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LTE EMULATORS APPLICATION NOTES

Date

Version

31 Oct, 2014

10.2

LTE Emulators Application Notes

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COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright 20012-2013 Polaris Networks. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, transmitted, transcribed or translated into any language without the written permission
of Polaris Networks or its suppliers or affiliate companies. To obtain this permission write to the
attention of Legal counsel, Polaris Networks, 75 Robbins Road, MA 02421 United States

TRADEMARK ATTRIBUTIONS
LTE Emulators and LTE Emulators Console are trademarks of Polaris Networks.

LICENSE AGREEMENT
Notice to All Users: For the specific terms of your license to use the software that this documentation
describes, consult the license document that accompanies your software. If you do not agree to all of
the terms set forth therein, do no install the software. If applicable, you may return the software to
Polaris Networks. If you have any comments about the contents of this document, please send an
email to support@polarisnetworks.net

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LTE Emulators Application Notes

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Table of Contents
1 . INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................................5
2 . UE ATTACH........................................................................................................................................................6
2.1. ENODEB EMULATOR CONFIGURATION:.......................................................................................................... 6
2.2. SGW EMULATOR CONFIGURATION................................................................................................................ 7
2.3. PGW EMULATOR CONFIGURATION................................................................................................................ 7
2.4. MME EMULATOR CONFIGURATION.............................................................................................................. 8
2.5. HSS EMULATOR CONFIGURATION.................................................................................................................. 9
2.6. PCRF EMULATOR CONFIGURATION............................................................................................................. 10
3 . UE EMERGENCY ATTACH..........................................................................................................................11
4 . UE-INITIATED DETACH..............................................................................................................................12
5 . UE CONTEXT RELEASE................................................................................................................................13
6 . S1-BASED HANDOVER................................................................................................................................14
6.1. WITHOUT MME AND SGW RELOCATION................................................................................................... 14
6.2. WITH MME RELOCATION............................................................................................................................ 15
6.3. WITH SGW RELOCATION............................................................................................................................. 17
6.4. WITH MME AND SGW RELOCATION.......................................................................................................... 18
7 . X2-BASED HANDOVER................................................................................................................................19
8 . IDLE-MODE MOBILITY................................................................................................................................20
8.1. TRACKING AREA UPDATE ............................................................................................................................ 20
8.2. TRACKING AREA UPDATE WITH MME RELOCATION.................................................................................... 21
8.3. TRACKING AREA UPDATE WITH SGW RELOCATION .................................................................................... 22
8.4. TRACKING AREA UPDATE WITH MME AND SGW RELOCATION ................................................................. 23
9 . BEARER OPERATIONS.................................................................................................................................24
9.1. UE-INITIATED BEARER RESOURCE ALLOCATION........................................................................................... 24
9.2. UE-INITIATED BEARER RESOURCE MODIFICATION....................................................................................... 25
10 . DATA TRAFFIC USING INTERNAL TRAFFIC GENERATOR .......................................................26
10.1. UPLINK TRAFFIC......................................................................................................................................... 26
10.2. DOWNLINK TRAFFIC................................................................................................................................... 27
11 . MULTIPLE PDN CONNECTION AND DISCONNECTION.............................................................28
11.1. UE REQUESTED PDN CONNECTIVITY........................................................................................................ 28
11.2. UE REQUESTED PDN DISCONNECTION ..................................................................................................... 29
12 . ROAMING (LOCAL BREAKOUT AND HOME-ROUTED)...............................................................30
12.1. UE ATTACH............................................................................................................................................... 30
12.2. PDN CONNECTION.................................................................................................................................... 32
12.3. S1-BASED HANDOVER................................................................................................................................ 33
12.3.1 Without MME and SGW Relocation...................................................................................................33
12.3.2 With MME Relocation..........................................................................................................................34

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12.3.3 With MME and SGW Relocation.........................................................................................................35


12.3.4 With SGW Relocation...........................................................................................................................36
12.4. TRACKING AREA UPDATE .......................................................................................................................... 37
12.4.1 Without MME and SGW Relocation...................................................................................................37
12.4.2 With MME Relocation..........................................................................................................................38
12.4.3 With MME and SGW Relocation.........................................................................................................39
12.4.4 With SGW Relocation...........................................................................................................................40
12.5. DATA TRAFFIC TEST................................................................................................................................... 41
13 . UE IP ADDRESS ALLOCATION THROUGH DHCP SERVER .........................................................42
13.1. USING DHCP SERVER CO-LOCATED WITH PGW...................................................................................... 42
13.2. USING PGW AND DHCP SERVER IN DIFFERENT MACHINES.................................................................... 43
14 . INTERNET CONNECTIVITY....................................................................................................................44
15 . CMAS ALERTS..............................................................................................................................................46
16 . INTER-WORKING WITH GERAN/UTRAN USING S4-SGSN.........................................................47
17 . CS-FALLBACK TO GERAN/UTRAN......................................................................................................48
18 . CS-FALLBACK TO CDMA-2000 1XRTT NETWORK..........................................................................49
19 . LTE PROCEDURES USING PMIP-BASED S5.......................................................................................50
20 . IMS VOICE CALL USING OPEN IMS CORE .......................................................................................51

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LTE Emulators Application Notes

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1 . INTRODUCTION
These application notes describe the steps required to emulate important LTE network functions using
the Polaris LTE Emulators. They cover the scenarios that can be created by using the LTE Emulators
Console. Users can create the same scenarios using Tcl scripts, and the LTE Emulators Tcl API is
described in detail in the LTE Emulators Programmers Guide. These application notes are a good place
for users who are new to the Polaris LTE Emulators to start.
The procedures described in this document assume that the user is using the Polaris EPC (MME, SGW,
PGW, HSS and PCRF) Emulators, Polaris eNodeB Emulator and Polaris UE Simulator. As the UE
Simulator and the eNodeB Emulator do not use LTE-Uu protocols, the UE Simulator is integrated with
the eNodeB Emulator.

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LTE Emulators Application Notes

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2 . UE ATTACH
OBJECTIVE:

Attaching a single UE to the LTE Network.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
2.1. ENODEB EMULATOR CONFIGURATION:
1. Ensure that LTE-Emulator-Server.tcl is running on all emulator machines.
2. Connect the eNodeB, MME, SGW and PGW emulators by right-clicking on the emulator
and selecting Connect.
3. PLMN Creation: Right-click on the eNodeB Emulator and choose New PLMN. Select other
emulators from the available list in the Create LTE PLMN dialog box to create that PLMN
for those emulators as well (you can also create the PLMN individually for each in turn).
4. Follow these steps for (Macro) eNodeB Creation:
1. Right-click on the PLMN node under the eNodeB Emulator and choose New eNodeB...
2. Set the 'eNodeB Type' to Macro by selecting the radio button.
5. Set appropriate values for the IP Address/Network Mask. If you select an existing IP
Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set an unassigned IP
Address/Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP address to the selected NIC.
Ensure this IP address is accessible to and from the other LTE network nodes, such as the
MME.
6. Create Cells with the default values.
7. In the Properties tab, verify that:
i. eNodeB Type = Macro eNodeB
ii. eNodeB ID = 1

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2.2. SGW EMULATOR CONFIGURATION


1. SGW creation: Under the SGW Emulator, right-click on the PLMN node and select New
SGW. In the Interfaces tab of the dialog box that appears, enter parameters such as, IP
address and Network Mask for the interfaces.
2. If you select an existing IP Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set a new
unassigned IP Address/Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP address to the
selected NIC. Ensure that the IP address is accessible to and from the other LTE network
nodes.
3. In the Properties tab on the left pane, verify that a new SGW has been created.

