: Components of Service Portfolio


56
Service Portfolio

Components of
Service
Portfolio

Service Catalog
Service Pipeline

Market
Spaces

Continual service
Improvement

Third
Party
Catalog

Service
Transition

Customers

Service
Design

Service
Operations

Return on Assets
earned during Service
Operations
Resources
Engaged

etired
rvices

Resources
Released

Common Pool of ources


56

Lesson 3.6: Financial Management:


Goals and Objectives
57

Business
Opportunities

Business
Technology
Capabilities

Financial
Management

IT

57

Lesson 3.7: Financial Management: Activities


58

Activities
Budgeting

Predicting the expected future requirements for


funds to deliver the agreed upon services and
monitoring adherence to the defined budgets.

Accounting

Enables the IT organization to account fully for the


way its money is spent.

Chargeback

Charging customers for their use of IT Services.

Demand
Modeling

Working with the process of Demand Management


to anticipate usage of services by the business and
the associated financial implications of future
service demand.
58

Lesson 3.8: Financial Management: Benefits


59

Benefits
Enhanced decision making.
Increased speed of change.
Improved Service Portfolio Management.
Financial compliance and control.
Improved operational control.
Greater insight and communication of the value created by IT
services.

Increased visibility of IT leading to increased perception of IT


59

Lesson 3.9: Business Relationship


Management: Purpose
60

The purpose of Business Relationship Management are


To establish and maintain relationship between the service
provider and customer
To identify customer needs and ensure that the service provider is
able to meet these needs

60

Lesson 4.0: Business Relationship Activities


61

Following are the two key activities

Being the voice of the service provider to the customer

Being the voice of the customer to the service provider

61

Lesson 4.1:Business Relationship Mgmt:


Role - Business Relationship Manager
62

Responsible for the interaction and the communication with


customers

Could easily combine with the Service level Manager to create


seamless conduit from customer to service provider capabilities
used to ensure value

62

63

End of Service Strategy Module


Objectives and Key concepts of Service Strategy
Service Strategy processes.

Module 2: Quiz
64

Question 1:
Which ITIL process is responsible for drawing up a charging
system ?
a) Availability Management

b) Capacity Management
c) Financial Management for IT Services
d) Service Level Management
64

Module 2: Quiz
65

Question 2:
A Service Level Package is best described as?
a) A description of customer requirements used to negotiate a
Service Level Agreement
b) A defined level of utility and warranty associated with a core
service package
c) A description of the value that the customer wants and for
which they are willing to pay
d) A document showing the Service Levels achieved during an
agreed reporting period
65

Module 2: Quiz
66

Question 3:
The utility of a service is best described as:
a) Fit for design
b) Fit for purpose
c) Fit for function
d) Fit for use

66

Module 2: Quiz
67

Question 4:
The contents of a service package include:

a) Base Service Package, Supporting Service Package, Service


Level Package
b) Core Service Package, Supporting Process Package, Service
Level Package
c) Core Service Package, Base Service Package, Service
Support Package
d) Core Service Package, Supporting Services Package, Service
Level Packages
67

Module 2: Quiz
68

Question 5:
Setting policies and objectives is the primary concern of which of
the following elements of the Service Lifecycle?
a) Service Strategy
b) Service Strategy and Continual Service Improvement
c) Service Strategy, Service Transition and Service Operation
d) Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition, Service
Operation and Continual Service Improvement
68

Module 2: Quiz
69

Question 6:
Which of the following questions does guidance in Service Strategy
help answer?
1: What services should we offer and to whom?
2: How do we differentiate ourselves from competing alternatives?
3: How do we truly create value for our customers?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only

c) 3 only
d) All of the above
69

Module 3
70

Service
Design

70

71

Lesson 1.0 Service Design


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Service Design
Understand the Value Service Design
provides to the Business.

Lesson 1.1: Service Design Objectives


72

To convert the strategic objectives defined during Service Strategy


into Services and Service Portfolios.

To use a holistic approach for design to ensure integrated end-toend business related functionality and quality.
To ensure consistent design standards and conventions are
followed in all services and processes being designed.

72

Lesson 1.2: Value to Business


73

Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)


Improved quality of service
Improved consistency of service
Easier implementation of new or changed services

Improved service alignment


More effective service performance
Improved IT governance
More effective Service Management and IT processes

Improved information and decision-making


73

74

Lesson 2.0: Service Design Key


Concepts
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the importance of People, Processes,


Products and Partners for Service Management.

Understand the five major aspects of Service


Design.

Explain Service Design Package

Lesson 2.1: 4 Ps in Service Management


75

Skills
Organisation
Experience

People

Products

Services
Technology
Tools

IT Service Management
Suppliers
Manufacturers
Vendor

Partners

Processes

Activities
RACI
Dependencies

75

Lesson 2.2: Major Aspects of Service Design


76

New or Changed Service Solutions Design

Service Management systems and tools design


Technology and Management architectures design
Processes design
Measurement systems design

76

Lesson 2.3: Service Design Package


77

Defines all aspects of an IT Service and its requirements through each


stage of its lifecycle. A service Design package is produced for every
new IT service, a major change or for retiring a service.

Service Acceptance
Criteria

Business requirements
Service Applicability

Service Contacts

Contents of a
Service Design
Package

Service Functional
Requirements
Service Level
Requirements

Service Operational
Acceptance Plan

Service Transition
Plan
Service Program

Service Design &


Topology

Organisational
Readiness
77

78

Lesson 3.0: Service Design


Processes
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Objectives and basic concepts of the following processes

Service Catalog Management

Service Level Management

Supplier Management

Capacity Management

Availability Management

IT Service Continuity Management

Information Security Management

Design Coordination

Lesson 3.1: Service Catalogue


Management: Objectives
79

Objectives

To provide a single source of consistent


information on all of the agreed services, and
ensure that it is widely available to those who
are approved to access it.
To ensure that a Service Catalog is produced,
maintained, and kept current, containing accurate
information on all operational services and those
being prepared to be run operationally.

Key terms

Business Service Catalog


Technical Service Catalog

79

Lesson 3.2: Service Catalogue


Management: Key Terms
80

Business Service Catalog

Details of all the IT services delivered to the customer,


together with relationships to the business units and the
business process that rely on the IT services. This is the
customer view of the Service Catalogue.

Technical Service Catalog

Contains the details of all the IT services delivered to


the customer, together with relationships to the
supporting services, shared services, components and
CIs necessary to support the provision of the service to
the business.

80

Lesson 3.3: Service Level Management:


Objectives

81

Objectives

To ensure an agreed level of IT service is


provided for all current IT services, and future
services have an achievable target.
To define , document, agree on, monitor
measure, report and review the level of IT
services provided.
To provide and improve the relationship and
communication with the business and customers.
Proactive measures to improve the levels of
service delivered are implemented in a costjustified manner.

Key terms

Service Level requirements (SLRs), Service


Catalog, Service Level Agreement (SLA),
Operational Level Agreement (OLA),
Underpinning contract (UPC)
81

Lesson 3.4: Service Level Management:


Process Activities

82

Design and
Plan SLAs

Determine
and Document
Requirements

Service Design

SLA
Improvement

Monitor
Service
Performance

Negotiate & Continual Service


Agree
Improvement

Produce
Service
Reports

Conduct Service
review and
Instigate Service
Improvement
82

Lesson 3.5: Service Level Management:


Terminology
83

Service Level
requirements (SLR)

Detailed recording of the Customers needs, forming the


basis for design criteria for a new or modified service.

Service Catalog

A written statement of available IT services, default


levels, options, prices and identification of which
business processes or customers use them.

