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THE

LIFE

TULLIUS

MARCUS

AUTHOR

OF

ROLLINGS,

F.

J.
THE

"

LIFE

OF

LONDON

PRINTED

FOR

CICERO,

THOMAS

MDCCCXXXIX.

GUSTAVUS

ADOLPHUS.'

TEGG,

73, CHEAPSIDE.

CY11US

EDMONDS,

R.

ESQ.

Volume
us

IS

INSCRIBED,

WITH

OF

SENTIMENTS

BY

HIS

OBLIGED

SINCERE

RESPECT

AND

FRIEND,

THE

AUTHOR.

FSTFEM,

PREFACE.

THE

Life

of

long enjoyed
To

the

classical

carefully
addition

text, in the

the

upon

from

transcribed

treating

upon

history

then

known,

and

containing

derived

from

almost

every

available

events

of

leading

his

aid

the

interesting periods.

most

towards

thorough

in

its decided

and

its

all

With

work

suited, from

more

learned
student

with

than
who

the

leading
leisure

field

extensive

more

in

such

references,

as

this

wearying

the

in

inquiry

prove

attention,

and

his

with

presented

reader,

of
would

it

or

himself

presented

by

the

of

utility

be

to

the

the

labours
that

notes

those

literature,

ancient
not

of
to

the

but

form,

means

to

into

believed, therefore,
popular

without

enter

by

is

acquainted

Cicero,
to

be

easily

character,

of

of

one

obvious

however,

Life

prove

less

no

to

respect

drawback

sufficient

information,
might

of

information

acquaintance

making

more

department
his

of

been

somewhat

conveying

upon

of

in

always

it must

general

curiosity

has

It

Middleton.

work

or

Orator,

with

elaborate

the

events

of

source

excellences,

desirous

the

partiality, might

its

to

be

may

possessing

of

either

copious notes,

mass

slight

extravagant

specified.

continued

particulars

Other

the

merits, notwithstanding

of

minutest

time,

valuable

does,

of

works

the
the

it

as

shape

to

the

circulation.

well-merited

scholar, affording,

has

Middleton,

Conyers

and

extensive

an

commentary

Dr.

by

Cicero,

still
and

entering
without

unacceptable

to

PREFACE.

Till

of
considerable part of the readingpublic. The name
and the universal admiration with which
Cicero himself
"

regardedin all ages the importance


and the prominentpart
of the sera in which he flourished,
of its most
enacted by him in some
strikingscenes,
jects
appearedto bring his lifefairlywithin the range of subintended to be illustrated by the series of works constituting
the " Family Library."
In preparingthe present volume, the well-known
and the Fasti Hellenici
historycompiled by Fabricius,
have been taken as the best,as
of Mr. Fynes Clinton,
well as the most comprehensive,
guidesfor the succession
and
The
order of events.
assistance afforded by the
and the remarks
classicalhistorians,
of various commentators,
that
and it will be seen
has not been neglected,
the recent discoveries of Maio have furnished a feAv,
by
At the same
no
means
time,
unimportant,particulars.
his

geniushas

wherever
Cicero

well

as

been

it has

by

been

Middleton

the notes

Cicero's

"

found

has been

of Melmoth

necessary,

the

Life

of

as
consulted,
respectfully

to

his excellent translation

Epistles.So ample

and

easilyaccessible,
however, arc the materials for a biographysuch as the
present,that any credit on the score of research is entirely
out of the question. Nor does the Author, in the least
labour,in
pretendto such a merit : his principal
degree,
has necessarily
consisted in selection,
not in
this instance,
stock of
discovery rather in compressingthe immense
in his
materials at hand, than in indulgingthe ambition,
of addinginformation which
case
wholly unwarrantable,
of the most
the curiosity
eniinent and unwearied scholars
of

"

has for ages failed to detect.


It remains

but

four orations known

to advert
as

to the

the Prima

reasons

and

for which

the

Secunda, Post Re-

ditum,Pro Domo Sua,and De Haruspicum Responsionibus,upon which so much controversial ingenuityand so


much
amusing wit have been employed,have been cited
It may be remarked,then,that
as authentic documents.

IX

PREFACE.

dazzlingcommentary of Bentley upon the


false epistles
of Phalaris had excited in writers of less
in his track,
the perilous
ambition of following
acuteness
the genuineness
for a moment
of these speeches
was
never
douhted ; and that although the learning
of Markland,
in the earlypart of the last century, was
ably employed
in endeavouringto destroytheir authority,
the judgment
of Gesner was
not
givenin
long afterwards strenuously
their favour,and that of Ernesti so confidently
established
side of the question,
to ensure
as
upon the same
into
their admission,without the least apparent scruple,
The
his valuable
edition of Cicero's works.
daring
of Wolf, from which
scepticism
nothing seemed at one
time destined to be sacred,revived the controversy,but
invested it with no
greaterdegree of certainty.It is
true, indeed,that his views have been supportedby some
of the most
able critics of recent times,and among
them
by those whose judgment with respect to the productions
of Cicero would be entitled to implicit
deference,
it unbalanced
were
by that of others of equalerudition,
and
possessedby a less evident desire of innovation.
But
it is equallytrue, on the other hand, that Lemaire,
whose judicious
remarks
should be read by all interested
in the dispute,
added his name
has lately
to that of former
believers in the authenticity
of the doubted orations. At
the same
time the recent discovery
by which the speech
for Marcellus has been vindicated from the suspicion
so
mentary
longthrown upon it,may be considered a valuable comupon the confidence to be placedin the specious
unbelief of later times when
ficult
opposed to the less difcredence of antiquity. Under all circumstances,
while the learned are
still equallydivided,
and like the
of the campaignsmanaged
contendingarmies in some
now
obsolete,seem, after a
accordingto rules of war
until the

succession

of skirmishes

and

encounters

more

or

less

to be returningto the same


obstinate,
ground which
of the
they respectively
occupiedat the commencement

PREFACE.

affray

while

the

and

discover

severally

than

them

for

must

were

which

those

Leicester,

"

Minore

creasset

upon

Preface

September

utinam
domina

rerutn

acknowledged

the
of

the

former.

the

lapse

much

really

we

4,

of

so

to

far

question
to

have

left

the

us

centuries,

many

to

formidable
for

dent
pru-

with

in

attempt

more

possess,

most

inducement

no

misleading,

preposterous
with

provided

we

than

after

almost

seem

of

purpose

which,

testimony

it,

the

point

with

and

great

immediate

who,

the

upon

too

as

authorities

upon

acquire,

their

well

as

moderns

the

to

by

safest

pronouncing

possibly

can

we

abuse

of

means

back

witness

displayed
the

the

among

willing

bear

appears

fall

to

course

better

it

editors

boldness

and

self-confidence

predecessors*

able

most

shake,
means

purpose.

1839.

judieii
natura,"

genius

volubilitate
is

and

the

wish

erudition

audacia

et

of

Orelle,
of

praeditum
in

Schiitz.

remarking
See

the

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

Birth

and

and

the

appliesto

War
between

Sylla
speech

Oration

Greece

mysteries
"

He

the

of

Arrives

"

His

"

Cicero

defence

into
Rome

Cicero

"

Is

Asia,

and

after

two

the

Roscius

Tomb

of

in

Cicero

Archimedes

of

"

party

Quintius

"

visiting

upon

Eleusinian

the

himself

rhetoric

to

Undertakes

"

Is elected

the

to

quses-

Terentia

.1
.

his

II.

He

Quscstorship
"

Delivers

"

Marian

years'absence

CHAPTER

Conduct

the

into

devotes

tures
the lec-

Rhetorician

resolves

"

Contests

attends

Publius

initiated

comedian

marriage with

of

of

Marsic

"

the

proscription

the

Sylla

Molo

virilis

toga

in

Cicero

"

and

Ameria
"

Cor.

and

dications
in-

poet Archias

the

Serves

"

Marius

in

Athens

at

to

of

cause

Strabo

and

of

Passes

"

returns

torship

Rome

Roscius

for

law

Academician

to

early

and

of the

Assumes

"

civil

of

general and

the

of

First

Poetry

Porupeius

Philo

Return

of

study

the latter
of

"

C.

under

PAGE

education

the lectures

attends

study

the

Commences

"

His
"

He

"

Cicero

of

parentage

of talent

I.

farewell

discovers

the

Oration

at

the

barks
Expiration of his Office, to the People of LilybsDiim He emPuteoli
for Italy, and
arrives
at
Spends five years in
Causes
Resolves
for the ./Edileship,
to stand
pleading private
"

"

"

is returned

and

to

the

Office

Commencement

"

History
against Verres"
Oration
Magistrate
against
time
Returns
to
to
Sicily
Oration
against Verres, who
"

"

He

defends

Marcus

the

Trial
danius

Licinius

of
"

of Cicero

Speech

impeached

before

to

and

Rome,
withdraws

that

second

his

first

Banishment

Cecina

"

"

Dedication

.27
.

the

Defence
Cicero

sails

delivers
into

Aulus

of

Catulus

Macer
in

Cicero

"

CHAPTER

Election

the prosecution

Administration

Caecilius

and

Fonteius

Capitol by Quintus

of the

of

of

"

III.

Prsetorship

His

"

Orations
of the

for

Mauilian

for Peculation

"

Impartialityin

Cluentius
Law

First

"

Fun-

and

Manilius

Letters

the

to

is
At-

CONTEXTS.

XU

PAGE

ticus

of Cicero

for Puhlius

Cornelius

Caesar and

C. Marcius

Figulus

Oration
Julius

Origin

"

He

Consulate

Cicero

of

Appeases

"

Law

Otho

.59

IV.

of

Agrarian Law

the

trical
of the thea-

in

consequence
Defends Rabirius

"

elected

Conspiracy

opposes

the Tumults

Roscius

of

He

"

is

Catilinarian

the

and

CHAPTER

Rullus

"

"

Progress of
Cicero defends Quintus Gallius

"

prepares to sue
of Catiline

"

Delivers
Consul

Cicero

"

"

Consulate of Lucius

"

Consulship Meditates the Defence


"in
his Oration
Toga Candida"

the

for

Cotta

Torquatus and

Consuls

Conspiracyagainstthe

"

His

"

Oration

"

Progress of the Catilinaiian


ProscriptorumLiberis
Conspiracy The Senate assembled by Cicero to debate upon
The
the subject Decree in consequence
ConspiratorManHe
lius sets out for Fsesulae
Attempt to assassinate Cicero
assembles
the Senate at the Temple of JupiterStator, and
delivers his first Oration
departs in
againstCatiline,who
"

De

"

"

"

"

"

"

Rome
from
consequence
Praetor Lentulus
carries

Cicero
Cato

to

Conference

"

and

Catilinarian

"

sadors
AmbasArrest

"

of

the Senate in the


Oration

"

Debate

Conspirators Speechesof
"

Catilinarian

Fourth

"

the

opposition

the

Plot

"

Cato

in

Muraena

Conspiratorswith

Third
Temple of Concord
respectingthe punishment of

Caesar and

"

of Licinius

the

of

The

"

Conspiracy in the Capital

Allobroges,who divulge the


his Companions
Meeting of

of the

Lentulus

the

on

the Cause

undertakes

Catilinarian Oration

Second

"

Oration

of

Execution

"

nours
and
Gabinius
Coeparius HoLentulus,Cethegus,Statilius,
His Vanity Campaign against
conferred upon Cicero
"

"

who
Catiline,

"

slain

is defeated and

the Battle of Pistoria

at

V.

CHAPTER

Domestic
and

the

Metellus

Sylla
"

Dissensions

Letter of Cicero

"

Cicero

Dea

of Livius

by Publius

Impeachment
to

Speech

"

Rome

Clodius,who
"

removes

is

from

Caesar and

Pompey

to

on

Violation

"

Clodius

"

"

acquitted Evidence

for the Poet

Archias

"

for

of the

Rites

Mithridatic
Circus

of Cicero

Third

Publius

the Palatine Hill

Disputes occasioned

Pompey returns from his


Meeting in the Flaminian
"

Aristocracy,
the Tribune

Oration

"

his Residence

Drusus

the

between

Julius

popular Party under

to the House

Bona

Rome

at

84
.

on

Triumph

"

of

the

by his

dition
ExpeTrial of

the occasion
of

Pompey

134

CONTENTS.

X1U

CHAPTER

VI.
PAGE

Consulate
of

Afranius

Lucius

of

with

Pouipey

of its Members

Bibulus
is

his

of

History

Consuls

returned

opposed by Cato
of Publius

Clodius

elected

the Gallic War


Asia

Acts

"

Fonteius

of

Oration

"

Commission

Letter

"

of

Cicero

former

He

"

Plebeian

the

into

for Flaccus

Influence

"

of

Poinpey
Lieutenant,in

his

his

to

his

Calpurnius

of the

Cicero,as

to

Brother

in

Quiutus

ment
by Clodius at the commenceLaw
fliction
against the arbitraryInpassed by an Assembly of

forward

Tribuneship His
"

Capital

and

of Cicero

of the

Decline

"

brought

his

of

AgrarianLaw

"

racters
Cha-

"

retirement

Caesar

Adoption of Clodius

"

Tribune

Caesar offers

Julius

"

in

composes

lition
Coa-

"

Triumvirate

First

"

Cicero

"

Consulship

Family
"

Clodius

Color

Mctcllus

and

Punishment

He
People Distress of Cicero
appliesfor Protection
and prepares
to retire into Exile
to Pompey without
effect,
He
withdraws
Expressionsof Public Opinion in his Favour

the

"

"

"

"

from

Rome

CHAPTER

Cicero

forbidden

Sicilyby
Intelligenceat

"

House
sent
tum

Rome

at
on

VII.

to enter

gilius He receives
sanctioninghis Exile

His

"

rased

Estates
the

to

proceeds to Brand usium


Letters
Repairsto Thessalonica
"

"

cus

Riots

"

Quintus
a

Cicero

Decree

"

his

and

againsthim

of the Senate

Interests of Cicero

Epirus

to

Rome

disembarks

at

He

"

Oration

jEdile

of Cicero

upon

his

Cato

"

Cicero

Rome

His

"

Skirmishes

upon

Sets
he

where

arms

the two

all Freemen
"

Atti-

to

Milo

"

between

is recalled

Brundusium,

Epirus

Attack

Foruui

is

Taren-

at

for

in the
out

from

is met

"

by

His

by Clodius

Clodius

Decrees

Terentia,and

summoning

CHAPTER

raised

Clodius

embarks

and

in the
"

the

of

Vir-

plundered,and

are

to

Caius

ProgressthroughItaly,
Triumphant'
197
Receptionat the Capital

daughter Tullia

und Favourable

at

the Tribunes

and

of Gladiators

Body

Parties

by Clodius

excited

Vibn

"

He

"

Praetor

the

ground by
to Cyprus

Foreign Commission

.164

"

in the

Senate
"Pro

Oration

the Houses

of Cicero

VIII.

after his Return


Domo
and

sua"

Milo

"

Tumults

"

"

Attack

Clodius

De
Speech of Cicero
Rege Alexandrine"
Violence
Cicero
impeached by Clodius for illegal
"

"

"

of

elected
"

Milo

defends

CONTENTS.

XIV

PAGE

againstVatinius
Interrogation
Haruspicum Responsionibus" Cicero tears
Sextius

Publius
"

De

in the

Banishment

Caelius

Provinces
respectingthe Consular
and
Tullia and Crassipes Speechesfor Balbus

of

of
His

"

"

Letter

"

his

to
relating

Oration

"

Marriage

Decree

Capitol,containingthe

the

down

"

Tablets

"

Oration

"

"

Cicero

of

Ponipeyand

Letter

Crassus

of Cicero

Oration

"

Second

Lucceius"

sulate
Con-

againstPiso

Dedication

respectingthe

Marius

to

Lucius

to

the

of

De Oratore"
Cicero writes his Treatise
Pompeian Theatre
Departure of Crassus for his Parthian Expedition
"

"

224

"

CHAPTER

Consulate
Claudius

of

Lucius

Pulcher

Republica"

Defends

"

Domitius

Cicero

"

IX.

Scaurus

and

Appius

Treatise

his

commences

Vatinius

and

Ahenobarbus

De

"

for

Orations

"

and
Letters to Trebatius
Plancius,Gabinius, and Rabirius
Quintus Cicero,respectingthe Britannic Expeditionof Caesar
"

Disturbances

"

of
of

Rome"

at

Triumph

Interreges Consulate of Calvinus


and Clodius
Milo, Scipio,Hypsaeus,
"

Oration

"

the Debts

on

of the latter at Bovillae

Pompey

sole Consul

declared

of Milo
to

"

Marseilles

Cicero

Oration

New

Acts

of Cicero in his Defence

Milo

"

againstthe Clodian
his Dialogue '' De
Legibus"
and sets
of
Cilicia,
Proconsulship
"

the

He

CHAPTER

Jealousies
-

"

He

besiegeCaius Cassius
Cybistra His Despatch to
"

with

to Atticus

Cato

Reply

"

respect

to

of

To

"

prepares

Arrives

at

to

the
"

"

EquitableCharacter
He

the

the latter

Appius

His

Antioch

Brundusium,

at Athens

and

Cicero

at
encamps
of his
Account

Operationsat Amanus
and People To Marcus
of Cicero with
Disingenuousness

"

His

"

Senate

Justice

to

"

Senate,givingan

"

towards

of his Government

return

Cicero

"

"

in

Ariobarzanes

Letter

Csesar

terestedness
Disinproceedsto Laodicea
-Invasion of Syriaby the Parthians,

wbo

Interview

and

Pompey
Epbesus, and

of Cicero"

263

X.

between

arrives at

"

is pointed
apfor his

out

retires

Faction-

Province
.

by

at Rome

ment
Impeach-

"

Prosecutions

"

composes
to

"

quence
conse-

is slain

Insurrection

His

"

in

Clodius

"

Canvass

"

Tumults

"

Creation

"

Messala

and

of Milo

the Followers
"

Pontinus

of

Italy
"

"

Lands

the

Salaminians

Cicero
at

at

the

proceeds towards Rome

"

Tarsus

"

Peiraeus
.

"

307

CONTENTS.

XV

CHAPTER

XI.
PAGE

the Dissensions

Progressof
Rome

Decree

Ultimate

"

and

Antony

his Sword

the

of

Cassius

Cicero

and

Pompey

between

Interview

"

Rome

the rival Factions

delivers

Marcellus

Consul

The

"

between

Senate

Caesar

"

Pompey

to

Cicero

"

enters

Flight of the

"

the

crosses

at

bunes
Tri-

Rubicon

"

Rome
with the Senatorian Party from
Pompey withdraws
Corfinium
besieged
Alarming Progressof his Adversaries
who
Cicero declines to joinPompey,
retreats
to Brundusium,
"

"

and

embarks

"with

Caesar

Cicero
of

for Greece
"

"

embarks

Pompey

his Attack

Vacillation

"

"

of Cicero

His Interview

"

Correspondencewith Antony
His arrival
for Dyrrachium

in

"

lands

Caesar

"

Pharsalus

at

Pompey's Entrenchments, and

upon

of

"

Cicero returns

"

to Brundusium

of the Senate

revives

of Cicero

Account

on

by Antony
Arrival
him
for

His

"

Brundusium
"

Africa

second

He

Reception

Publilia

Wife

Cicero

Authority
"

by Caesar
Ligarius

And

"

Servius

Sulpicius
"

composes

Disputations" He
"

Cicero

"

of Caninius

Consulate

Deiotarus

of Brutus

Cassius

in
joinsthe Conspirators
of

the two

by Antony

Parties
"

The

between

"

the

"

and

Letter

"

Cicero

He

"

"Tusculan
from

his

Visit of Caesar to

387

XIII.

Caesar for his Parthian

and

his

is answered

and

Rebilus

CHAPTER
of
Preparations

"

De

absolute

Caesar returns

"

to Spain Speech for


Expedition

marries

retires to Astura

Publilia

"

and

His

"

LiteraryOccupationsof

divorces

"

meet

for Marcellus

Hortensius," "Academics,"

"

his

Caesar

Cato," which

Cicero

"

to

"

Caesar sets out

"

Terentia,and

Orations

"

Cicero

out

Oratorica"

of

"

is commanded

sets

Rome

to

Party
Regret

"

Quintus

Cicero

"

his

Orator"

"

of Tullia

Death

"

of

Partitione

composes

his

He

"

Triumph

"

The

"

Policy

Cicero divorces

"

Pompey

in Africa

returns

De

"

Treatises

"

Claris Oratoribus"

of

"

of Caesar at

of

Conduct

Italy

345

Labienus

of his late

leave

to

and

Cato

"

sails to

XII.

of the Death

Cicero receives News

into

CHAPTER

in

the Pom-

Cato

"

Africa

"

Camp

retreats

The Command
Thessaly Battle of Pharsalia
who
declines it
offered
to Cicero,
peian Party
"

the

unsuccessful

Is

"

Ccelius

and

Expedition
"

Assassination of Caesar

"

spiracy
ConCicero

Capitol Apparent Reconciliation

Funeral

"

of Caesar

Insurrection

"

Conspiratorsfly from

Antony and

Cicero

"

Rome

Octavius

"

excited
pondence
Corres-

Caesar arrives

CONTENTS.

XVI

PAGE

in

He

Italy
"

of Brutus

visits Cicero
Cassias

of the

His

Rome

at

Antony

"

Rome

upon

Martial

Return

"

with

Antony

of

"

"

Consulate

Brutus

of

Caius

in

Trebonius

Twelfth

"

Macedonia

The

Consul

Antony

to

Senate

Thirteenth

"

Junction

Hirtius

with

Posture

Pansa

Hirtius

of

army

his

to
Antony retreats
Philippic Antony

defeated

Death

"

Mutina, and

retreats

of the Senate

under

of

Lepidus
"

towards

the

Cassius

in

the

the Consul

of

Cause

of

the

Lepidus to Cicero
Public Enemy
a
"

Provinces

Outuvius

"

Triumvirate

aud

his Character

Eloquence

"

of
to

lands

478

towards

"

to

"

and

is declared

and

Rome, and

is returned

in the Western

Proscriptionof

and

Insults offered

"

Brutus

Marcus

Armies

of the

Caieta

near

Party

of Octavius

Antony,

to

Cicero flies to Astura

"

siegeof

of the

Coolness

advances

Defection

Second

"

"

Letters

"

teenth
Four-

"

XV.

Lepidus revolts

Universal

Party
and Nephew
He
by PopiliusLamas
on

Senate

"

"

Consul

Pansa

Gallo-

the

raises

Syria

Entrenchments

Successes

"

CHAPTER

Death

Mutina

Alps

the

effect

before
his

of

to

to

of Forum

Antony

"

writes

Battle

in

vinces
Pro-

Letter

"

attempts

Lines

Hirtius

the

in

Gaul

into

attacked

"

and

"

Pansa

"

"

of Affairs

"

for

"

marches

Octavius

and

427

cesses
Philippics SucPhilippic Death of
Public
a
Enemy

Ninth

Tenth

"

Philippic

the

last

Senate

the

of

declared

"

"

his

composes

"

Fifth,Sixth,and Seventh

"

and

Eighth

Dolabella

"

and

CisalpineGaul

the Ambassadors

PhilippicGeneral

"

of

XIV.

Pansa

"

Antony

advances

the fourth

of Hirtius and

of

lippic
Phi-

Second

"

"

PhilippicsDeparture of

Camp

Ire arrives

"

Octavius

"

Revolt

CHAPTER

rum

Antony

"

"

the

Velia

at

Brundusium

for
of

Treatise, De Officiis

"

"

into
Legions Antony marches
and
Fourth
Cicero
Philippics

Third

Greece

to

return

Brutus

"

out

attendingthe

"

Philippic Reply

sets

Letter

"

Works
Philosophical
He
embarks
at Pompeii
retirement"
lands at Syracuse Determines
on

Interview

First

"

to

Autium

at
Conspirators

"

"

Antony

from

deterred

"

composed by Cicero in his


Ariives at Velia, and

returning

"

Cicero,
the Senate, resolves

and

Proceedingsof
Council

Quarrel with

His

Death

the

publican
Re-

of his Brother
and

Is overtaken
his Remains

slain

Remarks

"

Writings Correspondence
Philosophical
"

"

.511

THE

LIFE

CICERO

OF

CHAPTER
Birth

and

of talent
to

the

the

He

"

study

study

general

of

Cicero

Marius
Molo

THE

"

Cor.

to

party

rhetoric

Oration

"

He

"

returns

of

cause

quacstorship
"

His

speech

Arrives
"

Passes
to

Sylla

Roscius

for

"

mysteries

the

"

the

at

into

marriage with

of

Athens

the

Aca-

to

Rome
iu

Cicero
Amelia
"

"

Is initiated
votes
de-

Asia, and
after

Rome

Roscius

of

latter

the

of Philo
of

First

C.

under

between

Return

"

Commences

"

War

sic

the lectures

attends

visitingGreece

Eleusinian
to

the

"

Marian

Mai

Contests

Sylla

Rhetorician

toga

the

in

the

Undertakes

"

Serves

"

virilis

applies

and

poet Archias

the

the

the

upon

the

himself

elected

of

of

Assumes

Quintius

resolves

early indications

and

education

lectures

Cicero

"

ofPublius

into

absence

law
and

proscription

defence

the

Poetry

civil

and

demician

His
"

Strabo
and

Cicero

attends

of

Pompeius

and

of

parentage

I.

two

comedian

years'
Is

"

Terentia.

Arpinum, in the territoryof the


nexion
Volsci, has acquired a remarkable
celebrity in conwith
the ancient
quently
history of Rome, and consewith
that
the birthplace of
of the world, as
two
individuals,both destined to attain in after life the
of the state
and
a
highest honours
conspicuous name
in the annals
of their
cise
country, although by the exercumstances
cirof widely different qualities. Here,
amidst
small

town

of
with

afterwards
Marine

of

the

reached,

entered

and

poverty

upon

trasting
obscurity strangely con-

condition
the
an

of

ambitious

power
and

existence,whose

which

he

vindictive
tenour

was

LIFE

THE

be

to
subsequently

Here

OF

CICERO.

recorded

of blood.

in characters

also,about fifty
years

dred
after that event, six hunand forty-eight*
from the building
of Rome, and a

hundred

and

consulate

six before the Christian

duringthe

era,

of

Quintus Servilius Coepioand Caius Atilius Serranus,tthe birth of Marcus


Tullius Cicero
conferred

placea claim to the notice


and
far exceeding
that which the
posterity,
achievements or the most sucmost
cessfully
splendid
military
prosecutedcareer of ambition could bestow.
Whether
the familyof Cicero was
of
of mean
or
noble extraction,
is a pointwhich
has been left,
to a
certain extent,undecided,
statements
by the conflicting
upon
respect of

of his

his native

and
panegyrists
lustre which

whom

his calumniators.

the statements

asserts that

even

would, if correct,have
however, be claimed
will
which, certainly
the number
among
exerted under the

of

he

inferior

himself

speaksof

allow

his

to

Tullus

from

him

father

reckoned

to be

talents have
is

been

usually

limited circumstances.

He

ciently
person with suffito be able to devote a derable
consias

to

literary
pursuits
; and
was
entitled,
according

stated,that he
to claim a
tradition,
Attius,one of the

has

common

evidence

the best

of what
disadvantages

means
flourishing
of his time
portion

Plutarch

was

of
one
latter,
the son of a fuller,
his memory,
cannot,

those,whose

birth,or

termed

of the

shed upon
for him
on
not

tional
addi-

The

descent in
most

direct line
of the

renowned

kings. The familyof his mother


is generally
admitted to have been noble,and

ancient Yolscian
Helvia
her
had
*

property considerable.
been

both

borne

by

His

firstname,

his father

and

Marcus,

grandfather,

to tbe common
forty-seven,
according
tation,
compubles.
Marof the Capitoline
which is supported by the authority
The chronology
of Varro, which is also that of the
Fasti Hel-

Six hundred

and

"

has
lenici,"

On

been

the

himself states

adoptedthroughoutthe present volume.

third
"

Ad

day

of the

nones

Attic, viii.5. Ad

of

January, (January3)

urbem

iii Nonas

natali

as

inco.

ho

THE

anxieties of

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

probably,enhanced its
alludes to
he touchingly

active life had,

an

natural beauties in his eyes,


it with all the interest which

infancyare usuallyfound

and
excite,

to

that

of

fondness

have
scenes, which
and
to most the brightest

instinctive to human
witnessed what

reminiscences

the

nature, for

has

proved
The oak of
least troubled periodof their existence.
fAjpimim still flourishes in the recollection of the
island
and
the grassy
lovers of classic literature,
ness
fresha pleasant
plantedwith poplars,and deriving
from the streams
which it divides,is inseparable
dialogue
polished
in fiction,
in reality
or
maintained,whether
its shores.
Near
this spot his infancyand

from

our

upon

recollections of the acute

earlychildhood
who

seem

their
was

were

to have

spent under the care of parents


for
been in all respects qualified

importantduties.

married

to C.

with the

with

him

to

Rome,

sister of

his mother

wealthyRoman
the
L.

orator

advisable
where

on

was

celebrated

deemed

afterwards

As

Aculeo,

equestrianorder,who
terms

and

by

most

of the

intimate

Crassus, it

his father to

he for

some

time

was

remove

enjoyed

all the

of education possessed
by the sons
advantages
of Aculeo ; beingeducated together
with his cousins
by masters who had been recommended
by Crassus,
nished.
plan which the orator himself had furPlutarch,with his usual fondness for omens,
has recorded a supernatural intimation
conveyed
to his nurse, during his childhood,that his future
be attended with honours, which
would
the
career
his relations could
most
hardly
sanguineamong
have anticipated.
rational prognostic
But a more
of
his after greatnesswas
displayedby his rapid and
advances in every department of study,
astonishing
when his father,
tion,
for the benefit of more
publicinstrucof the
placed him for a short time in one
and

upon

schools
larger

of Rome.

If his

is
biographer

to be

OF

LIFE

THE

CICERO.

for
occurrence
believed,it was then no uncommon
the parents of the other pupils to frequentthe
talents were
his precocious
hibited,
dailyexplacein which
in order to ascertain,
by actual observation,
heard
the truth of the reportsthey had
respecting

his extensive attainments

and

and

His attention was


memory.
directed to the acquisition
of the Greek
had

which

become

but

Rome,

Asia, to

who

men

havingarrived
when
a

language,
ment
accomplish-

to fillofficialstations

Archias

only a

valuable

larly
particu-

since the
necessary attainment,
in Eastern
Europe
of the Roman
power

almost

establishment
and

not

of apprehensio

singular
powers

he

Cicero
literature,

called

The

poet

in those countries.
at the house

of

Lucullus

in

five years of age, and commenced


of instruction in rhetoric and general

was

course

might probablybe

about

was

eventuallyplaced under

his

he states that he was


inclined to precare, although
fer
the lessons of L. Plotius,
eminent grammarian
an
and

introduced
whose
to an
rhetorician,
pupilswere
with the arts he professed
acquaintance
throughthe
of the Latin tongue. To
more
popular medium
afterwards
united
he was
Archias, with whom
he
by sentiments of personalfriendshipand regard,
has acknowledgedthat he was
entirelyindebted
for that acute
perceptionof the beauties of imaginative
refined
ible
discernand
literature,
poetictaste,
throughouthis writings.The pupil lived to
Like many
other preceptors,
return the obligation.

Archias

is remembered

for little more

than

his

nexion
con-

of his scholars,
distinguished
and although,
at one
time,eminent for compositions
which were
admired
and celebrated throughout
Asia,
his principal
fame to the
owes
Greece,and Italy,
now
reflected light
of that imperishable
oration,in which
the talents of the advocate were
restedness,
his disinteequalledby
and the splendour
of the eloquence
by which
with

the

most

characterised

it was

by
gratitude

OF

LIFE

THE

which

than
striking
prompted and adorned.

not

was

it

CICERO.

was

more

the

appears to have continued under the care


until his sixteenth year, bestowingconof Archias
siderable
pains upon the studyof poetry,in which
and to his
at all times ambitious of excelling,
he was

Cicero

of which
he frequently
prosecution
with a complacency
alludes,
hardlywarranted by the
entertained upon the subject
opinions
by most of the
in the

success

His
upon his writings.
entitled " Glaucus
Pontius,"

have commented

criticswho

earliest production
was
and

still extant

was

in the

affirms that

in consequence
works of equalmerit,he was

orator,but
greatest

days of Plutarch,who
and subsequent
of this,
considered not onlythe
He

also the firstpoet of Rome.

afterwards translated the "Phaenomena"

of

Aratus,

"Marius,"which his friend


the augur Scsevala pronouncedto be immortal, thus
provinghimself to be littleof an adeptin his own profession*
and another entitled
Leimon," recorded
;
and, besides

called

poem

"

"

"

events of his consulate in the heroic measure.


principal
all by
A few fragments
of these productions
are
able to judgeof his skill in metrical
which we
now
are
of the justice
of
or to form any opinion
composition,

the

the famous

of

sarcasm

the Roman

however, probablyintended

his

satirist f,
allusion

who,

to extend

which
line against
it
single
was
compared with the
expresslydirected. When
of the Augustanage, that of Cicero
verse
polished
certainly
appears rugged and inharmonious; but if
to the

further than

no

viewed
other

at

lines of his

Eaque, ut

"fAntoni
Omnia

Born

with

even

Mario,

saclis innumerabilibus.

"

JUT. X,
Fasti

A. U. C. 659.

and
more

contemporary Lucretius*,we

gladiospotuitcontemnere
dixisset.

that of Ennius

with the somewhat

ait Scsevola de fratris mei

Canescet

time

same

or
earlywriters,

melodious
*

the

"

DE

si sio

iii.136.
Hellenic!,

"

LEGIBUS

I.

LIFE

THE

shall

perhapsarrive

the

CICERO.

OP

that,to
opinion,

ho

equitable,
hecome
must
more
our
censure
general.By the
superiorbeauty and harmony of his prose works,
Cicero,whose case is far from beingwithout a parallel,
has himself proved the greatest
to his own
enemy
of the
as
a
reputation
poet. These, in consequence
mingledgrace and purity,the beauty of the thoughts,
and
the nameless
refinements
for which
they are
remarkable, must
best standard

at

at

all times

of the Roman

considered

be

his

On

tongue.

as

the

poetry

passed; but it does


have assumed, that it
not, therefore,
follow,as some
either frivolous or contemptible.
was
The age of sixteen was
an
importantepoch in the
life of a Roman, as it Avas
the periodat
generally
which
the
or
manly dress,was for the
toga virilis,"
first time publicly
in other
in the Forum, or
worn
advisable
deemed
to enter
words, at which it was
upon the active duties of a citizen. Cicero performed
no

such

can
assuredly,
eulogy,

be

"

this ceremony

in

the

of Lucius

consulate

Marcus

Sextus Julius Ceesar,and immediately


himself to the study of the civil law with

and
Philippus,
attached

industry. His director and guide in


indefatigable
the Augur,
this pursuit
was
Quintus Mutius Scsevola,
ably
eminent
an
pleaderand statesman, who had honourfilledthe consular

as
office,
inferior dignities
of the state;

describes himself

as

seldom

well

havingbeen
On

dailyattendances in the Forum.


Mutius, which happened about ten
his brother

the intimate friend

as

most

of the

side he

whose

from

his

he became

as

absent

during

the death

of

years afterwards,
well as the pupilof

Quintus Scaevola,who

was

also

senator

of the office of
then in possession
dignity,
and enjoyinga reputation
pontifexor high-priest,
of consular

little inferior to that of the augur, as a master


of the
intricacies of Roman
But his attention was
law.
not

occupiedby

the

disputesand

of
pleadings

the

LIFE

THE

CICERO.

OF

leisure hours, he
During his more
and in
was
pursuits,
employed in poetical
diligently
celebrated speeches
into Latin the most
translating
of
those
of the Greek
particularly
orators, and
self
himto imbue
Demosthenes; thus earlyendeavouring
of the mighty Athenian, whom
with the spirit
he always proposedto his imagination
as the model

Forum

alone.

ceeding
testimony of all suction
in the combinaages declares yet unequalled
and
due arrangement of the various
qualities,
which
constitute the greatand powerfulspeaker.
Italywas at this time convulsed by the Marsic,or,
the Social War, which arose
it is sometimes
as
called,
rebellion of the inferior states
from an almost general
The
had long
former
the people of Rome.
against
tious
been compelledto increase the armies of their ambilords or allies with the flower of their population,
and justlycomplained,that while their towns

of

excellence,and

drained

were

of

whom

their

conquestsof
foreign

the

from

excluded

the

inhabitants

to

extend

they were
rulingcity,
in
participation
any

the
diously
stu-

the

advantagesenjoyed by those born within its walls,


included within its municipalpale. They,therefore,
or
in return
for the importantservices
demanded
theyhad rendered,an admission to the full title,
rights,
citizens
and
of Roman
after they had
and privileges
;
times flatteredwith the hope of obtaining
been many
their wish
by the aid of the leaders of the liberal
of
by the intrigues
party, and as often disappointed

opposedto the measure, at lengthresolved upon


ultimate
The
expedientof an appeal to arms.
which ensued has been but imperfectly
recorded

those
the
war

by

the Roman

most

who
historians,

willing
doubtless,undetails respectto enter into any lengthened
ing
it continued,was
fully
doubtcontest which, while
from
maintained,and terminated very differently

of

those

in

which

the

were,

state

had

hitherto

THE

embarked

LIFE

inasmuch

OP

as

the allied citieswere

at

rightscontended for by
yieldedto
lengthreluctantly
the

to all ;
most, and finally

the honour

"

been

to
first,

in

CICERO.

save

appearances,
all probability
but

of Rome

satisfied

having

by

mission
sub-

conditional.

The

doubted
Marsians, Samnites, and Lucanians, old and rehad
lost nothingof their
enemies, who
ancient courage, while they had added much
to their
discipline
by their service beside the Roman
legions,
and
foremost in the ranks of the revolters,
were
more

than

consular

one

contest,which

army

was

driven

in

before them

ample exercise to the talents of


Sylla,Marius, and Pompeius Strabo,the father of
the celebrated Pompey, and duringwhich, although
gave

it ragedbut for two


thousand

dred
less than three hunyears, no
said to have perished
the
on
are

men

field of battle.
Cicero

of the

principal
events of the Marsic war
; since,althoughhe at no
time entertained much
inclination for a military
life,
the custom
of his nation almost imperatively
required
him to have made some
barking
emessay in arms, before fully
in those pursuits
both to his
more
congenial
was

an

to
eye-witness

some

lected
temperament, which he had sethe civic honours,hitherto almost

intellectualand moral
his road to

as

exclusively
soughtby eminence in the
served for
republic.He accordingly
firstunder the orders of
as a volunteer,
in the camp
Strabo,and subsequently

armies

months

some

Cn.
of

of the

Pompeius
Sylla;and

the
has recorded his presence at a conference between
former
leader, Vettius
generaland the Samnite

Scato,(by whom
in

the

the Consul

Rutilius

had

precedingyear,) when,

been
on

feated
de-

being

he had
Pompey, with whom
been on
of intimacy,
terms
once
by what title he
uttered the well
wished
to be saluted,the Samnite
known
courteous reply, As your friend by choice
asked

by

the brother of

"

"

10

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

He was
also in
alone *."
by necessity
your enemy
when
that chief,encouclose attendance upon Sylla,
raged
by the advice of the haruspex Posthumius,
stormed

the

of Nola

walls of the town


that he

was

from
retiring
to his

not slow in

the

favourite

Marsic

war,

of
an
earlyopportunity
seizing

to

seems

there is littledoubt

But

and mortal

Before
pursuits.

he

the

of tumult

scenes

beneath

of the Samnites

strongcamp

have

contention,
of the

the conclusion
become

once

more

of the Forum, earnestly


studying
frequenter
orators of the
the styleand address of the principal
that of the tribune Sulpicius,
time, and especially
then famous
for his eloquenceand advocacyof the
for his uninterests of Marius ; and subsequently
timely
constant

death

in the

which
struggle

ended

in the exile

of his patron.

seeds, indeed,which gave birth to that


civil contention,as yet unsurpassed in
frightful
by the darkest annals of civil discord,after
atrocity
the point
now
on
were
having long been ripening,
of producingthe terrible series of convulsions by
and the freedom
shaken to its centre,
which Italywas
of Rome, if not irrecoverably
lost,paralysedas by
The

the first stroke

in

duration,but

Mithridatic

war

for the conduct

of

disease which

must

had
of the

may

ultimately
prove
become
most

serious
able

be

lingering
The

mortal.

enough to

commander

call

in the

and the post of honour


was
republic,
of
an
objectof fierce disputebetween the partisans
leaders of the
and tyrannical
the equallysanguinary
The first
popularand aristocratic factions in Rome.
revoked
was
appointmentof Syllato the command
in favour of Marius ; but
by the exertions of Sulpicius
the return to the cityof the former,at the head of
his legions,
who
had
for Asia,
not yet embarked

service of the

xii. 12.
Philipp.