To create more than one SGW, right-click on the SGW Emulator and select New
Group.

2.3. PGW EMULATOR CONFIGURATION


1. PGW creation: Right-click on the PLMN node under the PGW Emulator and select New
PGW.... In the Interfaces tab of the dialog box that appears, enter parameters such as IP
address and Network Mask for the interfaces.
2. If you select an existing IP Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set a new
unassigned IP Address/Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP address to the
selected NIC. Ensure that the IP address is accessible to and from the other LTE network
nodes.

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2.4. MME EMULATOR CONFIGURATION


1. MME creation: Right-click on the PLMN node under the MME Emulator and select New
MME from the context menu. In the Identity tab of the dialog box that appears, provide
the same TAC as entered for the eNodeB Cell (Follow the note given at the end of this
section).
2. Select the Interfaces tab and enter parameters such as IP Address and Network Mask for
the interfaces. If you select an existing IP Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If
you set an unassigned IP Address / Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP
address to the selected NIC. Ensure that the IP Address you assign is reachable to and from
the other LTE network nodes.
In the 'Supported TAC(s)' field, the same TAC(s) must be provided as for eNodeB
creation. For example, if the S1-MME connection is set up between eNodeB1 and
MME1, the TAC provided for cell creation for eNodeB1 must be provided during
MME1's creation. Where 2 eNodeBs and 1 MME (S1-based Handover or TAU) are
present in the configuration, both the TACs used at the time of eNodeB1 and
eNodeB2's creation must be provided in the 'Supported TAC(s)' field of the MME.
3. In the Neighbors tab, provide the SGW S11 IP Address, PGW S5-C IP Address and the IP
Address of the HSS.
4. From the Properties tab, verify that a new MME is created.
5. Add Neighbor MME: Right-click the MME in the Emulated Nodes pane and select Add
Neighbors > MME. In the Add Neighbor MME dialog box, provide the MME IP Address
that will be used as the neighbor MME (for a roaming scenario, provide the MME IP
address in the Visited PLMN that will behave as the neighbor of the second MME in
Visited PLMN)
Provide the same TAC as given in the Neighbor MME. The MME and its neighbor MME
can have the same MME Code and MME Group ID. Verify that in the 'MME IP Address'
field, the IP address is the same as that configured for the Neighbor MME. Also verify in
the 'TAC List' field that the TAC is the same as that configured for the Neighbor MME. For
example, if the S1-MME connection is set up between the eNodeB2 and MME2, then the
TAC provided for cell creation for eNodeB2 must also be provided in ' Supported TAC(s)'
for MME2 creation.
6. Add Neighbor SGW: Right-click the MME in the Emulated Nodes pane and select Add
Neighbors > SGW. In the Add Neighbor SGW dialog box, configure the SGW IP address.
For 'Supported TAC List', provide the TAC that will be used during handover (the
provided TAC must be same as that provided during MME configuration). In the event of
MME relocation, provide the same TAC used to configure the second MME). For the S5/S8
Protocol, select the GTP check box. If the S5/S8 needs to be configured for PMIP, select the
PMIP check box.

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7. Configure Emergency Session: Right-click the PLMN under the MME Emulator and select
Configure Emergency Session Check the Enable Emergency Session box and configure
the following parameters as described in Section 5.17 of the Console User Guide.
8. Configure Alert function from MME Emulator: Right-click on the MME and select Alert >
Start. In the Start Alert dialog box, select the eNodeBs that the warning messages need to
be broadcast to, and enter the other required parameters. For example, select the Cell ID
from the Warning Area drop-down list and provide a valid cell ID in the 'Cell ID List' field.
To stop 'Alert', right-click on the MME and select Alert > Stop.
9. Configure Roaming Network: Right-click the MME and select Add Roaming Network...
Select the PLMN from the PLMN drop-down list and provide the Realm of the HSS created
for that PLMN. Verify from the Neighbors tab of the MME that the Neighbor HSS has been
added accordingly.

2.5. HSS EMULATOR CONFIGURATION


1. Creating a PDN Profile: Create a new PLMN under the HSS Emulator. Right-click on the
SPR node under the PLMN, and select New PDN Profile... In the Create PDN Profile
dialog box, enter the 'Access Point Name' (default 'apn.polarisnetworks.net'). Set the PDN
Type to IPv4 or IPv6 or Ipv4/IPv6. Verify that a new PDN Profile is created as
'apn.polarisnetworks.net'. Verify the PDN Type from the Properties tab.
For multiple PDN connectivity, create another PDN Profile by following the same
procedure. You may edit the default PDN profile name.
2. HSS Creation: Create a new HSS by right-clicking on the PLMN node under the HSS
Emulator and selecting New HSS...
3. New Subscription Profile creation: Right-click on the SPR node and select New
Subscription Profile.... In the Create Subscription Profile dialog box, observe as follows:
In the PDNs tab, the APN 'apn.polarisnetworks.net' is listed in the Unsubscribed PDN
Context Name(s) box. Select it, click the Add button, and observe that
'apn.polarisnetworks.net'
moves
under
Subscribed
PDN
Profile(s).
Select
'apn.polarisnetworks.net' as the default PDN and create a new subscriber profile.
Subscriber-Profile-1 is created.
4. Registering subscribers (UEs): Right-click on the Subscription Profile node and select
Register Subscribers (UEs). In the Register Subscribers (UEs) dialog box, enter the OP
or OPc as 'Operator Variant Type', and set the number of UEs as any value starting from 1.

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2.6. PCRF EMULATOR CONFIGURATION


1. Creating a PCRF: Create a PLMN under the PCRF Emulator. Right-click on the PLMN and
select New PCRF... in the Interfaces tab of the dialog box that appears, enter parameters
such as IP address and Network Mask for the interfaces.
2. If you select an existing IP Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set a new
unassigned IP Address/Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP address to the
selected NIC. Ensure that the IP address is accessible to and from the other LTE network
nodes.
3. To setup the S1-MME connection between eNodeB and MME, first right-click on the
eNodeB and select S1 Setup.... Then provide the MME IP address.
4. For UE Creation, right-click on the PLMN under the eNodeB Emulator and select New
UE. In the dialog box, enter the UE ID as 1.
5. Right-click on the UE and select Attach... . Enter the eNodeB ID as1.

RESULTS:
At the end of the Attach procedure, verify the following from the different tabs of the UE, eNodeB,
MME, SGW and PGW:
1. The UE icon in the Emulated Nodes pane should be highlighted in green.
2. UE (Status tab): EMM-Status=EMM-Registered and ECM-Status=ECM-Connected eNodeB
ID=1. eNodeB (GTP-U tab): S1-U Tunnels(Current)=1.