Service Level
Agreement (SLA)

An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a


Customer. The SLA describes the IT Service, documents
Service Level targets, and specifies the responsibilities
of the IT Service Provider and the Customer.

Operational Level
Agreement (OLA)

Internal agreement with another function of the same


organization which supports the IT service provider in
their delivery of services.

Underpinning
Contract (UPC)

Contract with an external supplier that supports the IT


organization in their delivery of services.

SLAM Chart

A Service Level Agreement Monitoring(SLAM) Chart is


used to help monitor and report achievements against
Service Level Targets.

Lesson 3.6: Service Level Management:


Key Terms Illustrated
84
Business
Process

Business
Process

Payroll

Network
Services

Email
Services

Storage
Services

Business Process
S
L
A
Storage
Services

OLA
OLA
OLA
OLA
Service Desk
Hardware
Software
Applications
IT Infrastructure

U
P

External

U
P
C

Supplier

Storage

U
P
C
84

Lesson 3.7: Service Level Management:


Designing SLA Structures
85

Multi Level SLAs

Customer Based vs. Service Based SLAs


Customer A

Customer B

Customer C

Service Based

(Coffee)

Corporate Level SLA


Customer A

Customer Based
Ser
(Tea)

Corporate

eZ
(Juice)

Customer B

Customer Level SLA


Service X
(Tea)

Service Y
(Coffee)

Service Z
(Juice)

Service Level SLA


85

Lesson 3.8: Service Level Management:


SLA Content

86

Service Level Agreement


for Service XYZ

Introduction to the SLA.


Service description
Mutual Responsibilities
Scope of SLA
Applicable Service Hours
Service Availability
Reliability
Customer Support Agreements
Relationship and Escalation contacts
Service Performance Metrics
Security
Costs and Charging Mechanisms.

86

Lesson 3.9: Supplier Management: Objectives


87

Objectives

To manage suppliers and the services they supply, to


provide seamless quality of IT service to the
business and ensure that value for money is
obtained.
Ensure that underpinning contracts and agreements
with suppliers are aligned to business needs.
Manage relationships with suppliers.
Negotiate and agree contracts with suppliers.
Manage supplier performance.
Maintain a supplier policy and a supporting
Supplier and Contract Database (SCD).

Key terms

Supplier and Contract Database (SCD)

87

Lesson 3.10: Supplier Management:


Supplier and Contract Database
88

Supplier
Strategy
& Policy

Supplier ca
Maintenance of the SCD

Supplier and
Contracts
Evaluation

Supplier
&
Contract
Database
(SCD)

Establish new
suppliers and
Contracts

Supplier & Contract


Management &
performance

Contract
enewal And/or
termination
88

Lesson 3.11: Supplier Management:


Relationship with Service Level Management
89

Supplier Management

Service Level
Management

Supplier
Management

Service Level
Agreements (SLA)

Underpinning
Contracts (UCs)

To ensure the UCs are aligned with


SLRs and SLAs by managing
relationships with Supplier.

External
Suppliers

89

Lesson 3.12: Capacity Management:


Objectives
90

Objectives

To ensure that cost-justifiable IT capacity in all


areas of IT always exists and is matched to the
current and future agreed needs of the business, in
a timely manner.
Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Capacity Plan.
Provide advice and guidance to the business and IT
on all capacity and performance-related issues
Ensure that service performance achievements meet
or exceed all of their agreed performance targets.

Key terms

Capacity plan/ CMIS


Business capacity management
Service capacity management
Resource/Component capacity management
90

Lesson 3.13: Capacity Management:


A Balancing Act
91

Supply
Capacity

Resources
Components

Demand
Performance

Cost

91

Lesson 3.14: Capacity Management:


Process Activities
92

Review Current Capacity


and Performance
Capacity Management
Information System (CMIS)

Capacity
performance reports
& data

Improve Current service


and component capacity

Forecasts

Plan new Capacity


Capacity Plans

Assess, Agree &


Document new
Requirements & Capacity

92

Lesson 3.15: Capacity Management:


Sub Process

93

Business
Capacity
Management

Translates business needs and plans into


requirements for service and IT infrastructure,
ensuring that the future business requirements for IT
services are quantified, designed, planned and
implemented in a timely fashion.

Service Capacity
Management

Management, control and prediction of the end-toend performance and capacity of the live,
operational IT services usage and workloads.
Ensure that the performance of all services, as
detailed in service targets within SLAs and SLRs, is
monitored and measured, and that the collected
data is recorded, analyzed and reported.

Component
Capacity
Management

Management, control and prediction of the


performance, utilization and capacity of individual
IT technology components.
93

Lesson 3.16: Availability Management


Process: Objectives

94

Objectives

To ensure that the level of Service Availability


delivered in all services is matched to or exceeds
the current and future business requirements, in a
cost-effective manner.
To provide a point of focus and management for all
availability-related issues.
Produce and maintain an appropriate and up-todate Availability Plan.
Ensure that proactive measures to improve the
availability of services are implemented wherever it
is cost-justifiable to do so.

Key terms

Availability, Reliability, Maintainability,


Serviceability
Vital business Functions (VBF)
Expanded Incident Lifecycle & MTRS, MTBF, MTBSI

94

Lesson 3.17: Availability Management:


Key Terms explained
95

Availability
Reliability

Maintainability

Serviceability

The percent time of agreed service hours the


component or service is available.
A measure of how long a component or IT
Service can perform its agreed operation
without interruption.
A measure of how quickly and effectively a
component or IT Service can be restored to
normal working after a Failure.
The ability of a Third-Party Supplier to meet
the terms of its Contract. This Contract will
include agreed levels of Reliability,
Maintainability or Availability for an IT service
or component.
95

Lesson 3.18: Availability Management:

Key Terms explained..contd.

96

Vital business
Functions
(VBFs)

The business critical elements of the business


process supported by an IT Service.
Typically this will be where more effort and
investments will be spent to protect these vital
business functions.

Service
Availability

All aspects of service availability and


unavailability and the impact of component
availability, or the potential impact of
component unavailability on service
availability.

Component
Availability

All aspects of component availability and


unavailability.

96

Lesson 3.19: Availability Management:


Expanded Incident Lifecycle
97

Time to
detect

Time to
Record

Time to
Diagnose

Time to
Repair

Time to
Recover

Time to
Restore

Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS)

Mean Time
Between
Failures
(MTBF)

Mean Time to between system incidents (MTBSI)


97

Lesson 3.20: IT Service Continuity


Management: Objectives
98

Objectives

To support the overall Business Continuity


Management (BCM) process by ensuring that the
required IT technical and service facilities (including
computer systems, networks, applications, data
repositories, telecommunications, environment,
technical support and Service Desk) can be resumed
within required, and agreed, business timescales.
Maintain a set of IT Service Continuity Plans and IT
recovery plans that support the overall Business
Continuity Plans (BCPs) of the organization.

Key terms

Business Continuity Planning (BCP)


Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
Business Continuity Management (BCM)
Risk Analysis

98

Lesson 3.21: IT Service Continuity


Management: Key Terms Explained
99

Business
Continuity
Management
(BCM)

Strategies and actions to take place to continue


Business Processes in the case of a disaster.
It is essential that the ITSCM strategy is
integrated into and a subset of the BCM
strategy.