I. 33.
t De Divinatione,

12

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

was
openly
Octavius, who
murdered by the emissaries of Cinna, at length
passed
law to repealthe sentence
a
by which Marius had
been driven into exile,
and threw
open their gatesto
receive him. The horrors of proscription
immediately
who
of Sylla,
ensued.
was
possessed
Every partisan
rious
of sufficient riches to excite the cupidity
of the victowho
had displayed
or
faction,
enough of zeal in
his cause
marked
made
him
to have
a
objectof
at once
resentment, was
mercilessly
put to death.

after

The

the

death

streets

of

of Rome

flowed

with

the

blood

of its

of the
inhabitants ; the hand
distinguished
armed
slave was
againstthe life of his master ; that
his parent, and the publicroads
of the son against
crowded
with terrified fugitives
were
seekinga place
of refuge,or with assassins following
eagerly
upon
the traces of their flight.In the course
of this protracted
of
massacre
Quintus Catulus, the colleague
in his glorious
Marius
campaignagainstthe Cimbri,
most

with

many

senators,and several individuals of praetorian

togetherwith some of consular rank, met with


The celebrated orator Marcus
an
untimely death.
of the voluptuous and
Ai.tonius, the grandfather
sanguinarytriumvir,who had been doomed by the
also among
the number
of the
enmity of Cinna, was
slain.
Cicero (whose own
escape, as an adherent of
Sylla, is somewhat
remarkable) may
easilybe
supposed to have been a spectatorwhen the head
of this eminent
from

statesman

the Rostra.

his ardent and ambitious


course

of honour
was

the
career

At

exposedto
such

was
spirit

him,

an

fired

the shadow

littlelikely
to overcast

his

the populace

hour, while
by the bright
of presentiment

or
imagination,

intrude

itself,
that, after a similar
distinction on
his own
part with that

thoughtto
of

before

was

pursuedby the illustrious individual whose remains


before him, the
were
as
a ghastly
presented
spectacle

LIFE

THE

terrible method

OF

13

CICERO.

the fate which


indicating
had befallen himself,
should one day attract the horror
and amazement
of the gazingmultitude
of Rome.
During the short period of comparativequiet
same

which

followed

Cicero

the return

Marius,the attention of
rary
engrossedwith legal and lite-

continued

studies.

of

His

of

account

own

of

the

was
facultyof his mind
every
devoted to the acquisition
of excellence

which

as

constantly
a pleader,

unremittingand unwearied
he
of which
an
industry. He had now
opportunity,
Milo the Rhodian,
of hearing
eagerlyavailed himself,
the most esteemed teacher of eloquenceof the time,
and under the influence of his addresses began the
is

remarkable

in

manner

earliest of his

lesson of

works,
original

Invention.

this,which

his Treatise

rical
Rheto-

on

direct reference to
any
he probablyconsidered as but an amusement

duringthe

Without

intervals of

more

exertion,he

severe

has

of his occupations
description
giventhe following
in his treatise,
composed
duringthe periodin question,
For the
longafterwards,
upon Illustrious Orators :
space of three years the citycontinued free from civil
"

at which
convulsions,
or
death, departure,
even

Marcus

of the
in consequence
exile of our best speakers, for

time,

"

and the two Lentuli,young


as
withdrawn
themselves, Hortensius

Crassus

they were, had


of beingthe most able pleader;
enjoyedthe reputation
tion
Antistius continued to rise dailyin publicestima; Piso spokefrequently
; Pomponius less often ;
Carbo
but rarely,
and Philippusmerely on
one
or
occasions.
two
I, for my part, .duringthe whole
time,was
employed night and day in the diligent
I was
prosecutionof studies of every description.
the stoic, who,
then under the direction of Diodotus
after a long residence with me, and an intercourse of
the closest kind,lately
died under my roof, by whom
I was
exercised as well in other branches of learning
"

"

"

14
as

LIFE

THE

most

in
carefully

considered
kind

of

it were

as

never

which

which

without

you

yourself,

that you
opinion,
tion,
happy styleof elocu-

to the decided

come

have

CICERO.

be
the dialectic art,which may
close and comprehensive
a more

eloquence,and

Brutus,have
could

OP

acquiredthat

is esteemed

as

free

and

unfettered

sified
logic. Yet to this tutor,and to his many and diverstillnot so much
I was
subjectsof instruction,
devoted
to suffer a single
as
day to pass by without
I therefore

its usual oratorical exercises.

declaimed

on
continually
given subjectswith Marcus Piso or
sometimes
other friend,
Quintus Pompeius,or some
enced
in Latin, but more
often in Greek ; either influby this reason, that the Greek language,by
which we
with a greaterscope of orna-are
supplied
ment, gives,
by beingfrequentlyspoken,a similar

excellence to

discourse ; or because it was


tongue that I could either be

Latin

our

only by usingtheir
instructed

corrected

or

all teachers*."

This

of

geniusmay
endowed
splendidly

man

confirmation

by

the

Greeks,

passage is one
learn

those best of

from

humility, and

confidence.

which
the

the
less

additional
If it gives

to the

truism,that the brightest


general
without
talents must
use
prove of littlecomparative
it pointsout, at the
earnest and frequent
cultivation,
and
same
time,the very largeshare which industry
bore in the production
of those masterly
tions
orapractice
of Cicero,
with others of the
which,in common
most eminent speakers,
have been too often regarded
may
results of a natural aptitudeor
as the mere
of feeling,
intensity
drawingall its powers of rich and
varied expression
from the impulse of the moment.
The
the Mithrireturn
of Syllato Italy from
datic war, in the year of the citysix hundred
and
seventy-one, renewed, with increased violence and
the contention between
the aristocratic and
horrors,
*

De

Claris

Omtoribus,cap.

xc.

THE

popularfactions.
turn

the

victorious.

LIFE

The

OP

former

were

in

now

tlieir

and
Marius
consuls,Norbanus
gagement,
completelydefeated in the first enyounger, were
and this advantage proved only an omen

of the

The

train
singular

of

successes

In every quarter the Marian


the lieutenants of Sylla,and
a

15

CICERO.

which

leaders

followed

it.

routed

by
that general having,in
the army
desperate
engagement,dispersed

last and

were

of the Samnite

who encountered
him almost
Telesinus,
at the gatesof Rome, approachedthe cityin triumph.
The cruelties exercised a short time before by the followers
of Marius
were
nowreupon their adversaries,

paid in

similar manner,
but with a dreadful increase
the number
of victims; including
both those who

in
had

deserved

immense
as

crowd

in the

crime

the resentment

to

former

were

by

of

was
proscription,

their destruction.

ensure

the entrance

limit

of innocent

of the conqueror, and an


property,
persons, whose

Sylla into Rome,

massacred

at

At

sufficient

the instant of

six thousand

soners
pri-

and

more
crificed
samany
his soldiers,
before he condescended
to set

their

once,

fury by a particular
proscription.
His firstlistof the proscribed
contained eightynames,
his second two hundred
and twenty, and his third as
more.
Carbo, the brother of the consul, and
many
Publius Antistius,
the father-in -law of Pompey, both
fellamidst the geneorators'of the highest
reputation,
ral
the
and
pontifexMaximus, Quintus
massacre,
Scaevola,the aged friend and preceptor of Cicero,
in the very
vestibule
was
barbarouslymurdered
The
life of the latter was
of the temple of Vesta.
indeed
in no respect endangeredby the return
of
to be
Syllato Italy,but this event is by no means
passed over in his history;if for no other reason, as
afterwards intimately
in which
three individuals,
one
ferently
connected with his fortunes,were
deeplythough difMarcus
Crassus and
concerned.
Pompey,
a

to

16

THE

two

of the

both

entrusted

cause

of"the

OF

CICERO.

of the

first

LIFE

members
with

levied

armies

Dictator and

triumvirate,were
to

maintain

employed
actively

the

in his

brated
third,and afterwards the most celeC. Julius Caesar,as
in this eventful coalition,
saved from the resentment
of the Marian faction,
was
one
and
it was
of Syllawith the utmost
difficulty,
not until he had been wearied out by the intercessions
of his own
of some
of the most respectable
followers,
he openly
that the tyrant, with a reluctance which
The

service.

consented
expressed,
executioners

his

which

he
;

to have

seems

since he

memorable

the

preservedfrom

preserve from the sword


life,of the future character
to

had

full and

distinct

granted the pardon of

observation,
that,in
destruction

one

who

of

ception
con-

Caesar with

he
doing,

so

of

had

contained within

him

the seeds of many


a Marius.
and
The despotismof Sylla,
frightful

as
oppressive
it in the first instance proved,produced,by the very
attended,one good effect ;
severity
by which it was
since the oppositeparty were
mayed
disso
effectually
by the power and fierceness of their terrible
to be little inclined
to provoke him by
as
enemy,

useless
a
continuing

show

of resistance.

The

state

in a singularly
short time restored
therefore,
and the Forum
to tranquillity,
of Rome
more
once
crowded
with pleaders,
who had longabsented themselves
from it,either from a regardto their own
sonal
perfrom
which
to
o
r
an
seems
safety,
anticipation,
was,

have been almost

that the civilconstitution was


general,
and laid in
beingtotallydisorganised

the

pointof
ruins by the prevalent
tumults
and excesses.
It was
that Cicero, who
had
hitherto attended the
now
of justiceas a spectatorand student of the
courts
merits of causes, began at lengthto acquaint
self
himbeforehand
with their leadingpoints,for the
on

purpose

of

in
appearing

the character

of

an

advocate.

THE

It may

be

LIFE

OP

17

CICERO.

reasonablysupposed that

himself
distinguished

lie had, in

some

in this

capacitybefore
the deliveryof his first recorded oration,which, on
the best evidence,seems
his speech in
to have been
behalf of Publius Quintius, pronounced in the presence
of C. AquilliusGallus
and
three .assessors, in
six hundred
and seventy-three,
the year of Rome
and
in the twenty-sixth year of his age.
consequently
The cavise
of some
and had excited
one
was
intricacy,
considerable
as
interest,especially
Hortensius, then
considered the firstpleaderin Rome, was
engagedin
behalf of the plaintiff
S. Nsevius.
The
latter had
broughtan action againstP. Quintius as next of kin,
witli his brother Cains,
account
upon a partnership
fendant
latelydeceased,and either by the neglectof the dein appearingto his recognisance,
or
by false
to the praetor
Burrienus,had obtained
representations
the property of Quintius, which,
judgment against
of it, he pro~
after beingthirtydays in possession
measure,

ceeded

to advertise for sale.

Alphenus, the

The

friend

by
appliedto the praetor Dolabella
until the return
further proceedings
The

then absent in Gaul.

auction
of

was

Quintius,

for
of

writ

to

vented
prewho

stay

Quintius, who

order,after

appeal
made
the subject,
had been
to the tribunes upon
and the disputeremained
was
grantedon recognisances,
months
in abeyance until some
after the
it was
renewed
return of Quintius to Rome, when
by
before
Naevius,and at lengthbroughtto formal trial,
commissioners
appointedby Dolabella to hear both
and to pronounce
final
partiesby their advocates
took
judgment. The readiness with which Cicero underthe cause
of the defendant,and the zeal which
he displayed
in.its support,while Nsevius,in addition
was

to the aid received from

countenanced

step to

Hortensius,was

by most of
popularfavour.

the
But

an

known

was
magistracy,

his defence

of

to be

his first

Quintius

18

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OP

the following
thrown
into the shade
completely
year by the oration,stillextant,for Sextus Roscius of
whose cause, (thefirstof those
Ameria, in supporting
he
called "public"which he was
induced to advocate,)
the dictator
field against
boldlyentered the judicial
The
features of the case
as
were
Sylla himself.
follows : Sextus
Roscius,residingin the municipal
of Ameria, a person of the equestrian
town
order,possessed
was

of considerable
for his

landed

zeal in the

faction,having visited

property,and

Rome

aristocratic

of the

cause

while

guished
distin-

proscription

the

time afterwards,
Syllawas at its height,
was, some
waylaid and murdered near the Palatine baths, as he

of

from
returning

was

to

supper

which

he had

been

the assassins as soon


as
invited,
they had effected their
escapingdetection by a hasty flight.In the
object,
of a few days,to the general
astonishment
of all
course
and
recent conduct,
acquaintedwith his principles
discovered in the listof the proscribed.
his name
was
His
estates,as forfeited property,were
accordingly
sold and purchased,
far below their real value,
at a price
of Sylla.
by Chrysogonusthe favourite freedman
The strongest.suspicions
this occasion,
were
on
excited,
of

infamous

an

been
;

were

at

between

two

Roscii

and

little doubt

either

commission

of

known
to
Capito,who were
enmity with the deceased,and Chrysogonus

Ameria, Magnus
have

collusion

beingentertained that the


concerned
actuallyor indirectly

former
in the

of the

murder, and the latter at least


the
an
accessory after the fact, by adding,without
of Sextus Roscius
to
knowledgeof Sylla,the name
the list of proscription,
that he might have an opportunity
of

The

purchasinghis
opinionsentertained

estates

at

own

price.

subject received
that although
ample warrant from the circumstance,
the purchaser,possessionwas
Chrysogonus was
taken of the property,
in his name,
by one of the susupon

the

his

20

LIFE

THE

OF

CICERO.

that
at first highlyprobable,

murder, under

second

legalprocess, would be added to that


of which they were
on
good groundsupposedto have
of simple
been alreadyguilty. The
defendant,a man
the mask

of

and

manners

part,spent in

most

life had

habits,whose

the seclusion of the

been, for the


country, and

and who might


to agricultural
chiefly
pursuits,
therefore be presumed to be wholly unacquainted
with the forms of law, was
the point of learning
on
by painfulexperience,that the justiceof his cause
would
be of littleavail for his preservation,
in consequence
amidst
cates
of his inability,
the crowd
of advoaround him, to find one
willingto speak in his

devoted

favour, when
with

have

ensured

boldness

than that
and

Cicero

forward

came

his

defence,

which
disinterestedness,

and

respectfor an
actuallydelivered
His

client.
desponding

would

oration of far less


hi behalf of his
dextrous

use

ability
oppressed

and

powerful
dence
eviof all the pointsof circumstantial

statement

in favour
upon

in

ations,
defendant,his counter-insinuthe prosecutors
evidence,against

of the

the

same

themselves,as the persons most obviouslyimplicated


in the crime, his fearless statement
of the general
and his cutting
sarcasms
infamy of their lives,
against
the rapaciousfavourite,
speedilyturned the scale in
favonr of the party aggrieved.Roscius was
acquitted

by

the verdict of the

in the

estimation

of

judges,and Cicero rose at once,


the public,
the
to a level with
experiencedamong his many

giftedand most
for forensic
competitors

most

comment

from

upon

the character

the
obtaining
wrested

considered

honours.

from

in the

it is a sufficient

of the

restitution of

him,

Yet

Roscius

times,that so
the property so
seems

to have

far
justly
un-

been

highestdegreefortunate in escaping
with life; while the orator by whom
his accusers
had
been
triumphantlyrefuted,was
stronglysuspected
of having
formed his subsequent
determination of retir-

THE

ingfor

short time

of

resentment

for the

LIFE

OP

from

21

CICERO.

Italy,from

Sylla,on account
of one
preservation

dread

of his
whom

of the

ference
ready interthe freedman

of the

for destruction.
tyrant had marked
whether
This resolution,
owing to any such apprehensio
deferred until the following
or
not, was

carried into effect he had


year, and before it was
in several
gainedadditional distinction by his pleadings
less
one

in
importantcauses, as well as more
especially
freedom of an inhabitant
from the disputed
arising

of Arretium

in the

of which

conduct

he

was

cessfully
suc-

Cotta,and
to the
againventured to appear in open opposition
had exerted
well known
sentiments
of Sylla,who
of
to prevent the privileges
himself,
by every means,
Roman
from becoming generalthroughout
citizenship
his
journeyto
Italy. He then prepared for
Greece ; in mentioninghis motives for which he has
made
allusion whatever
to any more
son
no
cogentreawhich had
than a regard
for the state of his health,
become
in some
measure,
impairedby his late uninI was
termitted exertions.
at that
time," he
for a slender and feeble body,
observes,"remarkable
as well
as for a
longand spare neck ; personalappearance
life
which
indicate
held
to
are
a
supposed
a
precarioustenure, if connected with any
upon
labour or constant exercise of the lungs. My
severe

opposedto

the eminent

advocate

"

friends

were

more

anxious

on

I declaimed
pleadings
varietyof tone, at the

in all my

my account, because
either grawithout
dation

full pitchof my voice


thereof action.
When, fore,

or

and

the

greatvehemence
was
strenuouslyadvised

with

by these,as well as
I
the legal
to abandon
profession,
by my physicians,
determined
to encounter
was
dangerin any shape,
rather than
foregothe long wished objectof my
ambition
renown
as
an
eloquentspeaker. But
subdued and mowhen
I considered,
that by a more
I

"

22

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

derate
the
the

and by changingthe whole


racter
chaintonation,
of my
declamation,I should, while I attained
art of speakingin a more
at
temperate manner,
time

same

avoid

the

dangerwith

which

life

my

upon a journeyto Asia


the better to effectthis desirable alteration. I therefore

threatened,I

was

determined

left Rome, after


years

as

havingbeen employed there for


and at a time when
pleader,
my name

alreadybecome
Athens,

no

well

less celebrated

by whom
by the names

than
swell

the

received

known

in its Forum
for the

records

of

racters,
illustrious cha-

visited,

it has itself contributed to


the first

fame, was

the ablest rival of its

after
eloquence,

had

*."

it has from time to time been


which

two

own

citywhich

finished

school of

departurefrom the Italian coast.


The terrible sack of the placeby Sylla,
time
a short
to
before,had proved but a temporary interruption
those studies in which, after the loss of all its political
it continued,
for many
more
influence,
centuries,
enviablypre-eminent.The Porch, the Academy,
the Lyceum, and
celebrated
the Gymnasium
as
the
haunt
of the Cynic School, were
thronged
with philosophers
of all nations and
sects,and the
banks of the Ilissus and fragrant
slopesof Hymettus
the dailyscenes
of those abstruse disquisitions,
were
which, whatever
opinion may be entertained of
their
merits
other considerations,
for
must
on
claim respect,from
and magnifithe strength
ever
cence
of the languagein which
they have been
invested,as well as from the intellectual acuteness
and subtlety
which
they display. Cicero continued
at Athens

his

for six

this riod
peof his life his intimate acquaintance
ship
and friendwith

known

by

the

months, commencingfrom

celebrated Titus

the

surname

his fellow-student
*

De

in

of

Pomponius, better

Atticus,who

boyhood ;

to whieh

Clar. Orator.,cap. xci.

had

been

is
posterity

LIFE

THE

indebted for so much


He

lectures of

or

Stoic Antiochus

mentioned.
particularly

He

correspondence.

the

in the city;
residing
philosophers
of the EpicureansPhaedrus
names

Academic

23

CICERO.

of his invaluable

the

also attended

OF

most

whom
among
and Zeno, and

of

Ascalon,

at

the

same

exercised himself in oratory under


Demetrius

eminent

have

the

the
been

time

quently
fre-

the directions

Syria,of whose abilities as a


rhetorician he has spoken in high terms.
From
he proceededto Asia, having first upon his
Athens
been
solemnly initiated at Eleusis in those
way
which
celebrated mysteries,
much
has
so
respecting
understood.
been written,and so littleis apparently
His time in Asia was
employed,as the greaterpart
of his previouslife had been, in the uninterrupted
pursuitof that oratorical excellence which, whether
the objectperpetually
at home
or
abroad, was
sented
preof

to the

months

he had

of

dreams

of his ambition.

left scarcely
a

cityof

In

that then

few
brated
cele-

regionunvisited,and duringhis progress was


attended
constantlyby professorsof acknowledged
he had prevailed
to accompany
merit, whom
upon
him as his instructors in rhetoric ; including
Menippus
.

the ablest of Asiatic


whom
he terms
Stratonice,
of Cnidos,
.ZEschylus
orators, Dionysiusof Magnesia,
and
Xenocles
of Adramyttium, all enjoyingan
honourable
in their respective
cities. He
reputation
he had once
then sailed for Rhodes, where
more
an
mer
of benefiting
by the tuition of his foropportunity
he confesses his obligations
master Molo, to whom
of
for checkingthe too great exuberance
fancy,
been
his earlyspeecheshad
for which
remarkable,
and which
was
a fault rather
likelyto be increased
than diminished
by his late attention to the Asiatic
Plutarch has menschool of oratory. His biographer
tioned,
occasion before
that after declaimingon one
all the
had
this master, when
been
by-standers

of

24

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

performance,and had followed


astic
the concluding
periodsof his oration with enthusiand frequently
of applause,
renewed
expressions
Molo
time silent and
sat for some
pied
apparentlyoccuwith
train of melancholythoughts,and on
a
beingasked by his pupil,with some slight
appearance
either
he
made
of dissatisfaction,
comments
no
why
of praise
the occasion,repliedto the
or
censure
on
effect :
It is not, Cicero,that insensibility
following
abilities which
to the proofs of your
you have just
deed,
givenhas any connexion with my silence. These, inwhich
has
are
worthy of all the commendation
been bestowed upon them, but alas for the reputation
of Greece ! But
littlewas
left to her to boast,and
nence
the last of her claims to reputation,her emieven
in learning
and eloquence,is now
also,I perceive,
Rome."
the pointof beingtransferred to
on
After two
years'absence in Greece and Asia,
Cicero determined
returningto Italy,since he
upon
had now
in
obtained all the advantagescontemplated
astonished with

his

"

"

"

his travels. His constitution had become


his powers

more

robust

increased
were
enduringfatigue
greatly
by frequentpractice
acquiredthat mastery
; lie had
of

his voice

over

by

which

to modulate

by

he

was

and restrain

his intercourse with

abled
always afterwards enit within bounds; and,

the various masters

through
whose
of instruction he had passed,he had
courses
but gaineda far
not only improved his general
style,
than he could
greaterscope and varietyof expression
have attained by studyingthe peculiarexcellences
of any

one

preceptor.

If he

had

feared

ever

the

Sylla,all apprehensionson that subject


removed
while he
were
by the death of the dictator,
stillat Athens,under such circumstances
of misery
was
sometimes permittedto render the last moments
as are
power

of the

of

persecutorand

warningsto

the oppressor

those whose

strange and

belief in

rible
ter-

retributive

THE

Providence

LIFE

have

may

is said

Greece, he

weakened

been
his

prosperity.In
to

25

CICERO.

OP

journeyhomeward
consulted

have

guide of

his

mentioned
so

for

court

ensure

influence
a

year

The

of

obtaining
received

have

natural

ment,
judg-

multitude,the
has

who

writer

circumstance, adds, that he was


of the Pythoness,
by the answer

time

after

their favour.
if he was,
of such an

or
probable,

for

of the

oracle

of

his

arrival

to refrain
notice,and cautiously
to the peopleby the usual methods

avoid

to

this

some

favour

publicactions.

far influenced

as

or

through

the

Apollo at Delphi upon the best means


and to
and reputation,
future honour
in reply the advice to make
his own
and not the will

their previous

by

But

in

Rome

from
then

the accoimt

indeed,at any time


admonition, it must

to

paying
pursued

is far from
the

under
have

been

In the
short continuance.
periodof singularly
his return to Italy,
we
againfind him
following

constant

in his attendance

at

the

Forum,

and

to his excellence
addingthe last requisite
all the faults of his action
orator,by correcting

fully
care-

as

an

under

JEsop and Roscius ; the former the


celebrated tragic
most
actor of his time,as the latter
the first in comedy. He
shortly
was
confessedly
structio
of repayingthe inafterwards had an opportunity
his advocate
of Roscius,by appearing
as
in an action broughtagainst
him by Caius Fannius
the directions of

The suit
debt.
for the recovery of an alleged
of a somewhat
complicatedcharacter,arising

Cherea
was

the money
pensation
paid as comdisputerespecting
both
by the murderers of a slave,in whom
Roscius and Cherea possessed
equalrights.It is to
be regretted,
that the oration spoken by Cicero on
this occasion is imperfect.Yet enough is extant to
provoke a smile at the singulardifference between
such
the observances in a Roman
court of justice
on
of promethods
and the more
occasions,
equitable
from

26

THE

LIFE

cedure

adoptedin

time.

The

OP

similar

CICERO.

processes

the present

at

the
against
grossestpersonalvituperations
plaintiff,
mingledwith arguments againstthe validity
of his claims drawn
from his features and aspect,with
direct and
least

at

the

to the presiding
judge,are
flattery
ideas of
inconsistent with modern
strangely

open

duties

proper

and

Such, however, were


in the

and

heard

without

for such

in the Forum

greatdisplayof the
is sufficiently
distinguished.
the

cause

year which
of Roscius the

same

himself
his
averring

as

was

the

of

beauties of

witnessed

his

polished
Roscius,
rhetoric,

advocacyof

Comedian, Cicero first presented


candidate
for office,
by publicly

intention of

This determination

features

the oration for Sextus

any

In the

advocate.

an

of the commonest

some

once
pleadings

Rome,

of
privileges

was

for the quaestorship.


standing
made

while

the orator

Cotta

and Hortensius
for the consulship,
canvassing
successful ; but
of aedile.All three were
dignity

election of Cicero
which

was

for
the

for the readiness with

remarkable

the tribes united in

him, before all his


returning
to the desired appointment.He was
now
competitors,
in the thirty-first
year of his age, the earliest period
the existing
at which, according to
regulations,
Roman
citizen was
considered eligible
to the lowest
a
honour
in the power
of the peopleto bestow.
By
ficiently
his estate had
recent
been increased suflegacies,
to

exceed

then

fixed at

she

broughtto

the senatorial

census,

which

was

eighthundred

or
sestertia,
considerably
than six thousand
His marmore
riage
pounds sterling.
with his first wife,Terentia,
took place
which
before his election,
made
inconsiderable addition
no
to his income,if Plutarch's statement
is correct,that

and

her husband

fortune

of

one

hundred

twenty thousand denarii. This union,however,


events in the
of the happiest
one
provedby no means
orator's life. Terentia,
whose familymust have been

28

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO."

provinces of the several


to each by lot at the general
quaestorswere
assigned
Cicero
and by this method
of distribution,
election,
commissioned
the praetorPeduto accompany
was
whom
the government of the island of
caeus, on
This
Sicilyhad been conferred in a similar manner.
considered extensive enoughto require
provincewas
the

Roman

the presence

arms.

The

singlequaestor, and two


tioned
were
accordingly
appointedto it ; the one beingstaat Syracuseand the other at Lilybaeum. The
latter citywas
allotted as his residence to Cicero,who
found it,at first,
a difficulttask to exercise his public
functions in such a manner
as to avoid
givingoffence
of

more

than

to the

he had been stationed.


people among whom
whose
abundant
since its conquest
harvests,ever
Sicily,
much
so
by the Romans, had contributed
towards the sustenance
of the crowded
of
population
Latium, as to acquirefor it the title of the principal
at that season
was
required
granary of the republic,"
than its usual supply of corn, in
to export far more
of a late generalscarcity
in Italy. Oneconsequence
tenth of the whole
produce of the island,which was
stituted,
exactlythe tribute paid to its ancient kings,conunder
the amount
ordinarycircumstances,
of its annual contribution to the Roman
government,
this demand
and when
was
exceeded,a certain sum
was
grantedfrom the treasury as a compensation
for the additional grainrequired,
althoughit may be
of the remuneration
was
supposed that the amount
fixed,rather by the relative positionsof the two
of equity.
nations, than by any generalprinciples
with which
Owing to the strictness and impartiality
he fulfilled his duties to the State in his superintendence
of this unpopularexaction,Cicero was, at first,
viewed
with
considerable suspicion
and dislike by
but his generalaffability
the Sicilians,
and courtesy,
"

his

to
willingness

listen to every

and
grievance,

his

LIFE

THE

OP

29

CICERO.

to

redress

had

ever

it,joinedto

his

unimpeachable
in an
and neglectof his personal
interests,
integrity
afforded but too many
for
office which
opportunities
and extortion,
speedily
changed the tide of
injustice
With
confidence
a
publicopinion in his favour.
possiblyprompted by no small degreeof vanity,but
by a vanitywhich, if not well founded,would at once
and disgrace,
he afterwards
have issued in open exposure
cumstance
boasted,that no one in similar cirpublicly

readiness

behaved

more

or
obligingly

higherreputationthan himself* ; and it is


evident that the publicof Sicily
to a
were
impressed,
since they
considerable extent,with the same
opinion,
not only decreed,in acknowledgment of his merits,
such honours to be paid him as
no
previousquaestor
with

received,but continued on terms of the most


intercourse with him longafter the expiration
friendly
ment
fulfilof his year of office. Beyond the honourable
had devolved upon him, his
of the duties which
had

ever

residence in

Sicilywas

remarkable
has

Plutarch,however,

moment.

for few

events

related,that

of
he

himself at this
opportunityof ingratiating
of the leadingfamilies of Rome, by
time with some
of young
a number
men
nected
consuccessfully
defending
had been sent as prisoners
with them, who
to
the praetorat Syracuse,
chargedwith certain offences
It is also not unworthy
militarydiscipline.
against
the means
of pointingout to
of notice,that he was
of their greatcountrythe Syracusansthe monument
man
Archimedes, the site of which had been long
of his discovery
of the
account
forgotten.His own
of antiquity,
is
sepulchreof the Newton
neglected
givenin the fifth book of the Tusculan Questions,
honest
taken
and
he seems
to have
an
pride in
The tomb
of Archithe circumstances.
recording

found

an

"

aut

Non

vereor

gratioremaut

quis audeat dicere,ullius in Siciliaqusesturam


Pro Plancio,
clariorem fuisse,
"c
xxvi.

ne

"

30

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

unknown
medes,"he observes, which was altogether
who
denied that it had any
to the Syracusans,
even
and overgrown
existence,and completelysurrounded
with wild shrubs and briars,was
once
by my means
revealed to them
in
more
during my quaestorship
certain verses
Sicily. I retained in my memory
inscribed upon
the
which, as I had understood,were
that the figures
of a sphereand
monument, indicating
cylinderwere
placed above it. When, therefore,
after a long and tedious search, (forthere are
an
immense
number
of sepulchres
the gateslooking
near
towards
Agrigentum*,)I at length perceiveda
small pillar,
scarcely
risingabove the rank vegetation
1 immediately
around
it, and bearingthese figures,
remarked
to the chief persons of Syracuse,who
were
in my
that I thought I had found what
I
company,
had been seeking. A number
of persons were
diately
immesent with scythesand bill-hooks to clear the
spot ; and as soon as a path was opened we advanced
towards
the base of the pillar
oppositeto us. The
then
was
cluding
obvious, althoughthe coninscription
half obliterated by
words
of the verses
were
and at one
time
decay. Thus the most illustrious,
the most learned cityof Greece,would
have been ignorant
"

of the tomb

of the most

of its sons, had not


where
it was

subtle and acute-minded

individual

an

to

be

foundt."

of

cated
Arpinum indiThis discovery

duringa generaltour of the island which


undertook
Cicero
previous to his departurefrom
Sicily. On his return to Lilybzeum,from whence
he shortlyafterwards
embarked
for Italy,he delivered
made

was

a
a

few

farewell oration to the

words, quoted by

this occasion it appears,

On
*

Or

the gates near

the

Agragianas, having been


of Achradinas.

people,of which but


later author, are
extant.
that the strongest
assur-

quarter of Achradina, the

former

reading
recentlysuspected to be a corruption
t Tuscul. Qusest.,V. xxiii.

THE
ances

of mutual

speakerand

LIFE

OF

exchangedbetween

regardwere

the assembled

convened, and

multitude

that Cicero

made,

generalpromise of his
if they should
(Sicilians,

best

demand

the

them.

From

31

CICERO.

whom

at the

he

time

zeal

think

he

had

had

time, a

same

services in favour

at any

the

of the

proper
shown

to

in

executinghis officialduties,the high reputationhe


had attained throughoutSicily,
and the great benefit
his exertions had conferred upon the peopleof Rome,
their necessities in a time of general
by supplying
of want, he had flattered himself that his
apprehension
was
now
name
scarcelyless celebrated at home than
abroad,and that all Italywas alreadyfilled with his
and ready to do honour to his disinterestedness
praises,
and probity. But
his anticipations
destined to
were
receive

check on his arrival at Puteoli


mortifying
Campania,of which he has givena pleasantaccount
a

his oration for

Plancius,delivered

in
in

time,when, after
officesof the State,
havingfilledwith honour the highest
he mightmention
with complacencythe first rebuke
sustained
This
town
was
by his early ambition.
then filledwith a concourse
of idlers of the higher
ranks
had resorted thither for the benefit
from Rome, who
of its mineral
waters, and Cicero,shortlyafter his
was
landing,on meetingwith a former acquaintance
instead of the congratulations
his return
on
surprised,
the compliments on his condvict there,
from Sicily,
or
which
he had naturally
to be asked,how
expected,
and what
the latest
was
longago he had left Rome
in the metropolis.Indignant
at this instance of
news
seemed
a subject
which,to himself at least,
ignoranceon
he replied
of the highest
with an air of
importance,
offended dignity,
that so far from havinglately
visited
Rome
he was
then but justreturned from his province.
the observation
True, from Africa I believe,"
was
of his companion ; and this second pro of of the limited
not rendered much
was
more
range of his reputation
"

at

32

LIFE

THE

OF

CICERO.

by the intervention of a third party, who,


agreeable
to correct the ignoranceof the other,and to
willing
with
was
acquainted
prove to Cicero that he, at least,
the placewhich had been the scene
of the execution of
appointment,observed with
that you can
marks
of surprise,How
! is it possible
be ignorant
that our
friend here was
latelyprastorof
Syracuse?" The observation of the orator upon this
is justand pertinent
I know
circumstance
:
not, ye
Judges,"he adds, after givingan account of the
"whether
not of
was
transaction,
my disappointment
greaterservice to me than if I had met with universal
the peoFor as soon
I perceived
as
congratulations.
ple
indeed dull of hearing,
but possessed
of Rome
were
duties of his first

the

"

"

and

of acute
what

manner

eyes, I ceased to consider in


reputation
mightbest appealto the

observant
my
and

they should have


of regardingme
opportunities
daily. I therefore
lived entirely
in the publicgaze.
I kept close to the
duties of the Forum, and on no occasion was
a denial
from my porter,or even
the necessary refreshment
of
of sendinga singlecitizen who
had
sleep,a means
sought an interview with me unsatisfied from my
former

sense,

took

care

that

door*."
Amidst

the

exercise of such means


to ensure
diligent
and in the advocacyof many
portance,
of imcauses
popularity,
in which have,without
thepleadings
tion,
excepfive years passedaway
portant
;t the least imperished,

perhapsin
destitute of events
interests of his
*

Pro

the lifeof the orator,but far from


trivial extent, the
to no
affecting,

country. During

this interval Rome

Plancio,xxvii.
be referred the orations for Marcus
"f*To this periodmay possibly
Tullius and Lucius Varenus, passages
from
which
are
quoted by
have latelybeen made
Priscian and Quintilian. Additions
to the
been impeached
to have
fragments of the oration for Tullius,who seems
under a charge of illegal
violence,by the discoveries of

Angelo

Maio.

THE

LIFE

OF

33

CICERO.

by violent efforts on the part of the supagitated


porters
of the popular interests,
to rescind the acts
passed by Syllain favour of the aristocracy,
lately
to procure the restoration of the
and more
especially
tribunitial power;
a
mighty engine either of good
or
evil,accordingto the character of those by whom
was

it

was

utmost

exercise

done
his
the dictator had
wielded, which
its
well by circumscribing
to neutralise,
as
in other respects,
as
by passinga law, that

whosoever

had

once

borne the office of tribune

of the

to any highermagistracy.
ineligible
Yet amidst the prevalenceof furious and constant
abroad
of the republic
dissensions at home, the arms
with their usual
the same
crowned
period,
were, during
dominion increased
enormous
success, and her already
of her victorious legions.
all sides by the swords
on
In Spain the last adherents of the Marian
faction,
under the generalship
of Sertorius,
who
probablythe
ablest leader of his time,had long defied the united
nation
force of Metellus and Pompey, were, after his assassior destroyed.
dissipated
by Perpenna,effectually
of Mithridates was
In the East the power
completely
the siegeof
broken
by Lucullus,who after raising
Cyzicus,and wrestingone provinceafter another
concluded his career
from the hands of his antagonist,
the most formidable enemy
of conquestby compelling
since the days of Hannibal,
ambition
to Roman
his hold
to relinquish
Asia, and to take
upon
refugein the inmost parts of the kingdom of Ponsomewhat
balanced
counterThese
tus.
advantages were
by the Servile War excited by Spartacus;
wealth
after the regular
forces of the Commonbut this also,
had been several times shamefullybeaten by
of injuries
an
multitude,whose sense
undisciplined

peopleshould

be

"

or

dread

of future severities stood them

of

more

efficient

lengthbroughtto

in the

stead

at
and military
was
skill,
training
of Marcus
a conclusion by the victory

34

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

Crassus in Lucania, and the destruction of those who


had

the field

escapedfrom

which

encountered

towards

the

them

for their eminent

the army

of

Pompey,

theywere on" their march


in reward
these generals,

as

Both

Alps.

by

made

were
services,

consuls,in

the

of the revolt ; and the vanity


year after the suppression
of Pompey, besides an express decree of the Senate

by

which

he

allowed

was

upon the consulate


subordinate
was
offices,

to enter

before

passingthrough the
in
additionally
by a triumph for his success
gratified
Spain; the second he had obtained while yet a simple
Roman
knight. It was in the consulate of Pompey

684) that Cicero, since the


usual interval had
elapsedfrom his quaestorship,
after which
it was
lawful to aspire
to the higherdignities
himself to the people as candidate for
presented
and had againthe satisfacthe office of curule eedile,
tion
Crassus

and

(A.u.

c.

beingfirst returned at the election.