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3 . UE EMERGENCY ATTACH
OBJECTIVE: UE Emergency call support.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Configure the DHCP server for emergency attach as described in UE IP address allocation
through DHCP server.
2. Follow the steps given in UE Attach in the MME Emulator Configuration step 7, for UE
Emergency Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. Follow the procedure steps listed in UE Attach.
2. For Emergency Attach, in the UE Attach dialog box, set 'Attach Type' to Emergency. Select
the check box for 'IMEI' if the attach request does not have an IMSI

RESULTS:
1. Check the Results as in UE Attach.
2. The result can be also be verified by a wireshark capture. Observe 'initialUEMessage' >
Attach request > Attach type: EPS emergency attach > Request type: Emergency and RRCEstablishment-Cause: emergency

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4 . UE-INITIATED DETACH
OBJECTIVE: Detaching a single UE from the LTE network.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. First, follow the procedure steps listed in UE Attach.
2. Right-click on the UE under the eNodeB Emulator and select Detach... .

RESULTS:
1. Check the Results as in UE Attach.
2. At the end of the Detach procedure, verify the following:
The UE icon in the Emulated Nodes pane should be highlighted in red.
UE (Status tab): EMM-Status = EMM-De-registered and ECM-Status = ECM Idle.

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5 . UE CONTEXT RELEASE
OBJECTIVE: Simulating UE inactivity (Active to Idle state transition).
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in the Network Configuration in UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. First, follow the UE Attach procedures to attach the UE.
2. For the Go Idle procedure, right-click on the UE and click Go Idle.

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in the UE Attach Results section.
2. At the end of the Go Idle procedure, verify the following:
The UE icon in the Emulated Nodes pane should be highlighted in orange.
eNodeB (GTP-U tab): S1-U Tunnels(Current) = 0.
UE (Status tab): EMM-Status = EMM-Registered and ECM-Status = ECM-Idle.

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6 . S1-BASED HANDOVER
6.1. WITHOUT MME AND SGW RELOCATION
OBJECTIVE: Handover of a single UE without MME and SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. To create the basic network configuration with a single eNodeB, follow the eNodeB
Emulator Configuration: steps listed in UE Attach.
2. To create a 2nd eNodeB, right-click on the eNodeB Emulator and select New eNodeB.... Set
the 'eNodeB Type' as Macro, eNodeB ID = 2.
3. Set appropriate values to IP Address/Network Mask. If you select an existing IP Address,
the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set an unassigned IP Address/Network Mask,
the Emulator will assign the IP address to the selected NIC. Ensure this IP address is
accessible to and from the other LTE network nodes, such as the MME.
4. Create Cells with the default values.
5. From the eNodeB 'Properties' tab, verify:
i. eNodeB Type = Macro eNodeB
ii. eNodeB ID = 2

PROCEDURE:
1. First follow the UE Attach procedures as listed in UE Attach. To Attach the UE, follow the
steps below for S1-MME connection from the 2nd eNodeB and MME.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd Macro eNodeB and the MME, right-click
on the eNodeB and select S1 Setup.... In the dialog box, enter the MME IP address.
3. For handover, right-click on the UE and select Change Cell. Enter eNodeB ID = 2.

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in UE Attach.
2. At the end of the Handover procedure, verify the following from the Properties pane of the
UE, eNodeB, MME, SGW and PGW:
The UE icon in the Emulated Nodes pane should remain highlighted in green.
UE (Status tab): EMM-Status=EMM-Registered and ECM-Status=ECM-Connected
eNodeB ID=2

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6.2. WITH MME RELOCATION


OBJECTIVE: Handover of a single UE with MME relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the Network Configuration steps given in UE Attach.
2. Here are the steps to create a 2nd (Macro) eNodeB:
Right-click on the PLMN under the eNodeB Emulator and select New eNodeB....
In the dialog box, set the 'eNodeB Type' as Macro. Set appropriate values to IP Address
/ Network Mask. If you select an existing IP Address, the Emulator will use that IP
address. If you set an unassigned IP Address / Network Mask, the Emulator will
assign the IP address to the selected NIC. Ensure this IP address is accessible to and
from the other LTE network nodes, such as the MME.
To Create Cells, select 'Cell ID Start ' as 22 & 'TAC' as 21.
From the Properties pane, verify that the 'eNodeB Type' is Macro and the 'eNodeB ID'
is 2.
3. Here are the steps to create a 2nd MME.
To create a 2nd MME, right-click on the PLMN under the MME Emulator and select
New MME.
In the Identity tab, provide the same TACs provided for the 2nd eNodeB's Cells. In the
Interface tab, provide IP addresses and Network Masks. If you select an existing IP
Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set an unassigned IP Address,
the Emulator will assign the IP address to the selected NIC. Ensure this IP address is
reachable to and from the other LTE network nodes.
Right-click on the 1st MME and select Add Neighbors > Add Neighbor MME. In the
Add Neighbor MME dialog box, set the MME Code' to be the same as given for the
2nd MME, 'MME IP Address' to be the same as the IP Address of the 2nd MME, and
'Supported TAC(s)' to be the same as given for the 2nd MME. From the 2nd MME,
follow the same procedure to add the first MME as a neighbor.
Choose the default SGW and PGW as the SGW and PGW IP address.

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PROCEDURE:
1. First, follow UE Attach to attach the UE.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd Macro eNodeB and 2nd MME, rightclick on the eNodeB and select S1 Setup.... Provide the IP address of the 2nd MME.
3. For Handover, follow the procedure described in Without MME and SGW Relocation

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in UE Attach.

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6.3. WITH SGW RELOCATION


OBJECTIVES: Handover of a single UE with SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the UE Attach procedure steps given in UE Attach. Create a 2nd eNodeB as
described in Without MME and SGW Relocation.
2. Follow this procedure to create the 2nd SGW:
Right-click on the PLMN under the SGW Emulator and select New SGW.
Set the interface where the SGW emulator is running. If you select an existing IP
Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set an unassigned IP Address /
Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP address to the selected NIC. Ensure that
this IP address is reachable to and from the other LTE network nodes, such as the MME
and PGW.
From the 'Properties' tab, verify that a new SGW is created.
To add a 2nd SGW as the Neighbor SGW of the MME, right-click on the MME and
select Add Neighbor > SGW.... Select the SGW IP address (which was not used while
creating the MME) and provide the same TAC used for the 2nd eNodeB's creation.

PROCEDURE:
1. Follow the steps listed in UE Attach to attach the UEs.
2. For the 2nd S1-MME connection, follow the Procedure listed in Setup the S1-MME
connection in Without MME and SGW Relocation..
3. For Handover, follow the procedure in Without MME and SGW Relocation.

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in UE Attach: Results.

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6.4. WITH MME AND SGW RELOCATION


OBJECTIVES: Handover of a single UE with MME and SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the Network Configuration given in UE Attach.
2. Create a 2nd eNodeB as described in 2nd (Macro) eNode and the 2nd SGW as described in
2nd SGW Creation in With MME Relocation.
3. Create the 2nd MME as follows:
For 2nd MME setup with the 2nd SGW, right-click on the PLMN under the MME
Emulator and select New MME
Set appropriate values to the IP Addresses/Network Mask. If you select an existing IP
Address, the Emulator will use that IP address. If you set an unassigned IP Address /
Network Mask, the Emulator will assign the IP address to the selected NIC. Ensure this
IP address is accessible to and from the other LTE network nodes, such as the eNodeB.
Enter a proper HSS IP address.
In the SGW S11 IP Address field, select the 2nd SGW's IP Address from the drop-down
list.
Verify from the Properties tab that the default SGWs created have different IP
Addresses.