Business Impact
Analysis (BIA)

Quantifies the impact loss of IT service would


have on the business.
Identifies the most important services to the
organisation and is therefore critical input to
Strategy

Vital Business
Functions (VBFs)

The business critical elements of the business


process supported by an IT Service.
Typically this will be where more effort and
investments will be spent to protect these vital
business functions.
99

Lesson 3.22: IT Service Continuity


Management: Key Terms Explained..contd
100

Risk

Possibility of an event occurring that could cause


harm or loss, or affect the ability to achieve
Objectives.
A Risk is measured by the probability of a
Threat, the Vulnerability of the Asset to that
Threat, and the Impact it would have if it
occurred.

Risk
Assessment

Identification & Evaluation of Assets, Threats


and Vulnerabilities that exist to business
processes, IT services, IT infrastructure and other
assets.

Risk
Management

Identifying appropriate risk responses or costjustifiable countermeasures to combating


identified risks.
100

Lesson 3.23: IT Service Continuity


Management: Lifecycle Activities
101

Initiation

Invocation

Requirements
& Strategy

On Going
Operations

Business Continuity
Strategy

Implementation

Business Continuity
Plans

101

Lesson 3.24: Information Security


Management: Objectives
102

Objectives

To align IT security with business security and ensure


that information security is effectively managed in
all service and IT Service Management activities.
To protect the interests of those relying on
information, and the systems and communications
that deliver the information, from harm resulting
from failures of availability, confidentiality and
integrity.

Key terms

Availability, Confidentiality, Integrity


Information Security policy
Information Security Management System (ISMS)

102

Lesson 3.25: Information Security


Management: Key Terminology
103

Confidentiality

Integrity

Availability

Protecting information against unauthorized


access and use.
Examples: Passwords, swipe cards, firewalls
Accuracy, completeness and timeliness of services,
data information, systems and physical locations.
Examples: Rollback mechanisms, test procedures,
audits.

The information should be accessible at any


agreed time. This depends on the continuity
provided by the information processing systems.
Examples: UPS, resilient systems, Service desk
hours

103

Lesson 3.26: Information Security


Management: Security Framework
104

Information Security Framework

Information
Security
Strategy

Information Security Management System


Information
Security Policy

Information
Security
Organisation

Information
Security Controls

Information Security Processes


Management of Security Risks

> Communications Strategy


> Training & Awareness
Strategy

104

Lesson 3.27: Information Security


Management: Security Policy
105

Audience for
Security Policy
These policies
should be widely
available to all
customers and
users, and their
compliance should
be referred to in
all SLRs, SLAs,
contracts and
agreements.

Security Policy Contains.


An overall Information Security Policy
Use and misuse of IT assets policy
Access control policy
Password control policy
E-mail policy
internet policy
Anti-virus policy
Information classification policy
Document classification policy
Remote access policy
Policy for supplier access of IT service, information
and components
Asset disposal policy.
105

Lesson 3.28: Information Security Mgmt:


Information Security Management System (ISMS)
106

Interested
Parties
(Customers,
Suppliers
etc.)

Service level
Agreements (SLAs)
Underpinning
Contracts (UCs)
Operational level
agreements (OLAs)
Policy Statements

Information
Security
Requirements &
Expectations

Learn
Improve
Plan
Implement

Plan

Implement

Control

Organize
Establish framework
Allocate responsibilities

Maintain

Evaluate

Awareness,
Classification
Personnel Security
Physical Security
Systems Security
Security Incident
Procedures

Interested
Parties
(Customers,
Suppliers
etc.)

Managed
Information
Security

Internal audit
External audit
Self assessments
Security Incidents

106

Lesson 3.29: Design Coordination - Objectives


107

Design Coordination main objectives are


Ensuring consistent design of services
Coordination of all design activities across projects

Maintaining Governance

107

Lesson 3.30: Design Coordination - Governance


108

Some aspects of the governance that Design Coordination can bring


includes
Assisting and supporting each project through all the activities and
processes
Maintaining policies and guidelines for service design activities
Planning and forecasting of the resources for future demand

Ensuring that all the requirements are appropriately addressed in


service designs

108

Lesson 3.31: Design Coordination - Keywords


109

Service Design Package


Service Design Policy

109

110

End of Module 3

111

Service Design :Quiz

Module 3 : Quiz
112

Question 1:
Which of the following is NOT one of the five individual aspects of
Service Design?
A. The design of the Service Portfolio, including the Service
Catalogue
B. The design of new or changed services
C. The design of Market Spaces
D. The design of the technology architecture and management
systems
112

Module 3 : Quiz
113

Question 2:
Which of the following is MOST concerned with the design of new
or changed services?
A. Change Management
B. Service Transition
C. Service Strategy
D. Service Design

113

Module 3 : Quiz
114

Question 3:
Implementation of ITIL Service Management requires preparing
and planning the effective and efficient use of:
A. People, Process, Partners, Suppliers
B. People, Process, Products, Technology
C. People, Process, Products, Partners
D. People, Products, Technology, Partners

114

Module 3 : Quiz
115

Question 4:
What is the MAIN goal of Availability Management?
A. To monitor and report availability of components

B. To ensure that all targets in the Service Level Agreements


(SLAs) are met
C. To guarantee availability levels for services and components
D. To ensure that service availability matches or exceeds the
agreed needs of the business
115

Module 3 : Quiz
116

Question 5 :
The Information Security Policy should be available to which
groups of people?
A. Senior business managers and all IT staff only

B. Senior business managers, IT executives and the Information


Security Manager only
C. All customers, users and IT staff

D. Information Security Management staff only


116

Module 3 : Quiz
117

Question 6 :
Which of the following are activities that would be carried out by
Supplier Management?

1: Management and review of Organisational Level Agreements (OLAs)


2: Evaluation and selection of suppliers
3: Ongoing management of suppliers
A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. All of the above
117

Module 4
118

Service
Transition

118

Lesson 1.0: Service Transition


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Service Transition
Explain What value Service Transition
provides to the Business

Lesson 1.1: Service Transition Goals


120

Assure proposed changes in the Service Design package are realized.


Plan for and Implement the Deployment of Releases for New or Changed
Services.
Test Releases so as to minimize the possibility of undesirable impact to
the Production environment.
Retire or Archive Services.

KEY ROLE: To move Services from Design to Operations, without impacting


the ongoing Services

Lesson 1.2: Service Transition Objectives


121

Plan and manage the resources to establish successfully a new or


changed service into production within the predicted cost, quality and time
estimates.
Ensure there is minimal unpredicted impact on the production services,
operations and support organization.
Increase the customer, user and Service Management staff satisfaction
with the Service Transition practices including deployment of the new or
changed service, communications, release documentation, training and
knowledge transfer.
Increase proper use of the services and underlying applications and
technology solutions.

Lesson 1.3: Value to Business


122

The capacity of the business to respond quickly and adequately


to changes in the market improves.
Changes in the business as a result of takeovers, contracting,
etc. are well managed.
More successful changes and releases for the business.

Better compliance of business and governing rules.


Less deviation between planned budgets and the actual costs
Better insight into the possible risks during and after the input of
a service into production.

Higher productivity of customer staff


122

Lesson 2.0: Service Transition: Key


Principles and Models
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand Configuration Item


Understand Configuration Management System

Lesson 2.2: Configuration Item (CI)


124
124

Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service.

CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System.

CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration


Management.

All CIs are subject to Change Management control.