Those who
held this magistracy,
the lowest in the
entitled its possessors to the appellation
state which
of

'

of

noble,a distinction
its

which

also descended

to their

imports,entrusted principally
with the superintendence
ings
of the publicbuildat Rome.
They were also requiredto presidein
the markets, and to ascertain that none
of the weights
used there fellbelow the legalstandard.
and measures
But the principal
and the most onerous
part of their
office consisted in the direction of the publicgames
posterity,
were,

and

as

The

shows.

name

aediles

in
two
originally
number
by the name
more,
; but two
distinguished
of curule tediles,
the ivory seat they were
from
afterwards annuallychosen,at
to use, were
privileged
first from

the

ranks

from
subsequently
In what
from

that of

the

the

were

alone, but
aristocracy
ferently.
indifor
patricians,
plebeians,

of

manner

the

the office of these differed

others,termed, by way of distinction,


It has
is yet to be ascertained.
plebeiana?diles,

36

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

spectators* The stage


tainingeighty thousand
front displayedthree hundred
and
sixty columns
disposedin three tiers,of which the lowest were
feet high. The entablatures which they
thirty-eight
supportedwere
severally
composed of marble, of
and of beams
richlygilded. Three thousand
glass,
brazen figures,
the columns, formed
between
disposed
the temporary ornaments
of the majestic
erection,
which, from its vastness and beauty,must have appeared
.

the

to

admission,as
additional

astonished

spectators,on

splendidarchitectural

incurred

expense

for the

their first

vision.
dresses

The
of the

and

and
chorusses,the valuable paintings,
other decorations,must
have
been almost beyond
are
informed, that when
computation; since we
actors

what

Tusculan

been

removed

to

Scaurus, and that edifice had


fire by his slaves,the loss,in

villa of

set
wilfully

articles

had

left of them

was

on

alone,was

estimated

at

more

than

the
been
such

dred
eighthun-

thousand

It is needless to state,
pounds sterling.
that in an officesometimes
like
expenditure
involving
fortunes were
this,the most extensive private
speedily
swallowed

up,

and

Those, however, who


cost

to entertain

disinterested

in

the
their

overwhelmingdebts
were

at

so

multitude,were

much

incurred.

pains and

far from

The
prodigality.

being
aedileship

regardedmerely as an introduction,if popu-"


of prjetorand consul,and
to the dignities
filled,
larly
the prospectof obtaining
in either of these
a province,
considered
sufficient to justify
was
capacities,
any
outlay; since an ample remuneration
might then be
expectedat the expense of the unhappy subjectsof
the empire,upon whom
the burthen
of entertaining
their conquerors
the
on
ultimatelyfell. It was
that Julius Caesar,
strengthof such a contingency,
before beingelected to any publicoffice,
contracted
was

"

Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xxxvi.

cap. 24.

LIFE

THE

debt

hundred

of two

37

CICERO.

OF

fiftythousand pounds,
which
he had contrived to increase to nearlya million
before setting
after his proetorship
for his
out
provinceof Spain. If Cicero has givenan impartial
of his own
conduct
it
account
during his sedileship,
neither distinguished
was
nor
by profuseliberality,
but regulated
by parsimonious
entirely
by
meanness,
a

the

and

*.

While

for the office,


and some
yet,however, canvassing
before the assemblyof the people
at which he was

time

of the

extent

he

resources

at his command

called vipon to take the


the celebrated prosecution
of Vcrres; a
was

ed,
elect-

part in
leading
cause

in everyway

displayof his geniusand the


best qualities
and in which
he had
of his disposition,
the fortune to be againopposedto Hortensius,his
in civic honours
well as in oratorical
as
predecessor
destined after a short
but whom
he was
reputation,
suited both

to the

time to surpass in both.


The
condition
of Sicilyat

cited,as

this time

might be
widely
many,
of
mutability

example to the
known
and strikingly
recorded,of the
and that rapidtransition from a state of prosempires,
perity
and vigourto one
and decay,to
of weakness
which

additional

an

the

nations
flourishing

most

subject.The country which


of Athens

often been

defied the

once

arms

both were
when
at the
Carthage,
zenith of their reputation,
the birth-place
of Gelon
and
Hermocrates, of the Hieros and the Dionysii,
and

and

had

have

crowded

of

with

of
beingthe capital

such

each worthy of
cities,
reduced
greatnation,was now

numerous
a

abjectslaverybeneath the
Roman
to resist,
even
yoke,as scarcely
by murmurs,
the most
atrocious acts of injustice
and oppression
practisedupon it by successive governors, whose
avarice it was
to satisfy.
periodically
obliged
Among

to

these,the

condition

of

of Caius

name

De

Verres

Kb.
Officiis,

has

ii. cap. 17.

obtained

an

38

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

his exceeding
well from
all
as
celebrity,
tion,
administraand sanguinary
others in his tyrannical
his havingbeen at length
as from
exposed,owing
circumstances
of
to a combination
anything but
policyof
frequentin the historyof the provincial
and trifling
as
Rome, to a punishment,which, light
it must
compared with his measureless
appear when
rapacityand inordinate wickedness,most of those
fortunate enough to
resemblinghim in guiltwere
of this magistrate
The oppression
duringhis
escape.
and his exwere
so
tortion
intolerable,
prastorship
foreign
infamous

exercised
the

powers

of

a scale,
as
unsparing
endurance
possessedeven

on

so

Sicilians themselves, and

to

induce

to surpass

them

by
to

the
seek

less
fruitthroughthe expensiveand generally
method
of a publicprosecution.How
far their
be seen
from
resentment
was
a
justified
slight
may
sketch of the proceedings
of Verres in Sicily,
extracted
from the orations of Cicero against
him, which afford
but too trustworthy
a commentary
upon the kind of
in his day by the conquered
treatment
experienced
provincesat the hands of Rome ; treatment,it may
retribution

be

observed,which

there

is

no

reason

to

suppose,
mention

not
historians,
those of her satirists and moralists,
to have been unaltered
of her oppressive
at succeeding
periods
despotism
Immediatelyon the arrival of this vulture magistrate,"
(touse a term which Cicero has appliedto
of similar propensities)
in
another character possessed
of considerable note
his province,
Dio of Halesa, a man
cited before him, to answer
and property,was
ing
respectthe condition
estate bequeathedtohis family,
on
an

from

the

of her
writings

to

"

beingerected in the
In
of the town from part of the proceeds.
market-place
with this requisition,
defaultof compliance
theproperty
liable to be forfeited and to be assigned
to the
was
maintenance
of the worshipof Yenus
Erycina. The
of

certain

number

of statues

THE

LIFE

OF

39

CICERO.

ed
carefully
placedas directby the will,but Verres, with the hope of securing
bribe to himself,as an
inducement
to
a considerable
procureda person of infamous
stopfurther proceedings,
statues in

had
question

character

to appear

been

in behalf

of the Goddess

and

to

prosecute Dio
had

the ground that he


for the estate,on
the injunctions
of the
to comply with
neglected
The

testator.

cause

defendant,but

not

decided

was

until he had

in favour

secured

of the

the sentence

judgein his behalf,by a presentof about nine


thousand poundsin money, a valuable breed of mares,
and all the costlyplate and furniture contained
in
of the

his house.
enormous

upon a similar pretextextorted an


brothers Sosippusand
from the two

Verres
sum

of Agyra, after they had been twenty years


Epicrates
in quiet
of the inheritance leftthem by their
possession
and both were
reduced to poverty by
at once
father,
the exaction.

Heraclius

the

son

of

richest of the

by

had
who
Syracusans,
will,by which he inherited an
number

of statues

Hiero, and

the

also been

ed
enjoin-

immense

estate,

in the

publicpalaestra,
fulfilledthe injunction,
and who had faithfully
was
sued on the same
by persons
ground of prosecution,
excited by the praetor,and
vainly attempted to
his possessions
rescue
by flight
; since the whole,
to

erect

includinga

multitude

and embroidered
declared

of

sels,
vesslaves, Corinthian
coverlets of immense
value,was

to be forfeited to the

sentence,
public: a specious
which
did not prevent the greater
part of the
their way
articles enumerated
from finding
precious
into the house of the dignitary
who
had passed it.
his great
Epicratesof Bidis,whose only crime was
wealth,was the next victim. By a false accusation of

his domains
to abandon
obliged
and
his
and
take refugeat Rome, leaving
Verres
them.
But
to divide the plunderbetween
accusers
exhibited
the most atrocious instance of injustice
was

he
forgery,

was

soon

40

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

who
after
Sopaterthe Halycyensian,
beingindicted for a capitaloffence before the former
prsetorCaius Sacerdos had been honourablyacquitted.
He
nevertheless cited by Verres,in defiance of
was
the judgmentof his predecessor,
to appear at Syracuse,
and answer
to the former charge. While
once
more
visited by Timarchides,
in prisonin that city,
he was
of the praetor's
one
agents,who did not scrupleto
in the

of

case

him, that

hint to

it would

be most

to his

stead
ininterest,

ter
to his innocence,
to compound the mattrusting
exertion
sum.
by a handsome
By extraordinary
the accused,who now
plainlysaw
among his friends,

of

to

what

he

had

to

trust, collected

considerable

dently
which
he duly paid to Timarchides,configratuity,
and release would
that his acquittal
expecting
He soon
follow in due course.
afterwards,
speedily

however,

to his astonishment

received

intimation,

an

throughthe same medium, that what he had advanced


fered
was
wholly insufficient; that the prosecutorhad ofa much
higherbribe,and that unless he could
exceed

for the worst.


prepare himself
tion,
at this infamous
attempt at further extorIndignant

it,he

must

the increasing
of beingable to satisfy
despairing
broke off the
rapacityof Verres, Sopaterindignantly
the
and
positively
negotiation,
refusingto make
additional advance,defied his accusers
to do
slightest
or

their

He

worst.

his rashness.

The

soon

had

occasion

praetorseized

he had

craftily
managed to

of the

other

an

the vehement

repent

rid himself

of the presence
Sopaterto his bar,
evidence
of

against

his counsel,
the
upon
ing
notwithstand-

enter

full court ; and


and appeals
of
supplications
a

of

when
opportunity,

to summon
judges,
and
after hastilylistening
to the
the absence
him, notwithstanding
who
had
withdrawn, refusingto

defence unless before

to

of
himself,who adjuredhim in the name
and of all mankind, at least to granthim

Sopater

the Gods
a

fair and

THE

LIFE

OF

41

CICERO.

trial conducted according


to the usual forms,
impartial
and to condemn
him
proceededto adjudgehim guilty
the capital
on
charge.
To this system of judicial
robberywas added one of
carried on without
indiscriminate pillage,
unblushingly
to conceal it. The
or
even
any attempt to justify
temples of the Gods were
despoiledof their most
costlyornaments, and the most finished works of

art, the

property

either surrendered
his
the

of communities

or

of

individuals,

with
in compliance
praetor,
importunaterequests,or openly seized by him, if
to the

of appropriation
proved
gentlemethods
unavailing.Pamphilus of Lilybantm havingin his
of greatweight and exquisite
a silver ewer
possession
of Boethm*
workmanship, one of the master-pieces
ed
which had descendacelebrated Carthaginian
sculptor,
more

to him

from his ancestors,was


it,without the slightest
hope of

demand

of

Verres,and

was

but

forced to

part with

at the
compensation,
too happy to preserve

had also been ordered to be


cups, which
fidants
by bribingtwo of his conbroughtfor his inspection,
a

pair of

of inferior
they were
execution
and altogether
unworthy a place in the
collection of a connoisseur.
Diodorus
of Melita,who
attemptedto preserve two chalices richlychased by
the hands
hinted a
of Mentor, which
had
Verres
wish
them
to see, by prudentlywithdrawingwith
from
Sicily,was
immediately impeached,by his
detestable instruments,of a crime of which
he was
innocent.
This attempt to recal him however
altogether
failed. Diodorus havingrepaired
to Rome,
entirely
the
to his patrons and friends in that city
represented
in which
he had been treated in such strong
manner
to Verres warning
terms, that letters were
despatched
to

him

The
but

of the

assure

him,

that

dangerto which he was exposinghimself.


therefore reluctantly
was
prosecution
dropped,
Diodorus
was
only able to preserve his plateby

42
"

LIFE

THE

OF

CICERO.

years'duration. The young


trapped
enAntiochus, king of Syria,was more
successfully
and despoiled,
in consequence
of his youth
This prince,
and simplicity.
his return from Rome,
on
in company
whither he had proceeded,
with hisbrother,
a

voluntaryexile of

to

three

urge in person

his claims upon Egypt,was


tuously
sumpexhibited
the
who
banqueted by
praetor,

and value which


every thing of rarity
Antiochus
for his entertainment.
was

he

possessed
slow

not

in

displayed,
returningthe compliment,and heedlessly
his
in his turn, a number
which
of precious
vessels,
formed
the resolution of making his
guest secretly
without further delay. Among these were
ral
seveown
with gems, and
cups of solid goldrichlyadorned
chalice which
was
a wine
composed of a single
jewel
all far exceeding
the richest vesof inestimable price,
sels
which

the

avarice

able to accumulate.

of Verres

On

the

hitherto been

the
morningsucceeding

he sent to
entertainment,
therefore,
the pretence of showing them
on
own

had

borrow
as

the

whole,
patternsto his

The

with his
king,littleacquainted
politely
grantedthe request. The

engravers.

character,at once
however, had, at
pra?tor,

time,much richer
He had heard of a sumptuous candelabrum
spoilin view.
possessed
by Antiochus, composed of massive
gold,encrusted with jewels,and finished in the most
elaborate styleof art,which
the king had taken to
Rome
with the intention of dedicating
it in the temple
but finding
the building
of JupiterCapitolinus,
yet
unfinished had
him

the

same

determined

back with
carrying
upon
until the placeshould be readyfor its
into Syria,

of this costly
reception.Although the possession
endeavoured
to be kept secret,Yerres
was
offering
informed of it,
and as soon
he
as
means,
was, by some
obtained possessionof the other valuables,
had
quested
rethat

this also.

It

he
was

with
might be indulged
forwarded
accordingly

sightof

under

the

44

THE

Verres

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

it

the service for which

to

was

originally

justice
of the inAfter this ineffectual exposure
and
embarked
he immediately
of his plunderer,

destined.

set sail for his

dominions.*

own

notorious instances of

Such

were

avarice

and

oppression
by

Verres

was

But
distinguished.

of the most

some

deeperdye formed
him.
against

which

part of

Unbounded

as

the

the

of
prsetorship

crimes

of

much

long list of charges

his covetousness

might

completelythrown into the shade by


appear, it was
his cruelty. It was
when
his custom
frequently
any
l
aden
arrived
in
the
Sicilian
with
rich
a
vessel,
freight,
manned
under the pretextof its being
ports,to seize it,
by the adherents of Sertorius.t The cargoes, of course,
were

confiscated to the

use.
praetor's

But the wretched

Roman

were
citizens,
of appealing
from the possibility
effectually
precluded
him at a future time,by being
hurried into those
against
Latomiae of Syrathe quarries
or
cuse,
frightful
dungeons,
and there secretly
without the formality
strangled
of a trial.One of these intended victims,
Caius Gavius,

crews,

of whom

many

havingbeen

so

were

his
escape and make
the intention of crossing
over

fortunate

as

to

Messana, with
into Italy,
fidence
was
imprudentenoughin his prematureconof being
to
beyond the reach of his persecutor,
threaten the retribution of a final impeachment at
Rome, for the unjust imprisonmentof one of its
denounced
citizens. For this he was
to the
secretly
of Messana, who, as companionsin his
magistrates
were
villanies,
whollyin the interests of Verres,and
It happened,
immediately
apprehendedby their command.
that the praetor
for the fugitive,
unfortunately
arrived the same
day at Messana, and was at once
made
and its cause.
witli his apprehension
acquainted
Infuriated by the information,
and the prospectof the
dangerhe had narrowly avoided,the officialtyrant
hastened into the Forum
andsummoning Gavius before
way

to

In

Verrem,

v.

xxvii.

-j-In

Verr. vi. xxviii.

THE

LIFE

45

CICERO.

OF

him

of beinga spy, and without


his accusation by the testimonyof a

him, accused

ordered

him,

as

strengthening
ness,
singlewitinstantlyscourged

be

such, to

able
that the miserpurpose
sufferer repeatedly
exclaimed,in arrest of judgment,
crucified.

and

It

to

was

no

enduringthe ignominy and torture


that he was
first part of his punishment,
a
evidence
citizen and could bring satisfactory
sentence
The whole of the frightful
fact.*
executed
him, and, by a
upon
the cross
to which
refinement
of cruelty,

of the

and while

attached

erected upon

was

he
of

with

might be tormented
refugewhich he had
and from

with
to

horrible
he

was

with

ing,
reach-

gainedit,he might

once

of Verres

power

to

further.
of the Mediterranean

the whole

swarmed

the

defied the hatred and

safelyhave
injurehim
As

he

morselessly
re-

was

sight
his dying agonies,
sightof the place

flattered himself

which, had

of the

in full

the sea-shore

coast, that,amidst

of the Italian

Roman

man

who
were
pirates,
regularfleets and

it
of considerable cities,

was

at

that

time

merous
nusufficiently

to form

the

customary

lation
popufor the

of vessels
prsetorsin Sicilyto fit out a number
time
them annually,
at the expense of the mariagainst
lost an opportuBut Verres,who never
towns.
nity
the public welfare to his own
of sacrificing
contrived
to render this force comprivateinterests,

Roman

"

allowed
inefficient. Several towns
to
were
pletely
to furnish ;
compound for the shipsthey were required
*

By

to

by the
was

law, passedA.

the Porcian

at all times

only revived

the

of

or

entitled
more

c.

455,

it

was

to

put

to

ancient

statute

of Porcius
the enactment
of Valerius Publicola to the
in

even
possessed

nostri etiaru
fuisse declarant pontificii
libri,
significant
31.

he

But

effect ; and Cicero speaks of the privilege


as
autem
the time of the ancient kings ; "Provocationem

Republica,lib. ii.cap.

lawful
un-

citizen,unless

death

appeal.

same

De

declared

any Roman
the people,
of
to which
generalassembly

bind, scourge,

sentence

u.

etiam

aregibus

augnrales.''
"

46
the

all among

OP

LIFE

THE

of those

crews

CICERO.

actuallysent,who could
vited
inservice,were
personal

purchasean exemption from


to doso,and large
sums, which should have been
the armament,
and provisioning
expendedin equipping
diverted

were

was,

by

the

that the vessels

totallyunfit

and

praetorto his

to encounter

luxurious

retirement

near

The

sequence
con-

half manned

and well
vigilant
appointedfor their
of being present to
himself in
indulging

the fountain

of Arethusa

under the command


galleys
of Cleomenes, which composedj or rather represented,
the Sicilian fleet,were
standingout of the
that he at length
mouth
of the harbour
of Syracuse,
his appearance
the shore,effeminately
made
on
clad,
of him by
to the celebrated picturedrawn
according
ing
Cicero,in a purplecloak,with an under vest reachnearlyto the ground,instead of the usual military
his feet,and
on
leaningon the
garb,with slippers
and

not until the

use.

but

were

At the time
providedenemy.
puttingto sea, Verres, instead
their departure,
was
superintend
a

own

it was

shoulder
which
had
a

of

had

made

voyage

one

seven

of his courtesans.

departedunder
the

such

After

the

force,

unwarlike

auspices,
Pachynus in

promontory and port of


of five days, (atthe end of which, the sailors
distressed with

hunger,in consequence of the


failure of the provisions
to
on
board, as to be obliged
collect the roots of the wild palms for their sustenance,)
news
was
suddenly brought to the admiral Cleothat the piratical
he was
in
force of which
menes,
in the adjoiningharbour
anchored
of
quest was
instant and disgraceful
Edissa.
An
the
was
flight
The admiral,hastily
his cables and
result.
slipping
all sail,was
in a short time out of sight.
hoisting
The
other galleys,
whose
captainshad prepared for
battle and would
have readily
offered it,had they not
bound
considered themselves
to imitate his example,
followed more
slowly. Two of them were, in consc-

were

so

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

47

"

with all on
overtaken and captured,
speedily
and the rest, after rejoining
board, by the pirates,
who had made
Cleoriienes,
good his way to Helorus,
had onlytime
that their crews
were
so closely
pressed,
boarded by
to escape to the shore,before they were
of value
the pursuers, wrho,after removing
every thing
the galley
the whole, including
from them, committed
quence,

of

of oars, to the
inflicted upon
the Roman
the disgrace

Cleomenes, a

flames.

But

vessel of four banks

the captain
government did not end here. ITeracleo,
of the piratical
force,confident that nothing was
left to oppose him, sailed on the next day for
now
of
from which the conflagration
the port of Syracuse,
had been distinctly
the fleet of Cleomenes
seen, with
four lightvessels ; and while Verres,stillstupified
of the previousnight,
from the effect of the excesses
and
clamours
assailed by universal
insults,
was
the harbour
at bis leisure ;
coollycruised round
knowing, adds the indignantorator by whom
has been
tbe circumstance
recorded, that if he
did not visit a placeso worthy of his curiosity
during
of Verres, he would, assuredly,
never
the prsetorship
of doingso.*
find another opportunity
Little as he liad hitherto appeared to esteem his
pest
Verres was
now
own
by the temreputation,
obliged,
raised
which
and complaints
of reproaches
was
in all directions against
him, to make some
attempts
attached to an
himself from the blame
to exculpate
attributed
the failure of which every one
enterprise,
this could only
But
and avarice.
to his incapacity
self.
than himbe done by the sacrifice of others less guilty
Cleomenes,who had been firstto set the example
towards
of cowardice,was
too valuable an instrument
his own
to be included in the list of his
exculpation,
victims. He, therefore,
prevailed
upon him by threats
and
to assert,that the shipshad been fullymanned
The
other
amply suppliedwith every necessary.
*

In Verr. vi. xxxvi.

48

THE

commanders

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

and who
were
escaped,
young
of
the
rank
in
were
men
then, by
Syracuse,
highest
his orders,thrown
into chains and condemned, as
their ships to the
surrendered
having traitorously
Cleoinenes
himself being shameless
enough
pirates,
who

had

take his seat beside Verres

to

sentence

of death

on

passedupon

was

vain that their parentsand

the tribunal
them.

It

when
in

was

friends used

every means
who
had
of the praetor,
to soften the cruel disposition
too

valuable

interests at

stake, on

this occasion,to

of bribery.
ordinarymethod
Althoughmany of the former passedwhole nightsat
the threshold of the publicprison,
at least
entreating
to be allowed
to take a last farewell of their unhappy
this favour was
relatives,
only to be purchased at a
and an
was
quired,
reequallyextravagantsum
highprice,
for the speedy despatchof the criminals,
by
be

accessible

to

the

who
threatened, if his demand
was
executioner,
not compliedwith, to compel them
to pass through
before their death, instead of
protractedsufferings
blow.
their existence by a single
terminating
the

short time

before this occurrence,


character of which
vessel,the piratical

the
was

crew
no

of

ter
mat-

doubt, had been taken near


Megaris,and
broughtinto Syracuse as captives.The people,who
had
the severityof Verres
often seen
mercilessly
exercised upon the guiltless,
expectedthat he would
not allow those who
were
ctilpable
actually
certainly
little acquainted
with the
But they were
to escape.
full baseness of character possessed
by their iniquitous
All the youthfuland able-bodied
governor.
among
the criminals were
his
slaves
to
as
friends,
presented
instead
of being broughtto condign punishment.
The
remanded
to secret
captainof the vessel was
in the hope that he might offer an extravagant
confinement,
bribe for the preservation
of his life. A few
of

of the

more

agedor

less

in appearance
prepossessing

THE

LIFE

OP

49

CICERO-.

were
publicly
pirates
put to death ; but
loud in
since the people,as yet unsatisfied,
were
demanding the punishment of the whole, Yerres

the

among

ordered

number

of Roman

who
citizens,

had

long

dungeons,to be led forth with


and
their heads
faces carefully
muffled, that their
features might not be recognised,
and, rejoicing
been

confined in his

himself of all further


of ridding
opportunity
rously
anxietyon their account, caused them to be barbaexecuted in the placeof the real culprits.
criminal,it might have
Againstthis enormous
be
been expectedthat the efforts of Cicero would
seconded by the horror and indignation
of all ranks
and classes at Rome, and that the generalvoice of
tion
humanitywould be raised to insistupon the condemnahad so repeatedly
and unof an individual who
violated every one of its laws.
Whatever
blushingly
of the common
might have been the feelings
people
however, Yerres fcmnd a numerous
iipon the subject,
the patricians,
and powerfulparty among
ready to
in the

stand forth in his defence.

He

had

been

heard

to

boast,that he should be very well satisfied to expend


in defeating
the proceeds
of two years of spoliation
the
ends of justice,
providedhe were allowed to retain for
of the third. The result proved that
himself the profits

purchaseable.
higherorders in his favour were unHortensius,though almost on the
the
point of beingdeclared consul elect,assumed
and a
title and offices of his patron and partisan,
crowd
of the distinguished
nobilityfollowed his
example. Such was, at this time, the disgraceful
afforded by the most eminent in dignity
countenance
of injustice
and titleto a monster
when
threatened
! the most sarwith the punishmentdue to his guilt
castic
no

efforts of the

is to be found in the
upon which
of Cicero in this cause, who asserts that the
pleadings

commentary

peopleof

the

had actually
formed
subjectprovinces

50

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

of petitioning
of the existing
for a repeal
design
law against
extortion on
the part of the Roman
And there can be no doubt,"he argues,
magistrates.
that theywould be greatly
benefited by the change.
the

"

"

For, in

that case, the governors


sent into the provinces
would be content to plunderonlyto a sufficient
to accumulate

extent

At

immense

future

addition to
bribes for their

serve

as

judgesat home."
first difficulty
thrown

The

the

was

The

selves.
them-

for

in
obliged,

presenttheyare

this,to acquireenoughto

fortunes

ambassadors

in the way of the prosecution


rival
advocate.
of
a
appearance
from
after layingtheir
Sicily,

before Cicero,had reminded him


groundsof complaint
made at Lilybaeum,
the expiration
of his promise
of
on
his quasstorship,
his abilitiesand influence
of exerting
in their

favour,if these should at any future time be


entreated him to fulfil his
needed, and earnestly
the lead in the proceedings
against
agreementby taking
their late oppressor.
peachment,
the imon
But, before entering
he was opposedby QuintusCsecilius
Niger,
who had recently
filledthe office
a Sicilianby descent,
of quaestor
and who, although
he pretended
to Verres,
his accuser, inconsequence
of certain injuries
than suspected
received at his hands,was
of
more
to act

as

bribed

havingbeen

by him

to

the prosecution
dispute

with
the

to ruin
Cicero,and, if successful,
Sicilians by managingit in a manner

to the

however
oration

defendant.

which

cause

of

best suited

This

first plan,

devised,
completelyfailed. The
ingeniously
the claims and pretensions
of Cicero against

stillextant,and
Caecilius,

of
"

interests of the

the

which

is of the kind to

technical
left his antagonist
without a
Divinatio,"
the

Romans

gave

the

name

of

prospect
of success, and he was accordingly
to arraign
appointed
the official conduct of the ex-praator
to the
according
usual
*

Dr.

form*.

For

the

purpose

of

the
collecting

Middleton,following
Asconius,
states,that the

"

Divinatio

52

THE

might
was

be

LIFE

OF

more

tried with

also

elect of

imaginedthat
who was
Sicily,

CICERO.

favourable result.

It

L. Metellus,at the time prastor


known
to favour the interests

the Sicilians
Verres,would then be able to terrify
into a total abandonment, or but a feeble prosecution
of their claims to justice.But
the prudence and
of Cicero disappointed
all these expectations.
activity
Instead of employing a hundred
and ten days,the
space he had at first demanded, in his investigations
in Sicily,
he had, as has been seen, made
all the
of

in less than
half the time ;
necessary preparations
and finding,
of the trial,
that
at the commencement
the

of Verres were
themselves with,
partisans
indulging
the hope that the cause
would
be opened by long
speecheson the part of the rival advocates ; by which
the intervention of the publicgames and holidays
means
have transferred the

would

for
proceedings

mate
ulti-

decision to the tribunal of a different prtetor,


he
the plan of bringing
determined
ward
forupon adopting
the evidence

introduction
the

or

weight of

at

comment,
the

without

once,

any
relyingfor

and

testimonyof

lengthened
success

his witnesses

oil

alone.

Of the noble

which
series of orations,therefore,
are
publishedunder the title of his " Pleadingsagainst

Verres,"
before

the

Marcus

first

alone

actuallydelivered

was

Glabrio, the

presiding
magistrate.

that he had onlywitnesses to crossfinding


examine,and that he wasprecludedfrom the possibility
and prothe cause
of delaying
by frivolous objections
tracted
the defence
abandoned
as
hopeless
replies,
;
the
evidence
and Verres,well knowing,from
of
mass
be the
arrayed againthim, what must inevitably
into voluntary
withdrew
exile.
of his judges,
sentence

Hortensius

The

fine laid upon

his estate

Cicero,fellfar short of what


indeed,of what his accuser
proposed; and there is some

by

the

had been
himself

estimation of

and,
anticipated,
had

originally

in accounting
difficulty

THE

for

this

after

however,
sooner

OF

53

CICERO.

displayof leniency. Pie

suffered to

escape

that

fate

found
later,is generally

or

shedder

LIFE

of

innocent

blood.

to

After

not,

was

which,

either

overtake

many

the
of

years

by his extravagance,in
which he is said to have been relieved by his former
by Mark Antony for
prosecutor,he was
proscribed
which
of the works of art stillin his possession,
some
and
in Sicily,
he had acquiredduringhis praetorship
afterwards assassinated by the ready agentsof
soon

comparative
penury,

induced

the triumvir.
The

orations of Cicero in the

of

clusive
Verres,exof the openingspeechagainst
are
Ca;cilius,
six in number, and each may be considered a model
of impassionedand indignant
titled
eloquence. That enthe subject
of the spoliations
De Signis,"
on
committed
by Verres in regardto works of art,has
admired ; but the sixth, De
been often deservedly
the unjust punishments
or
Suppliciis,"
respecting
inflicted by the praetor,passages from which are to
be found in almost every work
yet publishedupon
oratory,rises far above the rest in dignity,
energy,
and pathos. The narration of the death of Gavius,
with all its aggravatedcircumstances
of horror
his useless
the unjustcondemnation
of the criminal
appealsto his Roman
citizenshipthe indignities
him
inflicted upon
his
before
his execution,and
death within view of the Italian shore, is
agonising
known, and cannot but be considered is
sufficiently
cause

"

"

"

"

"

"

well entitled to the commendations

it.

hitherto bestowed

But

abound
descriptions,
equallyaffecting,
throughoutthe whole speech; which Cicero never
it is
merits for which
exceeded,in the particular
when
his reputation
at its height.
famous, even
was
The noblest figures
so
are
thicklyscattered throughout
upon

it,that
which

it would

be difficult
to select a page

the art of rhetoric

mightnot

receive

some

from
new

54

TflE

OP

LIFE

CICERO.

illustration ; and, notwithstanding


appropriate
the well-authenticated fact of its never
havingbeen
reallyspoken, so strong is the delusion of the art
with which
it has been composed,that it is almost
to believe it to have been anythingbut the
impossible
extemporaneous effusion of an anger and pityarmed
with
by the
extraordinaryenergy of utterance
to
singular
magnitude of the offences and injuries
which
these feelings
owed their birth,and supplying
the speakerwith expressions,
which appear to mount
of his audience might
just as the excited feelings
have been expectedto demand
successive additions
to their vividness and
strength.Nor is the power of
contained in
fervid accusation and blighting
sarcasm

and

this,and

in all the

the same
orations upon
had been
; under which, if he

other

less remarkable
subject,
hardy enoughto abide

the
his trial to its conclusion,

criminal must

convicted

stood forth

have

and

objectof popularscorn

and abhorred

ered
with-

as

cration
exe-

*.
*

Not

to

dwell

tbe

upon

dissolute seclusion

springsof Arethusa, and

the

at

at the departure of the

Sicilian

point the less commonly quoted


at

Syracuse,and

"

armament

"c. it would
praetor,"

puli Romani

be

"

his appearance
Stetit soleatus po-

difficultto exceed
of his winter

account

in

retirement

progress through the various citiesunder


"
hear how
In the firstplace,"
says his accuser,

his government.
easy this illustrious personage,
the labour of

moving

rendered,by exercise
from

of

and

reason

spot to another, which

one

providean

and
no

so

day

an

pure
was

datingwhich
retreat
manner

but

even

known
sun

the illustrious
as

by Nature

atmosphere,as

the

seldom

he took

of frosts and
refugeagainstthe severity
his abode the cityof
as
tempests, by selecting

is blessed

ever

is of

honourable

the force of rains and

Syracuse,which

cretion,
dis-

especially

and
the greatestimportance in all militaryoperations,
needful in the provinceof Sicily.During the winter
season
to

satiric

summer
"

care

in hi*

Verre*

of
description

famous

to

to
was

to

favourable
to

pass there,however
visible at some
not

be seen,
"

so

giveauthority

generalspent

out of his bed

with

I will

his winter
not

say

the

dark

hour

saying,that

and stormy,
; and in this

months

beyond

situation,

his

in

such

threshold,

wasting equallythe contracted

days and

LIFE

THE

There

be

can

of Cicero

OP

that the rhetorical abilities

doubt

no

considered

were

the most

possessedby

yet gracedthe

55

CICERO.

least,equal to

as, at

illustrious

those

pleaderswho

had

in consequence
of
talent.
It is, however,

Roman

Forum,

these

splendidexhibitions of
evident, that his exertions againstVerre.s
far from ensuringhim
were
any favour on the part
of the nobility.From
certain expressions,
in his
first speechin the cause, it may
be inferred that his
life was
actuallythreatened,and all but attempted,
sans
thoughthe agency of some of the more powerfulpartiwhile
prtetor,

of the accused
from

he

his way

on

was

the haughtyindigAnd, unquestionably,


Sicily.
nation
of the Scipios
and Metelli mightbe expectedto
*

lengthenednightsin revelryand
the springmade
its appearance,
season

the

to him, not
signified

was

sightof

attracted

by
the

licentiousness.
the

by

"

of this

commencement

of Favonius, or
breathings

his attention

when

only

star, since it was


the firstfull-blown rose
any

the

and

When, however,

presentedto

springto have

he at

him,

that he

was
jectured
con-

lengthsummoned

actually
begun
enough to devote himself to his toilsome and fatiguing
an
example of
journeys,in which he afforded so remarkable
and
be
horseback.
on
even
to
seen
activity endurance, as never
carried in a
of the Bithyniankings, he was
For, after the manner
litterborne by eightattendants,reclining
a pillowcomposed of
on
the transparentmuslin of Melite,stuffed with roses, with a garland
"

resolution

of

the

same

holdingin
finest

round his neck, and


flowers upon
his head, another
of the
his hand
a reticule,also filled with roses, made

lawn, and

to
applied

his nostrils.

he
destination,

you

have

the

decisions

heard

After

reachingin

in the

carried

was

his very bedchamber.


as well as the Roman

knights;

and

guisethe

frequently
placeof his
to
alighting,

the Sicilian magistrates,

in this shameful

afterwards

were

he

without
litter,

witnesses,causes

many

in which

same

this

assembled

Thither

from

spots,which

with minute

embroidered

were

reversed

as
retirement,
heard,
secretly

openly.

After

givingsentences, accordingto the


sums
bribe,rather than from any regardto the
by way
of the case, his remaining hours were
devoted to intoxication
justice
thus

spendinga

short

and

of

sensuality."
(InVer.

similar

in

time

offered him

ii.cap. vi. 11.)It would

did the limits,


to which
instances,

restricted

permit,or

the citation of unconnected

were

not

passages.

be easy to adduce
sarily
popularwork is neces-

the ablest orations

injuredby

56

be

THE

to
aroused,

who

was

no

not

LIFE

OP

CICERO,

limited extent,by the boldness of


entitled to

yet even

the

one

contemptuous

of
to drag
a
new
man," in attempting
appellation
bent
to merited justice
the culprit
whom
they were
"

defending.Another

upon

cause

for the hatred

of the

ment
styleof comof the most
one
importantconcessions
upon
of constituting
latelymade to the nobility.The privilege
the
after
or jury in criminal trials,
judices"

upper

ranks

have

must

existed in his

"

between
the knightsand senators,
longfluctuating
of Sylla,at length
was,
during the dictatorship
determinately
assignedto the latter. The middle
classes clamoured
of this enactfor the repeal
ment,
fiercely
and the restoration of their judicial
functions
to the equestrian
far from
order, and Cicero was
the propriety
of
at this time to controvert
appearing
the

alteration.

At

general
feeling
upon
to those

holds

all events, he
the subject
as
a

in office to

forth

the

salutary
warning

perform their

duties with

an

impartiality
widely inconsistent with the general
of the corrupt aristocracy
of the time.
practices
By whatever signsof dissatisfactionon the part of
the rich and the powerfulhe might have been met, he
and
proceeded,undismayed at their manifestation,
only ambitious of risingto further distinctions by
honest and equitable
means, to pass throughthe year
of his

in such
sedileship
his popularity
with

of Rome.

The

manner

as

to
greatly

crease
in-

the middle and lower orders

for his
Sicilians,
grateful

late

tions,
exer-

with abundant
him gratuitously
stores
supplied
of corn, which, instead of making them
of
a
source
transferred
privateemolument to himself,he immediately
to the publicstock,and by this means
effected
in the general
a considerable reduction
priceof provisions.
The
publicgames in honour of Ceres,
Bacchus,and Libera,as well as of Flora,and those
known
"as the
Ludi Romani," consecrated to Ju"

THE

LITE

57

CIt'ERO.

