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VSAT Design Proposal


VSAT Design Proposal

VSAT Design Proposal



Nowadays, most of the networking from other country used a communication

network via satellite in order to deliver good services and more efficient which is
accessible from one location to another around the world.

Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) networks provide affordable access to

communications services. The LAN Design Project that I have made has been converted
to be prepared to describe the technology, the planning process, and the applications and
benefits of VSAT networks.
VSAT Design Proposal

VSAT networks provide users with simple equipment that requires minimal
installation and repair. They are easy to operate and simple to troubleshoot. VSAT
installations do not require staff with extensive expertise.



The LAN Design Proposal I have made before has

been upgraded to become a VSAT.

VSAT Design Proposal


Making Research about VSAT and compiling it as a

thesis document.


Making a VSAT Design Proposal and

applying the VSAT Design Proposal to the


 The LAN Proposed Design must be converted into VSAT for the improvement of
communication services.
 The security assurance will be oriented for other company’s identification and
 The file sharing become more efficient because of it is for large geographic area.
 This can be used for remote/rural area communications.
 Also for far-flung offices of a company with the help of voice and data

VSAT Design Proposal


The LAN proposed design must be converting into VSAT in order to serve
the entire departments of Philippine Columbian Association for a reason to reduce
hierarchal distribution network. This is for entire department and employees, and
local customers.

This will present into comprehensive topic such as:

 The physical layout of the network
 The topic outline of the design
 The hardware and software that will be provided for the design

VSAT Design Proposal


The importance of studying this communication network using Very Small

Aperture Terminal is to explore the world of networking. In order to build a network that
can manage a large geographic area to provide the efficient communication services for a
particular company.

This VSAT will be used in ATM for Banking and credit authorizations to be
easily communicated for customer services and demands. It can be useful in Inventory
Management of a branch to branch company or a sister’s companies by using a rural
telephony for it will help to easily referring and transactions occurrence. For having a
remote location connectivity using VSAT, you can easily control your company’s
communication for other company.

VSAT Design Proposal

• Antenna = Equipment that sends and/or receives signals from a satellite.
• Bandwidth = The range of frequencies utilized for the transmission of a signal or
group of inter-related signals expressed in Hertz (Hz).
• Baseband = A video or audio signal transmitted at its original frequency.
• Beamwidth = The angular coverage of an antenna beam. Earth station beams are
usually specified at the half-power (or -3 dB) point. Satellite beams are based on
the area to be covered.
• Demodulator = Equipment that converts the RF signal from the carrier into
baseband signals (video, audio, or data) for further processing or amplification.
• F/D = Ratio of antenna focal length to antenna diameter. A higher ration means a
shallower dish.
• FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) = Refers to the use of multiple
carriers within the same transponder where each uplink has an assigned frequency
slot and bandwidth.
• Hertz (Hz) One cycle per second.
• Hub = The central earth station satellite transmission facility that is the focal
point for communicating to remote locations within a satellite communications
VSAT Design Proposal

• kHz (Kilohertz) = One thousand cycles per second.

• MHz (Megahertz) One million cycles per second.
• Modem (Modulator/Demodulator) = Equipment that converts between
digital data and audio tones for transmission and reception over analog channels.
• Modulator = Equipment that converts audio, video, or data signals (baseband)
into an RF signal.
• Protocol = Formal set of rules governing the format, timing, sequence, and error
control of messages on a data network.
• RF (Radio Frequency) = frequency range from 10 kHz to 100 GHz used for
transmitting data, audio, or video.
• RFT (Radio Frequency Terminal) = Equipment including an antenna, U/C, D/C,
HPA, and LNA which provides the up and down conversion of signals in a
satellite-based network.
• TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) = Refers to a form of multiple access
where a single carrier is time shared by many users. Signals from earth stations
reaching the satellite consecutively are processed in time segments without


VSAT Design Proposal


VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a micro-Earth station that uses the latest
innovations in the field of satellite communications to allow user's access to reliable
satellite communications. VSATs provide users with services comparable to large
gateways and terrestrial networks, at a fraction of the cost. A typical VSAT consists of
communications equipment and a small antenna with a diameter less than 3.5 meters.