CIs typically include

IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal


documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs

Lesson 2.3: Configuration Management


System (CMS)
125
Information about all Configuration Items
CI may be entire service, or any component

Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs)


CMS stores attributes

Any information about the CI that might be needed


CMS stores relationships
Between CIs
With incident, problem, change records etc.
CMS has multiple layers
Data sources and tools, information integration, knowledge processing
(scorecards, dashboards etc.), presentation

126

Lesson 3.0: Service Transition


Processes

Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to understand
Objectives and basic concepts of the four processes in
Service Transition:

Transition, Planning and Support

Change Management
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Release and Deployment management, And
Knowledge Management

127

Lesson 3.0.1: Transition, Planning and


Support
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Goals, Objectives and basic


concepts of Transition, Planning and Support

Lesson 3.0.2:Transition, Planning and


Support- Goals and Objectives
128

The Objectives of Transition, Planning and Support are


Successful Planning and coordination of resources
Ensuring common framework
Proper planning for aligning customer and business change projects with
Service Transition plans

128

Lesson 3.0.3:Transition, Planning and


Support Activities- Purpose
129

The purpose of the Transition, Planning and Support activities are:


Planning appropriate capacity and resources
Provide support for the Service Transition teams and people
Integrity of changes with all other Service Transition processes
Coordination of activities across projects, suppliers and service teams

129

130

Lesson 3.1: Change Management


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the Goals, Objectives and basic


concepts of Change Management

Lesson 3.2: Change Management :


Goals and Objectives
131

Goals and Objectives:


Respond to changing business requirements
Respond to Business and IT requests to align Services with business
needs.
Ensuring Changes are introduced in a controlled manner.
Optimize business risk
Implement changes successfully
Implement changes in times that meet business needs
Use standard processes
Record all changes

131

Lesson 3.3: Change Management : Scope


132

Scope
Addition, Modification or Removal of
Any Service or Configuration Item or associated documentation

Including
Strategic, Tactical and Operational changes
Excluding
Business strategy and process
Anything documented as out of scope

132

Lesson 3.4: Change Management :


Change Types
133

Change Types
Normal changes
Types are specific to the organization
Type determines what assessment is required
Standard changes
Pre-authorized with an established procedure
Tasks are well known, documented and low risk (usually)
E.g replacement of faulty printer, upgrade PC etc.

Emergency changes
Business criticality means there is insufficient time for normal handling
Should use normal process but speeded up
Impact can be high, more prone to failure, Should be kept to minimum

Remediation planning
Backout Plans
133

Lesson 3.5: Change Management :


Change Flow
134

134

Lesson 3.7: Change Management :


Roles in Change Management
135

Change Manager

Ensures that process is followed


Usually authorizes minor changes
Coordinates and runs CAB meetings
Produces change schedule
Coordinates change/built/test/implementation
Reviews/Closes Changes

135

Lesson 3.8: Change Management :


Change Advisory Board (CAB)
136

Change Advisory Board (CAB)

Supports the change manager


Consulted on significant changes
Business, users, application/technical support, operations, service
desk, capacity, service continuity, third parties
people who have clear understanding of business needs
Technical specialists / consultants

Emergency CAB (ECAB)

Subset of the standard CAB


Membership depends on the specific change

136

Lesson 3.9: Change Management :


Change Metrics
137

Change Metrics
Compliance
Reduction in unauthorized changes
Reduction in emergency changes
Effectiveness
Percentage of changes which met requirements
Reduction in disruptions, defects and re-work
Reduction in changes failed/backed out
Number of incidents attributable to changes
Efficiency
Benefits (value compared to cost)
Average time to implement (by urgency/priority/type)
Percentage accuracy in change estimates
137

Lesson 3.10: Change Management :


Key Challenges
138
Business pressure to just do it
Inaccurate and incomplete Configuration Management System
Soiled Technical Function areas
Misunderstanding of Emergency changes
Scalability across large organizations
Vendor/Contract Compliance
Adhoc nature of people

138

139

Lesson 3.11: Service Asset and


Configuration Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Service Asset and Configuration Management

Lesson 3.12: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Goals and Objectives
140

The goal of SACM is to provide a logical model of the IT infrastructure


correlating IT services and different IT components (physical, logical etc)
needed to deliver these services
The objective of SACM is to define and control the components of
services and infrastructure and maintain accurate configuration records.
This enables an organization to comply with corporate governance
requirements, control its asset base, optimize its costs, manage change
and release effectively, and resolve incidents and problems faster.

140

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Basic Concepts
141

Basic Concepts
What is a Configuration Item (CI) ?
Anything that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service

CI information is recorded in the Configuration Management System

CI information is maintained throughout its lifecycle by Configuration Management

All CIs are subject to Change Management control

CI Types :
CIs typically include
IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal documentation such as
Process documentation and SLAs
141

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration
Management:
Basic
Concepts
142
Basic Concepts
Configuration baseline
Configuration details captured at a specific point in time. This
captures both the structure and details of a configuration Item.
It is used as a reference point for future Builds, Releases and
Changes. (e.g. After major changes, disaster recovery etc).
Typically managed through the Change Management process.

142

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration
Management: Basic Concepts: Contd..
143
Basic Concepts
What is a Configuration Management System (CMS) ?
Information about all Configuration Items
CI may be an entire service, or any component
Stored in 1 or more databases (CMDBs)
CMS stores attributes
Any information about the CI that might be needed
CMS stores relationships
Between CIs
With incident, problem, change records etc.
CMS has multiple layers
Data sources and tools, information integration, knowledge processing (scorecards,
dashboards etc.), presentation

143

Lesson 3.13: Service Asset and


Configuration Management: Basic Concepts: Contd..
144

Basic Concepts
What is a Definitive Media Library (DML) ?
The only source for build and distribution
Master copies of all software assets

In house, external software houses

Scripts as well as code


Management tools as well as applications
Including licenses
Quality checked

Complete, correct, virus scanned ..

144

Lesson 3.14: Service Asset and


Configuration Mgmt..: Basic Concepts: CMDB & DML
145

Basic Concepts
DML and CMDB

Lesson 3.16: Service Asset and Configuration Mgmt.:


Basic Concepts: Relationship between CMDB, CMS and SKMS
146

SKMS

Informed Decision

CMS

CMDB

146

147

Lesson 3.17: Release and Deployment


Management
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Release and Deployment Management

Lesson 3.18: Release and Deployment


Management: Goals
148

Release management is responsible for planning, scheduling, and


controlling the movement of new or changed services, in the form
of a release package, to both the testing and the live production
environments
Deployment management is responsible for the movement of new
or changed hardware, software, documentation, or other
configuration items into the live production environment.

148

Lesson 3.19: Release and Deployment


Management: Objectives
149

Planned Release and Deployment in line to the business needs


Build, Install, Test and Integrate releases
Efficiently, successfully and on schedule.
With minimal impact on production services, operations, and support teams
Enabling new or changed services to deliver agreed service requirements

Control and minimize the impact of releases to the ongoing


services
Transfer knowledge and skills to end users and support teams,
leading to an effective use and support

149

Lesson 3.20: Release and Deployment


Management:
Basic
Concepts:
Release
Policy
150
Release Policy: The overarching strategy for Releases and was derived
from the Service Design phase of the Service Lifecycle and typically
includes:
Release Description with the unique identification, numbering and naming
conventions.
The roles and responsibilities at each stage in process.
The expected frequency for each type of release
The approach for accepting and grouping changes into a release.
The mechanism to automate the build, installation and release distribution
processes to improve re-use, repeatability and efficiency
How the configuration baseline for the release is captured and verified against
the actual release contents, e.g. hardware, software, documentation and
knowledge
Exit and entry criteria and authority for acceptance of the release into each
Service Transition stage and into the controlled test, training, disaster recovery
and production environments
Criteria and authorization to exit early life support and handover to Service
Operations.
150

Lesson 3.21: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Unit
151

Release unit
- Cls that are normally released together
- Typically includes sufficient components to perform a useful
function. For example - Fully configured desktop PC, payroll
applications

Release package
- Single release or many related releases
- Can include hardware, software, utility, warranty,
documentation, training

151

Lesson 3.21: Release and Deployment


Management: Basic Concepts: Release Types
152

Release Types
Major Release:
Containing large proportions of new functionalities. Also known
as a Major Upgrade, generally supersedes all preceding minor
upgrades.