OP

divinities of
Juno, and Minerva, the presiding
piter,
incximthe Capitol,
all of which he has mentioned
as
bent upon
him
to regulate,
were
performedin the
usual

under

manner

his life is

his

direction;and this
by his
distinguished

onlyfurther

for the defendants

in two

prsetorof

causes

Fonteius,who had been


Gaul, was, on his return

for various

for three years


peached
to Rome, im-

in his vince
proInduciomarus, chief of the Treviri,bein"r his
of misconduct

acts

'
"

principal
accuser,
of
possession

of Cicero in his
to

and

with

entrusted
in

Marcus

impeachment. We are yet


considerable fragmentof the speech

behalf,and

believe,from

Plaetorius the advocate

his

there

the line of

that the accusations


in

of

ance
appearof considerable

Marcus

note.

year

is too much

reason

argument adoptedin it,

Fonteius
against

were,

as

usual

The oration for Aulus


cases, well founded.
delivered respecting
Cecina,the next in succession,
such

his client to

the

by
rightpossessed

from

the occupancy
of which
main
force,beyond a

by
subtletyon

the

part

b;it little interest.


causes

was

he

farm,
prohibited

considerable

advocate,
the

trial the

brought to

certain

been

displayof

of the

Before

had

former
law

possesses
of these

of Aurelius

by which it was ordained,


beganto take effect,
for the future be chosen from
thatthe"judices"should
with the addition
the senatorian and equestrian
orders,
The
had also by
of the ferarian tribunes.
commons
this time recovered no small degree
of power, by the
restitution of their original
to the tribunes
privileges
whose
had been for some
time
of thepeople,
authority
rendered,to a greatextent,inefficient by the acts of
Sylla. This alteration was producedby the exertions
of Pompey, whose interest then consisted in paying
court to the popularparty, although,
at a subsequent
period,he thoughtit necessary to -make an essential
changein his policy.
Cotta

53

THE

In

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

the

generalhistoryof his country the periodof


the sedileship
of Cicero is noted for the dedication of
the new
had been
of the Capitol,which
buildings
burned by an accidental conflagration
about five years
The
before.
was
performedby Quintus
ceremony
with
Catulus
extraordinarymagnificence.Sylla,
who
had
the. erection of this superb
superintended
pile,the roof of which was overlaid with gold,at a
cost of twelve thousand
or
talents,
nearlytwo millions
of pounds sterling,
had complained upon
his deathbed,
that

the
at its consecration
was
presiding
only thingwantingto complete the uniform course
of good fortune by which
his life had been distinguished.
It may
be doubted,however, whether
Sylla
himself could have performedthe ceremony
with more
lavish pomp
than
was
displayedon the occasion.
mentioned
instance of novel
an
Plinyhas particularly
the

extravagance, in the introduction of an immense


purpleawning,extensive enough to shelter the whole
assembled
Such
populacefrom the heat of the sun.
incidental illustrations of the luxury of the times,
the writings
scattered throughout
of ancient authors,
to illustrate the subject,
althoughnot intended directly
throw

small

no

lightupon

the

causes

of those

civil

commotions

had lately
by which the commonwealth
been distracted,
and to which
it was
soon
againto
be exposed. A
fortunes
vast
nobilitylavishing
the entertainment
of a single
day a people
upon
or
wholly engrossed
by the expectation
enjoyment of
such amusements, and so longas they were
afforded,
what
careless by whom,
from
or
sources, they were
if all other causes
were
provided; surely,
wanting,
"

"

we

need

not

look

much

the fertileoccasions of
form

further than
a

these to discover

violence and

at lengthin
terminating
of despotism.

the

sarily
anarchy neces-

most

frightful

60

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

that it
notorious,
considered necessary to take extraordinary
was
steps
them by the introduction of the Calpurnian
against
that whoever should beguilty
of bribery
law,ordaining
the
in any shape,while
or
corruption,
canvassing
should not onlybe heavily
fined,but declared
people,
of holdingoffice,
or
incapable
taking his seat in the
which
magistracies,

The

senate.

but

had

become

so

caused

enactment

considerable

tion,
commo-

necessary did it appear, from


that the senators determined
circumstances,
for the ensuing
magistrates
year
it had

existing

so

the form

assumed

of

that

no

should be chosen until

bindingstatute.
was
republic,
justice

ministere
adearlyages of the
by two praetorsalone, whose tribunals,
of a spear and
by the simpleinsignia
distinguished
sword, planteduprightbefore them, were
publicly
"

In the

erected in the Forum.


the

"

praetorurbanus,"decided

citizens; the
in which
be
the

firstof these

The

one

second,or
or

"

magistrates,

between
disputes

the

those
prsetorperegrinus,"

both of the

But
foreigners.

as

the

parties
might happen to
and
of Rome
population

of the

Empire increased fresh praetors


tatorship
During the dicwere, from time to time,created.
of Sylla,and for some
years afterwards,
eightwere annuallyelected,six of whom, while the
civil actions were
determined
ber
by two of their numof criminal charges,
as
before,took cognizance
extent

classed under

perpetuas;" as
to

heads and entitled " questiones


many
the jurisdiction
in each belonged
sively
exclu-

as

particular
prastorthroughoutthe

his office. The

division

was

as

follows

year of
I. Cases

II. Bribery and


corruption.
involvingextortion.
III. Crimes
againstthe majesty of the state or
V. Forgery;
of treason.
IV. Peculation.
eases
either by force or by
and VI. Murders
committed
of these subjects
by lot
poison. In the assignment
to thQ usual custom, Cicero was
appointed
according
"

THE

LIFE

OP

61

CICERO.

to the office of

at trials under
presiding
under the hightrust which

His conduct
had
remarkable
instance

for

as

of which
justiceand impartiality,

an

with the

with whom

was

and
judges,

he

was

on

so

confident

in the
of

terms

of trial he laid aside the

home

him

upon

given in the cause of Licinius Macer, a


accused before
who
was
praetorian
dignity
The
fendant
deoffice.
after his enteringupon

in this action

worn

men
country-

was

person of
him soon

day

his

is mentioned

devolved

now

the first head.

of his

ence
influ-

support of Crassu?,

that
intimacy,

usual

on

the

mourning dres.-

and returned
persons in such circumstances,
in greatstate and amidst
the Forum
from
a

by

multitude

of his

as
friends,

if he had

been certain of

so
managed
was
equitably
acquittal.But the cause
to
by Cicero,that the judges,attendingsolely
the evidence they had heard, unanimouslygave sentence
ifthe
him ; a verdict which provedfatal,
against
ancient historians are
to be believed,to the accused,
from
the receipt
of the intelligence
who
is recorded,on
to his
his patron Crassus,to have taken immediately
from
bed, and to have died,a short time afterwards,
and disappointment.In his fifth
the effects of grief
asserts that his decision in
to Atticus,Cicero
epistle
and incredible
this cause
of singular
was
productive
goodwilltowards him on the part of the people;and
that he had gained more
tiality
advantage,by his impar-

his

on

by the

the

than
occasion,

could

have accrued

favour of the accused if he had

to him

acquittedhim.

This brief,but expressive


rial
remark, may lend mateof the
due
assistance towards
a
appreciation
kind
which

of

administered
justice

have

sometimes

in those

been mentioned

ancient courts,
in terms of unmerited

not onlyfind by itan unbiassed


we
eulogy,since
and
decision recorded as a subjectof popularwonder
who had delivered
the magistrate
but that even
applause,
without some
it,could not contemplate
compla-

62

THE

cency, the

the merits of the

CICERO.

OP

of
probability

beinga

not

his

to
according

sentence

As

LIFE

loser

convictions

own

by giving
respecting

cause.

his office of

prsetorby

no

means

precludedhim

his former functions


occasionally
exercising
advocate,he appearedthis year for the defendants

from

than

as

in

remarkable

trial;delivering
among
t
he
which
his
of
oration
are
others, subjects
unknown,
for Aulus Cluentius A vitus,who
accused of poiwas
soning
more

one

his father-in-law

Oppianicus. The principal


the prosecution
his
of Cluentius was
agent in directing
mother Sassia,
whom
Cicero paints
in the
own
a woman
darkest colours,and whose
deceased husband
anicus
Oppihad, some
years before,been actuallyindicted
for an attempt to poisonthe defendant Cluentius. The
speechof Cicero in his behalf,thoughnot in his best
has always been
considered a highlyfinished
style,
in the case
of
specimenof eloquence. The pleadings

Fundauius,

Marcus

which

are

also attributed

of Cicero,are
year of the prsetorship
with those of which
to be numbered
than

the titles are

These
upon

had

been

the Manilian
to the

to the

unfortunately
more
scarcely

extant.

precededby
law,

the

the first which

famous
Cicero

speech
vered
deli-

Pomfrom the rostra.


peoplepublicly
ferred
pey, after beingarmed with the extensive powers conupon him by the statute of Gabinius,(by which
he was
empowered to fit out five hundred galleys
and twenty-five
and raise an
of a hundred
army
terranean,
thousand
men
againstthe piratesin the Mediin addition to possessing
absolute authority
within fifty
had made
allplaces
miles of the coast,)
over
such good use
of the extraordinary
means
placed in
his hands, as within fortydays of his appointment
cleared the sea' of the swarms
to have completely
had so long infested
of marauding vessels which
it ; compelling
such of the pirates
the puras escaped

THE

suit of his

LIFE

to
squadrons,

betake

themselves

to their

in Crete and
strongholds
speedilybesiegedby the

were

and

reduced

to

extremities.

for

refuge
where they
Cilicia,
land

Roman

But

against Mithridates,which

war

63

CICERO.

OP

in the
had

forces

East

been

the

nearly

'

broughtto

"

conclusion

the abilities of

Lucullus,
by
assumed
had once
unfavourable
an
more
aspect.
Caius
Triarius,who had been appointed by that
while preparing
to return
to Rome, to the
general,
chief command, until the arrival of his successor
been
Acilius Glabrio, had
suddenly attacked by
the enemy,
and
utterlyrouted with the loss of a
hundred
and fifty
centurions,
twenty-fourtribunes,
and

soldiers in

besides that of
proportion,
which
his camp,
taken
and plundered by the
was
victors.
The peopleat Rome, discouraged
by this
and unexpected
severe
check,which reminded them of
common

former

defeats from

antagonist,
beganto
the onlyperson fitto

the

able

same

and

their eyes upon


be entrusted with the
turn

their sentiments
of the war, and
upon
further
confirmed
the
that
were
by
news,
in the

East,

been

on

Pompey as
completion
the subject
the

that Glabrio
intelligence
receiving

appointedto command
refused to follow him, and
been

still active

them,
that

army

had

had

absolutely
consequently
Bithynia. At this
he had

to stop short in
obliged
the tribune Manilius,desirous of
therefore,
juncture,
securingthe favour of a powerful patron and gratifying
the popular inclination,
forward
a
brought
of the provincesof
law, proposingthat the whole
Bithynia,Phrygia,
'Lycaonia,Galatia,Cappadocia,

Cilicia,
Colchis,and the lesser Armenia, with the
forces lately
tion
employedin the piratical
war, in addiunder the command
to those lately
of Lucullus,
should be placed,
with the full power
of directing
all
future hostilitiesagainst
in the hands of
Mithridates,

Pompey.

64

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO;

act
ordinarycustom, when any new
to expose it for three successive
was
proposedto the people,
market
days,in the Forum, that all might
have an
of inspecting
it,before being
opportunity
called to determine
by their votes upon its acceptance
or
rejection.On such occasions,those who
or
were
by the previous
distiuguished
presentpossession

It

was

the

for no others,witli
highermagistracies,
the exception
of the tribunes,
were
allowed,unless by
to ascend the rostra,harangued
express permission,
either for or againstthe intended
the multitude
of the

statute.

The

law

of

Manilius

met

with

vehement

from the greaterpart of the nobility,


and
opposition
and Hortenfrom Quintus Catulus
more
especially
sius,who placedthemselves foremost in the ranks of
its most determined opponents; the former honestly
the dangerof entrusting
a
representing
power equal
attained after years
to that which Syllahad scarcely
and bloodshed to any individual,
of opposition
ever
howor distinguished
; the latter more
gifted
speciously
the real groundsof his opposition
by the
concealing
of Pompey was
able
too valuargument,that the safety
to be exposed,
except on occasion of the most
necessities of the state.*
Cicero successfully
pressing

combated

the

arguments

of

both, and

was

the

the passing
of procuring
of the law ;
means
principal
which
Pompey, accordingto Plutarch, pretended
of its confirmation
to deplore,
on
receiving
intelligence
that it placedtoo
by the people,complaining
with the
greata burden upon one alreadyoppressed
of the charges
committed
weightand responsibility
In his oration for the adoption
of the Bill
to him.
of Manilius,Cicero gives a
powerfuldescription
of the magnitude
and importance
of the contest with
in which

andof the manner


Mithridates,
of whom
by Lucullus,
warmest

commendation.
*

Pro

he
He

ithadbeen

ducted
con-

speaksin terms of the


then proceedsto define

xx.
Lege Manilla,

THE

the

LIFE

to
qualities
requisite

first order,under

OP

65

CICERO.

constitute

the several heads of

of the
general
skill,
military

conduct,authority,and good fortune,and proves


each to be possessed
gree.
by Pompey in the highestdeThe

latter part of his address is devoted to


answeringand confutingthe objections
urged by
Catulus

and

Hortensius.

The whole

speechis highly
its polishand elaborate
wrought,but, notwithstanding
for ever
must
offend,by the character
elegance,
of servile adulation to the then popular idol which
has
pervadesit throughout.The incense of flattery
seldom
been
more
profuselyor less disguisedly
than in this instance of the degradation
of
offered,
afterwards found
geniusto an ambition,which was
it was
to be as incapable
of appreciating,
serving
of deas
the sacrifice.

Manilius,towards

the end of the year in which he


carried his celebrated law, was, probablyin consequence

had

of the resentment

by

of the

and
charge of extortion,

of Cicero to answer
of this cause, instead of

assailed
nobility,

bunal
cited before the tri-

it.

In

assemblyof

the

takingcognizance
to the accused the
assigning
usual periodof ten days,for the preparation
of his
ment,
astonishdefence,Cicero allowed him,to the general
but one.
For this apparentrigour
with
forthhe was
cited by the tribunes togive
of his
an
explanation
conduct
on

on

He

his

before

an

and was
ceived
repeople,
marks of strongdisapprobation.

his appearance with


But the popular
subsided
soon
indignation

to account
proceeding

for his

supposedseverity.

informed those present,


that at the time when

he

received the accusation of Manilius,


his officeas praetor
within two daysof expiring,
thereand that he had fore
was

determined

trialimmediately,
upoabringingonthe
in preference
it to be transferred to another
to suffering
from whom
the defendant mightnot meet
magistrate,
with so favourable a hearingas from himself.
His
considered as perfectly
excuse
but the
was
satisfactory,
f

66

THE

advocate

OP

CICERO.

contented until

peoplewere not
that
to promise,
as

LIFE

he would

in behalf of

they had induced

himself undertake

to appear

intended

Manilius,whose

him
trial

had been

preventedby the intervention of the tribunes.


Such
is the account
given of the circumstance by
Plutarch.
The
historian Dio, after stating
that
Cicero was
influenced by a dislike to Manilius
really
in curtailing
the time allotted for his defence,and
of the popular
censure
only saved from the severe
assembly,before which he had been cited,by the
of
adds, that the hearing
promise above-mentioned,
the cause
was
sequence
prevented
by the tumults raised in conof the consular elections of the year, when
Autronius
Paetus and Publius Cornelius Sylla,
who
had been

to the office,
were
already
appointed
impeached
for corruption
by Lucius Cotta and Lucius Torquatus,
two of the unsuccessful
candidates,
and, beingfound
to giveup the honour to their
were
compelled
guilty,
The story,in whatever
accusers*.
will
way related,
hardlyappear to contribute much evidence in favour
of the strict impartiality
of Cicero ; with respectto
whose speechon this occasion,
we
are
onlyinformed,

that it abounded
the

in

and
aristocracy,

growing power

of

of all who

to

Pompey. With
seems
prastorship

his

while invested
leisure,
the
*

is

As

school

envious

were

of these events, his


been remarkable
for any
occurrence
It has been
however, that
stated,
claims

the

of

of the

exception

not

of
amidst

to

have

moment.

the

merous
nu-

still found

attention,he

with

M.

of

ambition

of the

censures

this

quent
to fremagistracy,
Antonius
Gnipho,a rheto-

fragment of the oration of Cicero in defence of Manilius


quoted by Nonius, and as Asconius Pedi.inus lias stated that the

accused
ance

to

was
answer

condemned
actually

the indictment

of Dio

upon the subject


may
the assertion of Asconius

has

in default of his

personalappear-

againsthim, the testimony


preferred
To reconbe regardedwith suspicion.
cile

it
oration,
been conjectured
that the latter,
tion
althoughpreparedin anticipaof

the trial,
was

never

with

the

of the

existence

actually
pronouncedin

court

of justice.

68

THE

he laments
another

the

LIFE

death

mentions

OF

CICERO.

of his cousin

the

Lucius*,and in
his father,
without,

decease of

comment
however, making the slightest
that,about
eventf. We learn in addition,

his
son

are

upon
this

the

time,
betrothed to Caius Piso,the
was
Lucius Frugi^,and that his familywas
creased
inby the birth of an infant son". Allusions

Tullia
daughter
of

also made

to certain differences between

his brother

and sister
Quintus and Pomponia,the wife of the latter,
of Atticus;but these seem
ended in
to have speedily
their reconciliation,
of his intervention
by means
chiefly
.

In his

tion
every effort for the acquisiof the consulate,
he declined the province
which he
anxietyto make

mighthave obtained at the end of his office as praetor,


to spendthe whole of the two years next
determining
in strengthening
his interest with all classes,
ensuing
and in diligently
for the highest
honour in
canvassing
the power

of his

to bestow.

countrymen

The

times,
tranquil
already

however,were not such as to promisea very


since they were
enjoymentof the dignity,
of dissatisfaction and lawless
pregnant with those causes
issued in the conspiracy
which ultimately
outrage,
of Catiline.

daringand

That

havingjust returned

licentious

his

from

profligate

provinceof Africa,

himself for the confor the purpose


of presenting
sulship,
of all hopesof success
and beingdeprived

extortion,
by an impeachment for illegal
preferred
doned
abanhim by Publius Clodius,
a person of as
against
with
as himself,
formed,in conjunction
principles
Publius Autronius
and Cneius Piso||,
a
designof
is sufficiently
possible,
amusing, and

in the true

of
spirit

collector,

while his powers of appreciating


at least upon
a level with
art seem
those possessed
by connoisseurs in general.
*
Ad Attic, lib. i. 5.
t Ad Attic, i. 6.
*

Attic, i. 3.
||Sallust and Livy add
Ad

defended
Suetonius
in the
the

againstthe

affirms

the

even

name

Cicero

Czesai4and
relates that

the assassination

by

Ad

of Pub.

charge by

that both

conspiracy. He

for
signal

"

Aitic. i. 2.

Sylla,-who
and

Ciassus
Csnsar

was

lettinghis robe

was

wards
after-

Hortensius,and
were

concerned

to have

drop

from

given
his

THE

LIFE

OF

69

CICERO.

the consuls,Torquatus and Cotta, in


assassinating
the Capitol,
the very day of their entrance
on
upon
their office. In consequence
of the plot beingsuspected,
the conspirators
deferred attempting
to carry
it into effect until the month

timetheyhad

added

of

February,by which

considerable number

to the list of their intended

victims

of senators

the ture
premathe signto his

but

who
eagerness of Catiline,

gave
the senate-house

accomplicesin front of
were
fullyprepared to obey it,caused

before

they

the failure of

attempt at the destruction of their opponents*.


It is remarkable, that although the true
of Catiline must, assuredly
longbefore this,
well known
to him, Cicero notwithstanding-

this second
character
have

been

his advocate in
of appearing
as
design
prosecution
hangingover his head. As Clodius,
conducted
it,was induced to dropall further proceedings,
the
cause
was
never
broughtto
by bribery,

entertained
the
who

the

yet in his correspondencewith Atticus, the


ing
meditatthat he is sincerely
orator expressly
affirms,
his defencet,that the judgesappointedare precisely
he could have wished, and that
those whom

trial ;

to have
hopes if the accused should be acquitted,
his intimacyand support during
their jointefforts for

he

in favour of Publius
pleadings
with treason in conwho had been charged
sequence
Cornelius,
of his persisting
to read a bill he had brought
forward
in spite
of the tribunitial
before the people,
Serin office,
placedupon it by his colleague
negative
believed to have been
vilius Globulus, may be easily

the

consulate.

His

shoulder,and was
"nly deterred
absence of Crassus,who, on the

from

by the unexpected
of its execution,repented
very eve
the design. JULIUS, cap. ix.
doing

so

of the part he had taken in


*
Sallust Bell. Cat. cap. xviii.
"f-Hoc terapore Catilinam competitoremnostrum
"

habemus

voluimus,

defendere

tamus.

Judices

voluntate.

ilium
Spero si absolutus erit conjunctionetn
2.
Ad
Attic,
i.
petitionis.

in ratione

"

quos

summa

cogi-

accusatoris

nobis

fore

70

THE

delivered for

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

and in a much
moro
object,
defence pronouncedby Cicero in

worthier
The

cause.
reputable

Hortensius,Catulus, and several


nesses
of Rome, appearedas witnobility
lasted four days,and was
prosecution,

this case, in which


others of the chief
for the

publishedin the form of two orations of


in
considerable length. These have been mentioned
his
of highpraise
but whether
terms
by Quintilian*,
commendation
was
fullydeserved or not, it is now
of a few
with the exception
to judge,
since,
impossible
unimportantand unconnected
sentences,both have
perished.
longbeen considered as havingirrecoverably
In his poem
well as in his
as
upon his consulship,
rating
orations,Cicero has taken the painsof commemoafterwards

the close of the year of the chief


of Torquatus and Cotta, as remarkable

magistracy

for many
the desperateand atrocious

which
indicated
prognostics
designsthen preparingagainstthe state by
his accomplices
he
has been
Catiline and
; and
vellous
followedt,in his leaningtowards the marstrictly
and supernatural
on this occasion,
by Plutarch
well as Dio Cassius.
as
ral
Accordingto these seveseconded by
thunders and apparitions,
authorities,
Etruscan
propheciesand the mystic warnings of
formed an appropriately
solemn introduction
diviners,
to the plan of domestic treason,unsparing
rapineand
indiscriminate
and

which

massacre,

frustrated.

As

shortlyto

was

of

matter

closed
be dis-

authentic

terest,
devoid of inhowever, perhapsnot altogether
history,
it may be observed,that at the time in question
the Capitol,
with its newly erected buildings,
seems
to

have been visited with

storms, by which

it was

injured.Several
by

lightning
; the

the

which

some

on

one

of those tremendous

several occasions materially

brazen statues

tablets of the

of the ancient laws of Rome

Instil. Orator, lib. v.

struck down

were
same
were

metal,on

engraved,

f Plut. in Cic.

THE

LIFE

OP

71

CICERO.

them
fused,so that the inscriptions
partially
upon
of Romulus
rendered illegible
were
; and the figures
and
Remus, with the legendarywolf, struck to the
earth,the latter leavingthe traces of its feet,which
melted by the flash,upon
entirely
pedestal*.
this ominous
With
prefacecommenced

the

were

Lucius

of

Julius

Caesar

the consulship

Caius

and

porting
sup-

Marciua

year celebrated not only in connection


life it formed
the destinies of Cicero,in whose

Figulus;
with

importance
epoch,but as one of the highest
in the historyof his country. As he had now
he was
reached the age of forty-three
years, at which
allowed
to
by law to present himself as an aspirant
the dress and labours
the consular office,
he assumed
of a candidate for that honour,in suingfor which, he

memorable

had

the exertions

to oppose

of

no

less than

six

petitors,
com-

viz. :

SulpiciusGalba, SergiusCatiline,
Caius
Antonius, Cassius Longinus,Quintus Cornificius,and Licinius Sacerdos. Among these,Antonius
and
who
made
to have
common
Catiline,
appear
with
againstthe rest,conducted their canvass
such open
and unblushing
bribery,that the senate
to
thought it necessary, by additional penalties,
bune
strengthenthe law againstcorruption. The triwas
Orestinus, however, who
probably in
the interest of the parties,
his authority
interposed
and it
to prevent the amended
statute from passing,
cause

on

was

the occasion of this

delivered

the

speechcalled

in the white
he

that

at

custom.
*

De
"

See

toga;"in

time

wore,

that Cicero
interference,
tion
by the critics The Ora"

allusion to the dress which

in

compliance with general

In this oration he seems,

lib. i.cap. 1 2.
Divinatione,
Nunc ea Torqviato
qiiae quondam
also Chiltle

thunder-stricken

Harold,

nurse

of

Canto

Rome,"

(judgingfrom

et consule

iv. stanza

88,

"c. with the

the

Cotta,""c.
*'

And

thou, the

accompanyingnote.

72

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

his former
few passages which remain of it,)
forgetting
resolution of actingas his advocate,to have assailed
Catiline

Antonius, with
of languagefrom which the infamy of their
a strength
it
characters might easily
have been deduced, were
intimated only by the disjointed
vective
sentences of the inwell

as

which

as

have

his

confederate

reached

us.

The

former

is openly

of
reproachedfor his murders,duringthe proscription
Sylla,and his notorious misconduct at home and in
Africa ; while Antonius
is reminded, in forcible terms,
of his extortions and oppressions
in Achaia, for which
he

had

been

formerlyimpeached. The election of


both, is characterised by the expressive
metaphor of
unsheathed
the safetyof
two daggers
at once
against
*
the commonwealth.
In this image there was
more
truth than either the orator or his auditorymight at
the time imagine. The famous plotlaid by Catiline
the existing
constitution and the lives of its
against
fast maturing,
principal
supporters,was, in fact,now
and although
beenusedto
strictprecautionshad
prevent
its
of
not so closely
was
existence,
kept
any suspicion

secret,but that
had

become

throughthe
Curius,one

engaged in

faint intimations

some

generalconversation

of

matter

of

means

of the most

of its character
;

chiefly

mistress of Quintus
rash and heedless of the parties

Fulvia,the

it ;

who, although she suppressedthe


of her authorities,
made
no
tioning
names
scrupleof menthe general
she had heard to
tenour of what
her acquaintancet.
In consequence of the undefined fear which, by this
was
spreadamong the nobility,
means,
(who, aware
of some
secret dangerto themselves, although
norant
igof its extent and the quarter from which
it
in their desire to place a
might be expected,forgot,
trustworthyperson at the helm of government,
the
obscure
comparatively
originof Cicero,)his
*Oratio

in

Toga Candida

"

sub

Sallust. Bell.
fin. -f-

Cat. cap. xxiii.

LIFE

THE

election

the

of all classes and

tells us,

he

as

which

73

CICERO.

triumphantlycarried,amidst

was

Antonius

OF

an
appointed his colleague,

was

missed

Catiline

by

the

votes

of

but

clamations,
ac-

order*.
honour
a

few

sustained a
plansof the conspirators
which
serious check
by the result of this election,
they had confidentlyreckoned,by the influence of
Marcus
Crassus and Julius Caesar,who
were
equally
pointment
opposed to Cicero, would end in his utter disapThe

centuries.

minutest

Although the
with

its progress
matter of common

and

circumstances

termination

it may
history,

have
seem

not

connected

long been

irrelevant,

connected
intimately
with
it, to enter at this opportunitysomewhat
has
of the plotwhich
at lengthinto the objects
more
in character
been alluded to :
a design
so infamous
in its proposed
rash in conduct
and so desperate
so
the scepas mighthave
results,
provoked and justified
ticism
had not every essenof succeeding
tial
generations,
point been confirmed by the united testimonyof
two
writers,attached duringtheir lives to directly
tion
actor in itsdeteca principal
opposite
parties
; the first,
and punishment ; the other,an eye-witness
of the
for
have possessed
event, who would
ample means
successfully
impeaching the veracityof his political
and would
opponent, had it failed in any particular,
have been but too happy to do so, if he had been furnished
with the opportunity.
The miseries suffered by the peopleof Italyduring
Marius
and Sylla,were
the contests between
by no
the only evils engendered
means
by those times of
ship
terror and commotion.
During the vigorousdictatorin

life of

whose

one

name

is

"

"

"

of

the

policy,which

latter,his
suffered

no

firm

and

uncompromising

violence to exist but such

as

interest,kept the fiery


directly
promoted his own
by whose assistance he had mounted to abspirits,

74

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

solute and

dominion, in some
irresponsible
degreeof
subjection.But at his death,vast numbers of those
who
had
composed the strengthof his armies were
left without
tion.
distincor
hope of further emolument
Most among
them
having learned to acquire
in the cama taste for Eastern
paigns
luxury and profusion
againstMithridates,had afterwards found
for gratifying
it at the expense of their
ample means
countrymen. The wealth which
by their violence,however, was
by their extravagance; and with

had

been

obtained

exhausted
speedily
to
every propensity
vicious indulgence
unabated
by their want of suf-ficient resources
for satisfying
it, they gloomily
watched
for the appearance
of a leader
possessed
like that of their old commander, or
of a spirit
favourable
a
opportunityfor renewing the civil
discords
which
had
to
formerly issued so much
their benefit. By a policy,
of exceedingly
moreover,
far as the interests of the
so
utility,
questionable
state were
no
concerned, although,
doubt, prompted
of his own
by the soundest appreciation
advantage
instead of beingsuffered
the part of the dictator,
on
when
their services were
to disperse,
quired,
no
longerreand
of their lawless habits by
to lose some
contact with persons actively
engagedin the peaceful
of civil life,
they had been distributed in
occupations
of military
colonies,in
largebodies,under the name
different partsof Italy
theyhad full opportunity
; where
of comparing among
themselves,their present
and
condition of inactivity
comparativeprivation,
and
the stirring
dissolute life they had forwith
merly
each other's resolutions
led,and of strengthening
to seize the earliest opportunityof starting
on
Nor were
of outrage and spoliation.
a fresh career
the brooding
pest
temthese the only elements of which
of Rome,
was
composed. Many of the nobility
inured under Syllato every kind of excess, and accus-

76

THE

LIFE

the feverish excitement

OP

CICERO.

by the meditation of
crimes yet to come.
stroke be added
Nor can a single
to that impressivedelineation,
which
all are
with
of a disposition
at once
subtle,versatile,
acquainted,
and daring
the proin acquiring
; of a covetousness
perty
of others,
and
the
travagance
profusion exonlyequalled
by
of its
which marked
waste
the thoughtless
ambition vast and unbounded,
own
possessions
; of an
without the restraint of a single
virtue to preclude
its exercise,
of the slightest
or
prudenceto prevent
its open display;and, lastly,
of an
eloquenceperfectly
seduce
and
united
to
to
mislead,
adapted
bodily
capableof incredible exertion,and a patience
powers
of fatigue,
such should
when
want, and privations,
be rendered
all the
as
necessary, as extraordinary
caused

other features in the character

of itslawless possessor.

Without

attemptingto enlargeupon a picturenot


it may
equalledby historians or biographers,

often

be remarked

that

Catiline

descended

was

from

familyoften distinguished
by civic honours, and
one

of the noblest

in

His

Rome.

initiation into the vices for which

he

was

sidered
con-

earliest

afterwards

ing
duringthe convulsions attendthe elevation of Syllato the dictatorship,
in whoso
he distinguished
himself as a. violent and recause
morseless
partisan.The first crime laid to his charge

notorious,was

is the

effected

he
brother,whose name
afterwards
persuadedSyllato insert in the list of the
proscribed. His sister's husband, a Roman
knight
attached
for his mild
to no
party, and remarkable
and

murder

amiable

at
fallen,

the

of Marcus

of his

own

is also recorded
as
disposition,
having
his
His
hand.
ation
assassinsame
time, by
Marius

Gratidianus,a

most

estimable

nearlyrelated to the famous chief Caius


marked
of singular
Marius, was
by circumstances
horror and impiety.This unfortunate Roman
having
been placedin the proscribed
list by Sylla,
Catiline
person,

and

THE

undertook

LIFE

performthe
havingentered
to

OF

77

CICERO.

task of his execution.


the house of his

cordingly,
Ac-

victim,and
of insult,
he

exercised upon him the utmost


inventions
at lengthfinished his sufferings
off his
by striking
with blood,through
head; which he carried,
streaming
the public streets to the tribunal of Sylla in the
Forum, coollyproceeding
afterwards,to the disgust
and indignation
of all present,to wash his hands in
the lustra! water which
stood before the temple of

Apolloin

the

neighbourhood.An

incredible enormitysucceeded.

On

action of almost
the death

of his

wife,havingformed an attachment to Aurelia Oresof great beauty,but infamous for her


a woman
tilla,
that strong objections
conduct, and finding
were
made
with him, on the ground
by her to a marriage
that she was
in fear of being obnoxious
to his son,
who had nearlyreached the age of manhood, he is
said summarilyto have removed
this obstacle to his
nuptialsby poison. His conduct, while praetorin
Africa,has been alreadynoticed as havingsubjected
him to a prosecution
his return to Rome, in consequence
on
of which

he

was

obligedto

withdraw

from

this time
From
for the year.
commenced
that studious course

the list of candidates


lie appears

to have

branches
of the Roman
the younger
corrupting
rounded
by pursuingwhich he was
speedilysurnobility,
whose daring,under
by a band of followers,
rendered
his instructions,
was
soon
equal to their
of
licentiousness.
The effeminate dress and bearing
these wretched profligates
has been well described by
midable
far from beingthe least forCicero,but they were
of

of the

enemies

he had to encounter.

features, though carefullyadorned

with

Their

paint
of elegantinanity,
and composed to an expression
darkened
not unfrequently
were
by the scowl of the
in
assassin;and their longflowingvests, reaching,
defiance of prescribedcustom, to their wrists and
which
the dagger,
concealed not unfrequently
ancles,

78

LIFE

THE

CICERO.

OP

used on the slightest


promptly and unsparingly
was
provocation.In addition to these, whoever
of graenslaved
by vices which he had no means
tifying,
rendered
or
desperateby the consequences
of former
were
hensive
appreextravagance; those who
who
of punishment for past offences,
or

was

wished

commit

to

any such
the ambitious and the

in future without

them

with
dread,together
discontented of all classes,
found
of

cause

adviser and

friend.

To

the

in Catiline

ready

self,
lent him-

he

sensual

; for
readyinstrument in their excesses
necessitous he procuredmoney,
the forbearance
or

the

desirous

of

as

their

creditors;towards

publichonours he
influence,neither
while

such

were

as

promised all
of

to all he held out

which
the

was

his

of
and

interest

inconsiderable

prospectof

act
general

of the richest citizens,


a
insolvency,
proscription
and the speedydiversion of every office of trust and
as
emolument, which he represented
monopolisedby
to the service
a haughtyand
tyrannical
aristocracy,
and exaltation of his own
personaladherents.
The
of the
not one
conspiracyof Catiline was
people,since we find that the lower orders of Rome
but
not only panic-struck
at its disclosure,
were
enthusiastic in their gratitude,
when
the danger it
of

seemed

to

threaten

was

averted. Neither

it

was

one

these were, to a greatextent,the


It appears
victims marked
out by it for destruction.
to have
to have recognised
nor
no
great principle,
of the

as
nobility,

contemplatedany single
objectbeyond the satisfying
and the transfer
of the passionsof the moment,
of power to the hands
used it,to the utmost

plunder,and
had

of

extent, simplyas

for the

summary
hitherto stood in the way

From

such trivial incentives

most

tremendous

entered upon,

in

would

faction who

was

have

means

removal

of those who

of their

it.
possessing

of
revolution,

kind, deliberately
planned
a

city,where

of

the

the
and

of
longfamiliarity

LIFE

THE

its inhabitants with


discord

be

all the different

alone account for the


and its effects.
the cause

were

carried

the

means

into

79

CICERO.

can

between
as

OP

Dark

it

by.which

execution,it

shapesof internal
apparent disparity
and revolting

proposedto

was

numbered

its
among
of the state.

promoters several of the noblest names


with perhaps some
reasonable
Suspicion,
the time, ventured
those
to point out
Crassus
the

and

Julius Ctesar.

of Marcus

of Cains Antonius,
of his nephew,
as

That
well

of Cicero,as
colleague

ground at

more
triumvir,was
openly added.
however
From
what we
know
of all four,the charge,
incredible.
does not appear by any means
serious,
The connivance of Crassus has been accounted for by
his jealousy
honours lately
of the extraordinary
conferred
making
upon Pompey, and his hope of easily

afterwards

the

himself the chief person in the state, in the absence


of his rival,if the designsof Catiline succeeded*.
But

like
although,

those

with

mentioned

him,

as

he might have
nobility,
excited
or
encouragedthe conspirators,
secretly
it is certain that he was
too cautious to implicate
himself in the consequences
of their failure,
by
such a close connexion
with them
as
might place
him
in the position
of a direct accomplice. Those
of senatorial rank, who
were
preventedby no
well

others

as

among

the

themselves
distinguishing

such fears from

active

as

in addition to Catiline,
plot,were,
who
Publius Lentulus,surnamed
Sura, a patrician,
had formerlyheld the office of consul t, but having
been expelled
from the senate on
count
acby the censors
of his infamous
character,was
endeavouring
of
his former station by the usual course
to regain

leaders

in

the

Sallust. Bell. Cat. cap. xxvii.


with
In conjunction
Cneius Aufidius

Lentulus

was

AntoniuR,

surnamed

the first cause

educated

at this time married

to

Orestes, A.
Julia,the widow

Cretensis,and mother

of the

hatred of the

of his
in the politics

of Mark

who
latter,

of

Antony.

had

towards
step-father,

c.

u.

been

Cicero.

683.

Marcus
Hence

carefully

80

THE

LIFE

actually
praetorwhen the
Autronius,who had
; Publius
in the quasstorship
of Cicero
;
colleague

publichonours,and
broke out
conspiracy
been

the

Cassius

CICERO.

OF

was

who
Longinus,

has been before

named

as

an

consulship
; Caius
Cethegusand Servius Cornelius Sylla,both members
of the noble house of the Cornelii;Lucius VargunPortius
teius,Marcus
Lseca, Lucius Bestia, and
The
QuiritusCurius.
equestrianorder was
sented
repreMarcus
Fulvius
Lucius
Statilius,
Nobilior,
by
Publius
Gabinius
Capito, and Caius Cornelius.
Besides those whose
exertions were
fined
conprincipally
several persons occupyinghigh
to the capital,
stations in the colonies and municipaltowns, were
of the confederacy.
engagedto advance the cause
Cneius Piso,who had been engagedin the designof
candidate

unsuccessful

for

the consuls
assassinating
have

been

one

he not been
to

remove

so

of the

of its most

former

serviceable

by
despatched
mischievous

the

year, would
members, had

the senate,in their desire


citizen to a distance,
into

for his countrymen, he was


Spain; where, fortunately
escort of the natives
set upon and slain by an armed
in consequence
he had entrusted himself,
of
to which
his cruelty
and extortion*.
The

first convention

of this audacious

the
to Sallust,
on
place,
according
in the year of the citysix hundred

band

took

calends of
and

Junet,
ninety,while

Caesar and

and consequently
were
Figulus
yet consuls,
before the comitia or popularassemblies had been held
the publicofficers of the ensuing
for creating
yearj.
held in a private
The meeting
was
apartment of the
"

Sallust. Bell. Cat. cap. xix. This historian,


however, mentions
assassinated
iu
had
been
the
of
he
that,
by the orders
opinion some,
of

Pompey.

to
proclaimor
f The Calends, from an old word, signifying
in
ancient
of
their
from
circumstance
the
times,publicly
call,
being,
the
it
is
well known,
announced
the
t
o
as
people,
by
were,
priests
the first day of the month.
invariably
$ Among the Romans, the great officersof the state were often

THE

LIFE

OF

81

CICERO.

liberatio
whose
Catiline,
speechon openingtheir defictitious like
althoughin all probability
has
of those recorded by the ancient historians,
most
We
been given
at lengthby the writer cited above.
gation
that the obliinformed
are
authority,
by the same
to secrecy,
impressedupon all present by
said to have been renthe most
solemn oaths, was
dered
stillmore
by the horrible ceremony of
binding
handing round a gobletof human, blood,which the
assembly tasted in succession*. Dio Cassius, an

house of

historian of less

weight,has

even

so

gone

far

to

as

sion,
boy upon the occaand after the oath of mutual fidelity
had been repeated
by the confederates over his entrails,
actually
with his companions
t.
partookof them, in conjunction

affirm,that Catiline

sacrificed

The

designof his first council was to inflame the


of the unbounde*
conspirators
by a representation
wealth and luxuryenjoyedby one part of the community,
while others were
all the extremities
suffering
of want, and to represent
the condition to which they
had reduced themselves as one
of miserable slavery,
while that which theyhoped speedily
to realise was
He
of freedom.
disguisedby the speciousname
chosen

months

enteringupon the exercise of


actually
their several duties.
This regulation
was
adopted in order that
ample time might be given for inquiringwhether they had been
elected without the employment of undue
whether all
influence,
the legal
forms had been observed,or, lastly,
whether their return
had
sanctioned
been
were
by the auspices which
carefully
taken

some

at

the

unfavourable

before

time,
omen,

in which

and

the

or

the

of

occurrence

false report of

one

on

the

single

part

of

the augurs,
employed against a
(a stratagem not unfreqtiently
candidate not in the favour of the nobility,)
sufficient to
was
render the whole

the March
but

in

later

performed on the first


the precedingyear.
*

held

in which

times, when
of

In

void.

ceremony
republicthe comitia were

in

the

the

the consuls
the

ceremony

Dio.
-fG

periodsof

the-

January or February preceding


entered

January, late

Sallust. Catilina,
xxii.

earlier

of their
in the

their

office,
inaugurationwas

upon

July or August

xxxvii. 30.

of

82

THE

then

LIFE

OP

facilities afforded

the

enlarged
upon

CICERO.

by

the

present juncturefor a bold attempt againstthe


that multitudes
existinggovernment, representing
and only waiting
dissatisfied with their condition,
were
for

an

his friends
another
the

in

Roman

for altering
it ;
opportunity
at the head

was

an

while

Mauritania;
forces

of

absent

was

that

army in
the main

with

one

of

Spain,and

of
strength
Pompey, on an

and
doubtful
issue.
expeditionof great difficulty
He
exhorted them
all their influence
to use
finally
for

his
securing
as

return

consul

as

the first and

in the

tion,
ensuingelecimportantstep towards

most

their success, after which


it would
be easy to debate
the means
of turningthe advantagethey had
upon
the grand
gainedto the best account in forwarding
designof the conspiracy.
But

when

nating
comitia,instead of termi-

the consular

in the advancement
he

had

chief

had
contemplated,

a
magistrate
totally
opposed to
beingbrought over

or

of Catiline to the honour

man

his
to

elevated

whom

he

to

the

well knew

post

of

to be

and
principles,
his

incapableof
designeither by bribery

he began,under the influence of disappointme


intimidation,
for
to make
at his repulse,
preparations

which
he had reserved
as his last
general
rising,
in case
the renewed attempt which
he intended
expedient,
for the consulate in the following
to make
year
the

With
this
should,like the first,
prove unsuccessful.
and money,
view he began to send arms
procured
either by his own
credit or that of his friends,
to
fixed upon as
several towns
of Italywhich he had
the focal pointsof the insurrection ; and more
cially
espeto Fcesulse in Etruria,where Manlius, once
an
officer in the army
of Sylla,and one
of his most
was
alreadyexcitingand organtrusty associates,
ising
extensive
revolt
the
an
common
people.
among
He, at the same
time,redoubled his efforts to add to

84

LIFE

THE

tion and
way

it was,

but
expression,

answeringdirect

of

could

evidence.

since
originality,

merit of

in the life of

a singular
least,
The idea,moreover,

at the

entitled

even

it is to be found

in

considered

be

not

CICERO.