PROCEDURE:
1. Check the UE Status as described in UE Attach: Results.
2. For S1-MME setup between the 2nd eNodeB and 2nd MME, follow the procedure as
described in the 2nd S1-MME connection setup.
3. For Handover, follow the procedures in Without MME and SGW Relocation.

RESULTS:
1. After the UE Attach, verify results as in the UE Attach Results section.

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7 . X2-BASED HANDOVER
OBJECTIVES: X2 based Handover for a single UE to the LTE network.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in Network Configuration and then in UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. To attach the UE, follow the steps as described in UE Attach.
2. For the 2nd S1-MME connection, follow the Procedure listed in Without MME and SGW
Relocation.
3. Create X2 Setup between source and target eNodeB. Right-click on the source eNodeB and
select X2 Setup.... Provide the IP address and port of of the 2nd eNodeB. If the X2 Setup is
successful, a new X2 node is generated under both source and target eNodeB.
4. For X2 Based Handover, select the 'Use X2 for Handover' check box during the Change
Cell operation.

RESULTS:
1. Follow the Results as listed in Without MME and SGW Relocation.

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8 . IDLE-MODE MOBILITY
This section describes the steps to simulate Idle-mode Mobility using the LTE Emulators, which
triggers Tracking Area Updates. Please note that Periodic TAU cannot be configured or controlled by
the user. It is automatically triggered by the MME Emulator internally.

8.1. TRACKING AREA UPDATE


OBJECTIVES: Tracking Area Update procedure.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps mentioned in Network Configuration in UE Attach.
2. Create a 2nd eNodeB as described in 2nd (Macro) eNodeB creation.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE follow the steps as described in 2: UE Attach section.
2. For the 2nd S1-MME connection follow the Procedure in Without MME and SGW
Relocation
3. Go Idle: Right-click on the UE and select Go Idle.
4. Tracking Area Update: Right-click on the UE and select Change Cell. Select eNodeB ID = 2
and Cell ID = 22.

RESULTS:
1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach.

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8.2. TRACKING AREA UPDATE WITH MME RELOCATION


OBJECTIVES: Tracking Area Update procedure with MME relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given Network Configuration in UE Attach.
2. Create a 2nd eNodeB as described in the section 2nd (Macro) eNodeB creation.
3. For a 2nd MME creation, follow With MME Relocation

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach an UE, follow the steps as described in UE Attach.
2. For a 2nd S1-MME connection, follow the Procedure listed in Without MME and SGW
Relocation.
3. Follow the Go Idle: Procedure as described in the Procedure of Tracking Area Update .
4. For Tracking Area Update follow the Procedure of Tracking Area Update .

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in the UE Attach Results section.

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8.3. TRACKING AREA UPDATE WITH SGW RELOCATION


OBJECTIVES: Tracking Area Update procedure with SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in Network Configuration in UE Attach.
2. Create a 2nd eNodeB as described in Tracking Area Update. Create a 2nd SGW as
described in With SGW Relocation.
3. To add a 2nd SGW as a neighbor SGW, replicate the steps in the Neighbor SGW.
4. Verify from the MME properties tab that the IP addresses of both the SGW's are displayed.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE, follow the steps as described in UE Attach.
2. For the 2nd S1-MME connection, follow the Procedure: listed in the section Setup the S1MME connection.
3. Follow the Go Idle: procedure in the Procedure of Tracking Area Update .
4. Follow the Tracking Area Update as described in the Procedure of Tracking Area Update .

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in the UE Attach Results section.

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8.4. TRACKING AREA UPDATE WITH MME AND SGW RELOCATION


OBJECTIVES: Tracking Area Update procedure with MME relocation & SGW re-location.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in Network Configuration in UE Attach.
2. Create a 2nd eNodeB as described in Tracking Area Update, and the 2nd SGW as
described in With SGW Relocation.
3. For MME and SGW relocation, follow the steps as described in MME Emulator
Configuration

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE follow the steps as described in UE Attach.
2. For the 2nd S1-MME connection, follow the Procedure in Setup the S1-MME
3. Follow the Go Idle procedure in Tracking Area Update.

connection.

RESULTS:
1. Check the UE Status as described in the UE Attach Results.
2. After UE Idle, verify the status of UE, SGW & PGW from Go Idle in UE Context Release.

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9 . BEARER OPERATIONS
9.1. UE-INITIATED BEARER RESOURCE ALLOCATION
OBJECTIVES: Bearer Resource Allocation from UE to LTE network.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
Follow the steps given Network Configuration in section 2: UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. First follow the procedure as described in UE Attach to attach the UE. For Bearer creation,
follow the procedure as detailed below.
2. Bearer Resource Allocation from UE: Right-click on the UE and select Bearer Resource
Allocation... In the Bearer Resource Allocation dialog box, set the proper QoS values in the
QoS tab, and provide the necessary Filter parameters in the Filter tab.

RESULTS:
1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach.

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9.2. UE-INITIATED BEARER RESOURCE MODIFICATION


OBJECTIVES: Bearer Resource Modification from UE to LTE network.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
Follow the steps given in Network Configuration in UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
First follow the procedure as described in UE Attach to Attach the UE . For Bearer creation, follow the
procedure as detailed below.
1. Bearer Resource Modification: Right-click on the UE and select Bearer Resource
Modification... In the Bearer Resource Modification dialog box, modify the GBR and
MBR values in the QoS tab.
2. Select the available options to modify the filter (for example, select 'Add packet filters' if a
new filter is to be added or 'No TFT operation' if filter modification is not required) in the
TFT tab.

RESULTS:
1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach
2. At the end of the Bearer Resource Modification procedure, verify the following from the
Properties pane:
UE (Bearers tab): All the modified fields for QoS Parameters.

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10 . DATA TRAFFIC USING INTERNAL TRAFFIC GENERATOR


10.1. UPLINK TRAFFIC
OBJECTIVES : Data Traffic using internal traffic generator from UE/eNodeB.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
Follow the steps given in Network Configuration in UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. For UE Attach follow the steps as given in UE Attach. To generate uplink traffic, follow the
procedure as described below.
2. Data traffic can be sent over the Default Bearer or the Dedicated Bearer(s), or both of them.
The default bearer is created at the time of UE Attach and can be used for data transfer
without any other bearer related operation.
3. To send data over one or more Bearer(s), follow the procedure described in the steps
below.
4. Traffic Generator Creation: Right-click on the attached UE and then select New Traffic
Generator... from the context menu.
5. In the Traffic Generator dialog box, you can modify the parameters to achieve a desired
data rate. Click Ok. A new traffic generator node is created under the UE in the emulated
nodes pane. This node will show the data rate that will be achieved by the traffic
parameters provided by the user.
6. To create a traffic generator with a different data rate, rightclick on the traffic generator
node and select Destroy from the context menu.
7. Start Traffic: Right click on the traffic generator node and then select Start... from the
context menu. A new Start User Traffic dialog box pops up. Select one of the Bearer(s)
from this window and then click Ok. The data traffic will flow with the selected Bearer.

RESULTS:
1. 1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach.
2. Data packet statistics:
Check the Data Traffic tab of the eNodeB/SGW/PGW's Properties pane. Click the
Connections button to view GTP-U traffic.