Minor Release:
Contains small enhancements and fixes. A Minor Upgrade or
release generally supersedes previous emergency fixes.

Emergency Release:
Normally linked to an Emergency change.
152

Lesson 3.22: Release and Deployment Mgmt.


Basic Concepts: Release and Deployment Approaches
153

Release and Deployment Approaches

Big bang versus phased approach


Phased approach can be users, locations, functionality ..

Push versus Pull deployment

Automated versus manual deployment

153

154

Lesson 3.23: Knowledge Management


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the goals, objectives and basic concepts of


Knowledge Management

Lesson 3.24: Knowledge Management:


Goals and Objectives
155

The goal of Knowledge Management is to Improve quality of


management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure
information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle

The objective of Knowledge Management is to ensure that the right


information is delivered to the appropriate place or person at the right
time to enable informed decisions.

155

Lesson 3.25: Knowledge Management:


Purpose
156

Knowledge Management is The process responsible for gathering,


analyzing, storing and sharing knowledge and information within an
organization.
The primary purpose of knowledge Management is to improve
efficiency and effectiveness by reducing the need to rediscover
knowledge.

156

Lesson 3.26: Knowledge Management:


Basic Concepts: DIKW
157

157

Lesson 3.27: Knowledge Management:


Service Knowledge Management System
158

158

Lesson 3.28: Knowledge Management: SKMS


159

A set of tools for managing knowledge and information.

SKMS includes CMS.


SKMS contains all the information needed to manage the lifecycle
of IT Services.

159

160

Service Transition : Summary


Goals and Objectives
Service Transition processes:
Transition, Planning and Support
Change Management
Service Asset and Configuration Management
Release and Deployment Management
Knowledge Management

161

Service Transition : Quiz

Module 4: Quiz
162

Question 1:
Which of the following statements about a standard change is
INCORECT ?
a) A Standard change is a low risk change

b) Standard changes are pre-authorized changes


c) Standard changes are authorized by E-CAB
d) Standard changes are only raised by Incident Management
162

Module 4: Quiz
163

Question 2:
Which statement is the CORRECT statement about the relationship
between CMS and SKMS ?
a) The SKMS is a part of the CMS
b) The CMS is a part of the SKMS

c) There is no relationship between the CMS and SKMS


d) The CMS and the SKMS are the same

163

Module 4: Quiz
164

Question 3:
Whish of the following is an activity of SACM ?
a) Account for all the Financial assets of an organization
b) Specify the relevant attributes of CI
c) Implement ITIL across the organization
d) Design Service models to justify ITIL implementations

164

Module 4: Quiz
165

Question 4:
Which of the following does Service Transition provide guidance
on:
1. Moving New and Changed Services to production
2. Testing and Validation
3. Transfer of services to and from external service provider
a) All of the above
b) None of the above
c) Only 1 and 2
d) Only 1
165

Module 4: Quiz
166

Question 5:
Which of the following is an INCORRECT Release and
Deployment approach?
a) Propagate and Consolidate
b) Push and Pull
c) Big bang and Phased
d) Automated and Manual

166

Module 4: Quiz
167

Question 6:
Which of the following would be stored in the DML?
1. Copies of Purchased software
2. Copies of Internally developed software
3. Relevant License documentation
4. The Change schedule
a) All of the above
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 3 and 4 only
d) 1, 2 and 3 only
167

Module 5
168

Service
Operations

168

169

Lesson 1.0: Service Operations


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of Service


Operations
Briefly Explain What Value Service Operations provide
to business
Understand Key Concepts & definitions
Understand the Role of Communication in Service
Operations

Lesson 1.1: Service Operations: Objectives


170

To coordinate and carry out the activities and processes required to


deliver and manage services at agreed levels to business users and
customers.
Responsible for the ongoing management of the technology that is
used to deliver and support services.
Carrying out activities and Processes required to deliver and manage
Services at agreed levels.

KEY ROLE: How to achieve effectiveness & efficiency in Service Delivery


so as to ensure value to business and the service provider
170

Lesson 1.2: Value to Business


171

Service Operations is where the plans, designs and optimizations


from other ITIL lifecycle phases are executed and measured.
Service value is modeled in Service Strategy
The cost of the service is designed, predicted and validated in
Service Design and Service Transition
Measures for optimization are identified in Continual Service
Improvement
From a customer viewpoint, Service Operation is where actual
value is seen.

171

Lesson 1.3: Role of Communication


172

Good communication is important across all phases of the service lifecycle


but particularly so in Service Operation
Good communication is needed between all IT Service Management staff
and with users/ customers / partners.
Issues can often be mitigated or avoided through good communication .
All communication should have:
- Intended purpose and/ or resultant action
- Clear audience, who should be involved in deciding the
need/format
Examples of Communications in Service Operations
Routine operational communication
Communication between shifts
Performance reporting
-Communication related to emergencies
Training on new or customized processes and service designs
172

Lesson 1.4: Events


173
An expected or unexpected change of state of a an IT component that could negatively
impact delivery of IT services.

Events are typically notifications created by an IT service, Configuration Item (CI) or a


monitoring tool.

Event Type

Description

Informational

An event that does not require any action, regular operation


Example: Notification that a scheduled workload has completed

Warning

An Event that is unusual but not an exception, requires closer


monitoring.
Example: A servers CPU utilization is approaching maximum
performance threshold.

Exception

An Event signifying a service or a device is operating abnormally


Example: A PC scan reveals the installation of unauthorized
software.

173

Lesson 1.5: Alerts & Incidents


174

Incident

Alert
A warning that a threshold has been
reached, something has changed, or
a Failure has occurred.
Alerts are often created and
managed by System Management
tools.
Alerts are managed by the Event
Management Process.
Objective is to notify the concerned
Stakeholders

An unplanned interruption to an IT
service.
A reduction in the quality of an IT
service.
Failure of an IT component that has
not yet affected service, but could
likely disrupt service if left
unchecked. This can be raised by IT
support teams.
Example: Failure of a server in a
clustered mode.

Relationship between Events, Alerts and Incident


All Alerts are Events, but not all Events trigger Alerts
All Incidents are Events, but all Events are not Incidents
174

Lesson 1.6: Service Request


175

Service Request
A generic description for many varying types of demands that are placed upon the
IT Department by the users.
Many of these requests are actually small changes - low risk, frequently occurring,
low cost, etc.

Their scale and frequency, low-risk nature means that they are better handled by a
separate process, rather than being allowed to congest and obstruct the normal
Incident and Change Management processes.
Examples:
A request to change a password,
A request to install an additional software application onto a particular PC,
A request to relocate some items of desktop equipment

175

Lesson 1.7: Problem & Workaround


176

Problem
The cause of one or more incidents.

Workaround
A temporary way to restore service
failures to a usable level. For example;
rebooting a server hang.

The cause is not usually known at the


time a Problem Record is created,
and the Problem Management
Process is responsible for further
investigation.

Used for reducing or eliminating the


Impact of an Incident or Problem for which
a full Resolution is not yet available.

Prioritized in the same way and for


same reasons as Incidents.

Workarounds for Incidents that do not


have associated Problem Records are
documented in the Incident Record.
Workarounds for Problems are
documented in Known Error Records.