There are basically two ways to implement a VSAT Architecture

• STAR = VSATs are linked via a HUB. In this network architecture, all of the
traffic is routed via the master control station, or Hub. If a VSAT wishes to
communicate with another VSAT, they have to go via the hub, thus
necessitating a “double hop” link via the satellite. Since all of the traffic
radiates at one time or another from the Hub, this architecture is referred to as
a STAR network.

• MESH = VSATs are linked together without going through a large hub. In
this network architecture, each of the VSATs has the ability to communicate
directly with any of the other VSATs. Since the traffic can go to or from any
VSAT, this architecture is referred to as a MESH network. It will still be
necessary to have network control and the duties of the hub can either be

VSAT Design Proposal

handled by one of the VSATs or the master control station functions can be
shared amongst the VSATs.

Open Systems Interconnection Model

The OSI model is the basic model describing the data movement through a
network. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how
information from a software application in one computer moves through a network
medium to a software application in another computer. The OSI reference model is
conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network
functions. The OSI models divides the tasks involved with moving information between
networked computers into seven smaller, more manageable task groups. A task or group
is then assigned to each of the seven OSI layers.

The following list details the seven layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
reference model:

 Layer 7 = Application Layer (A)

 Layer 6 = Presentation Layer (P)

 Layer 5 = Session Layer (S)

 Layer 4 = Transport Layer (T)

 Layer 3 = Network Layer (N)

 Layer 2 = Data Link Layer (D)

 Layer 1 = Physical Layer (P)


The OSI model provides a conceptual framework for communication between

computers but the model itself is not a method of communication. Actual Communication
is made possible by using communication protocols. In the context of data networking, a
protocol is a formal set of rules and conventions that governs how computers exchange
information over a network medium. A protocol implements the functions of one or more
of the OSI layers. A wide variety of communication protocols exist, but all tend to fall
VSAT Design Proposal

into one of the following groups: LAN, WAN, network and routing protocols. LAN
protocols operate at the network and data link layers of the OSI model and define
communication over the various LAN media. WAN protocols operate at the lowest three
layers of the OSI model and define communication over the various wide-area media.
Routing Protocols are network-layer protocols that are responsible for path and traffic
switching. Finally, network protocols are the various upper-layer protocols that exist in a
given protocol suite.

OSI Model and TCP/IP Model

As I had mentioned it is actually a layered stack, with 7 layers. Each of these 7

layers is implemented by different protocols for each layer. But keep in mind; it’s not
necessary that all these layers have to be used, when trying to device a system. A system
can also make away with any of the 7 layers like say the Session Layer or the Application

Consider a Router for example. A Router is a device, which works in the Network
Layer of the OSI Model. Its main function is to route packets that arrive at its ports.
Router takes a routing decision for each of the packet that arrives as its port, on the basis
of Routing Tables.

Routing Tables are somewhat similar to the Time Table we follow while
attending our course in college. Depending on the subject scheduled in the Time Table
for a particular day, we decide whether to attend the lecture or nor. In a similar way the
Router looks at the destination address (which is the IP address) of the packet that is to be

TCP/IP Model

The TCP/IP model superseded the OSI model. This is the model that is currently most
widely used. The various layers in the TCP/IP model are:



3>Internet work

2>Data Link


Note that the Session and Application Layer present in the OSI Model are absent in the
TCP/IP Model.
VSAT Design Proposal

The basic architecture of a VSAT network is usually a point to multipoint or star
topology. The network is composed of a central hub, remote VSAT stations and space
segment on satellite transponder. Additional architecture options include meshed and
mixed topologies.
VSAT station equipment is composed of two elements:
 OutDoor Unit (ODU) which is a parabolic antenna equipped with radio frequency
receiver and transmitter.
 InDoor Links (IDU) is connected to ODU by a simple cable (maximum 60 m).
The role of IDU is to transform the signal received from the antenna so that it is
usable by a computer. In the same way, it translates signals coming from the
computer so that it can be relayed by the antenna to the satellite.