OF

known

Demosthenes,well

the

to
a

passage
sical
clas-

to every

reader.

CHAPTER
Consulate

of Cicero

Appeases

the

"

scriptorumLiberia
The

Senate

Decree

De

Pro-

"

to assassinate Cicero

Attempt
Temple of JupiterStator, and
departsin

(Jatilinarian Oration

"

"

in consequence

who
againstCatiline,

"

theatrical Law

His Oration

"

Rullus

"

assembled

"

the

of the

consequence

Rabirius

of

AgrarianLaw

Progressof the Catilinaiian Conspiracy


by Cicero to debate upon the subject
The ConspiratorManlius sets out for

"

Faesulac
at

in

Defends

"

the

opposes

Tumults,

Otho

of Roscius

He

"

IV.

The

"

He assembles the Senate

"

delivers bis
from

consequence

Praetor Lentulus

first Oration

Rome

carries

on

"

Second
the Conspiracy

of Licinius
capital Cicero undertakes
of
the
Cato
Conference
t
o
opposition
Conspirators
"with the Ambassadors
of the Allobroges,
who divulgethe Plot
Arrest of Lentulus and his Companions
Meetingof the Senate in
Third Catilinariau Oration
Debate rethe Temple of Concord
specting
the punishment of the Conspirators
of
Caesar
Speeches
in

the

the Cause

"

in

Mnraena

"

"

"

"

"

"

and

Cato

Fourth

Catilinarian Oration

Execution

of

Lentulus,
Gabinius
and
Honours
conferred
Statilius,
Cceparius
Cethegns,
His Vanity Campaign agaiust Catiline,
is
who
upon Cicero
"

"

"

"

"

defeated and slain

THE
senate

words

at

the Battle of Pistoria.

addressed

by

house to the tribunes

the

consul

new

of the

in

people,after

the
he

performed the customary inauguralrites in the


contained no
temple of JupiterCapitolinus,
geration
exaghis office was
of the difficultiesby which
had

surrounded.

"

You

have

delivered

State

into my

remarked, disquietedby suspicions,


the influence of doubts and
under
fears,
vacillating
and
violently
agitatedby your seditious laws
have
and
inspiredthe worthless
; you
harangues
dread ; while
with hope, and
the excellent with
the Forum,
have removed
all confidence from
you
hands,"

he

"

THE

LIFE

OP

85

CICERO.

This
dignityfrom the Government."*
drawn, not in
unpromisingpictureof affairs was
which was
of the more
secret conspiracy
consequence
the influence
the state,but under
against
meditating
law of the
excited by the Agrarian
of the indignation
tribune Rullus,which Cicero was
strenuously
obliged

and

all

and
the very threshold of his consulate,
if carried,
might have sparedCatiline and his

to combat

which,

on

at
accomplices

attempt to
The

least

part of

some

the constitution

subvert

law to which

allusion

was

of their

labour

the

open force.
made
in such unfavourable

by

it emfrom the subjects


braced,
terms, although,
entitled to be
a

"

generalname
the wise and

from

classed

with

those

called

by

was
Agrarian,''
very different
acts formerlyproposed
equitable

by the Gracchi and others,the true character of


of Niebuhr
enabled by the genius
which, we are now
cording
better than formerly. Acto comprehend somewhat
of Rullus,ten commissioners
to the proposed statute
to be
to be chosen by seventeen tribes,
were
with unlimited
selected by lot out of the thirty-five,
powers

with

for the execution of the commission

which

chargedduringthe next five years.


reign
These were
empowered to sell all the territories in focountries which, subsequently
to the consulate of
Cor. Syllaand Q. Pompeius Rufust had, by conquest
they were

to

be

of Rome, as
been added to the dominions
otherwise,
well as a greatpart of the lands belonging
to the state
in Italy; to determine what should be considered public
the empire,
and what private
propertythroughout
and to convert one into the other,
as should
seem
ent
expediall the lands held
; to placea heavy tax;};
upon
and to lease out at their pleatributaries,
sure,
by Roman
all the
in the districtswhere theywere
situated,

or

derivable

revenues
*

De

from

Lege Agraria,i. cap.


J

De

such
8.

sources

althoughthis

")-A.

i. cap. 4.
Lege Agraria,

u.

c.

665.

86

THE

the

by
invariably
performed

had hitherto been

ceremony

in

censors

the

Forum,

assembled

people*.

which

to be

was

CICERO.

OF

LIFE

the

thus raised,
money
all the propertylately

the

With

increased

sightof

in full

and

by

in the army, (Pomofficersserving


gainedby general
whether reckoned under the
pey alone being
excep ted,)
donations
head
of presents from
the provincials,
from the state, or the ordinary
of wart, and
spoils
not yet expended on
or placedat
publicbuildings,
the service of the commonwealth, it was
proposedto
purchasecertain districtsin Italyto be divided among
the people,who
to be conducted
as colonists
were
into such placesas the decemvirs
should afterwards
it being
think fit ; Capua and the country around
tion
especially
pointedout as a suitable spot for the locaof five thousand
ten

acres

estates

assignedto
Marius
and

and

The

at

the time.

benefit
especial

the

This addition

of those who

had

which

held

who
parties

made

was

for the

become

purchasers
proscriptions,
Sylla's

property of the victims to


which that tyrant had ordered to
of the
and

each to receive

last clause

to belongto
inalienably

them

were

that all
directed,
publiclygranted,sold, or
possessions
since the consulshipof
any
persons
Carbo, should be considered rightfully

of land.
and

who
citizens,

be

put

up

to

sale,

been obtained at low


consequently
the only persons likely
to bid
pricesby his adherents,
for it. The titlesof these were
now
every day liable
had

since the Marian


faction was
question,
to rise into repute,and it was,
once
more
beginning
of enlisting
with no illfounded expectation
therefore,
that Rul
his side of the question,
their interests on
lus had introduced the recognition
of their claims into
to be called in

his act.
*

De

ii.cap.
Lege Agraria,

"j*
Auruin, argentum,
quoscumque

ex

2)

prseda,ex

"c. Ibid. xxii.


pervenit,

mnnubiis,ex

ad
coronario,

THE

The

LIFE

orations delivered

by

87

CICERO.

OP

Cicero

the

on

Agrarian

law

four in number.
to have been
appear
first of these is imperfect
and
; the second

are

yet entire ; but

In

haranguingthe

The
third

completelyperished.
on
occasion,he no
doubt found an audience,
for the most part,perfectly
to assent to the truth of his arguments; but
disposed
his address to the peoplein the Forum, upon the same
skill and
have
must
subject,
requiredthe utmost

ingenuityto

the fourth has


Senate

patienthearingfrom the
been
dazzled by the specious

ensure

multitude,who had
promisesof Rullus,and
conferred upon
Both are

the

apparent benefits to be
themselves by his proposedregulations.
in
in the highest
exhibited,
degree,
the

the

address which
down
has come
to us as that by
which he defeated the designs
of the ambitious tribune,

who

was,

than

dictatorial power

might

little less
unquestionably,
contemplating

be

associated

and

for himself
with

him

those who

his

in

efforts to

obtain it,in the character of Agrariandecemvirs.


The introductory
turns
sentences,in which the orator rethanks to the

honour
peoplefor the distinguished
him to an
they had conferred upon him, in electing
office in which
the nobility
had,for the most part,
sion
hitherto proudly
entrenched themselves,*
to the excluof those of. inferior birth,
the
notwithstanding
absence

of any

claims

of his

own

on

the

score

of

elegant.He is
careful not to offend the prejudices
of his
especially
hearers by any expressions
directed
of disrespect
and speaksin terms
against
Agrarianlaws in general,
chus,
of profoundveneration of Tiberius and Cains Gracwhom
he terms renowned
and devoted patriots.
he
After thus soothing
his auditory
into attention,
are
ancestry,

in

attacks
law
*

of

modest
inimitably

succession

Rullus,which

Locum

quern

he

nobilitas

obviillatumtenebat," DC

the

and

various

clauses in the

triumphantly
proves

to be

prsesidiis
firmatum,atque oirmi ratione

ii.cap. J,
LegeAgraria,

88

THE

OP

LIFE

CICEftO.

and ill defined ; calculated to


arbitrary,
capricious,
confer unbounded
authority
upon a few individuals,
but in the highest
degreedangerousto the state,
and

detrimental

Above

best interests of its citizens.

to the

all,he attempts to

excite their fears of the

by so formidable an
addition to its inhabitants ; and points
to the insecure
tenure on which all propertymust be held,if subjected
of a board of rapacious
to the disposition
entirely
of Capua, if
rivalry

commissioners

threaten Rome
vested

as

increased

well

when

in him

as

to the

Rullus,by

dangerwhich

must

rity
virtue of the autho-

law, might at any


by his own
the
pleasehim, seize and fortify

time,if it should so
Janiculum
whence
to exercise
as
a post from
itself,
which
the city,
at pleasurehis power
over
would,
The result
by such a step,be placedat his mercy.
he was
of these arguments, in proposingwhich
and supportedby the majorityof the
surrounded
of
Senate,was such as indicated a due appreciation
but of
their force,
not onlyon the partof the assembly,
Rullus himself

since the tribune

was

unable to make

at the time,and, after a few attemptsto


any answer
made
weaken
the impression
by the eloquenceof

his disinterestedness,
insinuations against
by private
which were
also neutralised by two brief and
draw
consented at length
to withorations,
supplementary

Cicero

his mischievous
Another

instance

statute.

of

the

power

had
established character and reputation
him

to exercise

was

shown

the

over

the

passionsof

his

which
now

the

long

enabled

multitude,

the occasion of the tumults raised by


The people,
theatrical law of Roscius Otho.
on

made by this bill between


at the separation
indignant
order at the exhibition
themselves and the equestrian
of dramatic
its author

the appearance of
received him with
publicspectacle,

entertainments,
had,on
at

mingledwith loud and general


groans and hisses,
the contrary,who reexecrations. The knights,
on

THE

gavdcd him

89

CICERO.

were
lightof their benefactor,
and
their expressions
of applause,
would
have probablyterminated

in the
in

equallyforward
the

OF

LIFE

generaluproar

in open violence and bloodshed,had not the consul


ance,
made
his appearance
at the very crisis of the disturband
him
a

desired

infuriated

the

multitude

to follow

templeof Bellona,where he pronounced


able discourse,
commentingin severe terms

into the

longand
their

upon

indications

the barbarous
want

them
for
reproaching
they had given of their
first actor of his day,the

turbulence,and

of all taste,when

the

Roscius,was

unable

famous

which

heard, in

quence
conse-

ter
the charac-

to have been one of


oration,it seems
cannot be sufficiently
regretted*.Its
peoplewas such,that their inclination

this

the loss

effect upon

be

dissensions. From

of their absurd

givenof

to

the

but
the exhibition was
not onlyquelled,
interrupt
that
of so opposite
succeeded by a feeling
a character,
on
returningwith the consul to the theatre,they
that
to acquiescefrom
displayedtheir willingness
time in the law of Otho, by vying with the knights
in
their testimonies
of approbation.
themselves
ant,
importAlthough there may have been many more

to

there is
of

no

instance
singular

more

record

eloquenceupon

than

of the power
this, on which the

fond of commenting,
of Cicero
as
are
biographers
scriptiv
to Virgilthe beautiful lines,dehavingsuggested
in
and its results,
of such an
interposition
the openingpart of the first book of the ./Eneid.
to his own
His next consular oration,according
was
enunlerationt,

who

accused of the murder

was

ninus,anevent
six years
*

torum

which

before.

singlepassage

-f-Ad

that in defence of Gains

of the tribune

Satur-

than thirtyhappenedmore
Saturninus,having himself been
had

is all that remains.

Attic, lib. ii. ep. 1.

liberis.

Rabirius,

"

Dr. Middleton

quarta pro Rabirio,quintade


has reversed the order.

proscrip-

90

THE

instrumental

who,
way

LIFE

CICERO.

in the assassination of Caius

competitorfor

as

OP

of the election of

the

consulate,stood in the
Glaucias,one of his friends,

forced with several of his adherents

was

in the

Capitol,where

Memmius,

he

to take

refuge

besiegedby Caius
extremity,from the

was

Marius, and

beingreduced to
of water, was
want
titude,
obligedto surrender. The mullittleregarding
the conditions on which he had
givenhimself up to Marius, broke into the building
in which

he

and put him


to death,
confined,
with Glaucias,
and Labienus,another of his
together
hand, but it
party. Saturninus fell by an unknown
was
said,that Rabirius had openly carried his head
about the streets of Rome, and exhibited this revolting
of his party at different
trophyof the success
was

privateentertainments.
number

the
Notwithstanding

of years which had elapsed


since the transaction,
Rabirius
cited in his old age by
was
now

Titus Labienus, the nephew of the individual of the


with ninus,
who had fallen in company
Satursame
name,
to

for

answer

crime

in
inexpiable

the eyes of
the assassination of

majorityof his countrymen;


while yet invested with the sacred dignity
a tribune,
of his office. The two judges
appointed
by the prtetor,
the

"

althoughthe
people,were
enemies

choice
Julius

of the

should
and

have

Lucius

accused,and

the

been

left to

the

Caesar,both bitter
former,a short time

instrumental
in exciting
Labienus
to
before,actively
take upon
himself the prosecution.Before such a
could
be
attended
but
with
tribunal,the cause
quence
result. Rabirius,
one
althoughaided by all the eloof Hortensius,who
appearedas his advocate,
was
condemned, but the
eagerlyand precipitately
ulterior resource
still remained
of an
appealto the
people. This he without hesitation adopted; yet,
so

successful

were

to inflame the

the

means

publicmind

which

had

been

him, and
against

taken
so

vio-

92

fHE

CICERO.

OF

LIFE

his safety. For this purpose


attemptagainst
convened
to deliberate
more
once
people were
and on the day apthe conduct
of Rabirius,
pointed
into
Cicero descended in state
for the trial,

serious
the
upon
the

Forum

defence

tribunitial

hand

it must

as

able

been

not

to
office,

of

to

half

by

by the
supposed
peroration,

further

time, although

of his

hour, yet, comparatively


have been, it has
means

an

this

escape

The

accused *.

the

for

by Labienus, in virtue

limited

was

reduced

advocate

as

the

curtailments

has been againrestored


to have perished,
lately
to light
by the researches of modern industry. The
nevertheless
which
was
ostensiblyprivate,
cause,
and Cicero seems
embraced
a
great publicquestion,
with its importance,
not
to have been duly impressed
only by the expressionof his convictions to that
in the introductory
but by copying,
effect,
part of his
of the Crown
the majestic
of the exordium
style
speech,
until

Oration

of

Demosthenes,

imitation

an

which

pro-

generallysupposed, that
the defence of Rabirius
was
pronounced on the occasion of his
the capitalcharge of
to
appearingbefore the public in answer
But
Labienus.
Niebuhr, by whose exertions the concludingpart
of the oration,
togetherwith an additional fragment of the speech
*

Until within the last few

has been

for Fonteius
in

was

of
authority

tends,
writingsof Cicero, condelivered
Dio, that it was

of the process called


Iris client the consequences
Multae irrogatio,"
by which Labienus,being baffled in the cution
proseof
directed
life
his
the
which endangered
Rabiiius,
attempt
off from

to ward
"

the

it

to the extant

added

oppositionto

years

againsthis estates;

since it was

forbidden

by
jurisprudence assail,

of Roman

to

and

the

person of any

the

by

fundamental

principle
proceedings,the property

same

individual.

The

learned

author and

opinion cites,from an ancient commentary


upon
Clodius
and
the
of
Claudius
Cicero's oration against
P.
case
Curio,
fleet off
after
the
of
the
Roman
loss
i
nstance,
as
who,
a
parallel
impeachedbefore the peopleby the tribunes
Drepanum, was capitally
Villius and Fundanius, and the trial beinginterruptedby a sud len
"and heavily
to the "Multse
irrogatio,"
storm, was afterwards subjected
supporter of

fined

in

Fouteio

this

consequence.

"

et pro C. Rabirio

See

"M.

T. Ciceronis

Fragmenta,""c.

"

Orationum

Romae, 1820.

pro M.

THE

LIFE

OP

93

CICERO.

of the

could alone have justified.


moment
highest
In the defence pronounced in his behalf,which
is
principally
employedin a consideration of the murder
cess

Saturninus,Rabirius is clearlyvindicated both


of the Senate, and the
by the orders and authority
example of others, far above him in rank, whose
of

conduct

had

been

for a moment
or
arraigned
threatened by the shadow
of an impeachment; and
it appears likely,
althoughbut a partiallightis shed
by historyupon the subject,that owing to the
of his advocate,he was
successful
as
representations
in evading
the second impeachmentof Labienus, as he
had been in escaping
the consequences
of the capital
him by the tribune.
broughtagainst
chargepreviously
The

never

defence

of Rabirius

succeeded

by the
the
concerning

was

oration to the

known
that
as
people,
children of the proscribed."This was
characterised
by a subservience to the law of expediencyrather than
of justice.By one of the despotic
the
acts of Sylla,
tates
punishmentwhich he inflicted upon the lives and esof his

"

opponents was

extended

in

to the

measure

since their sons


clared
dewere
expressly
generation,
to be ineligible
the
to any publicoffice. Under
influence of Julius Cassar,who
had dared,by many
his respectfor the memory
to avow
of
publicactions,
next

Marius

and

his intentions

to elevate

his

party once

made

repeal
Cicero,however,
his authority
and his eloquenceagainst
interposed
the odium
he was
likelyto
any alteration ; softening
incur by acknowledging
the crueltyof the act of
time, arguingthat the safety
Sylla,biit,at the same
of the state would, under existing
be
circumstances,
hazard
exposed to imminent
by a change of the
more

to power,

this unjustand

that it

result.

It

attempt

vindictive

Of

law.
existing.
than

an

was

now

to

edict.

this oration

we

know

little more

was

spoken,and producedthe

was

not

until

later

intended

periodthat

the

THE

children
Marius

of those

CICERO.

OF

who

fallen in

had

restored

were

all the

to

consular

the attention

comitia

of all

were

of

cause

once
privileges

was

interest to their result.

The

again exertingthemselves
to

attempts

had
expectations

drawing on,

now

men

renewed

the

sessed
pos-

their fathers.

by
The

LIFE

directed

feverish

friends of Catiline
to

the

his

secure

with

and

were

in

their

election,but

their

utmost

been

recentlysomewhat
damped
by the loss of one of their principal
supporters.This
effected chiefly
was
by the policyof Cicero, who
had succeeded
in wholly withdrawingAntonius
from
their interests. In exercise of the Sempronian law,
the

Senate

the

two

had

fixed upon

consular

and

Gaul

and
provinces,

on

Macedonia

their

as

assignment

method, the fortune of the lot had given


the former
to Antonius, a result exceedingly
likely
of disaffection,
since it
to add
to his other causes
in every respect inferior to Macedonia.
But
was
in the firstinstance,
Cicero offering,
the
to relinquish
rich provinceassigned
to himself in his favour *, and
in an assembly of the people,
subsequently
declaring

by

and

the usual

their
notwithstanding

remonstrances

his
against
refusing
every

that he had determined


resolution,
upon
the
presentt, so won
foreignappointment for
upon
and
his colleague
his
by
generosity disinterestedness
that time he showed
that from
every disposition
with
his directions'^:
in accordance
to act entirely
Antonius, indeed,with a lucrative post in prospect,
to lend himself
was
no
as
formerly,
longerdisposed,
the existing
for disturbing
to projects
state of the
constitution.
A further attempt to impede the proceedings
all which
of the Catilinarian party, with
*

In L.

ii ; Sallust. Bell. Cat. cap. xxvi.


In Provincia
deponenda," mentioned

Pisonern,cap.

"fIn the oration


Cicero,Ad Attic, lib. ii. 1,
"

vestige.

-but

of

Plutarch, in Cic.

which

there

now

remains

by
no

THE

Cicero

was

well

he had

been

so

informant

LIFE

OF

95

CICERO.

acquaintedthrough Fulvia, whom

fortunate

in the

to

as

to

act

as

his

his
year* was
the penaltyof ten years,
alreadypassed against

earlypart

by an express law
procuring
exile to be added
to those

gainover
of the

for office.
canvassing
Checked
of bribery
by this obstacle in the course
the conspirators,
now
they were
openly pursuing,
emboldened
of their
by the presence of numbers
flocked into Rome
who
had
to lend
accomplices,
the

of undue

use

their

influence

to

support

in

Catiline,made

no

secret

of their

several
the consul,with
assassinating
others of his party,at the ensuingcomitia,which
for the twentieth day of
to have been appointed
seem
time their preparations
At the same
for a
October.
revolt throughout
Italywere
every hour becoming
of greater
a matter
notoriety.
In the dead of the nightpreceding
the day immediately
intention

of

before

that

three senators of
election,
Crassus,Marcus Marcellus,

of the

rank, Marcus
highest
and
Metellus
Scipio,presentedthemselves at the
house of Cicero,to whom, althoughhe had retired
immediate
admittance.
to rest,they requested
They
intimation
with
them
of
an
an
brought
anonymous
contained in a
of the nobility,
intended massacre

the

letter which

had

late in the

same

been

left at the residence of

by
evening,

which,after the nature

person

Crassus,
unknown, in

of the

threatening
dangerhad
been
earnestlyrequestedto
pointed out, he was
his safetyby immediate
ensure
flight.This mysteiious epistle
was
accompaniedby several others
directed to different senators,which Crassus,terrified
by the contents of that addressed to himself,had not
After
to open.
determined to convoke

ventured
was

and, in

the

presence
*

of

anxious

it
deliberation,
the senate the next day,
the assembly,to deliver the
an

Sallust. Bell. Cat. cap. xxvi.

96

LIFE

THE

letters
remaining
that their
The

resolve

the

senators,

which

to

OF

those

CICERO.

for whom

known.
purport mightbe generally

carried into

was

and
practice,

wholly ignorantof

they were

tended,
in-

they were

summoned,

had

the

been

as

soon

as

for
purpose
called
hastily

the consul commanded


the letters in question
together,
distributed according
to their
to be broughtin and
addresses.
It was
then found that each
respective
the
and as soon
of the plot,
account
as
gave the same
subjecthad been fairlybrought under discussion,
fresh evidence was
not wanting
to confirm the general
decreed
that
The
senate
suspicion.
accordingly
and that
the consular comitia should be postponed,
the following
day, on which it had been determined
that they should be held,should be devoted to the
of the alarminginformation
further investigation
To what extent they were
communicated
to them.
rection,
insurinformed of the particulars
of the contemplated
isuncereither at their firstor second meeting,
tain,
since,
importantpointsin regardto
upon many
have
different accounts
the Catilinarian conspiracy,
for the most part,
been left by authorities considered,
It is evident,
however, that enough
unquestionable.
all
revealed to spreada generalalarm
was
among
Catiline in a treasonable
present,and to implicate
His answer,
attempt of the most serious description.
founded

upon

his confidence

of success, when

rogated
inter-

*,was sufficiently
by Cicero upon the subject
A
of his fierce and insolent character.
expressive
threatened
few days before,
when
by Marcus Cato
with an impeachment,he had answered, that any
firekindled for the purpose of injuring
him, should be
ruin."
not by water, but by the general
extinguished,
He now
that the state was
composed
boldlyasserted,
the firstreduced to an extreme
of two distinct bodies,
which
and with
head
was
a
degreeof debility,
"

Pro

Mmaeua, cap. ii.

THE

LIFE

OF

97

CICERO.

equallyafflictedwith infirmity
; the second,fresh and
but as yet destitute of a head suitable to it.
vigorous,
The

he
latter,

further ventured

favours upon
many
should never
want
be
so

An

which

answer

of

it was

state,had conferred

the
him, that,from henceforth,
felt while

not

he

calculated

alive.

remained

much

partookso

was
defiance,

whom

to

of the character
leave

to

addressed

those to

in any doubt as to the


which it was
incumbent
upon them to pursue.
that decree
to
immediatelyhad recourse

simply worded
in the hands

course

They
which,

it was,
placeda terrible power
of the chief magistrates,
and was
never
as

passedbut on the eve of some


signalconvulsion,by
that the consuls should be desired
unanimouslyresolving,
take

to

injury*.

no

armies

By

and

of levying
edict,the liberty

carryingon war, and of Tisingany


which might appear fitting
to keep both the

citizens and the


of

this

received

and

methods
the

that the commonwealth

care

allies m

state

of subordination

to

and without
limitation
laws, was
unreservedly,
Thus armed
any kind,entrusted to their hands.

invested with
to

hold

protecthimself
his life,
he took

dictatorial

the consular

comitia.

the threatened

from
care

Cicero
authority,

to be surrounded

In

proceeded
order to

attempts upon
by a numerous

and

and adoptedthe precaution


well-appointed
guard,
of attending
the Campus Martins in a coat of mail,
which he did not neglect
in the eyes
to exhibit fully
of the people,by throwingback his robe when
he
the peril
addressed them ; thus signifying
to which he
the continuance of the public
was
exposedin ensuring
By the use of these and similar expe^
tranquillity.
a great
multitude,who had hitherto remained
dients,

neuter,
*

were

induced

to

give their

placesthe passingof
"c., somethinglater ; but there is
Sallust

the occasion

referred to above.
H

the
no

votes

decree, Darent
"

doubt

that

"t wag

against
operam,"
issued

on

98

THE

whose
Catiline,
at

was

Silanus and
The

LIFE

CICERO.

OP

third and

last

frustrated
length
Lucius

Licinius

attempt upon
by the election

the

sulate
con-

of Decius

Mursena.

driven to a state of anger


conspirators,
defeat they had
to frenzyby the signal

proachin
aptained,
sus-

beganto set themselves in earnest about


their final project
without
of an insurrection. Catiline,
any further delay,instructed his favourite adherent
now

Manlius,who
with

was

instructions

his arrival.

band,

was

then
to

Rome,

take

up

to return

arms

sent

into the

to

Faesulfe,

the instant of

on

another

Septimiusof Camerinum,

similar errand, and


himself

in

district of Picenum

Caius

Julius

of his
upon

into

Apulia. He
to conceal,
by

longerat any trouble


the slightest
his meditated attempt against
precaution,
in conthe life of the consul ; publicly
temptuous
displaying,
to the existing
law, the weapon
opposition
with which
he went
at all times providedfor the
that the danger,
Everythingannounced
purpose.
which
had been so longbrooding,
fast drawing
was
towards
its crisis. A
few days only had elapsed
when
Lucius Saenius produced letters in the senate,
the intelligence
that the revolt had openly
conveying
burst
that

was

out

no

under

musters

were

Manlius

in Etruria.

being made

Others

in various

affirmed

parts

of

and that a second Servile War


Italy,
mightforthwith
be expected,
since a rising
the
of the slaves was
on
point of takingplace at Capua and in Apulia. To
the reported demonstrations
in these several
meet
for
quarters,Quintus Marcius Rex, who, fortunately
the state, had just returned
his provinceof
from
and was
Cilicia,
lyingwith a small army before the
in expectation
of a triumph, was
gates of Rome
ordered to direct the march
of his troopsimmediately
was
Quintus Metellus, who
similar honour, as the reward
a
anticipating
late successes
in Crete,was
the pirates
against

upon

Fgesulse.

also
of his
sent in

100

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

and far lessdiverted from his purpose, by the tokens of


his presence no longer
distressaround him,now
thinking

summoned, on the eveningof the


city,
to
November, a meetingof the conspirators,

necessary in the
sixth of

receive his

Laeca.

directions
parting

On

distant

about

twenty

miles

secret

Praeneste,
a
Rome, but

himself of

possess

of Porcius

he had made

the firstof the month

attempt by night,to
town

the house

at

from

of the consul had found it so


owing to the activity
well guarded,that he was
to retire without
obliged
that in
his object. Convinced, therefore,
effecting
stillalive,he must
while Cicero was
Rome
quitting
leave

behind

him

formidable

most

and

efficient

plans,he assured his accomplices,


that he was
only deterred by the circumstance of his
having hitherto failed in all his attempts to destroy
the consul,from immediately
the standard of
joining
obstacle

to

his

the revolters in
to

cover

the

their

city.

Etruria, and

advancingfrom

insurrection
projected

Two

present, Caius

of

the

and

massacre

determined

most

and

thence
in

of those

L.

the
Vargunteius,
former
and the latter of the equestrian
senator
a
teered
volunat once
order,excited by this representation,
to

take

Cornelius

upon

themselves

the

office of

the

Cicero,and promised,under pretence


payingtheir respectsto him earlyon the following

assassination of
of

morning,to despatchhim
final preparations
then
were

in his
made

own

for

house.

The

carryingout
the details of the terrible plan on which
they had
The
determined.
now
city, it was
universally
resolved,should be fired in several placesat once,
that the murders
of those whom
they had selected
in the
for death might be the more
perpetrated,
easily
be expectedto follow.
confusion which might naturally
to different
Several districts were
apportioned
to the office of
and Cassius appointed
incendiaries,
off all who
them, as well as of cutting
superintending

LIFE

THE

OP

lOl

CICERO.

mightseem inclined to exert themselves in stopping


the conflagration.
The
execution
of the massacre,
which

to include every

was

of their

party,as well
by the
designated

were

the

exceptionof

reserved
their

the

father,was

Lentulus

of their

name

of

sons

Pompey,

the

entrusted

to

take

to

was

rank

all of whatever

as

for
hostages

as

of the Senate

member

future

not

who

enemies,with

intended

to

be

forbearance

of

Cethegus.The praetor
himself
the
general

upon
of affairs until the

arrival of Catiline.
management
After this arrangementthe assemblyseparated,
confident
that the next day would
be distinguished
by
the death of their most
dreaded opponent, and the
removal of the onlyimpediment,
of a serious character,
to the successful execution

of their

design.
The meetinghad no sooner
than Fulvia,
dispersed
ened
acquainted
by Curius with all that had passed,hasthim
of the
to the house of Cicero,to apprise
resolutions of the conspirators,
and the dangerto
himself which the following
morningwould infallibly
impressed
bringwith it. The consul was sufficiently
with the truth of her report,to take every possible
to

means

his

ensure

quicklyfilled

safety.

His

residence

was

with

guards,and providedwith the


of resisting
attack ; and his porter
means
a sudden
received instructions,
if Cornelius
and Vargunteius
demanded
admittance
to him, peremptorily
to refuse
it.
received

The
at

value

this

of

the

he

information

importantjuncture was

had

speedily

manifested.

the
AV^ith the first appearance
of dawn
assassins presented
themselves at his gate,fullyprepared
for their

interview with
of the

they

demanded
an
attempt, and urgently
him, on pretenceof havingintelligence

highestmoment

satisfied with

the

to

communicate

denial

which

;
was

nor

at

were
once

to the directions of Cicero,


givento them, according
but continued for a longtime to persist
in theirapplica-

102

THE

tion,and

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

without
repulsed
giving
finally
their anger
and
vent
to
disappointmentby the
most "violent and abusive
expressions.Apparently
this desperate
action had
the effect of convincing
Cicero that the circumstances
of his position
were
no
He immediately
longersuch as to be trifled with.
sent

not

were

to the Senate

summons

to meet

on

the following

day in the temple of JupiterStator ; a building


alreadyconsecrated to recollections of the deliverance
of the state at a crisis of imminent
and soon
to
peril,
acquire,by the deliberations about to take place
within it,an
additional claim to the respect of the
citizens on

similar

Although with

ground.

the usual sensitive

of
apprehension
that the assembly,
anticipated

guilthe might have


thus hurriedly
convened, had
consequence

of

some

further

Catiline,with
conspiracy,
which
him
distinguished

called

been

in
together
his
discovery
respecting
that audacious intrepidity
to the

last,ventured

to

present himself before the consul amidst the other


he himself gave out, openlyto
as
senators,intending,
vindicate himself

groundless
chargesand
he had lately
been the object.
of which
suspicions
He was
ing
not long,
a strikhowever, without receiving
testimonyof the estimation in which he was
had
beginningto be held. As if his very vicinity
shrank from
been pestilential,
allwhom
he encountered
the spot where
him in disgust,
and the benches near
he had seated himself,were
left vacant
speedily
by
After he had
had before occupiedthem.
those who
been thus separatedas a mark
for the eloquence
its thunders against
which was
him, Cicero,
gathering
amidst the profoundawe
and silence of his auditory,
that magnificent
commenced
oration,which may
in its expression
competition
yet proudlychallenge
of just and vehement
indignationits concentrated
of overwhelming
eviforce
its rapidaccumulation
from

the

"

"

THE

dence

"

and

of it so

LIFE

OF

103

CICERO.

its judicious
arrangement of every
as

to tell with

the most

ticle
par-

powerfuleffect.

The

exordium, startling,
yet majesticin the highest
the reader
for an
oratorical
sense, fully prepares
exertion of first-rate excellence,
and this expectation
is gratified
long before its close. To all present
acquaintedonly with the generalnature of the plot,
it must

have

had

the

effect of the

sudden

glareof

lightningwhich

rified
lightsup to the traveller,terand bewildered
darkness,the
by surrounding
full extent of the precipice
the verge of which
he
on
stands.
To the culprit
himself,exposingas it does
of his former
not
life,but the
only the excesses
minutest particulars
of his intended project
of revo*

lution

and bloodshed,narrated
circumstances

have

sounded

with
possessed

of time

with

all the

panying
accom-

and

place,it must
of a superior
as the denunciation
being,
of readinghis most
the power
secret

if his inmost
conscience had been
or
as
thoughts,
suddenly giftedwith a voice to plead,trumpetand in the face of all mankind, against
him.
tongued,
the eminently
It affords a striking
comment
upon
of the state at the time, as well as of
criticalposition
the extreme
jealousywith which the exercise of any
extraordinary
possessedby their magistrates
power
watched by the peopleof Rome, that the object
was
of this wonderful invective is not to ensure, as might
the instant seizure,
and punishbe expected,
trial,
ment
of the unmasked
conspirator,
(whom the orator
in
with consummate
describes as sitting
effrontery
the presence of authorities who
ought long ago to
and regardhave ordered him to be led to execution,
ing
murderous
with
he had
glancesthose whom
but simplyto induce him,
appointedto destruction,)
after the exposure
of his design,
the
to retire from
under
rections
his dicity,and join the rebels assembling
in Etruria.

This

is almost

the

sole drift

104

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

profuse,
geniusand

unwearied
the first Catiliof language
characterising
strength

and

of

tenour

the

its object
Yet, although
may

narian oration.

trifling
comparedwith
it was

trifleupon

the

which

means

appear
to effect it,

taken

dependedthe

fate of Rome.

testimony
scarcityof direct and positive
and conof such importance,
nected
a conspiracy
respecting
In

the

with such eminent

names,

ifCicero had ordered

the whole plot


apprehended,
him from
mighthave been disbelieved ; but by driving
him at
the cityinto the arms
of Manlius,he compelled
character against
which no one could
to assume
a
once
of defence;
of usingextreme
means
deny the propriety
its chief contriver to be

while

the associates whom

he

left behind,mightbe

paralysedby the publicexposure of


who
all the secrets of their confederacy.Catiline,
moment
at this trying
adoptedwith readyprudence
of defence left to him, did not atthe onlymeans
tempt,

expectedto

be

when
to

answer

his
the

had

accuser

oration

of the

resumed
consul

by

his
a

seat,
formal

reply; but assuminga deportmentof the lowest


voice
looks and a suppliant
with downcast
humility,
to entreat the senators not to givea
began earnestly
rash and hasty credit to the charges
broughtagainst
of their own
that one
him, or to think it possible,
ferred
order,and descended from a familywhich had conthe most
importantbenefits upon the people
interest in the destruction
titious
advenMarcus
of the city,while even
an
Tullius,
to preserve it*. This
was
citizen,
labouring
of

Rome,

could

have

any

witli
might have been the manner
which
it was
accompanied,contained a deep and
sarcasm
Cicero,whose birth at Aragainst
cutting
thus
pinum and undistinguished
ancestry were
in that great assembly
alluded to.
But
pointedly
it did not find a single
voice to second it,and
Catiline,on
proceedingto indulge in still severer
whatever
appeal,

Suilust. Bell. Cat. tap. xxxi.