176

Lesson 1.8: Known Error (KE) and Known


Error Database (KEDB)
177

Known Error (KE)


A Problem that has a documented Root
cause and a Workaround.
A known error might be raised for
a problem whose root cause is not
yet known but a workaround has
been identified.

Known Errors are created and


managed throughout their Lifecycle by
Problem Management.

Known Error Database (KEDB)


A storage of previous knowledge of
incidents and problems
exact details of the fault and the
symptoms that occurred
how they were overcome
Allows quicker diagnosis and resolution
if Incidents/Problems recur.

Known Errors may also be identified by


Development or Suppliers. For
example; Application incompatibility
reports for Windows by Microsoft
177

Lesson 1.9: Impact, Urgency & Priority


178

Impact

A measure of the effect of an Incident, Problem or Change on


Business Processes.
Based on how Service levels will be affected.

Urgency

A measure of how long it will be until an Incident, Problem or


Change has a significant Impact on the Business.

Priority

The relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change.

Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify


required times for actions to be taken.
For example, the SLA may state that Priority 2 Incidents must
be resolved within 12 hours.

178

179

Lesson 2.0: Service Operations Process


Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

State the objectives and basic concepts for Event


Management

Lesson 2.1: Event Management: Objectives


180
180

Definition
The process responsible for monitoring Events throughout their
Lifecycle.

Objectives
To detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control
action.
Can be used as a basis for automating many routine Operations
Management activities,
For example
- executing scripts on remote devices, or
- submitting jobs for processing

It provides a way of comparing actual performance and behavior against


design standards and SLAs.
Provide the basis for Operational Monitoring and Control

Lesson 2.2: Event Management: Process


Activities
181

Process Activities
Event occurs
Event Detection , Filtering & Notification
Event Significance (Type of Event)
(Information, Warning or Exception)
Event correlation.
Event Response
Event Review & Closure
181

Lesson 2.3: Event Management:


Event Logging & Filtering
182

182

Lesson 2.4: Event Management:


Managing Exceptional Events
183

183

Lesson 2.5: Event Management:


Managing Information & Warning Events
184

184

Lesson 2.6: Incident Management: Objectives


185

Definition
The process for dealing with all incidents; this can include failures, questions or
queries reported by the users (usually via a telephone call to the Service Desk),
by technical staff, or automatically detected and reported by event monitoring
tools.

Objectives
To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the
adverse impact on business operations
To ensure that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are
maintained, i.e. restore service within SLAs

185

Lesson 2.7: Incident Management:


Scope and Value to Business
186

Scope
Managing any disruption or
potential disruption to live IT services

Incidents identified
Directly by users through the
service Desk
Through an interface from Event
Management to incident
Management tools

Value to Business
Lower downtime to the business,
which in turn means higher
availability of the service.
The capability to identify business
priorities and dynamically allocate
resources as necessary.
The ability to identify potential
improvements to services.

Reported and/or logged by


technical staff

186

Lesson 2.8: Incident Management:


Basic Concepts
187

Time Scales

Timescales must be agreed for all incident handling stages.


- Depending on Priority & SLAs
- Documented in OLAs & UCs
All support groups should be made fully aware of these
timescales.

Incident Models

An Incident model is predefined steps to handle a particular


Incident.
The incident model should include:

The steps that should be taken to handle the incident

The order in which these steps should be taken in.

Responsibilities; who should do what

Major Incident

An Incident Model to handle Incidents of Major Impacts and great


Urgency.

187

Lesson 2.9: Incident Management:


Process Flow & Activities
188

188

Lesson 2.10: Incident Management:


Process Interfaces
189

SLAs, OLAs, UCs


Performance
incidents
Incident
Workarounds

Service
Level
Manage
ment

Capacity
Manage
ment
Incident
Management

Availability
incidents

Availabil
ity
Manage
ment

CI data
Maintain faulty CI
Status

Event
Manage
ment

Service break/ degrading


Events

Problem
Manage
ment

Change
Manage
ment

Potential problems

RFC for resolving Incidents


Incidents from Failed
Changes

SACM*
*SACM: Service Asset & Configuration Management

189

Lesson 2.11: Problem Management: Objectives


190

Definition
The process responsible for managing the lifecycle of all problems.
Problem Management seeks to identify and remove the root-cause of Incidents
in the IT Infrastructure.

Objectives
To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening and to
eliminate recurring incidents

To minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented.

190

Lesson 2.12: Problem Management:


Scope and Value to Business
191

Scope
Activities required to diagnose the
root cause of incidents and to
determine the resolution to those
problems.
Responsible for ensuring that the
resolution is implemented through the
appropriate control procedures,
especially Change Management and
Release Management.
Maintain information about
problems and the appropriate
workarounds and resolutions

Value to Business
Together with Incident and Change
Management increases IT service
availability and quality.
Reduction in downtimes and
disruptions of Business critical
systems.
Reduced expenditure on
workarounds or fixes that do not
work
Reduction in cost of effort in firefighting or resolving repeat
incidents.
191

Lesson 2.13: Problem Management:


Basic Concepts
192

Reactive Problem
Management

Resolution of underlying cause (s)


The activities are similar to those of Incident
Management for the logging, categorization and
classification for Problems. The subsequent activities are
different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis
is performed and the Known Error corrected.
Covered in Service Operation

Proactive Problem
Management

Prevention of future problems by analyzing Incident


Records, and using data collected by other IT Service
Management processes and external sources to identify
trends or significant problems.
Generally undertaken as part of Continual Service
Improvement (CSI)

192

Lesson 2.14: Problem Management:


Process Flow: Reactive Problem Management
193

Problem
detection &
Logging

Problem
Categorization
& Prioritization

Problem
Investigation &
Diagnosis

Problem
Resolution &
Closure

Workarounds &
raising Known
Error Records

Major Problem
Reviews

Errors from
Development /
Suppliers

Known
Error
Database

193

Lesson 2.15: Problem Management:


Process Flow: Interfaces with Other Processes
194

Availability Management

Change Management

Capacity Management
Configuration Management

Problem
Management
Release & Deployment
Management

Service Level Management

IT Service Continuity
Management

Financial Management

194

Lesson 2.16: Request Fulfillment Process


195

Definition
The processes of dealing with Service Requests from the users.

Objectives
To provide pre-defined pre-approved standard services to users.
To provide users with information on available services and procedures for
obtaining them.

Deliver requested standard services.


Assist IT users with general information, comments and complaints

Basic Concepts
Request models - Specific procedures for handling certain types of requests
For example; IMACS, Password resets, etc.
195

Lesson 2.17: Access Management: Objectives


196

Definition
The process of granting authorized users the right to use a service, while
preventing access to non-authorized users.
Also referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management.
In practice, Access Management is the operational enforcement of the
policies defined by Information Security Management.

Objectives
To grant authorized users the right to use a Service and deny access to
unauthorized users
To Execute policies and actions defined in Security and Availability
Management

196

Lesson 2.18: Access Management:


Basic Concepts
197

Basic Concepts

Access

Access refers to the level and extent of a services functionality


or data that a user is entitled to use.

Identity

The information about the user that distinguishes them as an


individual, and which verifies their status within the
organization.
By definition, the identity of a user is unique to that user.

Rights

Also called privileges, refer to the actual settings whereby a


user is provided access to a service or group of services.
Typical rights or levels of access include read, write, execute,
change, delete.