 (Time Division Multiplexing/Time Division Multiple Access)
 (Single Channel per Carrier : Demand Assigned Multiple Access/ Permanent
Assigned Multiple Access)
DVB/RCS Broadband VSAT
 (Digital Video Broadcast/Time Division Multiple Access - Return Channel

VSAT Design Proposal


VSAT Design Proposal


The primary purpose of the research was to establish the status of VSAT usage in
PCA. The methods used included internet research to obtain background information on
the facilities and departments situation in the PCA followed by data collection and finally
quantitative and qualitative analysis. Reading reference books for the additional
information and gather further data on usage patterns were also conducted.

For the purposes of the research a distinction was made between users and
customers. Users were defined as recreational companies making use of VSAT in some
way. Customers were defined as the end user and, for the purposes of this research, each
department and facilities has a limited capability for every transaction.


SCRIBD.COM (http://www.scribd/iallepla/search/pdf files/19873094-
vsat-technology.pdf/, http://www.scribd/iallepla/search/pdf files/
http://www.scribd/iallepla/search/pdf files/ 18599319-VSAT-
Handbook.pdf / )
VSAT Joe Montana IT 488 Fall 2003 George Mason University

VSAT Design Proposal


VSAT Design Proposal


Nowadays, access to the Internet seems to be ubiquitous. The presence of satellite

in the future broadband networks is therefore no longer an option. Satellites systems
allow a perfect territorial equity by providing a global coverage of the world. On another
Internet is no longer yet another technique but is becoming the point of
convergence of other information and communication technologies such as the television,
the telephone, the videoconference which are being added to the traditional Internet
The Philippine Columbian Association (PCA) as a recreational centre expressed
the needs to have a very effective system of telecommunications, in order not only to
make facilitate customers’ accessibility, but also to be a centre of reference in Manila in
terms of interconnection to the world.
The objective of this is to present a feasibility study of the installation of a
communication system by VSAT which can be adapted to offer the multi-media services
(voice, video) for the PCA. This study highlights the main steps to consider when
planning a VSAT installation in Manila and presents some of the proposals made for a
better connection of the recreational center.
VSAT system is based on geostationary satellites and enables the use of small
terminal to send and receive signals in an asymmetric way. It was perfectly fit for
professional applications, which require scalable, low footprint and available
interconnection infrastructures. In addition it was always beneficial to long distance

VSAT Design Proposal

Telecommunication satellite can be seen as a sort of air relay. His principal role
was to regenerate signals received from earth or others satellites and to retransmit it,
amplified in frequency to receiver. Satellite permit also to diffuse signals received from
earth to many others stations. In the same way, it can be gather some information from
stations and retransmit it to particular station. Further, it’s possible to connect satellites
this is permitted to use little earth stations during transmission. Satellite solutions
advantage is the little dependence of earth stations with terrestrial infrastructures existing
trough the world. Thus, terrestrial station can be mobile. Emission power of VSAT is
low, and it’s not possible for two VSAT stations to interact directly. It’s necessary to
transit all communications through the main station which called Hub.
Hub station’s parabola has a large diameter with high gain. It has two principals role:
 Amplify and relay the signals which are transmitted by VSAT stations.
 Manage access to communication support.
Frequency of Operation
Ext C-Band
 Tx: 6.725 GHz-7.025GHz, Rx: 4.5GHz –4.8GHz
 Shares frequencies with terrestrial transmission systems
 Typical antenna sizes are 1.8m/2.4m
 Tx: 14.0GHz-14.5GHz; Rx: 10.95-11.7GHz, 11.7-12.2GHz, 12.25-12.75GHz
 With heavy rain, fog or clouds, signal strength falls
 Typical antenna sizes are 1.2m/1.8m
 Cheaper end equipment