THE

OP

LIFE

105

CICERO.

the consul,was
interrupted
by a
expressions
against
The cries of traitor
of indignation.
general
uproar
in all directions ; and the
and parricideresounded
outcry, being saluted
object of this tumultuous
he turned with expressions
of execration
wherever
and abhorrence,at lengthrose
again to the proud
natural to him,
and
haughty bearingwhich was
his clamorous
and hurlingback upon
assailants the
a
threat, that since they refused him
hearing,
determined
his
aud appeared
he
destruction,
upon
would neither perish
nor
alone, sternly
unresistingly
On
departedfrom the senate-house.
arrivingat
his attention for a
residence and devoting
his own
"

"

short time to

hurried

meditation

upon

the

course

best to pursue, he resolved to put in practice


his determination
of joining
Manlius, before the forces levying

praetorsRufus and Metellus Celer shoxild


moned
ready to take the field.Accordingly,
havingsum-

under
be

the

and

armed

body of servants and retainers,


to Plutarch,to three hundred
in
according
amounting,
number, and havinggivenadditional instructions to
and the other chiefs of the conspiracy,
Lentulus
to
that might present itself for enlose no opportunity
suring
a

the assassination of Cicero,


the other
be

ward
forhastening
in hand, that theymight
preparations

readyto co-operatewith

with

his

army,

he

him

marched

takinghis
ensuingmidnight,

on

out
course

or

his return
of the

to

Rome

cityon

alongthe

his road he sent letters to


lian way.
On
that he was
the principal
nobility,
pretending

the

Aure-

some
on

of
the

to a voluntaryexile at Marseilles,
pointof retiring
preferring,
althoughinnocent of any crime,rather to
yieldto the violence of his enemies,than to endanger
it. On reaching
the peace of the state by resisting
the
he spent a few days at the house
of Arretium
territory
of Caius Flaminius,for the purpose
of sowing the
and from thence
seeds of revolt in the neighbourhood,

106

THE

wrote
not

to

very

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

in terms
QuintusCatulus at Rome, signifying,
his real intentions,
difficultto be -understood,

commendinghis wife Orestilla to his care. After


this,
deemingallfurtherdisguiseuselessor
unnecessary,
he proceeded,
with the fasces openlyborne before him,
and accompaniedby all the other emblems
of proconsular
of Manlius
to the camp
at Ftesulae.
dignity,
Catiline was
known
to have
no
sooner
quitted
the city,than
Cicero summoned
a
bly
generalassemin the Forum, intending
of the people to meet
to vindicate himself from reportswhich
were
already
becoming prevalent,that he had hurried a Roman
citizen into exile by an
thority,
arbitraryexertion of auand

and

without

the

In the oration which

of the senate.

concurrence

he then

the
delivered,

second

of

spiracy,
spoken on the subjectof the Catilinarian conhe successfully
vindicated his late conduct,
explainedto the peoplethe reason
why, instead

those
and
of

orderinghis arrest, he

connive

at the escape

publicwelfare,who
speech has also an
had
it

was

been

left behind

natural
in the

them

from

expectedto
or

pours

an

been

who

there would

look

had

be several sent
preafter separating

yet reached the same,


themselves,in a pointeddescription
not

classes of persons
favourablyupon the

several

to

dangerousenemy to the
had justquitted
the city. The
reference to those who
especial
to carry on the plot,of whom

assemb'fy.
Upon such,
many

induced

of the

to suppose

gradein infamy as
of the

had

who

be
plight
tiline,
of Cadesigns

whohad

enlisted under his banners,he


already
tempt
overwhelmingtorrent of obloquyand con-

them, as he had assured their leader


assuring
well acquainted
upon a previousday, that he was
and design
with every movement
their part ; and
on
them, while the road remained still open,
requesting
and to
to follow the example set them
by Catiline,
from their hated and pernicious
freethe city
presence.
;

108

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

with difficulty
Apulia, which were
checked for the moment
by the praetorsMuraena and
in the city
the conspirators
Celer.
Still less were
of
itself diverted from the employment of every means
the directions left them by their commander.
fulfilling
Although an ample reward, with a full pardon,had
twice beenoffered by the senate to any freeman, and

Bruttium, and

half the

same

with
together

sum,

his

freedom, to

any
dence
evi-

would
who
condition,
give such
the
plot as might bring those
respecting
engagedin it to condignpunishment,no one had as
to stand forward
or
as witness
yet appearedwilling
his companions. Lentulus,encouinformer against
raged
the
on
by this appearance of unshaken fidelity
part of his followers,hesitated no longerto fix the
time for the eruptionof his project
of incendiarism
to take placein the
and murder, which he appointed
when
the festivities
of the ensuing
course
Saturnalia,
in which the citywould be engagedwould
presenta
it into execution.
for carrying
favourable opportunity
one

of servile

Statilius and

Gabinius

assistance to

Cassius

placesat

; and

once

for bloodshed

had

were

directed

to

lend

then:

the cityin twelve


firing
whose ferocious thirst
Cethegus,
in

illbrooked

the

repeated
postponements

and
insurrection,
eagerlydemanded
the house of Cicero,
obtained the charge of besetting
and giving,
mencement
by his murder, the signalfor the comof

the

of the intended

massacre.

Torches

and

and spreading
the
for beginning
combustibles,
collected in abundance, and an
were
conflagration,
immense
swords, and daggers,
quantityof javelins,
newly furbished and sharpened,depositedin the

other

Cethegusin readiness for immediate use.


While
the preparations
of the conspirators,
such were
the publicattention was, for a short time,diverted to
subjectsvery different from those which had lately
attracted it,by the impeachmentof the newly-elected
house

of

THE

LIFE

OF

109

CICERO.

consul

his late compeMursena,on the partof Sulpitius


titor,
of the first eminence,backed by Marcus
a jurist
Portius Cato, for the employment of briberyat the
The cause
recent election.
employed the talents of
the most
skilful advocates
of the day, Hortensius,
Marcus
Crassus,and Cicero,beingall three engaged
in the defence,
which was
eminentlysuccessful.
With
respect to the oration for Mursena, we are
told that Cicero,fired with the ambition of excelling
Hortensius, at that time his greatestand, indeed,
devoted himself so studiously
and anxiously
onlyrival,
to allow himself scarcely
to its preparation
as
any
sleepduring the interval before the trial,and that
when
exhausted
he appearedin court he was
so
by
his application,
that his speechwas
pronouncedwith
and difficulty
which
seemed to leave the
a feebleness
No such weakness
palm to Hortensius.
ably
unquestionis discoverable

remains, which

in

so

much

of the

oration

aa

is

the greaterpart. The


fortunately
impeachment itself affords a curious proof of the
courts.
desultorynature of accusations in the Roman
Mursena was
tradiction
chargedwith briberyexercised in conother
to the Calpurnian law ; yet two
added
counts
reasons
were
why his
specifying
the one stating
election should be considered invalid,
that his competitor
had, in all respects,a
Sulpitius
and the other,that Mursena
better claim to the office,
he
had givenhimself up to luxury in Asia, where
had
latter
to dance ! The
actuallybeen known
ludicrous
it may
at present,
as
objection,
appear
of a formidable character in the days of
was
one
Cicero,who, so far from making any attempt to
it,declares it to be an infamous libel upon
palliate
of his client,and defends him by .the
the character
that no
proposition,
general
person, unless he were
alle
mad
intoxicated, neither of which
or
actually
had been brought
Muraena,could by any
against
gations

110

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OP

be guiltyof so gross
possibility
For the rest,the defence,
with
is littleless

ramblingthan

an

act of

all its

indecorum.

and
spirit

gance,
ele-

the accusation. That

himself
Cicero,entrenching
behind the philosophy
batters
of Plato and Aristotle,
his Stoical opponent and the solemn
absurdities of
his school, has not only its polished
irony,but its
it. It was
fitness for the occasion,to recommend
foreseen that the character of Cato, the model of rigid
the only
censoriousness,and therefore considered
of the ancient Roman
virtue,
livingrepresentative
add no small weightto his side of the question,
would

part,however,

little as

it

cause.

The

in which

might be

in
purpose
render the
in
possible
reads

those

which

Cato

connected

with

had
orator, therefore,

the merits

the

eyes

of the
of

parts

the

is alluded

unimportant

no

view, while steppingout


precepts of the Stoics as

of his way
no

for

doubt

to, can

to

ridiculous

and
judges,
oration

of the

who

one

Muraena

of his

as

in

having

effected it.
thoroughly
But the terminating
of the Catilinarian conscenes
spiracy
recalled the thoughts
of the population
soon
of Rome, to matters
of graver import than forensicthe tenets of the rival sects of the
disputes
involving
Porch
and the Academy.
Hitherto the conspirators
under

Lentulus

which

their

unfortunate
on

the

were

mercy

eve

acted with

all the cautiousness

demanded.
perilous
undertaking
moment

of the

laid, by
of their

at that time

had

for

themselves,and

execution

of their

when

At

an

almost

attempt, they

at the
singlefalse step, entirely
adversaries. There happened
vigilant
a

to be

in Rome

deputationfrom the
and powerfulpeopleof Gaul,
a warlike
Allobroges,
had been sent to complainof the avarice of the
who
magistrates
placedover them, and who were
living,
until their mission there should be completed,under
the protection
of Quintus Fabius Sauga,
the public
host
a

THE

and

patron

LIFE

OF

of their nation.

induced

were

Ill

CICERO.

Lentulus
think

to

this

and
a

his

complices
ac-

favourable

opportunityof adding a Gallic war to the


and commissioned
insurrection,
Umbrenus, one

Italian
of their

who had spent some


time in Gaul and was
company,
well acquainted
with several of the princesof that
sound

country,to

them

interview bet ween


and Umbrenus
would
as

subject.The first
placein the Forum,

the

took
parties
led to imagine,
that the deputies
easily
ready to fall in with his proposal

was

be

he could

the

upon

as

desire,since

his

on

to them

holdingout

the

of relief from their oppressions,


possibility
they
dition,
besoughthim to take pityupon their wretched conof bettering
by pointingout the means
it,
and

assured

him

of their readiness

difficulty danger
desirable an
object.
or

conducted

them

summoned

Gabinius

the

of action

to

any
of
accomplishment so

for the
But

when

house

to encounter

near

Umbrenus, having
the Forum, and

join him to givean appearance


of greaterweight to the conference,
proceeded
before
them
the plan of the conspiracyand
to lay
the names
of those
engaged in it,the Allobroges
began to be daunted by the dangerousnature of
the remedy proposedfor their acceptance,and on
their return
home, after a long hesitation as to
own

been

course

to

which

determined
interest,
communicated

Sanga,by

whom

to

it

would

upon
them

be most

layingall
before

to their

that

their

had

patron

speedily
conveyedto Cicero.
The consul,rejoiced
to find that the long-wished-for
at length
was
opportunity
openingupon him, directed
the Gauls, by every means
in their power, to induce
the conspirators
to believe that they were
ready to
with their commands, but to insist
act in compliance
that all the advantages
which
instructed
they were
to stipulate
for,in behalf of their nation,should be
promised under the hand and seal of Lentulus and
was

112

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

the rest,who might be of sufficient note to givesuch


and importance.
credentials a character of respectability
Little

the
suspecting

missives,the

such

into the

leaders

rewards

promiseof ample
from

cause

this

to be

was

made

plot fell

the

of

laid for them.

snare

to their

which

use

at

of
once

the
containing
assistance expected

Letters

for the

written

quarter,were

new

to

of the Allobroges
by Lentulus,
magistrates
and Statilius,
and consigned
of
to the care
Cethegus,
the deputiesas they were
the pointof leaving
on

the chief

Rome.

Volturcius

Titus

instructed to accompany
with

it was

whom

should

them

deemed

have

strenuous

was,

to the camp

Lentulus

moreover,

of

expedientthat
interview

an

home, and chargedby


that commander, which
and

of Crotona

the ambassadors

before
with

Catiline,

returning
to
epistle

an

urged him to pursue a bold


and suggested
the propriety
of

course,

of persons of all conditions to recruit


The same
his armies.
also desired to
envoy was
communicate
to him, by a verbal message, that all

his

making

use

finished at Rome, and


were
preparations
necessary
that his friends were
of his
anxiouslyin expectation

approachtowards
Cicero

had

the

now

himself
of

of its

designs
were,

continued

his grasp the means


of possessing
full evidence
the
for crushing

of the

heads

capital.

within

faction,which,
to

to threaten

while

the

proofs
tangible

certain extent,deficient,
had
and that
his own
destruction

of the state with


the

impunity. On the afternoon before


of the Allobronightappointedfor the departure

ges, he commissioned
tinus with

body

in ambush
the ambassadors
enter

praetorsFlaccus and Ponchosen


selves
to placethemsoldiers,
the

of

at the
were

upon the Flaminian


of young
a number

spot
of Reate, on

whose

Milvian

obligedto
way,

bridge,by
cross

and

sent

from

the

the

which

Tiber

to the

to

same

prsefecturate
he could relywith perfect
fidelity
men

THE

The

confidence.
the

post as

LIFE

OP

praetorsarrived

eveningbegan

plantedtheir guardsat
such

as

manner

Until
was

time

the

at

to draw

both

ends

to escape casual

approach of

the

their

appointed
in, and havinp

of the

bridgein

awaited
observation,

ambassadors

hours

113

CICERO.

and

their

train.

midnight,their watch
without
maintained
but at that
interruption,
whom
the parties
they expectedat lengthmade
about

two

and

their appearance,
when
the bridge,

after

to defile over
proceeding
the soldiers placedin ambush
on
either bank of the river,rising
at the same
moment
with loud shouts,summoned
them instantly
to surrender.
A slightconfusion
ensued,which was but
momentary in its duration. The Gauls, who quickly
of the interruption,
understood
the Mature
yielded
and Volturcius,
themselves without
who
opposition,

had
of

at

were

first unsheathed

making

his efforts

were

his sword

on
desperateresistance,
not likely
to be seconded

his company,
praetors,and consented
person
All

in

were

for the

to

back

conducted

his

gave up
to

become

Rome,

purpose
findingthat

by

to the

weapon
their

and the

single

prisoner.
despatches

well as upon the perseized upon the Allobroges


as
son
before
of Volturcius transmitted,
day-break,to

Cicero,who

lost not

the chief senators


and
discovery,
those who

were

lettersshould

moment

to his

the

in

summoning some

house,to deliberate
to be made

upon

of
the

of it.

Several of
presentat this council advised that the
use

be

the
immediatelyopened,anticipating
of their containing
portance
possibility
nothingof publicimbut Cicero,who
well aware
of their
was

tenor, determined
general

upon
have an

the
preserving
of
opportunity

seals

until he should
ing
readentire,
them, for the firsttime,before a full senate,which
it was
agreedshould be convened upon the followingsent to
were
day. In the meantime
messengers
Lentulus,Cethegus,
Statilius,
Gabinius,and Quintus

114

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

of Terracina,
them
Cceparius
desiring
to

attend

the

consul

at

his

house

without
upon

delay
important

the reason
for which
Coeparius,
suspecting
his presence was
plying
endeavoured,instead of comrequired,
with the command, to secure
himself by flight,
overtaken and brought
back by a party
but was quickly
The rest,on
who had left the cityin pursuit
of him.

business.

themselves
presenting

arrested and

at the house

placedin

praetorCaius Statilius

was

of

Cicero,were

cessively
suc-

keeping. The
then
despatchedto the
in
for the arms
deposited
secure

Cethegusto search
it,and speedily
broughtaway the whole magazineof
insurrection.
providedfor the approaching
weapons
The
temple of Concord, the place appointedfor
the meetingof the Senate, which on
this important
crowded to excess, presented
occasion was
on the opening
business
the
of the
of
day,a solemn and imposing
seated than
spectacle.The members were no sooner
Cicero entered,leading
by the hand Lentulus in his

house

of

full dress

as

praetor,since

it would

have

been

sidered
con-

for any one


lower in rank than
indignity
himself to lay the least public
restraint upon his person.
foliowed closely
Theother prisoners
Volguarded.
an

turcius

then

introduced in

state of the

greatest
in consequence
of the terror occasioned by his
agitation,
and the contemplation
of the dangerous
recent seizure,
at
were
predicamentin which he stood. His replies
first vague and unsatisfactory,
but on beinginformed
for his pardon
that the publicfaith would be pledged
and safety,
evidence against
condition of his bearing
on
he consented to giveupon the spot a
his companions,
full and distinct account of as much
of the conspiracy
he had been made acquainted
The ambaswith.
sadors
as
of the Allobroges
next examined,and confirmed
were
the testimony
of the preceding
disclosing
witness,
the promisesof assistance giventhem under
oath by the principal
that
conspirators
; and adding,
was

116

LIFE

THE

cius and the other

asked

was

made

he had never
in his turn, whether
self
himof the prophecies
respecting

mention

any

contained

in

lasted until he

This

witnesses.

them

by

CICERO.

OF

the

Sibyllinebooks, when,

to the

of all present,instead of denyingthe fact,as


surprise
have done, he suddenlylost his prehe might easily
sence
The

charge.

confused

letter written

then

was

and

became

mind,

of

desired

in his

hand

line*
to Cati-

be

produced,

Arolturcius to

by

his

Gabinius

treason.

denied

all that

had

been

the

was

last

at firststrenuously

he
broughtforward, and although

advanced

by

the

Gauls,

added to those of the rest.


speedily
soon
as the investigation
was
concluded,Lentulus
commanded, by an universal vote of the senate,
and havingbeen pubabdicate the office of pra?tor,
licly

his confession

to

own

the

confusion ; nor
did he make
any
direct
and
at his vindication after this
ble
palpa-

proof of

was

admitted

completed his

attempt

As

and

divested

was

of Publius
time asdile.

robes,was committed to the


at
Lentulus,surnamed
Spinther,

of his

entrusted to the

Cetheguswas

and
Quintus Cornificius,
Julius Caesar,then praetorelect.

keptin

in the
Cceparius
tius.

The

Cicero,as
*

The

the house

words

of

this letter

was

appointed
Crassus,and

of Marcus

passeda

of his

the preserver

ship
guardian-

Gabinius

residence of the senator

assemblynext

that

Statilius to that of

of

to be

tody
cus-

Cneius

Teren-

vote of thanks

country,couched

to

in the

somewhat

given by
differently
the
to
speech
people,
it
is
which
in
be
from
Cat.
to
found,
probablyquoted
iii.)
(In
memory
of
while
had
the
no
an
Sallust,
inspecting
doubt,
opportunity
only,
originaldocument, of which he professesto give an actual copy.
Accordingto the latter author,it was expressedas follows : " Who
Cicero and Sallust. The

are

former,however, in his

"

I am,

you

will know
the

upon

remember

your

from

the messenger

desperatesituation
character

as

man.

in

whom

which

you

Consider

and seek assistance from


circumstances require,
Bell.
Cat. cap. xliv.
lowest." Sallust.
"

I have
are

what
all
"

flect
Re-

sent.

placed; and,
your
even

critical
from

the

THE

LIFE

OP

117

CICERO.

and

most

honourable

The

latter decree

terms; and further


flattering
or
ordered,that the ceremony entitled a supplication,
should be solemnlyperformed
iu
publicthanksgiving,
acknowledgmentof the merit of the consul,as one
the cityfrom
its
had preserved
who
conflagration,
and the whole of Italy
inhabitants from massacre,
the desolation and horrors of a generalwar.
from
intended

was

mark
extraordinary

time that
any

such

of

had

been

magistratewearingthe
the

eveningof

considered

respect,since

honour

an

and

the

it

as

an

the first

was

conferred

upon
wards
To-

dress

of peace.
day, Cicero delivered

same

his third Catilinarian oration

peoplefrom the
relative to the
rostra,in which most of the particulars
detection cf the conspiracy
were
recited; the approaching
concerned
in
it
of
those
chiefly
punishment
of the Gods, and
darklyhinted at ; the interposition
claimed as
of the Capitoline
more
especially
Jupiter,
lous
palpablymiracuhavingbeen exerted in a manner
and the citizens
for the preservation
of Rome
;
to the

"

"

"

all their

exhorted to abandon
with
of the

their

fears,and

in
families,

devote

obedience

selves
them-

to the

senate,to the joyfulcommemoration

edict

of their

signaldeliverance.*
*

Some

parts of this oration

on
superstition

most

indicative either of
singularly
of
his
himself,or
knowledgeof the
himself of such a feelingon the part
availing
are

the part of Cicero

effectual way

of his auditors.

of

He

alludes

to meteoric

phenomena in

the heavens,

as
during his consulate,
plainly
tempests,and earthquakes,
prognosticating

danger which the state hail just escaped,and dwells


with an appearance
of triumphant
another trivialcoincidence,
the

upon

confidence.

The

statue

others,been struck down


and Cotta,the Etrurian

largerdimensions

should

of

Jupiter in
in
by lightning
diviners
be

the

Capitolhaving,among

the consulate of

had directed that another

erected,and

placedin

Torquatus
of much

trary
conposition

look down
former,so as
and the Curia,or senate-house,
below.
The erection
upon the Forum
of this statue had been undertaken
by the former consuls,but had,
from various causes, hecn delayeduntil the very morning of the full
to

that of

of
discovery

the

the

when
conspiracy,

to face the

it

was

east

and

raised to its pedestal


pre-

118

THE

Amidst

by

the

and escorted

the multitude

crowd, Cicero retired from the Forum

to the house

of

watchfulness

and anxious

which

CICERO.

OF

of
plaudits

immense

an

LIFE

of his

one

it would

to
friends,

pass

nightof

deliberation upon the course


expedientto adopt with respect

be

the one
then in custody. On
conspirators
hand, he was
apprehensiveif he exercised towards
them the full severity
which their crimes had deserved,
sion
that he might at a future day fall a victim to a revulever
of popularfeeling,
under which his conduct,howapplaudedat a crisisof danger,might be regarded
cruel and arbitrary
as
; while if he suffered criminals
he
of so daringa character to escape with their lives,
to

the

was

confident that his

the

penalty of

determined
The
scene
women

the
one

his too

him

would

towards

Terentia
the

of the other

sex

were

were

in which

to

the threshold

cross

offered.

they were

had, we

the ashes upon the altar


when
those who
extinguished,

be

astonished

dismayed,by
extent
extraordinary

the embers.

The

at
presiding

were

thought

were

and

present

bursting
brilliancy

however,
virgins,

the ceremony,

might
designhe

at the moment
cisely
beinglet! through the
as

informed,

one

of whom

who
was

Terentia,took

Cicero

dwelt upon

are

upon themselves to givea


desired
and
to the omen,
interpretation

favourable
whatever

vestal

fices
sacri-

The

the sudden

and

flame of

the sister of
that

is said to have

made, and

forth of
from

timidity.

more

allowed

was

usual at these solemnities

to

later

or

sooner

course.
vigorous
the
residence of Cicero was,
that evening,
on
of those hidden rites performedby the Roman
in honour
of the mysterious
personage called
Bona
Dea, duringthe celebration of which no

of the house
been

be

great leniencyor

his wife

from

message

own

an

immediately
informed,that
at that time
meditating

be
was

at which

Forum

Lentulus
to

infallible token

and

their trial.
of Divine

his

companions were

This circumstance

favour.

is

THE

LIFE

OF

119

CICERO.

declared
might be boldlypursued, as it was manifestly
by such a signto be in accordance with the will
of the Gods.
This

story,of

whatever

amount

be
of credit it may
adds
Plutarch ; who

thoughtworthy, is related by
at all times ready to take more
that Terentia,
conduct
the political
befitting
part in directing
husband, used her full influence
excite him

on

this

towards
severity
efforts were
warmly

to the utmost

and

that her

of

these

pronouncing
upon

advpcatesof

extreme

conspirators,
seconded by

Nigidius,

it is certain that the

amply
decisive

demonstrated

step

with

was

the motives

measures

were

to

the

Quintus Cicero and Publius


his friends,
in whose
judgmenthe
to placegreatconfidence.

Without

of her

occasion

his brother
one

than

tomed
accus-

by

which

influenced,

of the

day
following
of takingsome
the necessity
respect to the prisoners.The
occurrences

havingmet to determine upon the rewards to


evidence the plot had
be givento those, by whose
who
Lucius Tarquinius,
been brought
to light,
chiefly
had been seized by the common
peopleas he was on
of his
the city,
the point of quitting
on
suspicion
beingone of the emissaries of Catiline,was brought
under
before the house, and after beinginterrogated,
should reveal the
a publicpromiseof pardon if he
nature
of the most startling
truth,added intelligence
his
in which
to the other details of the conspiracy,
with that before given
evidence precisely
corresponded
sioned
by Volturcius. He stated,that he had been commisby no less a person than Marcus Crassus,to
him not to
to Catiline,
exhorting
convey a message
be discouraged
federates,
by the arrest of Lentulus and his consenate

but
additional

to

consider

there

was

now

an

his march
accelerating
of his
might revive the spirits
his friends from danger. The

for
necessity

Rome, that he
and rescue
adherents,

upon

that

his

120

THE

Lira:

OF

but they
disclosure,
further,and
inquiries

confounded

senators

were

did

dare

CICERO.

at the

carry their
of Crassus
resolved rather to leave the participation
not

to

than
to provoke so
designin uncertainty,
powerful a citizen openly to act againstthem by
They, therefore,
givingcredit to their informant*.
that the
adopted the prudent policy of decreeing,
and
testimonyof Tarquiniusappeared unfounded
in

the

calumnious, and

prisonuntil

that

he

should

thoughtproper

he had
instigation

falsehoods

he

to

induced

been
which

to

whose

to confess

by

to invent

fest
the mani-

had

he

committed

be

given utterance.
an
attempt being

But, at the same


time, reports of
of
in preparation,
the part of the inferior members
on
ment,
their leaders from confinethe conspiracy,
to rescue
and
prevalent,
began hourlyto become more
confirmation.
It was
to receive stronger
ascertained,

Cethegushad sent messages to his slaves and


and assault
them to take arms
retainers,
encouraging
that

the house
and

of

and
Cornificius,
of Lentulus

freedmen

offered liberal rewards


and

lower

out

into

discovered

were

to

of the friends

several

many

immediate

an

convinced
therefore,
the threatened

the artisans

among

orders of Rome, to induce

them

to

any

of

means

violence must, to be

suppressing

be put
effectual,

practiceimmediately,having suffered
summoned, on the
nightalone to intervene,
in

"Sallnst.

Bell. Cat. cap. xlviii. If Cicero


of this transaction in his speeches,there can

accountingfor
recorded

it

his silence upon the


adds, that the consul was

secret

author

into

total abandonment

himself

openlyheard

however,
The

of the

must

real extent

must
Catiline,

be considered
to

which

affirm
as

at

Crassus

alwaysremain

another
nones

no

of

mention

little difficulty
in

be

subject. The historian who has


himself suspectedof being the
of

and
conspiracy,

of the

Crassus

has made

the intention

charge,with

break

Cicero,

revolt in his favour.


that

have

to

as

much

at a

was

concerned
of doubt

even

that he had

later

the best but

matter

Cratsus
terrifying

ex

period. This,
parte evidence.
in the designsof

and

obscurity.

LIFE

THE

OF

121

CICERO.

(thefifth of the month), a full senate in


the
the temple of Concord, and laid before them
it was
their pleasure
momentous
question, What
December

"

to decree with

respect to

delivered into

custody?"

is well

known

to

those who

debate

The

latelybeen

had

which

ensued

reader of Sallust ; for who,


with his writings,
acquainted

every

after

havingbeen once
situdes
vicisof its striking
have forgotten
the account
can
and impressive
left us, as perhapsthe
result,
finished specimenof his varied powers,
most carefully
Decius
and energetic
historian ?
by that nervous
consul elect,
as
Silanus,
being first asked his opinion
well as
the treatment
of the prisoners,
as
concerning
Cassius *, Furius,Umbrenus,
of their accomplices,
if
and Annius, who
had not yet been apprehended,
servedly
they should hereafter be taken, gave his vote unrefor the infliction of capitalpunishment.
Several senators followed his example,until the first
indication of an
opinionopposed to the extreme
advised by Silanus,was
severity
givenby Tiberius
of the craftyand tyrannic
Nero, grandfather
emperor,
who
should be detained
recommended
that the prisoners
until the completesuppression
in confinement
when
the subjectmight
of the revolt of Catiline,
be broughtbefore the
againmore
advantageously
The next speakerwas
Caius Julius Casar,
senate.
the main

substance

of whose

oration,for

the words

pregnant with the ordinaryand characteristic


styleof the writer,has been recorded by Sallust.
are

Whether

the dream

of ambition

which

this

highly-

and aspiring
character afterwards endeavoured
gifted
than a dazzling
to realise,
was
yet anythingmore
he had already
and indefinite phantasy; or whether
the generaltenor
of his future
determined
upon
no
career, and adoptedthe resolution of leaving
oplearn from
left the city,as we
of
the
before the departure
Allobroges.
immediately
*

Lucius

Cassius

had

Sallust,

122

THE

LIFE

portunityunimproved

OP

CICERO.

what
might
advocating
the
popular cause
against

for

appear the interest of the


aristocratic faction,
until he had
power

of the

or
competitor

latter to
an

have

opponent

dominion, is of course
known, however, that

wasted
sufficiently

nothingto

in his advance

uncertain.
at

fear from

to absolute

It is

this moment

the

sufficiently

he

was

the

dislike to the nobility,


and
subjectof no common
most strongly
of seconding,
suspected
by encouragement
of every kind which
his

fell short of
which

compromising
might be formed

safety,
any attempt
the existing
against
government. Two of his most
bitter enemies,
Quintus Catulus and Caius Piso,(the
former
of whom
had unsuccessfully
contested the
with him, while the latter had been
high priesthood
forced to appear by his means
in the character of defendant
in a prosecution
for misconduct
duringhis
had endeavoured
at this
government of Hither Spain,)
crisisto effect his ruin,by earnestly
Cicero
entreating
own

to allow

false accusation

in all the
participating
him
by
designsof Catiline to be broughtagainst
of the Allobroges*.
This nefarious proposition
means
thus
was
firmlyrejected
; but althoughCaesar was
saved from the peril
of a criminal accusation,his life
been nearly
ended by themore
had,but two daysbefore,
he was
as
party ; since,
open violence of the opposite
the senate-house,
several of the young patricians
leaving
formed
who
a
voluntaryguard around the
a

of

Cicero,encircled him, with bitter terms of


and brandished
which
hatred,
they would
weapons
have been readyto stain with his blood,on the least
the part of the consul which could
look or signon
be construed into an
expressionof assent. Upon
his cool and fearless temperament, however, such a
hazard,or the prospect of its recurrence, was likely
but little impression.He
stood fovto make
now
person

of

Sallust. Bell. Catilin. xlix.

124

THE

to human

life
"

LIFE

CICERO.

limit

further

placefor the

of any

kind.

The

OP

beyond which there was no


exercise of passions
or sensations

speechof Caesar,which

accession of several members


view
of the question,
drew
fourth

and

last oration

followed

was

to

the

forth

more

from

by

the

merciful

Cicero his

spiracy
subjectof the conof Catiline.
This,althoughit purportedto
be an
examination
of the two
impartial
opinions
left
doubt on the mind of
no
proposed,must have

any

intended
the

to the

present as

one

to

advise.

of
atrocity

the

on

The

which

course

vivid

the consul

colours with

which

the

dition
designand the still critical conof the state are depicted the frequentallusions
to the attempts of the conspirators
upon his
of his
own
life,and the patheticrecommendation
in the event of any accident happeningto
family,
the difficulties
himself,to the care of the republic"
placedin the way of the planof Julius Ctesar and
the hints that all preparations
had been made public
for the execution of that advocated
by Silanus,
without any dangerof disturbing
the public
peace,
"

"

are
never

indications of his real sentiments,


which
for

Yet

moment

have

been

intended

could

taken.
to be' mis-

the

of the speakerwas
too
eloquence
for so important
to be effectual.
an
indirect,
occasion,
with
other
Qiiintus Cicero, in company
many

senators,declared himself in favour

of the

advice

givenby Caesar,and Silanus himself intimated


intention of abandoninghis original
motion.
lives of the conspirators
would
for
certainly,
time at

The
that

saved, had it not been for


the effortsof Lutatius Catulus,
and,above all,for the
Porcius Cato,
stern and ironical address of Marcus
and
which, like that of Caesar,has been preserved,
measure
by Sal lust.
probablyin some
supplied,
Amidst
the icyglitter
there is
of its stoical rhetoric,
an

have
least,

his

absence

of all

been

which
feeling,

appears

strangely

LIFE

THE

125

CICERO.

OF

and humanity
after the specious
gentleness
revolting
of the address of Caesar,and a proud and obtrusive
seriousness only likely
to produce the effect of
cer
As it was, the
of his auditors.
most
offending
whole

in

was

accordance
perfect

of the sect of which

he

was

with the sentiments

considered

the ornament.

assignedno place in the list of


virtues recommended
by Zeno and his followers,nor
calculated to produce
their doctrines particularly
were
the grace of personal
humility. But there is at the
and fearlessness apparent in
time a plainsense
same
the argumentsby which the speakeris represented
as
supportinghis view of the existing
emergency ;
in his representations
of the necessity
and a strength

Compassionwas

upon his countrymen to pursue the most


and decisive line of action,while the sword
vigorous
incumbent

of Catiline

was

at their very

throats,and

his followers

ready to pxirsue to the utmost any opportunity


ness,
of advantageafforded by their vacillation and weakadmirablycalculated to producethe intended
impression
upon the greatbody of senators who were
yet undecided, and which, as we are told,actually
who had
broughtmany back to their firstresolutions,
of Caesar.
been led away by the milder sentiments
The balance was
now
turned,and it was
completely
of the senate,in the
at lengthdecreed by a majority
had meditated the
words
of Cato,that those who
destruction of the cityby fire and sword, and had
been

convicted

many

others,by

well
with

by

as

the

the

their

extreme

and of
design,
the Allobroges,
as

this treasonable

of

evidence

of

should be visited
confession,
to
penaltyof the law, according

own

ancient custom.*

Althoughit was
was

late in the

passed,Cicero,to

whom

day before

this decree

its execution

was

trusted,
in-

resolved not to suffer another nightto


it into effect. After sending
intervene before carrying
was

Sallust. Bell. Cat. lii.

126

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

instructions to the officersof justice,


to make

all the

with his guard.?,


he repaired
preparations,
senators,to the
greatnumber of the principal

necessary

and

house

in which

demanded
the

him

Palatine

Lentulus
from his

confined,and having

was

conducted
keepers,

him

from

Mount

to the
throughthe Forum
about twelve feet
publicprison. In this building,
under ground,
and frightful
was
a noisome
dungeon,
called the Tullianum,from one
of the ancient kings
of Rome
it was
by whom
supposedto have been

built,with

massive

roof of the

same

walls

of stone, and a vaulted


which was
seldom visited
material,

of
lightfrom without,the only means
access
being by a trap-door in the ceiling*.
Within its dismal precincts
Lentulus was
expected
and on beinglet downby the publicexecutioners,
into it in the usual manner,
seized
was
immediately
and strangled.
Gabinius,and
Cethegus,Statilius,
conducted to the
Coeparius
havingbeen successively
were
same
spot by the praetors,
put to death in a

by

ray of
to it

similar way.
While this terrible exhibition of

was
publicjustice
havinggatheredin

in progress, the

peopleof Rome
immense crowds alongthe ways which led towards the
and silence,
looked on in awe
as at the performance
prison,
the part of the
of some
on
mysterious
ceremony
which
understood
they but partially
aristocracy,
and in which
concerned t.
they were but indirectly
the prison
with his escort,
The consul,on leaving
had againto pass through
the multitude,
and observing
he suspected
them whom
certain persons among
dungeon is Btillexhibited at Rome, beneath the church
of San Pietro in Vincole, but considerable alterations h.ive been
modern
The
in it since the time of Cicero.
made
door,"says
Eustace, was opened through the side wall, when the placewas
of St. Peter,who is supposedto
converted into a chapelin honour
*

This

"

"

have

been confined in it.

most

aspect."
appalling

t Plutarch in Cic.

the change,it has


Notwithstanding

stilla

THE

of

LIFE

formingpart of
with

them
the

usual

the band

loud

shouts
repeated

the

part

in their

while

of

his

as

of the

who

the

\vith

ancients

had

subjectof

any

he had
homeward
signsof indifference

roofs
held

of any

or

indications of
was

expectedto
torches

forth their

placedat

children.

as

the

their

Fresh

on

siastic
enthuevery
minated
illu-

was

the

the

from
lights

and saluted him


passed,
city,and the guardianof
of their

and

pass

with

no

deficiency

night,but

now

crowded

were

deep

he

those

them,

ominous

the

countrymen,

external

the

women,

which

progress

gratitude.It
by which he was
by lamps and

house

and

of

complain of

to

reason

informed

to

companions had ceased to exist.


the part of Cicero drew forth
on
approbationfrom the bystanders,

his further

on

called
conspirators,

their

This announcement
and

of

speakingon

that
mortality,

127

CICERO.

voice,and

to
periphrasis

when

recourse

OP

doors,
Roman

the parapets
preserver
lives

own

honours

were

long in being added. Most of the municipal


in Italy,
towns
as
wras
soon
as
intelligence
brought
of the suppression
of the plot,passed decrees in
which the patriotism
of the consul was
in
eulogised
of praise.The peopleof Capua
the highestterms
enacted
that his statue, richlygilded,
should be
forthwith erected in their city,and that he should
and onlypatron. Lucius
be declared their perpetual

not

Gellius asserted in presence of the senate,that he


entitled to the gift
of a civic crown
the
on
justly

republic.Catulus,in

was

part

assemblyof that
order,hailed him with the proud and unexampled
of Father of his Country*; and when
appellation

of the

The

classical reader

need

full

hardlybe

lines upon this subject


by the greatestof

reminded

of the beautiful

ancient
satirists,

Romse
et modo
Avpinas,ignobilis,
Munidpalis Equcs,galeatumpoint ubique

Hie

novus

1'rsesidium attonitiset in omni

gente laborut.

intra toga contulit illi


reuros
igitur
Nooiinis et tituli,
quantum uon Leucade,quantum

Tantum

or

modem.

128

THE

Cato, in
confirmed

men

Such, while

multitude.

of the

under

the rewards

CICERO.

with his
peopleabounding
it was
to him by this title,
repeatedly
loud and continued
plauditson the

with

were

OP

the

speechto

alluded
praises,

part

LIFE

the

of the

the

minds

of

influence of recent events, were


consistent and certainly,
after all

deductions have been made, noble and

course
patriotic
which he had recently
of
pursuedfor the preservation
But
of satisfaction
the commonwealth.
the first feeling
at havingescapedso imminent
a dangerwas
the necessary reaction began.
scarcely
over, when
The nobility,
althoughthey had been perfectly
willing
and responthat Cicero should take the post of peril
sibility,
their own
Jives and possessions
when
were
whom
to forgive
one
threatened,were not likely
they
for havinginflicted
a new
scornfully
designated
man,
0*1

death
ignominious

house

of

there

were

power

on

Porcian

Cornelii.

the

who

many

scions of the illustrious

upon

also
Among the commons
the late exercise of
regarded

the part of the consul,as

law,

and

violation of the

consequentlyas

serious

fringemen
in-

The
constitution.
existing
undetected
in the
participators
conspiracyhad
serious grounds for their dislike of the permore
son
whose
their
by
instrumentality
design had
upon

the

Thessaliae
Csedibus
Roma

campisOctavius abstulit udo


assiduia gladio.Sed Roma
PARENTEM

PATREM

PATRICE

Ciceroncm

"

libera dixit.
Juv.

Sat. viii.