Service/ Service
Groups

Granting users/User groups access to similar set of services

197

198

Lesson 3.0: Service Operations:


Functions
Lesson objectives
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Explain the role, objectives and


organizational structures of Service desk

Lesson 3.1: Service Desk


199

Definition
A Service Desk is a functional unit made up of a dedicated number of staff
responsible for dealing with a variety of service events, often made via
telephone calls, web interface, or automatically reported infrastructure events.
Acts as daily Single point of contact for IT users

Objectives
To restore the normal service to the users as quickly as possible.
Operate as Level 1 for Incident Management and Request Fulfillment i.e.
Log calls, do initial diagnosis and investigation and if possible resolve and
close.

Manage Incidents throughout its lifecycle, which also includes user


communication and Technical & hierarchical escalations.
Conducting customer/user satisfaction survey.
199

Lesson 3.1: Purpose of Service Desk


200

Purpose of Service Desk


Improved customer service, perception of IT and satisfaction with IT services
Increase accessibility to IT services through a single point of contact,
communication and information.
Better quality and faster turnaround of customer or user IT requests
Enhanced focus and a proactive approach to IT service provisioning.
More meaningful management information for decision support
Improved teamwork and communication amongst IT staff.
A reduced negative business impact.
Improved usage of IT Support resources and increased productivity of
business personnel.

200

Lesson 3.2: Organization Structures


201

Type

Description

1. Local

Located physically close to the user community it serves.

2. Centralized

Service desk is deployed at one central physical location.

3. Virtual

Impression of single, centralized Service desk, through the


use of technology and tools to create a virtual Service
desk.

4. Follow-The-Sun

Multiple Service desks across time zones to provide 24x7


service.

5. Specialized

specialist groups within the overall Service Desk structure,


so that incidents relating to a particular IT service can be
routed directly (normally via telephony selection or IVR or
a web-based interface) to the specialist group.
201

Lesson 3.3: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures - Local
202

Local
Aids communication and gives a
clearly visible presence
Local Users
Can often be inefficient and
expensive to resource due to low call
volumes

Service Desk
(local)

Third Party
Support

Application
Support

Reasons for a Local service desk


Language and cultural or
political differences
Different time zones
Specialized groups of users
VIP/criticality status of users.
Infrastructure
Support
202

Lesson 3.4: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Centralized
203

Centralized
Customer
Site 1

Customer
Site 2

Customer
Site 3
Local Service Desks merged into one

or few locations.
Service Desk
more efficient and cost-effective,

(centralized)

allowing fewer overall staff to deal


with a higher volume of calls.

Second-Line Support

Third party
Support

Application
Support

Infrastructure
Support

local presence to handle physical


support requirements, but controlled
and deployed from the central desk.

Lesson 3.5: Service Desk Function:


Organization Structures- Virtual
204

Virtual
Single Visible Service Desk which
may actually be run by staff in
multiple locations.
Allows for homeworking, secondary
support group, off-shoring or
outsourcing - or any combination
necessary to meet user demand.
Safeguards are needed to ensure
consistency and uniformity in service
quality and cultural terms

Lesson 3.6: Service Desk: Service Desk Staffing


205

Service Desk Staffing


Correct number and qualification at any given time, considering
Customer expectations and business requirements
e.g. call response time (SLA) , Budget
Number of users to support, their language and skills
Coverage period, out-of-hours, time zones/locations, travel time
Processes and procedures in place, Infrastructure for short breaks

Minimum qualifications
Interpersonal skills, Business and underlying IT understanding
Skill sets

Customer and Technical emphasis, Expert


Typing skills
205

Lesson 3.7: Service Desk: Service Desk Metrics


206

Service Desk Metrics


Periodic evaluations of health, maturity, efficiency, effectiveness and any
opportunity to improve
Realistic and carefully chosen - total number of call is not itself good or
bad
Some examples:
First-line resolution rate
Average time to resolve and/or escalate an incident
Total costs for the period divided by total call duration minutes
The number of calls broken by time of day and day of week, combined with the
average call-time
Customer/User Satisfaction surveys

206

Lesson 3.8: Technical Management


207

Role of Technical Management Function


The groups, departments or teams that provide technical expertise and overall
management of the IT Infrastructure
Custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to managing the IT
Infrastructure.
Provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle.
- Ensures that resources are effectively trained and deployed to design,
build, transition, operate and improve the technology required to deliver and support IT
services.

Objectives
To help plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to
support the organizations business Processes
-Well designed and highly resilient, cost-effective infrastructure configuration
- Use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure and to
speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur.
207

Lesson 3.9: Application Management


208

Role of Application Management Function


Responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle.
Custodian of technical Knowledge and expertise related to managing
application, whether purchased or developed in-house.
It provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle
Providing guidance to IT Operations about how best to carry out the
ongoing operational management of applications.
The integration of the Application Management Lifecycle into the ITSM
Lifecycle

Objectives
To helping to identify functional and manageability requirements for
application software so as to support the organizations business Processes.
Assist in design and deployment of applications.
Assist in ongoing support/maintenance/improvement of applications.
208

Lesson 3.10: IT Operations Management


Function
209

Role of IT Operations Management Function


The function responsible for the ongoing management and maintenance of
an organization s IT Infrastructure to ensure delivery of the agreed level of
IT services to the business.

Operations Control - oversees the execution and monitoring of the


operational activities and events in the IT Infrastructure.
Includes Console Management, Job Scheduling, Backup & restore,
Print & output Management and Maintenance activities on behalf
of Technical or Application Management teams.
Facilities Management - The management of the physical IT
environment, typically a Data Centre or computer rooms and recovery
sites together with all the power and cooling equipment.
209

Lesson 3.11: IT Operations Management


Objectives
210

Objectives
Maintenance of the as- is infrastructure and procedures to achieve stability
of the organizations day-to-day processes and activities.
Regular scrutiny and improvements to achieve improved service at reduced
costs, while maintaining stability.
Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and resolve any IT
operations failures that occur.

210

211

Service Operations : Quiz

Module 5
212

Question 1:
Major Incidents require:
A. Separate procedures
B. Less urgency
C. Longer timescales
D. Less documentation

212

Module 5
213

Question 2:
Which of the following should be done when closing an Incident?
1: Check the Incident categorization and correct it if necessary
2: Decide whether a Problem needs to be logged
A. 1 only

B. Both of the above


C. 2 only
D. None of the above
213

Module 5
214

Question 3:
Which of the following is NOT a valid objective of Request
Fulfillment?
A. To provide information to users about what services are
available and how to request them

B. To update the Service Catalogue with services that may be


requested through the Service Desk
C. To provide a channel for users to request and receive standard
services
D. To source and deliver the components of standard services that
have been requested
214

Module 5
215

Question 4:
Which Functions are included in IT Operations Management?
A. Network Management and Application Management

B. Technical Management and Application Management


C. IT Operations Control and Facilities Management
D. Facilities Management and Technical Management

215

Module 5
216

Question 5:
What is the BEST description of the purpose of Service
Operation?
A. To decide how IT will engage with suppliers during the Service
Management Lifecycle

B. To proactively prevent all outages to IT Services


C. To design and build processes that will meet business needs
D. To deliver and manage IT Services at agreed levels to
business users and customers
216

Module 5
217

Question 6:
Which of these activities would you expect to be performed by a
Service Desk?
1: Logging details of Incidents and service requests
2: Providing first-line investigation and diagnosis
3: Restoring service
4: Diagnosing the root-cause of problems
A. All of the above
B. 1, 2 and 3 only
C. 1, 2 and 4 only
D. 2, 3 and 4 only
217

218

End of Module 5

Module 6
219

Continual
Service
Improvement

219

Lesson 1.0: Continual Service Improvement

At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Goals and Objectives of


Continual Service Improvement

Lesson 1.1: Continual Service Improvement:


Goals
221

To continually align IT Services to the changing Business needs by


identifying and implementing improvements.