VSAT Design Proposal


Topology of a STAR VSAT network viewed from the satellite’s perspective

Note how the VSAT communications links are routed via the satellite to the Hub in all

 Small uplink EIRP of VSAT (which can be a hand-held telephone unit)
compensated for by large G/T of the Hub earth station
 Small downlink G/T of user terminal compensated for by large EIRP of Hub earth
 Can be very efficient when user occupancy is low on a per-unit-time basis

 VSAT terminals cannot communicate directly with each other; they have to go
through the hub
 VSAT-to-VSAT communications are necessarily double-hop
 GEO STAR networks requiring double-hops may not meet user requirements
Master Control Station
from a delay perspective

(The Hub)

VSAT Design Proposal


Topology of a MESH VSAT network from the satellite’s perspective

Note how all of the VSATs communicate directly to each other via the satellite without
passing through a larger master control station (Hub).

 Users can communicate directly with each other without being routed via a Hub
earth station
 VSAT-to-VSAT communications are single-hop
 GEO MESH networks can be made to meet user requirements from a delay
 Low EIRP and G/T of user terminals causes relatively low transponder occupancy
 With many potential user-to-user connections required, the switching
requirements in the transponder will almost certainly require On-Board
Processing (OBP) to be employed
 OBP is expensive in terms of payload mass and power requirements

VSAT Design Proposal


 Outdoor Unit (ODU)

 Inter-facility link (IFL)

 Indoor Unit (IDU)

VSAT Earth Station

Block Diagram


• The Low Noise Converter (LNC) takes the received RF signal and, after
amplification, mixes it down to IF for passing over the inter facility link (IFL) to
the IDU.

• In the IDU, the demodulator extracts the information signal from the carrier and
passes it at base band to the Base Band Processor.

• The data terminal equipment then provides the application layer for the user to
interact with the information input. On the transmit operation, the user inputs
data via the terminal equipment to the baseband processor and from there to the

• The modulator places the information on a carrier at IF and this is sent via the
inter facility link to the High Power Converter (HPC) for up conversion to RF,
amplification, and transmission via the antenna to the satellite.


VSAT Design Proposal

Discussion of the Design Proposal

The VSAT design proposal was present to introduce the adaptation of the
communication system wherein the multi-media services are involved for having a better
connection of the recreational center.
Here are some components used for the design proposal: three servers (Email,
File and Web). These three servers are used for the communication system accessibility
in part of multi-media services such as video conference, voice, email and chat. I have a
two firewall, one is for the server and the other is for the internet connection. It both
provided for security purposes. I used three switches, first is served as a casing switch for
the other two which is one is for the servers and other is particular for the internet
connection. I used Demodulator that converts the RF signal from the carrier into
baseband signals (video, audio, or data) for further processing and Modulator that
converts audio, video, or data signals (baseband) into an RF signal. I used also
RFT(Radio Frequency Terminal) which provides the up and down conversion of signals
in a satellite-based network.

The Advantage VSAT design proposal are:

Availability: VSAT services can be deployed anywhere having a clear view of the Clarke
• Diversity: VSAT provides a wireless link completely independent of the local
terrestrial/wireline infrastructure - especially important for backup or disaster
recovery services
• Deployability: VSAT services can be deployed in hours or even minutes (with
auto-acquisition antennas)
• Homogeneity: VSAT enables customers to get the same speeds and service level
agreements at all locations across their entire network regardless of location
• Acceleration: Most modern VSAT systems use onboard acceleration of protocols
such as TCP ("spoofing" of acknowledgement packets) and HTTP (pre-fetching
of recognized HTTP objects); this delivers high-quality Internet performance
regardless of latency.
• Multicast: Most current VSAT systems use a broadcast download scheme (such
as DVB-S) which enables them to deliver the same content to tens or thousands of
locations simultaneously at no additional cost
VSAT Design Proposal