Yes

he,poor Arpineof no rank at home,


And made, and hardlymade, a Knight at Rome,
Secured the trembling
a firm guard
town, placed
In every street, and toil'd in every ward
And thus within the walls in peace obtain'd
More fame,more
honour, than Augustus gain'd
"

At

Actium

Of

patriot
gore, and sword stilldrench'd with blood ;
Rome, free Rome, hail'd him with loud acclaim

For
The

Father

orPhilippifrom

of his

flood

name.
Country glorious
"

GIFFORD'S

translation.

THE

LIFE

OF

129

CICERO.

been

to confoiled,and their leaders sentenced


dign
punishment. All these were united into a party
and encouraged
actingunder Caesar as their principal,
in their discontent against
Cicero
bunes,
by the triwhose policy
it invariably
ing
after ascertainwas,
its direction and bias,to placethemselves
at the
head of every popular movement.
A sufficient proof
of the disposition
of the latter magistrates
to offer him

every molestation in their power,


termination
of his office,
when
it
the consuls to take

was

shown

at the

customary

was

for

publicoath that,duringthe year


of their authority,
they had done nothingcontraryto
the laws.
The
taken to
was
opportunity
generally
add an address to the peopleon the most remarkable
of their magistracy.When
events
Cicero, who apprehensi
of

disturbances

some

the occasion had

on

Publius
thoughtit necessary to summon
from Capua to preserve peace
an
army
made
commence

Sextius with
in the

city,

in the
his appearance
his oration to

elected

Forum, and was about to


the citizens,the newly
tribune, Quintus Metellus Nepos, who had

placedhis

chair

upon

the

rostra

for the

this publicindignity
inflicting
upon
him

commanded

into

to say

the

oath.

him, peremptorily
self
to confine him-

had

The

small

customary

officehe
from

usual

forbear,and

of

of Cicero
"ingenuity
found
of turning
the restriction to his
a ready way
advantage,and instead of making an elaborate speech
of compressing
all he had intended
upon his consulship,
to

the

to

purpose

since,in the placeof


compass;
formula, he swore, that in his year of

both
preserved

total ruin.

Thunders

the

cityand

of assent

on

the

empire

the

part of

conscious of his not having


assembly,who were
his services,
mony
expressedthe generaltestiexaggerated
of this striking
of his countrymen to the justice
and unexpecteddeclaration,
and Cicero was
once
more
escorted home by an admiring
and applauding
crowd,
the

130

THE

Yet

much

from

derived

advantage he might have

of the

the

CICERO.

OP

LIFE

recollection

of

merits, was

his eminent

selfof the same


by the repetition
His auditors
occasions.
eulogy on less justifiable
the extent
of
of discourses,
of which
grew weary
the constant
their obligations
to the speaker was
at last offended by
burden, and his best friends were
mands,
which
seemed
a vanity,
only to increase in its dein proportionas attempts were
made
to
weakened

lost

or

it.
gratify

The

all times

at

has

been

by

almost

to

deed,
in-

was,

It

in his turn.

is confirmed

the observation

page

even

of his

than due

more

whose
contemporaries,

reason

exacted,he

that there was


writings,
in his eagerness for
monopolising
spirit
he seldom lost an opportunity
of mentioning,

every

with

he

render

readyto

observed,and

nothingof a
since
praise,
his

tribute which

respect.But

honour,those

talents

virtue

or

if it be true that he

among
he had

had, at

all

times,sufficient candour to allow,and to pointout,


time be
the merits of others, it must
at the same
been posto have
ever
seems
conceded,that no man
sessed
of

sensitive

more

of his

and

sciousness
overweeningcon-

own.

It remains

of
to advert to the termination
briefly
the career
of the desperate
a
adventurer,who now
declared outlaw and enemy
to the state,and deprived
of all hope of succour
from his friends at Home, continued,
maintain

to
nevertheless,

front

which
the dangers
against

every side. Before the news


Leutulus
and the rest of the
had

managed to
to form

in Etruria

consular

collect

two

army,

threatened
of

the

bold

him

execution

on

of

arrived,he
conspirators

sufficient number

rents
of adhe-

of
the ordinarystrength
legions,
and might have raised a far more

imposingforce,had he not constantlyrejectedthe


assistance of the fugitive
who flocked to him in
slaves,
which
he
to allow the contest
on
crowds, disdaining
had entered to

assume

the character

of

Servile War.

132

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

that the consular general,


tion
from the recollecexpectation
of pastfriendship,
and,perhaps,of companionship
in guilt,
less
favourable
or
a
might prove a more
active

offered him
tageous
advanbattle in an
antagonist,
of Pistoria. As the
the town
near
position
under
the
cohorts of the republic
in sight,
came
Antonius
command
of the legatePetreius,(since
which
suspected
was
pleadingan indisposition,
strongly
of beingfeigned,
declined to appear in the
he made a last speechto his men, breathing
his
field,)
usual fiery
and determined sentiments,
and exhorting
all about him
death to the

to

if unsuccessful,
an
prefer,
fate
ignominious

more

be inflicted upon

them

if

honourable

which

this,havingsent away every horse


that all might be exposedto the same
lines,
with

his final

the most

from

and taking
his
dispositions,

elevated

of his

his

danger,
station

adherents,beside

favourite silver

fallibly
in-

taken.

they were

After

he made

would

his

which had once


witnessed the
eagle,
Cimbric
triumphs of Marius, firmly awaited the
chargeof the enemy*. The conflict which ensued was
in the highestdegreesevere
and desperate.The
without
the usual preliminary
armies encountered
of missiles,
interchange
beingdetermined to bringthe
decision of the affair,
to close comas soon
as possible,
bat
at
at the sword's
point; and the ground was
neither party for some
time
first manfullydisputed,
foot to their opponents. But the
a single
yielding
valour of the insurgents
utmost
necessarily
proved,at
who
combated
an
length,unavailing
against
enemy
them with equalcourage, and an overwhelming
superiority
cohort
of strength.
Petreius led his praetorian
them in front,
and vigorous
attacks being,
at the
against
the success
same
moment, made uponboththeir flanks,
of the battle was
no
longerdoubtful. Manlius, who
their rightwing, fell among
the first
commanded
slain. The rest were
cut off",
successively
defending
*

Sallust. Bell.

CatO^ix.

THE

themselves

LIFE

to
obstinately

with
part,covering
which

they had

their

commenced

free-born
single
number

OP

citizen

133

CICERO.

last,and, for the most


bodies the exact spot upon
the engagement. Not a

was

the

taken

alive of the whole

Catiline

as
soon
as he perhimself,
ceived
the fortune of the day finally
determined,
into the midst of his enemies,
rushingdesperately

present.

lengthwith the death of which he was in


hand. He was
search by an unknown
found,after the
battle,
front,amidst
lyingfar in advance of his own
of his enemies,still faintly
a group of the
carcasses
and exhibiting
in his latest moments
the
breathing,
of aspectfor which, during his life,
he had
ferocity
met

at

The

insurrection

been

noted.

much

terror into the

which

had

struck

so

peopleof Rome, was thus ended


by a singleengagement; but the victorious army
had little reason
its issue,since the
to rejoice
at
flower of the troopsof Antonius were
either leftupon
the field or disabled by severe
wounds.
The number
the part of the conquerors, is
of those slain on
not precisely
known, but the loss of the vanquished
reckoned at three thousand.
diately
was
Antonius, immeafter the battle,sent the head of Catiline to
of this token of success
Rome, and on the reception
the citizens laid aside the mourninggarbthey had
and
of the conspiracy,
assumed at the commencement
decreed a second publicthanksgiving
to the godsfor
of the threatened

the removal
who
or
toria,

were

who

not

were

had

afterwards

danger. Of

presentat

escaped from
taken

and

the

spirators
con-

the battle of Pis-

it

by flight,
many
Several

executed.

were

by Lucius Vettius,one of
their number, who, on
being apprehended,turned
evidence against
the rest.
Cassius,Laeca, Vargunalso

betrayedto

the senate

teius,Autronius,with
tried

Vettius

was

who

had

been

most

banished ; a
were
conspiracy,
and acquitted
others,whom
; and
many
to denounce,saved by the inpreparing

conspicuousin
few

others

the

134

LIFE

THE

CICERO.

OP

the
who, either distrusting
of the informer,or apprehensive
of his implicating
veracity
than
it would
be safe to prosecute,
more
silenced him by a hint that they were
to be
beginning
understood
which he at once
weary of his disclosures,
tervention

and

of the senators

obeved.

CHAPTER
Domestic

Dissensions

Drusus

Livius

Violation

"

Clodius

Publius

Pompey
Meeting in
"

Poet

of

Evidence

Third

"

the Tribune

on

the Palatine

of

the Rites

Circus

Cicero

on

Triumph

freed
ROME, although

"

of

from

the

and
Aristocracy,

Oration for Publius

"

his Mithridatic

from

the Flaminian

Archias

the

Disputesoccasioned

"

returns

between

Julius Caesar and

Pompey

to

his Residence

from

removes

Rome

at

popularParty under
Letter of Cicero

V.

Hill

of

Sylla

"

Cicero

"

to

the

Metellus
the House

Bona

of

Dea

by

his

by
Impeachment
Expeditionto Rome
"

"

Trial of

Clodius,who

the occasion

"

Speech

is

quitted
ac-

for the

Pompey.
the

serious

perils
which
had lately
environed it,by the suppression
of
like
Catiline's insurrection in Etruria,stillcontinued,
the troubled

sea

by
agitated
in
effects,

the

after the

various

more

tempest has subsided,to

less violent

commotions

"

be
the

estimation

crisis

of most, of the turbulent


it had latelypassed,but, in

throughwhich
the eyes of more
the signs
also of
prudentobservers,
Cassar,who
convulsions,
equallyserious,to come.
had now
entered upon
his praetorship,
and who was
in close league
with the tribune Metellus,the most
active

instrument

of the

popular party, continued


from this time more
openlyhis endeavours to lower
he had become
in the
Cicero, of whose reputation
in the estimation of his countrymen.
jealous,
highest
degree
It was
that
probably at his suggestion,
Metellus,in an address to the people in the early
part of the year, accused the late consul of having
acted in opposition
death
to the laws, by inflicting
executed without
recently
upon the five conspirators

LIFE

THE

any

regularform

OP

of trial.

135

CICERO.

That

as

be confident upon
may
Cicero ; who
also mentions,that
harangueof the tribune, lie was

the

\ve

and

to deliver,
an
possibly

Whether

conduct.*
Plutarch

in

the

was

serted,
as-

authorityof
write,

to

in defence

of his

alluded

same

the

to

answer

induced

oration

tin'swas

much

by

to

in his life of

Crassus, as the oration upon


his consulate,or whether
he published under
that
title the speech which
he had
been prohibitedby
Metellus
frbm
to the citizens,
seems
certain,
undelivering
as

there exists

subject. The
directed

one

no

evidence
positive

attack

upon Cicero was


Catulus
against
by Caesar

upon
followed

the

by

in person,
that emi'

in his

capacityof praetor,summoned
nent senator to appear at his tribunal,
of
on
a charge
while
ing
presidhaving embezzled the publicmoney
the erection of the Capitol. Catulus had
over
himself,by^his
brought this show of hostility
upon
zealous
speech againstCassar in the senate-house
duringthe debate on the subjectof the punishment
of the conspirators,
well as by his ready aid in
as
casion.
furtheringall the designsof Cicero upon that ocThe senate,however, espousedhis cause
so
allowed
to drop.
was
warmly, that the prosecution
who,

ground,and
of lowering
beingstilldetermined to try all means
the influence of the aristocracy,
prepareda law which
the tribune proposedto the peoplefor their acceptance,
that
recalled
with
should
be
Pompey
enacting,
Caesar

and

Metellus

this shifted their

on

his army
from the Mithridatic
to assist in
the eve of expiring,
The
tranquillity.
*

Ad

Attic, i. 13.

violent

most

The

passage

in

war,

the
restoring
was
opposition
the twelfth

second book

of his letters to Atticus,which

supposedto

bear

best authorities

Clodius

reference
to allude

and Curio.

to

to

this
that

which

has

state to

made

epistleof

been

the

sometimes

orntion,is considered
afterwards

on

was

by

the

pronouncedagainst

136

THE

who

OP

CICERO.

to this edict the instant it was

brought
the greaterpart of the patricians
sumed
asa mourning habit,apprehendingnothingless
absolute despotismon the part of a commander
arbiter
would
thus be virtually
created supreme

by the senate
forward,and
than

LIFE

Cato, at

of the fortunes of the commonwealth.

that

the entreaties
people,notwithstanding
of his friends and relatives,
stood forward at
the first readingof the bill,
to placehis absolute
made
with considerable
negative
upon it. The attempt was
dangerto himself,since Csesar and Metellus
had
occupiedthe temple of Castor as a post of
and
vantage with a strong body of armed
men,
with a company
of
crowded the stepsof the building
for the purpose of preventing,
or
speedily
gladiators,
the opposition
which
they expected. Yet,
silencing,
these formidable preparations,
Cato,
notwithstanding
Metellus began to read his proposedlaw,
as
soon
as
and on finding
this
sternlyordered him to be silent,
wrested
it from his
ineffectual,
forcibly
interposition
endeavoured
hand.
to
Metellus, thus interrupted,

time

tribune

of the

his edict from memory,


but in this he was
pronounce
also preventedby Minutius Thermus, one of his leagues
colin the interest of
before

his mouth.

people,at

the

respect

for

Metellus

was

same

the

Cato, who

placedhis

considerable

time, struck
undaunted

number

with

courage

hand

of the
of
feeling

with

which

their
opposed,began loudlyto signify
and uproar
of tumult
ceeded.
sucapprobation.A scene
On a signgivenby Metellus,his gladiators
and armed partisans
pouringdown upon the citizens,
drove the crowd before them, and Cato, who
speedily
for some
time exposedto a shower
of sticks and
was
stones, might have sustained serious injuryhad he
rescued
the consul, against
not been
by Mtmena
election he had so strenuously
exerted himself.
whose
The
of their recent enmity,
now
on
latter,
forgetful

LIFE

THE

findingall

remonstrances

to, covered

him

the

his

fury of

for

in his behalf
time

some

and
assailants,

with
at

in his arms,
into the
carried him
while Metellus
findingthe field

readingof

his hill to

party, who

137

CICERO.

OF

his

own

unattended

his gown

from

him
lengthraising
temple of Castor,

clear,resumed

faction.

the

But

the posite
opfar enough from

only retired
the scene
of action to rallyand reassume
some
pearance
apwith
loud
of order, quickly returning
shouts,the favourers of the bill,who imaginedthat
their adversaries had now
providedthemselves with
and were
fullyprepared for a conflict of a
weapons,
serious kind than they had before sustained,
more
fled in their turn
from
the Forum, and Metellus
totallydeserted by his former
seeingthat he was
to follow their example. He
supporters,was obliged
was
preventedfrom making a second attempt to
enforce his act by the authorityof the senate,who,
that it was
trary
conby an express decree,determined
to all law, and
repletewith danger to the
cumbent
therefore inexisting
government, and that it was
all good citizens to resist it to the
upon
utmost.
far
Yet, although thus baffled,he was
from beingdisconcerted,
and beingxinable to ingratiate
himself further with Pompey by any additional
attempts to extend his authorityat Rome, he resolved
to presenthimself before him in the character of one
whose
interests had suffered by a too warm
espousal
of his cause, hoping by this means
to secure, for the
future,no inconsiderable share of his favour and
he first
of his design,
protection.In pursuance
summoned
an
assembly of the people,and having
endeavoured

had

Cato
and the
against
aristocratic party by a bitter and malignant
speech,
and representset off for Asia to lay his complaints
ations
of all he had endured
before the general,
of

whose

to

inflame

interestshe had

them

been

the

uninvited advocate.

138

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

It is not

tbat
improbable

time

work

at tbe

be endeavoured

same

the jealousy of Pompey, by


upon
formidable
Cicero to bim
most
as
a
representing
to

rival in tbe

popularestimation,and, in

consequence
services to the state,all but absolute at

of his recent
Rome.

is the most

This

for the

fact,that

after the

senate

in which

made

conduct

of the

honours

bestowed

in his

as

in bis

late consul

counting
ac-

of the

privateletters to

allusion whatever

no

of

despatchesto the
Catilinarian plot,

the

or
office,

His

him.
upon
Cicero an
from

subjectdrew

method

of the termination

them
well

as

war,

Cicero,Pompey

which

in his

discoveryof

he informed

Mithridatic

obvious

silence

to

the

to

tbe

on

the

epistlestill extant,

able
consideras throwing
uninteresting,

is far from

to the
character,and exhibiting
fullest extent the acute sensitiveness with respectto
the praiseand censure
be was
of others,for which
through life remarkable ; and which, if it proved

his

lightupon

times

at

from

source

most

"

the
enjoyment,was
he more
derived the"
frequently
of disappointmortifyingfeelings
ment.

transient

which

painfuland
Its contents

are

TULLIUS

CICERO

MARCUS

of

means

GREAT,

as

follows
TO

"

CNEIUS

POMPEIUS

THE

"'.

IMPERATOR

From

I have, in common
your late despatches,
with tbe rest of my countrymen, derived inexpressible
since you afford us in these
satisfaction and delight,
"

such

hopes of

founded

on

your
others

speedypeace

as, from

confidence

I had always encouraged


abilities,
singular
to

entertain.

Be

assured

of

this,

however, that those persons who having been once


assumed
the character of
your enemies,have recently
in a state of the greatestperturare
bation
your friends,
and dejection,
themselves
distotally
finding
*

Ad

v.
Diversos,

7.

140

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

return
your
you will not
althoughfar greater than Africanus, to be

mind, that

of

both

in

publicduties

not, I trust,much

one

The

letter of Cicero

for which

one

object,
joined
with
privatefriendship

on

and

inferior to Ltelius *.
is not

Pompey

to

have been

subsequentages

well."
Fare-

"

the

only

indebted

to

the

of Metellus.
There is extant an angry
intrigues
epistlefrom his brother Metellus Celer, then governor
of Cisalpine
of
to Cicero
Gaul, complaining
he accuses
him
of having
public ridicule,which
thrown

towards
upon himself,as well as of severity
his relatives ; and impugningthe equityof the Senate
in some
of their late proceedings
The
t.
answer,
which

has also been

vindication

is a manly
fortunately
preserved,

and a dignified
account
charges,
of the provocationgiven at different times by the
and the manner
in which
tribune,
they had been
and
It appears
been
met.
to have
satisfactory,
which had
restored the friendship,
to have
entirely
suffered a partial
interruption.
After beingthe principal
agentin the detection and
punishmentof the most active among those concerned
in the

from these

Cicero
attempts of Catiline,

the office of

of the

famous

who

one
defending

dangerof beingcondemned
of the conspiracy.Servius
of the

self
took upon himin imminent
was

subordinate

as

member

Cornelius

dictator,whose

directors
principal

now

late

Sylla,a nephew
guiltas one of the
sufficiently
plot was

for the
evident,had been sentenced to banishment
His brother
part he had taken in that transaction.
Publius, formerlyconsul elect with Autronius, but
had been hindered,as has been before mentioned,
who
*

The

famous

"f It had
nitial

been

and
office,

friend of

ScipioAfricanus.

proposedto deprive Metellus


the

interference of Cato.

motion

would

have

been

Nepos
earned

of

his tribubut for the

from

OP

LIFE

THE

141

CICEKO.

was

for bribery,
entering
upon officeby a prosecution
after impeachedby Lucius Torquatus,
a
shortly

son

of the

groundsof

consul

of that

indictment

in the

the

"

have

in the

taken

an
first,

designof Autronius

father; the second, the

two

on

name,

share

separate

alleged
participation

to assassinate

he

supposedto

was

dangerousand

more

his

extensive

by Catiline. His vindication from


projected
the former impeachmentwas
undertaken
by Hortenverdict in his
a
sius,who succeeded in obtaining
scheme

Cicero then

favour.
on

the next

somewhat
welt

stood

count, and

delivered

and
lengthened

known

forward

his advocate

in his behalf

diffuse

all students

to

as

the

which
oration,

of his

is

quatus,
writings.Tor-

it appears, had endeavoured


to lessen the

redoubted

which
impression

in his accusation,
the circumstance
of

antagonist
havingundertaken the
of Syllamight be supposedto make, by insinuations
cause
and open personalities
againstCicero,whom
he designated
by the title of despotand king names,
so

an

"

in the estimation
could
would

of the

bestow, and

probablybe

times, the

of which
the

he

most

well

was

effect in Roman

odious he
aware

ears.

what
His

the opporopponent,however, was not slow in seizing


tunity
thus afforded,of making his own
actions a
on
principal
subjectof his discourse,
pretence of
the unjustattack of Torquatus,
defendinghimself against
and we
have consequently
all the imagery
which

had

told

so

well in his denunciations

against

Catiline,of a blazing
city,
reekingwith the blood of
its inhabitants, the terrors of virgins
and matrons,
the unsheathed
of remorseless murderers,
weapons
and
the pillage
and
profanationof temples and
evident
shrines*,reproducedwith
complacency.
Yet he clears himself with happy ingenuity
of thought
and language
from the chargeof cruelty
which had
him.
latelybeen broughtagainst
Why," he asks,
"

"

"

"

"

Pro

Sulla,vi.

142
"

THE

it excite your

should

for the

appear

LIFE

advocates,in
the
inhuman

in

with

common

of the

in this

that

fierceness and

those

take
I refused to under-

unless,
conspirators,

other

to suppose

cruelty. If

on

and

stern

me

with

and imbued
above all others,

of
spirit

cause

with
conjunction

whom

determined

are

CICERO.

wonder,

defendant

cause

indeed,you

OP

singular

of my
whole
life

account

late actions you are inclined to think my


characterised by these qualities,
is
great,Torquatus,
endued

Nature

error.

your

inclined to mercy ; by my
been called upon to exercise

have

I should

be cruel

neither of nature
external mask

moment

the

should
gentleness

conduct*."
that he

late

from

Nor

designs
nation
incli-

own

me

that

even

which

rigouron

ordained

the

part

my

that

rulingmotives

of

pity and
my general

his refutationof the

was

position
dis-

me
crisis,
perilous
required

former

be the

the

vehemence

latter exacted

The

assume.
a

and

of sternness

republic,
duringthe
for

taken

now

with

country. My

of my

nor

voice I
country's
severity
; but that

in accordance

was

and will have

to

at birth with

me

assertion

of monarchy,
assumingthe prerogatives

was

less effectual.

"

If,"he asks,

"

after the

benefits I

have

conferred upon the state,I demanded


other
no
reward
Senate and
for my exertions from the Roman
but
people,
would

be

what

an

honourable

rest

and

to grant it ?
unwilling

attraction

their

And

in this case,
offices of honour
and

triumphs and their


of distinction and glory possess for me,
means
while enjoying
the higherprivilege
of contemplating,
in a state of quietand tranquillity,
a city
preserved
by my efforts from destruction ? But what if I
demand
this
if the industryand solicitude
not even
their behalf,for which I have always been distinguished
on
power
other

"

their

could

who
retirement,

provinces
"

their

"

"

"

of

if my

services,
my

watchfulness,.ire
*

Pro

still at

exertions,
my
the

Sulla,cap.

iii.

command

nights
of

my

LIFE

TIIE

143

CICERO.

OP

friends,and readilyoffered to all ; if neither my


acquaintancehave to regretthe loss of my assistance
in the Forum, nor
country that of my counsels
my
in the senate-house ; if my good wishes
well as
as
best

my

mind

efforts,my

free to every
leisure is left me
even

and

ears

well

as

applicant
; if not

house,are

for

to
recalling

as

my
of

moment

mind

and

meditatingupon what I have accomplishedfor the


in which
I cannot
safety is such a condition,
general
find a single
to act as
substitute,
person willing
my
to be termed
kinglyauthority? Far from me, after
lute
absoof affecting
this,must be the remotest suspicion
power."
Publius
of his advocates,
Through the able pleadings
be considered
Sylla*,althoughhis innocence could scarcely
as
thoroughlyproved,escapedthe sentence of
banishment
passedupon his brother,as well as upon
bers
Autronius,Lasca,and the other less fortunate memis related in
of the conspiracy.A circumstance
"

with

connexion
small

dishonour

with

or

which,

Cicero.

upon

if true, reflects no
Hitherto the orator,

had
disinterestedness,

noble

offer of fee

his trial

refused

every
in the Forum.

for his services

reward

quishing
however, with the intention of relinhe had
the
family mansion, in which
of his brother Quintus,
hitherto resided,in favour
the Palatine
in treatyfor a house close to his own
on
Hill,which had been built in a costlyand magnificent
t. This edifice was
stylefor the tribune LiviusDrusus
He

was

now.

Sallust,writingsome
who

very

commencement

Livius

Marcus
-fmost

famous

assembled

years after,ranks
of M.
at the house

of the

plot.

Drusus,

tribune

promoters of the
attempt to gain the

active

respect to

the house

in

"

him

the

among

Porcius

spirators
con-

Lacca, at the

Sallust. Bell. Oat. cap. xvii.


of the
of the people,was
one

claims

of

the Italian states, in

their

citizens. With
privilegeof Roman
to the
question,he is said to have replied

who
promised to build
architect,
the greatestprivacyto its occupant

it in such
"
"

Rather

manner

construct

as

to

secure

it so that the

144

THE

of the most

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

the whole

in
conspicuous

looking
city,
down
the portico
upon the Forum, and adjoining
which
Catulus, the colleagueof Marius, had built
from the spoils
Marcus
acquiredin the Cimbric war.
it belonged,
demanded
for it the
Crassus, to whom
of thirty-five
hundred
thousand
sum
enormous
terces,
sesthousand
or nearlythirty
pounds; and although
Cicero was
bent upon the purchase, his correspondence
one

shows

that he

reduced

was

the necessary funds*.


he is said to have
appliedto P.
to procure

received

in
appearing

his defence

great difficulties

In

his

perplexity

Sylla,and
him

considerable loan from

to

to

have

condition of

on

his

trial. It
approaching
is added, that when
publiclycharged with having
borrowed
from a person under
impeachment,
money
the residence in question
for the purpose of securing
denied both the receipt
to himself,he strenuously
of
the loan and
his intention of making any offer for
the house ; and that beingafterwards
accused
in the
when he had actually
concluded
senate for his duplicity
the
bargain,he endeavoured to turn the whole
that those
matter into a jest,
by laughingly
asserting,
be indeed persons of weak
who
must
understanding
could imaginethat it would
be the part of a prudent
cautious

or

whole

world

debate

in

immense

by

an

may

the

when

witness

my
senate, from

multitude, he

who
assassin,

wound
was

man,

was

on

he

had

most

which

stabbed

resolved

privateactions."
he
as

returned

in his side.

Cicero

asserts

After

that the

name

encircled

he crossed his

leftthe knife with which he had

effect-

upon

own

warm

by

an

threshold

inflicted the fatal


of the murderer

the signal
for
This event, which, in'fact,
was
Quintus Varius.
663.
War, occurred A. u. c.
In his epistle
to Sextius (Ad Divers, v. 7,) he intimates that he

the Social
*

has been

six per cent., and has


at
money
His
in
pressing
consequence.
he
"which
satirAntonius,mentioned Ad Attic, i. 12, in

obligedto borrow the


himself
considerablyinvolved
demands

upon
iees his former

colleagueunder the title of the Trojan Lady, and


in his.
of his evasive answers,
probablyoriginated
complainsbitterly
necessitiess

on

thi occasion.

THE

LIFE

OP

145

CICERO.

for it by openly
to raise competitors
ing a purchase,
his intentions*.
publishing
The oration for Sylla
precededbut by a short time
trivial it might appear in
event which, however
an
its nature, drew upon it the general
attention of the
not without
peopleof Rome, and was
producing
importanteffects upon the lives of two of its most
citizens. Publius Clodius,a patrician
distinguished
for a long
of the noble house of the Claudii,which
series of generations
noted for the unamiable
was
of
of its memberst, was
a
man
qualities
young
considerable abilitiesand eloquence,
and endued with
to ensure
most of the external qualities
an
requisite
extensive popularity
the less temperate and
among
classes of the republic.But
these perjudicious
sonal
doned
were
disgracedby the most abanadvantages
audacious
recklessness of all principle,
an
racters
libertinism,
unsurpassedby that of the worst chawho
had
the annals of
hitherto disgraced
*

inquit,homines
liKpivovtijTOt,

et cauti

familias
patris

estis,
quuin

quod emere
AULUS
GELLIUS, Noctes
propter competitores
esse

sese

negare

Attica, lib. xii. 12.

doubts the truth of the story,which he thinks must


obtained from some
spuriouscollection of the facetious

Middlcton

Dr.
have

been

the
sayingsof Cicero, and certainly
an

ignoratisprudentis

velit emturum

accurate

Melmoth,
without

character

Gellius,as

of Aulus

go far to establish its credit.


however, in bis translation of Cicero's letters,
observes,
narrator

of

and
prejudice

facts,does

with

not

"
:
justice

As

reader

every

of taste and

learningmust wish well to the moral character of so invaluable a


writer as Cicero,one
but regret that neither his own
cannot
general
regard to truth, nor the plea of his ingeniousadvocate, seems
sufficient to discredit this pieceof secret
f Sueton. in Tiber, i.^-who, not
line of the
Claudius

cites
Caesars,

Drusus,and
of the

Roman

that her brother


was

was

impeded by the

the

alive

to

multitude

to

mention

the

Claudian

licentious decemvir, of
mander
Pulcher, the unsuccessful comof the

names

Claudius

fleet.

history."

The

wish

of the

lose another

sister of the

battle,when

is well

known.
Rome,
insitaClaudia
atque

of

also,(Annal.i.4,)
speaks ofthe"vetus

superbia."
L

latter,

her

litter

Tacitus
familioe

146

THE

Rome,

and

LIFE

OP

selfishness and

CICERO.

low

cunningwhich,

for

hindered
part,effectually

their possessor from


cient
extent suffito an
propensities

the most

his vicious
following
to endangerhis personalsafety,
althoughwithin
either in puhlicor in private,
this limit no restraint,
affected to be placedupon their indulgence.
ever
was
Such a character,if once
them, was
engagedagainst
likelyto prove a far more
dangerousopponent to the

libertiesof his country than Catiline;as the assailant


who
the object
of attack by
works
his way towards
process of
the one who
at

mining,is

the covert
than

to

the

heedlessly
of devotedprofessions

By constant
popularinterests he

to the office of

course,

he

qu?estor,and

entitled to

forward

rushes

once

to the assault.
ness

to be dreaded

more

seat

in

had

been

now

in that

raised

capacitywas,

the senate.

To

of

Cicero

had

objectof dislike,not
long been an especial
only from his generalconduct, but from the part
he had taken in the impeachment of Fabia Terentia,
sister-in-law

of the

whom
virgins,
vows,

and

Fabia, on

he
an

had

orator, and
accused

one

of

the

vestal

her
to
infidelity
improper intimacy with Catiline.
of

the very verge of condemnation

and

its terrible

of
was
saved,principally
by means
consequences,
Cato, who, with all his stern coldness and inflexibility

agent,or even an unconcerned spectator,


of injustice,
althoughexercised towards an enemy;
and Clodius,to avoid the odium
raised against
him
of his unfounded
account
on
accusation,had been
obligedto withdraw for some time from the city.
On
his return a partial
reconciliation with Cicero
and in the suppression
of the Catilinaeffected,
was
rian conspiracy
he took an active part in supporting
himself in the ranks of the young
the consul,placing
who
formed
his person.
a guard about
He,
nobility
at the same
time,was constant in paying his court to
to be
Caesar,but the future dictator had littlereason
was

never

an

143

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OP

Caleims,-whomClodius
the day apattached to his party, and
on
pointed
for the assembly,the enclosed
spaces in

opposedby the
had

surrounded
the centuries gave their votes were
several of the
number
of his partisans,
including

which

by

tribune Fufius

former

favourers of

Piso and
known

headed

for his zeal


of notorious

the accused.

only such
as

By

tablets

sul
Catiline,
by the conencouraged
by Caius Curio, afterwards well
in the cause
of Cassar,a voluptuary

character
their

should

it was

means

friend of

bosom

contrived,that

be

presentedto the
negativecharacters*.

inscribed with

were

and

people
It

consequentlyappeared that the decision of the


the law, and Fufius,
who had endeavoured
meetingwas against
and
to substitute a trialbefore the prsetors,
chosen judgeswhom
it would
not be impossible
to
tion
convenbribe,or to overawe, for one before a general
of citizens,
imaginedthat he should now be able
to carry his point. Cato,however, seconded by Horafter
tensius,Favonius, and several of the nobility,
in a severe
indulging
harangueagainstPiso for his
unfair practices,
put an end by his interference to the
adhered to
of the day. The senate firmly
proceedings
their first resolution,
and all things
seemed to promise
ance
continuof no ordinaryviolence and of some
a struggle
between

In the midst
with

of these

turned
disputes,
Pompey havingre-

"

Tabuiseadministrabanturitautnulladaretur

Attic, i. 14. The


votes

upon

certain

opponents.

his victorious army from Asia, landed at


His
first proceedings
on
reaching

Brnndusium.
*

faction and their

the Clodian

Roman

when
citizens,

subjectlaid

any

before

to deliver

them, passed by

centuries

Ad

their
into

"

bridges pontes,"at
the one
two
tablets,
roffas,"Beit as you
Antiquo, or ''I am opposedto
thrown
by each voter inio the

called ovilia onepta,


inclosuies,

the end of which

Utirogas."
"

called upon
over

with
each person was presented
inscribed with tlieinitiallettersofthe words Uti

the
will,''
any

other

cista

or

chest

againstthe
"See

with the letter A

innovation."

One

placed

to receive

measure

Adam's

of these

Roman

were

taken

for
was

it,and the majorityof tablets for or


as the opinionof the wholccentury.

8vo.,p.
Antiquities,

85.

OP

LIFE

THE

149

CICERO.

since
anxiety,
immediatelymarch

considerable

watched
with
Italywere
it was
suspectedthat he

would

force upon Rome, where the posture


of affairs was
such that he would have had but little
in raising
himself,with the assistance of the
difficulty
with

his whole

redoubted

who

veterans

followed

It is

been his intention.

if such had

absolute power,

standards,to

his

however, with all his ambition and


questionable,
and jealousyof its
his love of authority,
selfishness,
dominion, at the
exercise by others,whether
despotic
of the

expense

his

subjectof

was
constitution,

of the

mm

thoughts.

the

motive,

whatever

From

country,althoughlaid

the libertiesof his

ever

defenceless

spared. His troops


ordered
were
no
sooner
disembarked,than they were
his
homes
and wait at their respective
to disperse,
to
under the walls of Rome
orders for reassembling
in expectation.
adorn the triumph of which he was
retinue of a proHe himself,with but the ordinary
consul,
in
to the capital,
pursued his way leisurely
in his

for this time

path, were

the suburbs
the senate

respect

of which

should
the

to

he took

have

come

honours

he

vip his quarters,until


with
to a determination
was

soliciting.The

of his
their sense
testifying
ing
lavishmoderation
; but the unanimityof all ranks in
not
of adulation upon him, was
every expression
bearance
of the forto be ascribed to their appreciation
solely

publicwere

not

he had

into which

By

to

break

secure

was

the factions

beginning
every day
the partisans
of each

up,
the support of

so

able

more
were

patron.

of the senate
the meetings
refined flattery,

and

to do
frequently,

him

assemblies

of the

honour,held
Flaminian

peoplewere

In the

walls,and the
the spotselected for
ordinarily

at this time

circus*

was

the latter purpose.


*

in

exhibited,since,amidst

the state

to
distinctly

anxious

slow

eighthregionof

It
the

without

was

the

that the
in this building

and
city,

near

the

Campua

Murtius

150

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

took

placewhich has been described by Cicero


with so much
and which
amusing self-complacency,
forms the subject
of his fourteenth epistle
to Atticus.
I fear,"
he writes, it would look like affectation*
of my preon
my part to inform you of the multiplicity
sent
engagements,yet my attention has been latterly
leisure even
for
to allow me
so distracted,
as scarcely
this short epistle.The time I devote to it has, in
ment.
fact,been snatched from affairs of the greatestmoOf the nature
of Pompey's first address,I
have
oration without
an
alreadyinformed you:
scene

"

"

"

wretched

weight to the
wicked
in the
to the great undignified
unpleasant
estimation of the good ; so cold and insipid
its
was
character.
Immediatelyafter it,Fufius,that most
of
frivolous tribune of the people,
at the instigation
the consul,
introduced Pompey to the assembly.This
took placein the Flaminian
which, as it hapcircus,
pened
to be a market
day t, was crowded to excess.
The first questionproposedto him was, whether
he
of opinionthat the judgesshould be appointed
was
by the praetor,and by whose counsel the said praetor
This was
of the sacrilege
to be directed.
meant
was
had been appointed
of Clodius,which
to be tried by
the senate.
Pompey in replymade a speechof the
and at some
aristocratic tendency,
most
answering,
that the authority
of the senate appearedto
length,
him, as it had ever done, on all pointsof the greatest

comfort

to

the

"

without

"

putidum sit.
"f Erat in eo ipso loco
.ancient times,not only were
*

Vereor

"

ne

"

be held
also

on

the nundlnce

closed.
strictly

enacted

Rome.

on

By

of
happyrendering

nundinarum

Melmotli.

In
Travfiyvpis."

more

assemblies of the
market

the

that the prcetorsshould

might be
justice
who,

or

The very

days,but

Hortensian
continue

peopleforbidden to
the courts of justice

law
to

sit

it
on

was

afterwards

these

days,that
country people

rendered to the
conveniently
such occasions,
with their producein greatnumbers
came
to
This innovation
specting
having been made, the regulationremore

assemblies of the

peoplewas

less strictly
attended

to.

THE

LIFE

OF

151

CICERO.

quently
subsepossibleweightand importance. He was
asked
by the consul Messala in full senate,
what

and the bill which


of the sacrilege
he-thought
been promulgated
upon that subject.His answer
a
generaleulogyupon all the late proceedings

had
was

of the senators ; and as he sat down


he observed to me
that, in his own

at its conclusion,

he
opinion,

had

in relation to these matters.


satisfactorily
replied
Crassus observing
that the applausewhich
followed
that the
was
givento Pompey on the supposition
approbationhe had expressedwas meant to apply to
then rose, and in the most honourable
my consulate,
now

commented

terms

goingso

even

that

he

owed

both

often

as

was

upon

to say, that it
still a senator
and

far

as

life and
he

as

country, he

beheld

I have

office,

owing to

was

citizen;that

me

he

my

presentedwith

was

in that

exertions ; and that


his wife, his home, and his

to
liberty

towards
me.
obligations
the whole of that
subject,
which

conduct

my

Not
scene

evidences
dwell

to

of

his

upon^this

of fire and bloodshed

in different ways
to
describe (and you well know
my styleof colouring*)
in those orations of which you are the supreme
Arisbeen

accustomed

tarchus,he drew
of expression.
I

with

the utmost

force and

was

next
sitting

to

saw
plainly

that

he

said,either

because

worth

while

to

moved

was

he

saw

cultivate

by

dignity
Pompey, and

what

had

been

that Crassus

thoughtit

which
friendship

self
he him-

that my actions had been such


or
neglected,
auditors of my praises
as to render the senate willing
:
"praisestoo, be it observed,from a person who was
self
under the less obligation
to me, inasmuch
as he himhad hitherto been generally
treated with slight
amidst my commendations
of his rival. This day has
placedme on the most amicable terms with Crassus.
had

were

In

the

original
\TjKvQovs, the small
to keep their colours.

accustomed

vases

in -which artists

132

CICERO.