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10.2. DOWNLINK TRAFFIC


OBJECTIVES: Internal traffic generator from PGW.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION: Follow the steps given in Network Configuration in UE Attach.
PROCEDURE:
1. To attach the UE, follow the steps as given in UE Attach. To generate down-link traffic,
follow the procedure as described below.
2. To send data traffic follow the procedure as described in Uplink Traffic under Procedure.
3. Traffic Generator Creation: Right-click on the PGW and select New Traffic Generator....
4. Start Traffic: To initiate traffic, follow the Start Traffic procedure described in Uplink
Traffic.

RESULTS:
1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach.
2. Data packet statistics:
Check the Data Traffic tab of the eNodeB/SGW/PGW's Properties pane. Click the
Connections button to view GTP-U traffic.

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11 . MULTIPLE PDN CONNECTION AND DISCONNECTION


11.1. UE REQUESTED PDN CONNECTIVITY
OBJECTIVE: Multiple PDN connectivity for UE.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
Follow the steps given in UE Attach. For multiple PDN connection, follow the Multiple PDN
Connection procedure in HSS Emulator Configuration

PROCEDURE:
1. From the PGW, select both the Access Point Names e.g apn.polarisnetworks.net and
apn1.polarisnetworks.net in the Create PGW dialog box. Verify from the Properties tab
that a new PGW is created with two associated APNs.
2. From the HSS, similarly create another PDN profile from the Create PDN Context dialog
box (edit the default PDN Context name, e.g: apn1.polarisnetworks.net) and observe that
another PDN profile named apn1.polarisnetworks.net is created with the default PDN
profile.
3. For Subscriber UE Profile, ensure in the Create Subscriber Profile dialog box that
apn1.polarisnetworks.net and apn.polarisnetworks.net are present under Unsubscribed
PDNs. Select both the PDN's and add them to Subscribed PDNs.
4. Follow the procedure steps listed in UE Attach.
5. For Multiple PDN connection, right-click on the attached UE and select Connect to new
PDN... In the Connect to PDN dialog box, set the APN name to apn1.polarisnetworks.net.

RESULTS:
1. 1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach.
2. 2. At the end of the multiple PDN connection procedure, verify the following:
The UE icon in the Emulated Nodes pane should be highlighted in green.
UE (Status tab): EMM-Status = EMM-Registered and ECM-Status = ECM
Connected.

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11.2. UE REQUESTED PDN DISCONNECTION


OBJECTIVE: Multiple PDN disconnection for UE.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
Follow the steps given in section UE Attach. For multiple PDN connection, follow the procedure in
the UE Requested PDN Connectivity section.

PROCEDURE:
1. First, follow the procedure steps listed in UE Attach.
2. For Multiple PDN Connection, follow the procedure inUE Requested PDN Connectivity
3. For Multiple PDN Disconnection, right-click on the attached UE and select Disconnect
PDN... In the Disconnect PDN dialog box, select the APN i.e. apn1.polarisnetworks.net.

RESULTS:
1. After UE Attach, check the UE Status as described in the Results section of UE Attach.
2. At the end of multiple PDN connection procedure follow the Results as described in UE
Requested PDN Connectivity
3. At the end of multiple PDN disconnection procedure, verify the following from the different
tabs of the UE, MME, SGW and PGW:
The UE icon in the Emulated Nodes pane should be highlighted in green.
UE (Status tab): EMM-Status = EMM-Registered and ECM-Status = ECM Connected.

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12 . ROAMING (LOCAL BREAKOUT AND HOME-ROUTED)


12.1. UE ATTACH
OBJECTIVE: UE Attach to visited network.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
There will be two network configurations, for Home PLMN and for Visited PLMN.
1. For HPLMN, follow the steps given in UE Attach.
2. Configure a PDN Context for Local Breakout Roaming in the HSS as follows:
Provide PGW IP address as 0.0.0.0
Provide UE IP address as 0.0.0.0
Follow UE IP address allocation through DHCP server procedure.
3. Configure a PDN Context for Home-Routed Roaming in Home HSS as follows :
Configure a PGW IP address that belongs to the Home PLMN
Provide static UE IP address
4. Configure the V-PCRF and H-PCRF for Local Break-out Roaming and Home Routed
Roaming with PMIP based S8 as follows:
Configure an identical APN in both H-PCRF and V-PCRF.
5. For configuring network elements in visited network, steps will be similar to HPLMN,
except the following:
2nd PLMN Creation: If the HPLMN is created with MNC=30, use different MNC (say
31) for creating PLMN in the visited network.
Use 2nd PLMN while creating ENB, MME, SGW and PGW in the visited Network.
Registration of UEs in HSS associated with VPLMN-MME is not required.
6. Configure Roaming Network: Add the HSS of the HPLMN as a neighbor of the VPLMNMME, follow the details as described in UE Attach in the Configure Roaming Network
section.

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PROCEDURE:
1. For UE Attach in Visited PLMN, follow the steps as below:
2. In the Create UE dialog box navigate to the Identity tab and then from the Home PLMN
drop down menu, select the Visited PLMN.
3. In the UE Attach dialog box, select Visited PLMN from the PLMN drop down menu.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure in the Visited PLMN, verify the different tabs of the
UE, eNodeB, MME, SGW and PGW as described in UE Attach. The PGW will be
considered from a Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.2. PDN CONNECTION


OBJECTIVE: UE Initiated PDN Connectivity to visited network.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in visited network, follow the procedure as described in
UE Attach: Network Configuration
2. Configure PDN Context for Local Breakout Roaming in Home HSS as follows:
Configure APN Network Identifier properly.
Set PGW From V-PLMN Allowed field to Yes
Provide PGW IP address as 0.0.0.0
Provide UE IP address as 0.0.0.0
Follow UE IP Address Allocation through DHCP Server procedure as described in UE
IP address allocation through DHCP server.
3. Configure PDN Context for Home-Routed Roaming in Home HSS as follows:
Configure APN Network Identifier properly.
Configure a PGW IP address that belongs to the Home PLMN
Provide static UE IP address
4. Configure the V-PCPRF and H-PCRF for Local Break-out Roaming as follows:
Configure an identical APN in both H-PCRF and V-PCRF.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE in the VPLMN follow the steps as described in the Procedure of UE Attach.
2. For PDN Connectivity in Visited PLMN, follow the steps as below:
In the Connect to PDN dialog box, configure suitable APN and PDN Type.

RESULTS
1. At the end of PDN Connectivity procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the different tabs of the
UE, eNodeB, MME, SGW and PGW as described in UE Attach.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.3. S1-BASED HANDOVER


12.3.1

Without MME and SGW Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Handover in Visited Network of a single UE without MME and SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in the visited network, follow the procedure as
described in UE Attach: Network Configuration.
2. To create the 2nd eNodeB in VPLMN, follow the procedure as described in Without MME
and SGW Relocation: Network Configuration.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE in the VPLMN follow the steps as described in UE Attach: Procedure.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and the MME in VPLMN,
follow the procedure described in MME Emulator Configuration.
3. For handover within the Visited PLMN, right-click on the UE from the Emulated Nodes
pane, select Change Cell... and then select the Visited PLMN. Enter the proper eNodeB ID
(2nd eNodeB ID of VPLMN)

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure in the Visited PLMN, verify the results as described
in UE Attach.