• Security: Corporate-grade VSAT networks are private layer-2 networks over the

The Disadvantage VSAT design proposal are:

• Latency: Since they relay signals off a satellite in geosynchronous orbit 36,000
km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, VSAT links are subject to a minimum latency
of approximately 500 milliseconds round-trip. This makes them a poor choice for
"chatty" protocols or applications such as online gaming
• Encryption: The acceleration schemes used by most VSAT systems rely upon the
ability to see a packet's source/destination and contents; packets encrypted via
VPN defeat this acceleration and perform slower than other network traffic
• Environmental concerns: VSATs are subject to signal attenuation due to weather
("Rain Fade"); the effect is typically far less than that experienced by one-way TV
systems (such as DirecTV, DISH Network or British Sky Broadcasting) that use
smaller dishes, but is still a function of antenna size and transmitter power and
frequency band
• Installation: VSAT services require an outdoor antenna installation with a clear
view of the sky (southern sky if the location is in the northern hemisphere or
northern sky if the location is in the southern hemisphere); this makes installation
in skyscraper urban environments or locations where a customer does not have
"roof rights" problematic

VSAT Design Proposal

VSAT Specs

• Package: 60 satellites capability system, which can receive up to 5000 channels.

Can$700.00. System includes
One Forsat Ultra receiver Can$150.00
One 39” motorized dish Can$290.00
Cable and miscellaneous Can$20.00
Installation labour Can$240.00

• Air receiver : Forsat Ultra Can$150.00

• Dish: Fortec Star 39"(diameter measurement 39"x43") White Can$160.00

• Rotor: Stab HH90 Can$150.00

• Antennae for local channels: Channel Master 180", UHF, VHF, FM, Gold Metal

• Tripod: Tripod for ground and roof top installation Can$60.00

• Cable: RG6 cable Can$0.20 per foot Connector: RG6 connector Can$0.50 each
• Inline amplifier: Can$15.00 each
• Quad dish switch: Can$20.00 each
• Satellite dish installation pricelist:
Installation consultation, free
Field installation consultation Can$50.00
Fixed position up to 18” - 28” dish installation on wall Can$100.00
Fixed position up 30” - 33” dish installation on wall Can$150.00
Fixed position 36” - 39” dish installation on wall Can$200.00
Fixed position 40” up dish installation on wall Can$300.00
Motorized dish installation add $100.00
Ground (pour concrete) and rooftop (roof top reinforcement) installation, add
Channel setup Can$50.00
Dish alignment Can$100.00
Dish moving Can$50.00 + installation charge.
Antennae installation Can$100.00
• Extra TV installation:
Same floor, or ground floor to basement Can$50.00
Ground floor to second or third floor Can$100.00

VSAT Design Proposal



VSAT Design Proposal

The effect has been strong competition in some sectors but with low investment in
local infrastructure. To achieve its policy vision of increased affordable access to the
PCA, the issues need to be addressed are enforce the license conditions of the public data
operators, specifically the requirement that for a local hub.

This should have the effect of reducing the number of operators (not all operators
will be able to afford the capital investment). To conduct more in-depth research of the
public data operator – local ISP partnerships is needed. In particular, to investigate what
the break-even point is in terms of providing local ISP services and which areas of PCA
would meet these criteria and to increase the ICT human capital of the PCA and thereby
enable it to effectively fulfill its mandate to monitor investment, availability and
distribution of infrastructure and cost of service.


VSAT Design Proposal

After all the information, data and facts I have been searched, I therefore conclude
that all of the detail that is included was based on my knowledge and my research. To
identify its reliability, I come up to set this VSAT networking as understanding the
concept and the purpose of upgrading the previous LAN design proposal into VSAT.