Continually be on the lookout for improvements related to process


effectiveness and efficiency.

To implement improvement plans in a cost-effective manner.

Lesson 1.2: Continual Service Improvement:


Objectives
222

Review analyze and recommend improvement opportunities in all the life


cycle phases
To make CSI activities, fact based, CSI Reviews and analyze Service level
achievement results

Identify and implement activities for improve service efficiency and


effectiveness to improve service quality
Improve cost effectiveness
Ensure appropriate quality management methods are used to support CSI
activities

Lesson 1.3: Continual Service Improvement:


Scope

223

Scope of CSI:
Overall health of ITSM. It takes care of entire ITSM as well as all
dependent services.
Alignment of the service portfolio with business needs
After implementing and operating processes, CSI help Maturing the
processes.

Organization need to:


Review management information and trends of service delivery
Ensure outputs of enabling ITSM are achieving results
Conduct audits to access maturity of process, compliance of
processes.
Conduct customer satisfaction surveys.
4

Lesson 2.0: CSI - Key Principles and


Models
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Understand the Basic Concepts and Key Principles of


Continual Service Improvement
John Kotters eight steps for Organization
Transformation

Lesson 2.1: CSI and Organizational Change


225
225

Successful CSI requires organizational change

Organizational change presents challenges


Use formal approaches to address people-related issues:
John Kotters Eight steps to transforming your organization
Project Management

Lesson 2.2: John Kotters 8 steps to


Organizational Transformation
226
226

Steps

Quotes

Creating Sense of
urgency

50% of transformations fail in this stage.


Without motivation, people wont help and efforts goes nowhere
76% of companys management should be convinced of the need

Forming a guiding
coalition

Understand difficulties and producing change.


Lack of effective, Strong leadership
Not a powerful coalition. Opposition eventually stops the change initiatives.

Creating a Vision

Without a sensible vision transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list
of confusing, incompatible projects.
An explanation of 5 minutes should obtain reaction of understanding and
Interest.

Communicating Vision Without credible communication, and lot of it, the hearts and minds of the

troops are never captured.


Make use of all communication channels.
Reference: Crown copyright OGC.

Lesson 2.3: John Kotters 8 steps to


Organizational
Transformationcontd
227
227

Steps

Quotes

Empowering others to Structures to underpin the vision.. And removal of barriers to change.
act on vision

Planning for and


creating quick wins

Real transformation takes time. Without quick wins too many people give up
or join the ranks of those opposing change.
Actively look for performance improvements and establish clear goals.
Communicate success.

Consolidating
improvements and
producing more
change

Until changes sink deeply into the culture new approaches are fragile and
subject to regressions.
In many cases worker revert to old practices.
Use credibility of quick wins to tackle even bigger problems.

Institutionalize the
change

Show how new approaches, behavior and attitude have helped improve
performance. Ensure selection and promotion criteria underpin the new
approach.

More people involved, the better the outcome.


Reward initiatives.

Reference: Crown copyright OGC.

Lesson 2.4: Service Measurement


228
228

The ability to predict and report service performance against targets of an


end-to-end service is known as Service Measurement.
Will require someone to take the individual measurements and
combine them to provide a view of the customer experience.
This data can be analyzed over a period of time to produce a trend.
This data can be collected at multiple levels, (for example, CIs,

processes, services).

Lesson 2.5: Reasons to Monitor & Measure


229
229

Lesson 2.5: Types of Metrics


230
230

Technology metrics: typically components and applications For


example

Performance
Availability
Process metrics: Critical Success Factors (CSFs), Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs), activity metrics for ITSM processes
Service metrics: end-to-end service metrics (often Service metrics are
a sum of process and technology metrics)

Lesson 2.6: Key Definitions


231
231

Improvement - Favorable Outcome showing a measurable increase in a


desirable metric or a decrease in undesirable metric.
Benefit - Gain achieved from Improvement. This is generally associated with
ROI or VOI.
Return on Investment (ROI) - Quantifiable monetary benefit achieved by
expending a certain amount of money, usually expressed as a percentage.
Value on Investment (VOI) - Non monetary benefit, such as branding,
achieved by expending a certain amount of money.
Baseline - Benchmark used as a reference point for later comparison.

Deming Cycle
232
232

Plan:
Establish the objectives and
processes necessary to deliver
results in accordance with customer
requirements and the organization's
policies.
Do:
Implement the processes.
Check:
Monitor and measure processes and
product against policies, objectives
and requirements for the product
and report the results.
Act:
Take actions to continually improve
process performance.

P
A

D
C

Lesson 2.7: Seven Step Improvement


Process- PDCA Cycle
233

7 - Step Improvement Process - PDCA cycle


CHECK

DO

ACT

Lesson 2.8: Continual Service


Improvement Model
234
234

235

CSI : Quiz

Module 6: Quiz
236

Question 1:
Which of the following does CSI provide guidance on?
1. How to improve process efficiency and effectiveness
2. How to improve services
3. Improvement of all phases of service lifecycle
4. Measurement of processes and services
a) 1 and 2 only
b) All of the above
c) 2 only

d) 1, 3 and 4 only
236

Module 6: Quiz
237

Question 2:
Which is the first activity of the CSI model?
a) Carry out a baseline assessment to understand the current
situation
b) Understand the Business Vision and Objectives
c) Agree on priorities for Improvement
d) Create and verify a plan

237

Module 6: Quiz
238

Question 3:
Which of the following is NOT a metric described in CSI?
a) Process Metric
b) Personnel Metric
c) Service Metrics
d) Technology Metrics

238

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Question 4:
Which of the following are objectives of CSI?
1. To improve process efficiency and effectiveness
2. To improve services
3. To improve all phases of service lifecycle except Strategy
4. To improve International standard such as ISO 20000
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 and 4 only
c) 1, 2 and 3 only
d) All of the above
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Module 6: Quiz
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Question 5:
Learning and Improvement is the PRIMARY concern of which of
the following phases of service lifecycle?
a) Continual Service Improvement
b) Service Strategy and Service Design
c) Service Strategy, Service Transition and Service Operation
d) Service Strategy, Service Design, Service Transition and
Service Operation
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CSI : Summary
Goals and Objectives of CSI
John Kotters 8 steps of Organizational Transformation
Service Measurement and Metrics
7 Step Improvement process
CSI Improvement Model

ITIL 2011 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
242
Read the question CAREFULLY
At this level of exam the obvious answer is often the correct answer (if you have
read the question carefully!)
Beware of being misled by the preliminary text for the question
If you think there should be another choice that would be the right answer, then
you have to choose the most right
Use strategies such as What comes first? or What doesnt belong? to help
with the more difficult questions
Where there are questions that involve multiple statements (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4), then
try to eliminate combinations that are immediately incorrect (based on something
you can remember) so that the question is broken into smaller, and more
manageable pieces.

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ITIL 2011 Foundation Certification Exam


Practical Tips
243
Lets see with an example how to answer the questions.

Sample Question
Which of the following statements is CORRECT for ALL processes?

a) They define functions as part of their design


b) They should deliver value for stakeholders
c) They are carried out by an external service provider in support of a customer
d) They are units of organizations responsible for specific outcomes

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Let us look at another example.

Sample Question
Which of the following statements about a Definitive Media Library (DML) are
CORRECT?
1. The DML can include a physical store
2. The DML holds definitive hardware spares
3. The DML includes master copies of controlled documentation
a) All of the above
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only

d) 1 and 3 only
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