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12.3.2

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With MME Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Handover with MME relocation within the Visited Network of a single UE.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in a visited network, follow the procedure as described
in Network Configuration of UE Attach.
2. For MME relocation in a Visited PLMN follow the steps listed below:
To create the 2ndeNodeB in VPLMN follow the procedure as described in section
Without MME and SGW Relocation
Create 2nd MME : To create a 2nd MME in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps given in
With MME Relocation
To add a neighbor MME in Visited PLMN follow the steps given in MME Emulator
Configuration.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE in the VPLMN follow the steps as listed in UE Attach.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and 2nd MME in Visited PLMN
follow the steps given in With MME Relocation
3. MME relocation within Visited PLMN - for handover, follow the Procedure in With MME
Relocation

RESULTS:
1. At the end of UE Attach procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the results as described in UE
Attach.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.3.3

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With MME and SGW Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Handover in a Visited Network of a single UE with MME and SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in the visited network, follow the procedures listed in
Network Configuration of UE Attach.
2. For MME and SGW relocation in the Visited PLMN follow the steps:

To create the 2nd eNodeB in VPLMN, follow the procedure as described in Without
MME and SGW Relocation.
Create 2nd SGW: To create 2nd MME in Visited PLMN, follow the steps given in
Without MME and SGW Relocation.
Create 2nd MME: To create 2nd MME in Visited PLMN, follow the steps given in
section With MME Relocation. To configure the 2nd MME with 2nd SGW follow With
MME and SGW Relocation Network Configuration step 3.
3. To add a neighbor MME in the Visited PLMN follow the steps as given in MME Emulator
Configuration

PROCEDURE:
1. To attach a UE in the VPLMN, follow the steps as described in UE Attach Procedure.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and 2nd MME in the Visited
PLMN, follow the steps as given in With MME Relocation: Procedure.
3. MME and SGW relocation within the Visited PLMN: For handover, follow the steps as
described in With MME and SGW Relocation.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure in the Visited PLMN, verify the results as described
in UE Attach.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.3.4

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With SGW Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Handover in Visited Network of a single UE with SGW relocation.


NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in visited network, follow the procedure described in
Network Configuration of UE Attach.
2. For SGW relocation in a Visited PLMN, follow the steps below:
To create the 2nd eNodeB in VPLMN follow the procedure described in Without MME
and SGW Relocation: Network Configuration.
Create 2nd SGW: To create the 2nd SGW in the Visited PLMN follow the steps given in
With SGW Relocation: Network Configuration.
Add Neighbor SGW: To add the 2nd SGW as a neighbor, follow the steps described in
With SGW Relocation: Network Configuration.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach a UE in the VPLMN, follow the steps described in UE Attach.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and MME in Visited PLMN
follow the steps given in With MME Relocation: Procedure.
3. To perform Handover with SGW relocation within the Visited PLMN follow the steps as
described in With MME and SGW Relocation: Procedure.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure in the Visited PLMN, verify the different tabs of UE,
eNodeB, MME, SGW and PGW from Visited Network as described in UE Attach: Results.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.4. TRACKING AREA UPDATE


12.4.1

Without MME and SGW Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Tracking Area update within a Visited Network of a single UE without MME and SGW
relocation.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in a visited network, follow the procedure described in
the Network Configuration of UE Attach.
2. To create a 2nd eNodeB in the VPLMN, follow the procedure described in MME Emulator
Configuration.

PROCEDURE:
1. To attach a UE, follow the steps described in UE Attach: Procedure.
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and MME in the Visited PLMN
follow the steps given in With MME Relocation: Procedure.
3. For Tracking Area Update in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps described in the
Procedure of Without MME and SGW Relocation.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of UE Attach procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the results as described in UE
Attach.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.4.2

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With MME Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Tracking Area update within a Visited Network of a single UE with MME relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in visited network, follow the procedure as described in
the Network Configuration of UE Attach.
2. For TAU with MME relocation in Visited PLMN follow the below steps :
3. To create the 2nd eNodeB in VPLMN follow the procedure as described in MME Emulator
Configuration.
4. Create 2nd MME: To create 2nd MME in the visited PLMN, follow the steps as given in
With MME Relocation: 2nd MME.
5. To configure neighbour MME in Visited PLMN follow the steps as given in section MME
Emulator Configuration.

PROCEDURE:
1. To attach a UE follow the steps as described in UE Attach Procedure: .
2. To setup the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and MME in the Visited PLMN
follow the steps as given in With MME Relocation: Procedure.
3. For Tracking Area Update with MME relocation in the Visited PLMN follow the
Procedure: as described in Tracking Area Update with MME relocation.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of UE Attach procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the results as described in UE
Attach.

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12.4.3

OBJECTIVE:

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With MME and SGW Relocation


Tracking Area update within Visited Network of a single UE with MME and SGW

relocation.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION
1. For configuring network elements in visited network, follow the procedure described in
the Network Configuration of UE Attach.
2. For MME and SGW relocation in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps below:
3. To create the 2nd eNodeB in the Visited PLMN, follow the procedure described in Without
MME and SGW Relocation.
4. Create 2nd SGW: To create a 2nd SGW in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps given in
With MME and SGW Relocation.
5. Create 2nd MME: To create a 2nd MME in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps given in
With MME Relocation.
6. To configure neighbor MME in Visited PLMN follow the steps as given in section MME
Emulator Configuration: Add Neighbor MME To configure a 2nd MME with a 2nd SGW,
follow With MME and SGW Relocation: Network Configuration step 3.

PROCEDURE:
1. To attach a UE in the VPLMN follow the steps as described in section 13.1 Procedure.
2. To set up the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and 2nd MME in Visited
PLMN follow the steps as given in With MME Relocation: Procedure.
3. For Tracking Area Update with MME and SGW relocation in the Visited PLMN follow the
steps as described in With MME and SGW RelocationProcedure.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of UE Attach procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the results as described in UE
Attach.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.

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12.4.4

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With SGW Relocation

OBJECTIVE: Tracking Area update within the Visited Network of a single UE with SGW relocation.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in visited network, follow the procedure as described in
Network Configuration of section 13.1 Network Configuration.
2. For SGW relocation in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps below.
3. To create the 2nd eNodeB in VPLMN follow the procedure as described in section Without
MME and SGW Relocation: Network Configuration.
4. Create 2nd SGW: To create a 2nd SGW in the Visited PLMN, follow the steps given in
With SGW Relocation: Network Configuration.
5. To add the 2nd SGW as a neighbor, follow the steps described in With SGW Relocation:
Network Configuration.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach UE in the VPLMN, follow the steps described in UE Attach: Procedure.
2. To set up the S1-MME connection between the 2nd eNodeB and MME in the Visited
PLMN, follow the steps given in With MME Relocation: Procedure.
3. To perform TAU with SGW relocation within Visited PLMN follow the steps as described
in Tracking Area Update with SGW relocation : Procedure.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the different tabs of UE,
eNodeB, MME, SGW from Visited Network as described in UE Attach: Results.
2. The PGW will be considered from the Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.
3. At the end of the Handover with SGW relocation procedure in the VPLMN, verify the
different tabs of the UE, 2nd eNodeB and the 2nd SGW as in Tracking Area Update with
SGW relocation : Results.

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12.5. DATA TRAFFIC TEST


Objective: Verify Data Traffic Flow in both Uplink and Downlink direction during Roaming in visited
network.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. For configuring network elements in the visited network, follow the procedure described
in the Network Configuration of UE Attach.

PROCEDURE:
1. To Attach an UE in the VPLMN, follow the steps described in UE Attach: Procedure.
2. Send uplink data traffic from the attached UE to Internet Host.
3. Send downlink data traffic from Internet Host to the attached UE.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of UE Attach procedure in Visited PLMN, verify the results as described in UE
Attach.
2. PGW will be considered from Home Network in case of Home-Routed roaming.
3. After sending the data, verify the Data Traffic tab of the SGW and H-PGW (for HomeRouted roaming) or the V-PGW (for Local Breakout roaming) to check the data flow path.

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13 . UE IP ADDRESS ALLOCATION THROUGH DHCP SERVER


13.1. USING DHCP SERVER CO-LOCATED WITH PGW
OBJECTIVE: IP address allocation to a UE through a DHCP server when both the DHCP server

and PGW are running on the same machine.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. From the HSS, configure the HSS PDN Context as follows: Create PDN Context from HSS
and set the UE IP address to 0.0.0.0
2. From the PGW, configure the PDN Profile as follows: In the PGW PDN Profile, set the
DHCPv4 Server IP address to 127.0.0.1 and provide a range of IPv4 addresses to be
allocated to the UE.

PROCEDURE:
1. For UE Attach, follow the steps given in UE Attach.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure, the UE IP will be set within the range of the IPs
specified in the dhcpd.conf file.
2. Verify the status of the PGW, SGW and MME.

NOTE:
A DHCPv6 server running in co-located mode with the PGW can also be used to allocate IPv6 address
to a UE. To activate the co-located DHCPv6 server, set the DHCPv6 server IPv6 address to ::1 while
configuring PDN Profile in PGW and a provide 48-bit DHCPv6 prefix range.

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13.2. USING PGW AND DHCP SERVER IN DIFFERENT MACHINES


OBJECTIVE:

IP address allocation to a UE through a DHCP server when both the DHCP server
and PGW are running in different machines.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. From the HSS, configure a PDN Context as follows: Create a PDN Context from the HSS
and set the UE IP address to 0.0.0.0
2. From the PGW, configure a PDN Profile and SGi interface as follows: In the PGW PDN
Profile, provide the external DHCP server IP Address.

PROCEDURE:
1. For UE Attach, follow the steps given in UE Attach.

RESULTS:
At the end of the UE Attach procedure, follow the steps described in section Using DHCP Server Colocated with PGW: Results.

NOTE:
It is also possible to allocate an IPv6 address to a UE through a DHCPv6 server running on a different
machine. In this event, set the UE IPv6 prefix to :: in the PDN Context in the HSS and provide the
external DHCPv6 server's IPv6 Address during PDN Profile Creation in the PGW.

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14 . INTERNET CONNECTIVITY
OBJECTIVE: To test Internet access from the simulated UE via EPC.
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. The eNodeB Emulator and the SGW/PGW Emulators need to be configured so that UEs
can access the Internet over the GTPv1-U tunnels on the S1-U and S5 interfaces.
2. The following connection diagram shows the IP address configuration for the same.

3. Steps to configure the emulated nodes:


The eNodeB Emulator in your LTE / SAE Test Bed can simulate one or more UEs. The
UE Traffic Endpoint should be configured with the same IP address that is assigned to
the simulated UE in your LTE / SAE Test Bed. For UE, add one more alias IP as
follows: ifconfig ethx 200.200.200.1
Note: Assign the same IP Address in the simulated UE.
The eNodeB Emulator should have two network interfaces. The S1-U interface connects
to the SGW and the second interface connects to a system which runs the external
traffic labeled as UE Traffic Endpoint as shown in the diagram above. In the eNodeB
machine, add one more alias IP address as follows:
ifconfig ethx 200.200.200.10
The PGW Emulator connects to the SGW over the S5-U network interface and to the
Internet over the SGi network interface.
For traffic flow from UE to I/H, add route to the UE by running the following
command: route add -net 192.168.219.0/24 gw 200.200.200.10
To allow the PGW emulator to route traffic through the SGi interface, run the
following command in the PGW machine:
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ethx -j MASQUERADE
Note: ethx should be accessible from the Internet.
To automatically enable NAT, check the 'Enable NAT on SGi' box in the Interfaces tab
of the Create PGW dialog box when creating a PGW.

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PROCEDURE:
1. For UE attach, follow the procedure listed in UE Attach.
2. Observe, in the UE Status tab, that the UE IP address is the same as the one configured
(200.200.200.1).
3. 'ping' can be used to receive uplink traffic (UE to I/H).

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15 . CMAS ALERTS
OBJECTIVE: To broadcast emergency alerts from the MME
NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. To start the Alert procedure from MME follow the steps described in MME Emulator
Configuration: Configure Alert function from MME Emulator.
2.

PROCEDURE:

1. For UE Attach, follow the steps given in UE Attach.


2. To start the Alert procedure from the MME, follow the steps in MME
Configuration.
3. To stop the Alert procedure, follow the description given in MME
Configuration.

Emulator
Emulator

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure, follow the steps as described in Using DHCP
Server Co-located with PGW
2. The result can be also be verified via a wireshark capture.

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16 . INTER-WORKING WITH GERAN/UTRAN USING S4-SGSN


EPC nodes can connect to other 3GPP Access networks such as GERAN/UTRAN, and can interact
with 2G/3G network components such as the S4-SGSN and RNC via the S4/S12/S3 interfaces. This
feature can be used to test subscriber mobility between different 3GPP Access networks.
Note that the Polaris EPC can only interact with the S4-SGSN, and not the Gn/Gp SGSN. The EPC also
does not support ISR. Support for these elements will be included in upcoming releases.
The Polaris LTE Emulators do not include 2G/3G core components such as the SGSN, MSC/VLR,
HLR etc. The PCRF co-located with the PGW and the HSS co-located with the MME, support only EUTRAN. As the Polaris LTE Emulators emulate only an internal PCRF and internal HSS, a third-party
PCRF and HSS are required to interact with other 3GPP Access Networks.

OBJECTIVE:

To test the PS service continuity of a subscriber between 2G/3G networks and LTE
networks. Both Idle and Connected mode mobility are supported.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in UE Attach for core network node creation with the following
modifications:
Provide the appropriate S4-C/U and S12-U plane IP addresses during SGW creation.

Ensure that this IP address is reachable by peer nodes.

Provide a third-party PCRF IP address during PGW creation.


Provide the appropriate S3 IP address of the MME and the third-party HSS IP address
during MME creation.
2. After an MME is created, add a neighbor SGSN with proper RAC and LAC values.

PROCEDURE:
1. Initiate an UE attach procedure. The UE will be registered in the LTE network, and can
avail PS services.
2. After the UE is registered in the LTE core network, make the UE go idle. This is an optional
step. If the UE becomes idle, idle-mode mobility procedure will be executed. If not,
connected-mode mobility will be executed by the core network.
3. Move the UE towards the eNodeB (UTRAN) or BTS (GERAN) node. If the interworking is
successful, the UE will continue to receive services from the core network via S4-SGSN,
SGW, PGW and PCRF.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure in the LTE network, verify the results as described
in UE Attach.

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17 . CS-FALLBACK TO GERAN/UTRAN
The Polaris EPC can connect to other 3GPP Access Networks, allowing LTE subscribers to fallback on
those RANs to make voice calls and send text messages. Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB) capability
within the MME needs to be configured in order to allow LTE subscribers to make and receive voice
calls and SMS over legacy networks.
This feature requires the overlap of 2G/3G and 4G Access networks. During Fallback, all active PSsessions are suspended. Those sessions are resumed once the UE returns to the LTE Access network.
CS Fallback with PS Handover will be supported in future releases.
Please refer to Inter-working with GERAN/UTRAN using S4-SGSN for information on other
constraints.

OBJECTIVE: To test CS-fallback capability of E-UTRAN and core network.


NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in UE Attach for core network node creation with the following
modifications:
Provide the appropriate S4-C/U and S12-U plane IP addresses during SGW creation.
Ensure that this IP address is reachable by peer nodes.
Provide the appropriate third-party PCRF IP address during PGW creation.
Provide the appropriate S3 IP address of the MME and the third-party HSS IP address
during MME creation.
2. After an MME is created, add a neighbor SGSN with the correct RAC and LAC values.
3. After an MME is created, configure CSFB by right-clicking on the PLMN under the MME
Emulator and selecting Configure CS Fallback... Set the circuit-switched access network to
3GPP GERAN/UTRAN. Configure the network based on the need to support voice and
SMS or only SMS.

PROCEDURE:
1. Initiate the Attach procedure from the UE. The UE will be registered in the network, and
can avail CS+PS services or PS+SMS services.
2. It will now be possible to send text messages to this registered subscriber. The subscriber
can also send text messages to other subscribers.
3. Similarly, it will now be possible for the subscriber to initiate voice calls, and for other
subscribers to make voice calls to this subscriber.

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18 . CS-FALLBACK TO CDMA-2000 1XRTT NETWORK


The Polaris EPC can connect to trusted non-3GPP Access Networks such as CDMA 2000 1xRTT for
LTE subscribers to fallback to the CDMA 2000 RAN. Circuit-Switched Fallback (CSFB) capability
within the MME needs to be configured in order to allow LTE subscribers to make and receive voice
calls and SMS over legacy CDMA networks.
This feature requires the overlap of CDMA 2000 and 4G Access networks. During fallback, all active
PS-sessions are suspended. Those sessions are resumed once the UE returns to the LTE Access
network. CS Fallback with PS Handover will be supported in future releases.

OBJECTIVE: To test the CS-fallback capability of E-UTRAN and core networks.


NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in UE Attach for core network node creation with the following
modifications:
1. Provide the third-party PCRF IP address during PGW creation.
2. After an MME is created, configure CSFB by right-clicking on the PLMN under the MME
Emulator and selecting Configure CS Fallback... Set the circuit-switched access network to
CDMA 2000 1xRTT.
3. Specify one 1xRTT IWS in the network that the MME will connect to.

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19 . LTE PROCEDURES USING PMIP-BASED S5


The S5 interface between the SGW and PGW, as specified by 3GPP release standards, can be based on
either GTP or PMIP. The Polaris LTE Emulators can be used to emulate EPC nodes that support both
GTP and PMIP on the S5 interface.
All previous sections of this document implicitly assume the use of GTP when illustrating LTE
procedures. This section will specifically discuss the network configuration required to use PMIP
instead of GTP on the S5.

OBJECTIVE: To test the CS-fallback capability of E-UTRAN and core networks.


NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Follow the steps given in UE Attach for core network node creation with the following
modifications:
2. Enable the Gxc interface during SGW creation and provide a third-party PCRF IP
address and port. Select the transport protocol appropriately.
3. Use the same PCRF IP address while creating the PGW.
4. After an MME is created, modify the property of the default neighbor PGW. To do so,
go to the Neighbors tab and select the default PGW. Then right-click on it and modify
it. Change the S5/S8 protocol type to PMIP.

PROCEDURE:
1. Initiate an UE Attach procedure. The UE will be registered in the LTE network, and
PMIP will be used on the S5 interface.
2. Other
LTE
procedures,
such
as
UE-initiated
dedicated
bearer
creation/deletion/modification, can be performed after this.
3. Traffic can also be sent to/from the UE after successful Attach.

RESULTS:
1. At the end of the UE Attach procedure, verify the results as described in UE Attach.
2. During traffic transmission, verify the Data Traffic tab of the SGW and PGW.

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20 . IMS VOICE CALL USING OPEN IMS CORE


OBJECTIVE: Make IMS Voice call from one LTE phone to another LTE phone.
PREREQUISITE:
Install the LTE Emulators using the LTE Emulators ISO image or the bootable CD or USB drive
obtained from Polaris Networks. The ISO image contains the Open IMS Core software. You may also
download the Open IMS source code from http://www.openimscore.org/, compile and configure it.
Contact Polaris Networks support if you wish to compile and configure Open IMS Core yourself.
You may run Open IMS Core in the same system as the PCRF Emulator, or in a separate system.

NETWORK CONFIGURATION:
1. Select the SPR in the HSS Emulator and create a Service with QCI 5 for IMS
signaling.
2. Create a Service with QCI 1 for the Audio call, with proper GBR and MBR values.
3. Create a PDN Context with these Services. Select "IMS service available" in the IMS
tab. Change the preferred S-CSCF name if the S-CSCF uses a port other than the
default 6060 port. Change the IMS Domain name to the domain name used by the
IMS Server.
4. Check the option for UE-to-UE Traffic Loopback and IP Packet Fragmentation
under Capabilities tab, while creating a new PGW.
5. Select a PCRF node and then select Start IMS.
6. If OpenIMS is running in the same system as the PCRF Emulator, check the option
for the co-located mode. Enter the IMS Domain Name, the OpenIMS installation
path, the HSS Cx IP Address and the HSS Cx Port.
7. If OpenIMS is not co-located with the PCRF Emulator, uncheck the option for the colocated mode. Enter the IP address of the system where OpenIMS is running, the
root password of the OpenIMS system, the IMS Domain name, the OpenIMS
installation path, the HSS Cx IP Address and the HSS Cx Port.
8. Click Ok to start Open IMS Core.

UE CONFIGURATION:
1. Configure two LTE phones with the following information:
P-CSCF IP address.
P-CSCF Port.
Private User Identity, Public User Identity, Secret Key (may be obtained from the
HSS Emulator using the Search/Modify Subscribers function).
Transport Protocol: UDP
Realm.
Display Name (can be anything).

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ROUTING:
If the Open IMS Core is not co-located with the PCRF Emulator and not co-located with the PGW
Emulator, IP Routing needs to be configured on the Open IMS P-CSCF so that it uses the PDN-GW as
the gateway (or the next hop) to reach the UEs in the LTE network.
Example: If the UEs are configured with IP addresses in the 200.200.200.0/24 subnet and the PGW SGi
IP address is 100.100.100.40, then execute the following command on the Open IMS Core system as the
root user:
# route add -net 200.200.200.0/24 gw 100.100.100.40

PROCEDURE:
1. Attach the UE's with the EPC network.
2. Trigger IMS Registration from IMS Client for both the UEs
3. Initiate Voice call from one subscriber to another.

RESULTS:
On receiving an incoming call, observe that a dedicated bearer is created for each subscriber and the
call completes successfully.

ADDITIONAL NOTES:
1. SMS procedures can also be performed with the given setup.
2. To make an IMS Video call, create an additional Service with QCI 2 and add this
service to the PDN context.

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