OF

LIFE

THE

to
I pretendedwillingly
Pompey, moreover,
he openlypaid me,
receive the complimentswhich
whatever
might have teen his secret sentiments.
did
But
for myself,ye Gods ! in what a manner
as
auditor.
If
before my
I displaymy
new
powers
harmonious
ever
periods well turned expressions
profound conceptionand skilful arrangement have
From

"

"

themselves
suggested
in

was

word, I drew forth


the argument of my

conduct

of the

order
extinction
and

"

of the

plenty now
of

pomp

was

shouts

ears

The

applause. This

of

discourse

"

dignified

the

"

the

"

"

languageI

am

accustomed

topics. I' need say no more,


approbationI excited must, ere
your

this occasion ;

on

unanimityof the equestrian


of Italy the
generaltranquillity
remains of the conspiracy the ease
with
what
know
enjoyed. You

senate

the

it

to me,

as

to

the

treat

these

clamorous

this,have

reached

*."

senate

continued

for

some

time

stilloccupied

of Clodius,which
by the consideration of the sacrilege
all oppothey were
fullyresolved,notwithstanding
sition
from without, to make
the subjectof a trial
before the people. On a fresh motion
beingmade
the subject,
to
althoughClodius had recourse
upon
the most
to prevent it,it was
abjectsupplications
determined
of
nearlyin the proportion
by a majority,
business should be
four hundred
that no
to sixteen,
entered upon until the necessary billshould be passed.
On the other hand, the accused,assisted by Curio,
used every means
to excite the sympathy of his
the severity
of
faction,by frequent
haranguesagainst
The
the senators.
favourers of both parties,
from
and threats,
to more
were
proceeding
angry words
*

Ad

Attic, l.xiv.

consulate,returned
The

Atticus,who had been


to

Greece

in Rome

immediately after

letter of Cicero, recommending him to


proconsulof Macedonia, is stillpreserved.

duringCicero's
its conclusion.

Antonius, at this time

LIFE

THE

demonstrations
palpable

of

153

CICERO.

OF

when
violence,

Hortensius,

interfered with all his


consequences,
influence to obtain the middle
expedientof a trial
ous,
of Clodius was
before the praetor.The guilt
so notorifearful of the

indifferent
what

that it seemed

taken

were

means

bringabout his condemnation,and it was openly


then comin the proverbial
form of expression
monly
stated,

to

in use, that

destroyhim

to

leaden sword

even

*. His

would

be sufficient

however,
adversaries,

in their

No sooner
anticipations.
assailed by
the judgesappointed,
than they were
were
and in a shape
briberyof the most open description,
moralisat
dethe prevalenceof general
sufficiently
manifesting
to a most
extent, if they
astonishing
have not been calumniated
by Cicero. The evidence,
were

not fortunate

at the trial

moreover,

than

had been

was
itself,

far

favourable

more

who
since Caesar,
anticipated,

pected
ex-

was

prove the most formidable witness on the


side of the prosecution,
to
appearedthe least willing
to

make
the

any

which might lead


representation
Immediatelyafter the occurrence

indictment

was

bill of divorce to

to

on

which

viction.
con-

founded, he had, indeed,sent a


his wife,but when
called upon to

givehis
the

in the cause, he replied,


to
open testimony
of all present,that he was
utter astonishment

havingsustained any injuryat the


hands
of Clodius.
On being asked why, if such
the case, he had formallydivorced Pompeia,he
were
made the well known
reply,that the fair fame of the
wife of Caesar should not onlybe unsullied by actual
but uninjuredby the slightest
shade of suspicion.
guilt,

not

conscious

The

admiration.
faction at

of

had

answer

littleto recommend

Clodius,with a numerous
his back, was
too useful

his aspiring
not
projects,
furthering
at any

expense

and
"

there
Ad

can

be

Attic, i. 16.

it to

and audacious
an

instrument in

to be
no

propitiated

doubt

that the

154

THE

of injury
on
feeling
was,

this

on

LIFE

band
part of the dishonoured hussacrificed to the
occasion,readily
the

of
absorbingprinciple

honest in his
his

CICERO.

OP

Cicero

ambition.

evidence,althoughto

the

was

more

detriment

of

confidentlyrelied
beingable to establish an alibi,and produced
upon
witnesses who, notwithstanding
the testimonyboth
of Aurelia and of Julia,the sister of Caesar,as to his
that he
swore
confidently
presence at the mysteries,
that day at Interamna
This daringper*.
was
on
jury,
if
believed
for
it
could
have
been
a
however,
rendered
unavailingby the counter
moment, was
testimonyof Cicero,who made oath in his turn, that
Clodius had, on the morningof the day in question,
paid him a visit in his house on the Palatine Hill.
interests.

own

Clodius

had

The

terminated in favour
process, notwithstanding,
of the accused,since,of the fifty-six
twentyjudges,
five alone

had

honesty to give sentence against


The rest presented
their tablets inscribed with
him.
ever,
the character of acquittal
t.
Fully conscious,howthe

which

he had

been

brought
by the unbiassed evidence given in the cause
by
of mortal
Cicero,Clodius left the court with a feeling
hatred against
bun, which from that hour to the day
of his own
death was
unremoved, and immediately
of the

About

"f-In

dangerinto

eightymiles

the

from

city.

at Rome
as
generalprinciple
recognised
Judices"
well as Athens, of passing
judgment by ballot,each of the
inscribed
the
with three tablets severally
trial
before
was
supplied
I acquit,"
Conwith the letters A, C, and
NL, for Absolvo,

with the

accordance

"

"

demno, " I
evidence."

condemn," and
One

of

liquet,There

Non

is not

"

these,in the

same

as

manner

sufficient

or
elections,

at

was
by the "Judices" into a
passingof laws by the people,
box or urn, and the praetoron ascertaining,
by countingthem over,
unfavourable
the preponderance of favourable or
opinions,was

thrown

the

enabled
trial of

givejudgment accordingly.Plutarch
the "Judices" erased the letters on
Clodius,
to

expedientwhich

was

of

of two

one
offending

sometimes

adopted when

powerfulparties.

states

that at the

their tablets ;

there

was

an

hazard

156

LIFE

THE

was

native

of

which
talents,

for his

Antioch, celebrated

had

him

recommended

families
distinguished

most

CICERO.

OF

of

to

of the

some

and

Rome,

poetical

his

name

alreadyoccurred in this narration as, in earlier


days,the honoured and esteemed instructor of Cicero.
has

years before the law of the tribunes Silvanus


had
been passed*, ordainingthat all
Carbo

few

and

enrolled
strangers
should

be

as

citizens

considered

the confederate

by

entitled

to

the

states

privilegeof

provided they possesseda habitation in


Italyat the time, and gave in their claim to the
praetorwithin sixtydays after the date of the edict,
he had obtained,by the patronage of Lucullus,and
Romans,

the

entertained

generalsense

freedom

he had

of Heraclea
hitherto

in

of his

Lucania,by virtue

passedas

Roman

of the Heracleans

publicrecords

merits

t,

the

of which

citizen. But

the

destroyedin
the Social AVar, and, in the deficiency
dence,
of this eviaccused under
the Papian law, prohe was
viding
againstthe assumption of the rightsof
by persons unduly qualified.The procitizenship
secutor
Gratius
several
as

nor

the

that
propositions,

his

indictment

he had

never

the
upon
been enrolled

of their state

member

by the Heracleans,or if
that he had neither possessed
a residence in Italy,
within the time appointedto
givenin his name
self
readilypresentedhimpraetor. Cicero,who
his advocate, bestowingcomparatively
little
as

so,

founded

were

attention upon the refutation of the two latter counts,


devoted
efforts to establishing
his principal
nesses
by witfrom
*

A.

u.

c.

Heraclea,as

well

as

by

the evidence of

664.

"fIt has been generallybelieved,that the merits of Archias as a


poraries
greatlyexaggerated both by Cicero and his contempoet were
this
in general. Yet, as
opinionis founded only upon the
character of

few

epigramsin

the least of it,is yet open

the

to doubt.

to
Anthology,the subject,

say

LIFE

THE

Lucullus,the
with

fact of his

the freedom

to argue, that

time

OF

157

CICERO.

havingbeen formerlypresented

of the

if Archias

even

He

place.

then ceeded
pronot at the

was

citizen of

Rome, he richlydeserved, by his


geniusand attainments,to be reckoned as one.
If we
had only been acquainted
with
the general
a

features of this cause, and


in connexion
with it had

of Cicero
pleadings
gination
perished,imaaltogether
vocate
the geniusof the adsuggested

might have
to have
as likely
exertion

if the

of its powers, on
both with his taste and

suppositionhave

been

the

is

poet

Archias

one

roused

been

subjectso

no

ordinary

much

son
in uni-

to

Nor
feelings.
The

erroneous.

of

the most

would

the

oration

for

noble

tributes

harmonious
and
by eloquence;
plished
seductive,like all other productionsof the accomit was
delivered,
speaker by whom
by the
but possessing,
dently
indepensingular
grace of its style,
the higherrecomof these extrinsic ornaments,
mendation
of beingbut an echo to the true feelings
of
the orator,and of illustrating
a
topic which would
have
to a less imposing,and interest
givendignity
Amidst
to a far less skilfully
arranged discourse.

paidto

ever

the turmoil
crowd
to

the

literature

and

Forum, and before a


only
part accustomed

bustle of the

of auditors for the most

cramped arguments

and

conventional

idioms

it must
at least have been producedunder
litigation,
the double
advantagesof noveltyand contrast,
characteristics which
tion
seldom fail of ensuringadmiraunder judicious
management ; and Cicero himself,
whose literary
fame will at all times rival,if indeed
it is not thought to surpass, his oratorical reputation,
of

seems,

he

in the midst

of the feverish

pursuing,to have
of showing that
opportunity
was

now

of ambition

course

seized with
his best

aviditythe

affections

were

afforded by
calm
the more
delights
upon
described ;
those studies which he has so beautifully
stillfixed

158

the sufferer in

as

LIFE

THE

OF

CICERO.

calenture is said to have

constantly

before his eyes, the fresh pasturesand cooling


streams,
To make
from which
he is unavoidablydebarred.
of any particular
partsof this highlyfinished
and perfectly
tuned discourse,
would be almost to reflect

mention

Yet
of praise.
upon others which are equallydeserving
few will be unwilling
the passages in
to recal to mind
which
too

and

he defends

his

own

attachment

of the eminent
many
the whole
circle of
eulogises

rare

connected

far
pursuits
of his

men

among

that all

to

time,

sciences,
affirming
servation
bond, with a re-

by a common
in favour of poetry,which
he characterises
distinct in its nature
and unattainable
a divine
as
afflatus,
of intellectual
by the ordinary methods
exertion.
Rocks
and deserts,"
continues the pleader,
are

"

"

find

beasts

an

answer

to the human

influenced

are

and

song; and

voice

arrested

"

even

by the sound
the subjects
of

shall we, who have been


best instructions,
remain insensible to the

poets ?

ferocious

numbers

of
the
of

The

peopleof Colophongiveout that Homer


Chians prefer
the same
a native of their city.The
was
claim
the Salaminians
both in favour
appealagainst
of their own
and those of Smyrna confidently
island
dence
pointto the templeerected to his honour, as an evisuperiorto all. Many other cities are fiercely
this subject
of contention.
Can we,
the
at issue on
while such disputesare
raised respecting
a
foreign
and our
one
poet long since dead, reject
yet living,
both by his own
inclination and the authority
own
"

"

of the laws
and

; one,

the full force of his


celebrated

too, who

Pro

the

has devoted

all his studies

and
geniusto raising
name
gloryof the Roman

dering
ren-

?"*

Archia,viii.ix. Archias,as it may be ascertained from the


imitatingthe example of Ennius and
following
part of this oration,
had written in verse
the historyof the Cimother metrical annalists,
he was
recommended
of Marius,
bric War, by which
to the favour
the
of
Lucullus
and
againstMithridates,
subsequently campaigns
which ensured him another powerfulpatron. It seems
to have been

THE

LIFE

OF

159

CICERO.

much
This latter argument had, in all probability,
a
the questionto the
greaterinfluence in determining
of Archias,than all the evidence produced
advantage
in his favour ; but by whatever
arts his eloquence
tification
was
enforced,the orator had not the morprincipally
since it apit to be ineffectual,
of finding
pears
that his client was,
for the future,allowed to
remain
in possession
he
of the privileges
to which
laid claim,without further opposition.
In the autumn
of this year Pompey enjoyedhis
third and most splendidtriumph over
Mithridates,
occurred
the twentythe celebration of which
on
ninth day of September. The day appointed,
being
considered particularly
also that of his birth, was
which, from its
appropriatefor the ceremony,
and
formed,
magnificence
imposing circumstances

time

after its occurrence,


On
absorbingtopicof conversation at Rome.
for

some

two

former

and

Africa.

him,
the

in

with

and

occasions he had

the

whole

before

The

addition

eyes

of his admirers

the immense

regionswhich
we

and

divinities Bacchus

the

was

found

constituted
conqueror

be inclined to smile

ancient heroes

more

the

next,and

As

pageant,it was

duringthe

the eyes of the spectators


were
successive exhibitions of the gorgeous
indeed

common

historical

for all the

laureate,the

beingTheophanes of
that
of
his

the

his

whole

dazzled

trophies,

generalsof

person

who

that age to be attended


by an
fulfilledthe office for Pompey

littleimagining
Mitylene. Cicero,apparently

writingsvvould prove his best monument


mentions, that Archias had also begun
posterity,
own

and seems
consulship,
nervouslyanxious
should be completed.
subject

own

day

one

of that time
with

of

our

Hercules.

wholly insufficient for


to the end of the

Europe

compared
consequently

to the

and

now

the

acquaintance
layalike beyond his

may

was

onlyto Alexander,but

extended

of Asia

with
world; although,

knowledgeand his grasp,


and he
at the appellation,
not

triumphedover

the

in the eyes
to

celebrate

that the poem

on

160

THE

OP

CICERO.

stantial
subEast, or by the more
riches which were
the pointof beingtransferred
on
subdued
The
to the public coffers.
territory
with pompous
was
brevitydescribed in the temple
of Minerva, afterwards
built from
a
part of the
the whole
the
as
spoils,
region situated between
Meeotic lake and the Red sea, but in the procession
the conqueror
condescended
into detail,
to enter
more
himself as having subjectedby force of
describing
who
had infested
after his suppression
of the pirates
arms,
the Mediterranean
sea, the countries of Asia,
Pontus, Armenia, Paphlagonia,
Cappadocia,Cilicia,
Judaea,Albania, Iberia,the island of
Syria,Scythia,
Crete and the district inhabited by the Bastarnae,as
well as havingovercome
the two powerfulmonarchs
with glory
Mithridates and Tigranes
; thus finishing
of thirtyyears'
a war
duration,and making the province
of Asia,which had been hitherto the extremity,
One
dominions.
now
only the centre of the Roman
won

by

thousand
to have

the army

LIFE

of the

hundred
eight

cities and fortresses

were

said

been

reduced,eight hundred and forty-six


galleysburned or taken, and two millions of enemies
in the field. Among
or made
routed,slain,
prisoners
the captives
Aristobulus king of Judaea,the rewas
presentative
of the violated sanctity
of the Holy City;
a manifest
sign of the departureof the Divine protection
from which
had been exhibited by the presence
sacred part
of the heathen general
in the most
of its temple,after he had stormed
its ramparts, and

delugedits courts
Zozime,

with

wife of the

of their defenders.

the blood

king of Armenia,

and

his son, with the wife and children of the


sister of Mithridates and her five sons, the
the

pirates,and

Commageni, were
chariot.

the

The

most

ebony tree

the

hostagesof

also
rare

of India

led

in

the

bonds

Tigranes
the
latter,
chiefs

Iberians
before

of

and
his

of Asia,including
productions
balsam
and the famous
plant

161

CICERO.

OF

LIFE

THE

interest to the

Syria,gave varietyand increased


amidst
pilesof armour
spectacle,
of

fields of

battle,and

models

collected

from

acquiredby

of towns

assault.
The wealth,both in coined
or
capitulation
and jewels,
to
introductory
displayed,
money, bullion,
such as
its being depositedin the treasury,was

mightexcite doubts of the accuracy of the historians


it not at
it has been mentioned,were
by whom
time
th\esame
remembered, that the riches thus
acquiredhad been accumulatingfor years under the
from whom
princes
tyranny of the despotic
grasping
they had been wrested,and that the effect of Roman
such as to leave the countries
conquestswas generally
ed,
drainwhich had dared to offeran ineffectualresistance,
to the very

utmost, of their
of which

some
particulars,

exhibited

be

may

semi-barbaric

To descend

resources.

taste

thought to
the

on

part

to

have
of the

carried in the procession


a bust of
conquerors, there was
encrusted with pearls*,
the triumphant
entirely
general

goldencircled by a vine of the same


of stags,
lions,
metal,and covered with chased figures
and fruits of different descriptions,
a
goldenmoon
of
crowns
thirtypounds in weight,thirty-three
pearls,three statues in goldof Mars, Minerva, and
Apollo,a chess-board and counters made from two
largegems (probablycrystal)three feet wide and
and couches,
and several golden
four long,
cups, vessels,
which
richlyadorned with costlyjewelry,among
a

of solid

mountain

were

borne

formed
much

so

myrrhine,
from materials now
unknown, but
altogether
valued for their beauty as sometimes
to be

boughtat
*

several of those chalices termed

the rate of three hundred

Pliny,Nat.

this luxurious
constituted

Hist, xxxvii.

and

extravagant

the ornament
et feminis

prodigare
fieri tuos vultus,""c.

tam

6,who
use

of females

which

gem

only.

reperta,quam
"c.

In

bitter complaints
against

makes
of

talents each.

"

gerere

had

hitherto

margaritis,
Mnjrue,
te

fas

non

sit,hinc

162

THE

addition

LIFE

to this lavish

the abundance

OF

CICERO.

materials,
displayof precious

parison
might well sustain a comwith the goldenharvest reaped in after ages
Peru
the virginsoil of Mexico
and
by the

from

of which

soldiers of Cortez
thousand
after

talents*
reward

and

bestowed

Pizarro,the
added

was

to the

of fifteen hundred
each

upon

sum

of

twenty
publicfunds,
had

denarii

and
soldier,

common

the officers. It

one

been

profurther

portionably
greaterupon
ascertained,by the tablets presentedto the gaze
of the populace,that the revenues
of the state,
millions
which
had hitherto amounted
to but fifty
of denarii,
increased by the late conquests to
were
was

millions.
eighty-five
Such

the circumstances

were

of

pageantwhich

has

recorded as surpassing
all before it
ostentatiously
and indicating,
in splendour,
to a greaterextent than
any that had precededit,the irresistibleforce of the
and the militarygeniusof their
armies of Rome
who
formed
leader. Yet the star of the general,
the occasion the principal
on
objectof attraction to
multitudet
the envy
the enthusiastic and applauding
been

"

t No

sixtythousand pounds,
of the
at being reminded
displeased

three millions three hundred

About

Englishreader

description,in

be

can

reference

to

Pompey's triumphs,placed by

of the tribune
speare in the mouth
You blocks,you stones, you

O,

Knew

you

Have

you

To

lowers

Your

Pompey

climb'd
and

than

worse

of

men

Many

senseless

things!

Rome,

time

and

oft

up to walls and

windows,

infants in your

battlements,
chimney-tops,

to

yea,
and
arms,

there

have

sat

live-long
day,with patientexpectation,

The
To

not

Shak-

Marullus.

hearts,you cruel

hard

you

and

see

And
Have
That

To
Made

great Pompey pass the

when
you
Tiber

you
not

trembled

hear the
in her

saw

made

of Rome

his chariot but appear,


universal shout,
an
underneath

of your
replication
concave

streets

banks,
sounds,
her

shores ? "c.

Jul. CCBS. Act i. sc.

164

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

CHAPTER
of

Consulate
of

Pompey

Members

Lucius
with

Afranius

Clodius

Cicero

"

VI.

composes

Celer

Metellus

and

First Triumvirate

"

Characters

"

in retirement

Coalition

"

bis

of its

his

Historyof

Consulship Julius Caesar and Calpurnius Bihulus returned


Consuls
He is opposedby Cato
AgrarianLaw of the former
into
the Plebeian Family of Publius FonAdoption of Clodius
"

"

teius

to

of Cicero for Flaccus

Oration

"

Decline
to

"

of the Influence of

Pompey

"

"

Clodius elected Tribune


Caesar offers

"

his

Commission

Letter
Lieutenant,in the Gallic War
his Brother Quintus in Asia
Acts
brought forward

Cicero,as

"

"

of Cicero

dius
by Clo-

"

of his Tribuneship His Law


at the commencement
against
the arbitraryInfliction of CapitalPunishment
passed by an
"

He
People Distress of Cicero
appliesfor
and prepares to retire into
Protection to Pompey without effect,
Exile
o
f
draws
Public
He withExpressions
Opinionin his Favour

Assembly

of the

"

"

"

"

from

THE
after

Rome.

first exertion of power


his return
to Rome,

for
consulship

order

meanest

remarkable
the

Lucius

on

the

his

was

Afranius, a

of intellect and

procuringthe

candidate

the

only

to the interests of

influence the honour

whose

of

and
principle,

for his servile devotion

patron by

part of Pompey,

was

ferred
con-

election,
accordingto the
then prevalent
custom, was distinguished
by the most
the purchase-money being
unblushingcorruption,
distributed to the voters by the agents of Pompey in
open day, and in full sightof the citizens. The
better disposedpart of the community, however,
from the character of Quintus
comfort
derived some
had
of Afranius,who
Metellus Celer,the colleague
upon

him.

The

himself
occasions exhibited
as
many
and well-wisher
to the interests of his
patriot
on

His

constancy,in
put to a severe

the

earlypart

of his

true

country.

magistracy,
test.
was
Flavius,having
certain
broughtforward an Agrarianlaw, dividing
lands of Italyamong
the soldiers of Pompey and the
The

tribune

LIFE

THE

of

commons

165

CICERO.

OF

opposingit to the
committed
to prisonby

Rome, Mctellus,on

of his power, was


the greaterpart of the
Flavins,and when
utmost

attemptedto

accompany

the consul

to

his

Senate
ment,
confine-

tribune,having placedhis chair before


forbade their approach.
the prison
door,peremptorily
Such
the juristwho
facts
confound
attempts
the

to analyse the
accurately
They might, at the same

constitution

time,

of

Rome.

lead

any
research

one

to
this field of historical
entering
upon
of the existence of any governdeny the possibility
ment
administered by powers so diametrically
opposed

and

so

ill defined in their extent

and limits,
were

it

of the
authority
if not neutralised by the existence
tribunitial office,
of different opinions
invested
the body of men
among
with it,as was
the case, was
at all times
frequently
almost entirely
directed by the public
to which
opinion,
it owed
the mere
its existence,
and of which it was
not remembered

instrument.

that the anomalous

of the citizens was


so
indignation
this occasion,
that Flavins was
on
strongly
expressed
he had
to release the magistrate
speedily
obliged
whose reputation
in consequence
raised
was
insulted,
to a stillhigher
pitch. Cicero spokeupon the Agrarian
law of Flavius*
and
as
cautiously ambiguously,
delicate a subject,
the more
was
on
so
necesary
backed by the authority
of
as the bill was
especially
of making
Pompey. In consequence of his proposals
certain alterations and exceptions
make
which would
it necessary

The

to

re-model

the intervention of
it appears
In order to
as

the

it to

greatextent, and of
of consideration,
more
importantsubjects
doned.
abanthat the billwas ultimately
a

the election of

ensure

only means

of

Afranius,
Pompey,

the
securing

under his influence,


had
party acting
*

Ad

Attic, i. 12.

interest of the
been

to
obliged

166

THE

into

enter

he had

his

rival,as

the multitude
received

was

CICERO.

coalition with Clodius,although


partial
time affected in publicso close an
some

for

among

OP

intimacywith
He

LIFE

faction with

whose

the

by

with

to be

open

jestingly
designated
of Cneius Cicero*.

name

by

arms

the

turbulent

he thus

beganto be
prizedby his new

movements

but soon
found himself
identified,
all must
as
allies,
expect to be who act as traitors to
their own
convictions and principles,
from the hope
of self-aggrandisement.
Encouragedby his support,
and by his own
growingimportanceamong his partisans,
aimed
Clodius now
the
at
openly
tribuneship,
and began,
in conjunction
with Herenniust,who
was
himself tribune of the peopleat the time,to agitate
the
of causing
planwhich he afterwards carried into effect,
himself to be adoptedinto a plebeian
family,for the
himself eligible
to the office.
purpose of rendering
The
of such a step to Cicero might
consequences
have been foreseen,
but no
made
easily
attempt was
his

on

enemy.

them, by concessions to his


On
the contrary,he seems
to have taken
of provoking
him, by the exercise
opportunity
part

every
of that

An

non

he

Ad

instance

simulat, sed
now

he

likelyto

of this is

any
came

be

f Ad

given,Ad

planetribunus

the matter

was

mask,

to

results to himself
attended

J. The

Attic, i. 19.

Attic, ii. 1.

"c.
plebisfiericupit,
for the

able

never

mischievous

Attic, lib. i. 16.

without
solicits,
When

which

whatever

might appear
*

avert

sarcastic wit

with
restrain,
it

to

"

Ille antem

"

As

to

Clodius

of
tribuneship

before the senate

the ple.
peoI confounded
the

of
fellow,censured his inconstancyin standingfor the tribuneship
he would
Rome, when, but the other day, he declared,in Sicily,
I
that
had
said
real
stand for the aedileship.
to be
we
no
reason
in
the
of
character
h
ave
since
he
a
would,
no
alarmed,
plebeian,
the
than
for
h
is
more
distressing country
patricians,
opportunity

example he followed under my consulship. In the next


in an assemblyof the
that he had bJoasted
place,havingunderstood
Rome
in
of
seven
to
days from the straits of
having come
people
and that he had entered the cityby nightto prevent the crowd
Sicily,
whose

LIFE

THE

of Clodius

increasing
power
by
prognostic

which

at this time

was

OP

167

CICERO.

not the

was

only gloomy

horizon
political

the

At

darkened.

at Rome

the state

home

was

by disputesbetween the senate and


againagitated
the equestrian
order,partlyon account of the real or
imputed mal-adrninistration by the latter of the
publicrevenues, of which they were the farmers,and
shown
partlyon account of the partiality
by the
judgesin the recent case of Clodius. The common
the other hand, looked suspiciously
on
people,
upon
of unprincipled
both,and, under the guidance
leaders,
who

maintained

their
flattering

most

for any overt act of


the perplexity
of the
such

were
a

Gallic

Roman

war,

orders.
ruling
dailyto threaten

as

word

; since

ears

them
ascendancy over
by
were
ready
extravagantdesires,
violence,which might lead to

their

Abroad
the

all times

at

the Helvetii

ances
appear-

of
beginning

unmusical
known

were

to

to be

in which
for the expedition
making preparations
afterwards
discomfited by the geniusof
they were
Caesar,while the Sequaniand the ^Edui were
rising
in

to oppose

arms

On

them.

all sides the

elements

and onlyrequired
tinscattered,
laythickly
direction
and
sufficiently
arrangement of minds
their furyin a
powerfuland determined to discharge
tempest of terrible strengthand duration,upon a
turbances
state ill qualified,
from the effects of still recent disof discord

the shock.

to withstand
who

to

were

in

man's

strange
when, in three
a

out

come

to

coming

hours,

him,

meet

in

he could

the first time


not
; that it was
night;and that nobody hy goingout

he

his
The

approachwhen
pun,

obviam, ne

they ought to

however,
turn quidem, cum

contained

to

have

meet

done

in the last
iri maxime

nothing
to Rome,
Sicily
was

go from Rome
had entered

and

amna

there

from

days

seven
come

I said

him

to

the

Inter-

cityby

had obstructed

it most."

Melmolh.

"

clause,';non

esse

ittim

debuit,"has hardlybeen

and is,perhaps,untranslateable.
clearlytranslated,
themselves in his way," will,perhaps,
convey in some
double meaning of the writer.

"Had
measure

placed
the

163

THE

OF

CICERO.

this year, in fact,


dated the comis generally
mencement
of that well known
and fatal struggle,

From

marked
by
longseries of alternations,
desolation both of Italyand its tributary
provinces
the
sacrifice
of
thousands
of lives,
;
including

which,
the

LIFE

after

of the noblest and

many

lation
best of the age ; the annihitution
of the established forms of the consti-

of most
;

which

and, what

was

remained

amongst

the state
precipitating
of

of the little principle

worse,

its

members,

ended

"

by

tion
condifrightful

into the most

recorded in the pages of authentic


other contentions,
the last to
many

government

history. Like
which
the Republic was
in a
exposed,originated
its most powerful
secret leagueand compact between
citizens.

Similar combinations

for the

purposes

of

might have taken placebefore,


self-aggrandisement
with comparatively
little injuryto the constitution ;
but the

of

name

THE

FIRST

TRIUMVIRATE

student of the annals of Rome


to that outward
to

whatever

had, up
the

form

extent

to prepare

and semblance

the

time,continued
institutions
equitable
henceforth,to look

and, from
exhibition

of

of

to

arbitrary
power,

the

bid farewell

which,
liberty,

reality
mighthave

to this

more

warns

to haunt

been

absent,

the ruins of

periods,
preceding
for nothingbut the

of

either

on

its ascendant

well as
with its pretensions
as
fullyestablished,
its exercise,
its continuance no
less than its origin,
based only upon the aid and countenance
of military
force.
Yet, as the rise of so stupendousa fabric was
its decline
majesticand imposing,so neither was
without dignity,
its ruin unaccompaniedby circumstance
nor
or

well

calculated

and

interest of all ages.

the

stern

of
principle

clearlybe
many
was

traced.

The

insure

the

attention

In almost

every particular
retribution
impartial
may
sword

and
desolate,
regions
now

to

so

which
many

had

made

so

cities tenantless,

for years to be red with civilslaughter


; and

the

169

CICERO.

OF

LIFE

THE

long been employed in


subjectkingdoms,on the pointof

hands, which

had

so

chains for
forging
being yieldedto the manacles of domestic tyranny
had been
who
fierce soldiery
and oppression.The
conquest
employed as the instruments of effecting
about
themselves
to
and
abroad, were
spoliation
rivet and render indissoluble the yoke of degrading
bondage at home ; and the title of Roman,
hitherto

of

in

three

to
soon
signifythe
globe,was
most
abject of slaves, whose possessions

and
and

terror

the

quarters of
meanest

and

of distinction

sound

dependedupon

very existence

the mood

gloomy misanthrope,a brutal sensualist,or


invested
of a capricious
maniac, unfortunately
of imperial
the substance,
as well as the ensigns

even

with

power.

These

if they
results,

probablyhave

would
predicted,

been

considered

been

wildest and most

had

as

on

improbablecreations

level with

of

the

imagination,

Ctesar,havingreturned from his


with Crassus
of Spain,
in conjunction
entered,
province
at

the time

and

when

Pompey,

into the

short-lived

confederacy
productive

of such disastrous consequences


well as to the liberties of their

themselves,
as
country. The
motives actuating
each have been briefly
yet expressively
who
stated by an ancient writer,
has asserted
that

the

objectof

that of the second

the

first was

to

acquirepower,

to

and that of the third to


retain,
increase 'it. Thus
the partiesto this
influenced,
conspiracy
dangerous
agreedto layaside their mutual
and to devote all their efforts to the projealousies,
motion
to

of each other's interests. No


was

individual
stand

to be allowed

without

opposed to

drawing upon
The

very

terms

their

to be conferred

sanction,nor

the advancement

himself
of the

office of

the

of

resentment

coalition

quence
conse-

upon

any

any

rival to

one

without

of the

rest.

arguedits speedy

170

THE

LIFE

dissolution ; yet on

arranged,but
from

whatever

CICERO.

might have been


have been expected

basis it

issue could

one

the characters
and

OP

of those of whom

the ends

to which

it

it

was

intended

was

posed,
com-

to be

subservient.
If
the
of

made

attempt were

an

to delineate
accurately,

actors in the first part of


principal
which
and Actium
Pharsalia,
Philippi,

the

scenes,

the

of

powers

that

drama,
sequent
sub-

were

biographeror

historian
to

might,perhaps,hardlybe considered taxed


the prominent
any greatdegreeof exertion in placing
either of Pompey or of Crassus before
qualities

his readers.

The

dered
appears to have been renstances
much
by favourable circum-

former

great at least as
talents.
as
by his own
indeed
but
considerable,

were

entrusted

to his hands

he could

less ; and his highest


praisemay
that he never
acted
assertion,
to

army,

the

command

His

exploits
military

with

the

resources

have effected
scarcely
be expressed
by the
below

of which

he

The

them.
succeeded

in

plined
trained and disciearlyyouth,had been thoroughly
by his father Strabo, a generalof no light
in all pointssuperior
to
merit,and was, probably,
the illunited troopsof the Marian
faction;who fought
under all the dispiriting
producedby the
impressions
of a suitable leader to supplythe placeof their
want
celebrated chief,and the consciousness that theywere
His campaignsin Spain
cause.
engagedin a sinking
(who,
proved that he was no match for Sertorius,
extensive
a more
indeed,seems
only to have required
field for the displayof his talents,
to rank with the
first generals
of antiquity,)
sassination
since, until the asof that celebrated partisan
by Perpenna,
.

the

event

of the

war

continued

to

waver

in the

all the advantages


possessed
balance,notwithstanding

by

the

armament

forces

of the senate.

placedunder

his

With

prodigious
command, bearingwith
the

172

THE

auguringa

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

of those

consciousness of the want

higher

intellectual resources,
which, being sufficient in
themselves to excite and to keep alive the wonder
of
with any
others,enable their possessor to dispense
outward
Crassus,although
assumptionof superiority.

inferior to

Pompey

in the

extent

and

lustre of his

well as his abilities for war, and unsuras


services,
rounded
by the splendourof foreign
conquests and
and
in some
triumphs,was yet his superior
respects,
his equalin many
In the field he had proved
more.
himself at least an officer superior
to any of those
who

had

been

sent

before

with

him

the

command

againstSpartacus. At the bar he was known as an


eminent
pleader,thoroughly acquaintedwith the
of the then existing
theoryand practice
system of
class of
and endeared
to a numerous
jurisprudence,
the
well by his readiness to undertake
as
citizens,
of the poorestwho claimed his assistance,
cause
as by
the general
of his deportment.His immense
affability
time,ensured him the command
towards whom
thousands among the necessitous,
siderate
acted,probablyfrom interested motives,as a con-

wealth, at
over

he

the

and

same

liberal creditor.

He

was

not

unversed

in the

study of philosophyand literaturehimself,nor


of valuing
it in others; yet,his inordinate
incapable
and insatiable avarice

was

sufficient to have

obscured

than he at any
greaternumber of goodqualities
and rendered those to which he could
time possessed,
actually
lay claim, often insufficient to shield him
from the contempt and dislike of his countrymen. It
when
this vice,which
was
indulgedby
producing,
him, as disastrous effects as ambition in the case of
a

far

other men, caused him to countenance, if he did not


wards,
aid,the first designsof Catiline ; to conspireafter-

with

more

freedom

of Rome

Parthia

with the

the
against
dangerousconfederates,
to stain the sands of
; and, finally,
and to
blood of nearlyseven
legions,

LIFE

THE

add

the fasces of

OP

proconsulto

Roman

173

CICERO.

the

trophies

of the Arsacidse.
But

far
rising

botli his compeers, the third


of the first triumvirate presents

above

and greatestmember

limited skill in
no
require
and no ordinary
moral analysis
to appreciate,
power
The consummate
to define.
of language accurately
the ardent lover
writer
general the accomplished
of literature and philosophy,
blending"
character

which

it would

"

"

"

to

soldier's,
scholar's,
courtier's,
eye, tongue, sword,"

The

greaterextent

station

than

in ancient

or

one

any
modern

occupyinga

times

similar
alike

generous

"

friendshipand enmity devoid neither of the


of the refinements of perfect
nor
affections,
gentler
courtesy possessedof an eloquence,which, if he
in

"

"

had

not

ensured

been
him

the

of his age, and


allowed himself

contemporary

of

Cicero,would

of beingthe
reputation

first orator

wit, in which, if he
exercise it,he would

of

to

have

had

often

have

been

geniusas versatile as it
various ; and capableof turningfrom the most
was
abstruse subject
of investigation,
from the producor
tion
which
of those models of military
are
history,
of its
the only remainingmonuments
unfortunately
and satiric
task of humorous
power, to the lighter
the
with equal readiness and success
composition,

left without

rival

"

with

"

idol of his soldiers in the

by

the lower

orders at home

and
field,
"

with

no

less beloved

unbounded

power

if
to business,yet no
application
unwillingness,
were
offered,to enter into the
opportunities
fitting
dissipation
amusements, and sometimes the prevalent
of the time, and to win those to his interest by a
whom
he was
in pleasure,
unable to
companionship
direct means
such, in general
terms,
gainby more
individual who
the fated and gifted
was
now
began

of

"

to attract the gaze

of his

countrymen,

like the

bright

174

THE

eccentric

but

successors

OF

CICERO.

luminary which

his

as

LIFE

which

much
more
portending,
chief,
of coming misharbinger

his baleful influence

that he has

have
may
of armed

ruin

the

to

nation

extended.

was

More

equal in the
the .disposition
of
management
masses,
battles,and the rapid and skilful movements
by
which
victories are
both
ensured
and improved;
and althoughwe
data for
without very specific
are
we
judgingupon the subject,
imagine
may also easily
recent

times

his

by

but

emblem,

trulythan any such fancied


disorder,bloodshed,and
over

chosen

was

not

been

exhibited

without

and
popularassemblies,

over

wills and

interests the

in

his

rival in his

mastery

bendingto

his

inclinations

of

men

own

but

combining his militaryabilitieswith his


talent as a political
leader,his skill in debate, his
his proattainments,his winningmanners,
literary
found
and
is
be
ready address, to
sought,
judgment,
destined to exist,
the actors in ages
if ever
among
character

the calamitous effect,


Notwithstanding
of the ambition by which his better quamoreover,
lities
his
sacrifice
of
were
obscured,
unhesitating
all considerations,
but such as were
likelyto lead
the misery of
to his advance
to despotic
power,

yet to

come.

"

which
and

he

the

was

direct inflictor in his

the stillgreater
amount

time,

own

of after wretchedness

of

remotelythe agent, he has


succeeded better than any equally
queror
conunprincipled
and destroyer
in ensuring
the
of his species,
His
regardand sympathy of succeeding
generations.
and magnanimity
towards
clemency,his generosity,
which

he

those

who

dominion

was

more

survived

his

attempt upon
have effaced,
to

its success,
extent,the recollectionof the thousands
in the

and

"

and
previousstruggle*,

amidst

who

absolute

great
perished
a

the blaze of

dcs Romains, chap,x.)


et Decadence
Montesquieu, (Grandeur
shrewdness
than
this subject
with
on
:
uiore
observes,
charity,
"

THE

OP

LIFE

175

CICERO.

splendidendowments, the horrors by which their


exhibition was
accompaniedhave been almost,if not
forgotten.
altogether,
his

It is remarkable

all the

that

first triumvirate

in

were,

the

members

of the

early part

more

of their
the
the

of
aspiring
career, rivals for the favour
from
these stood
common
people. Remote
the Catuli,
party of the senators and patricians,

of noble
Hortensii, and other members
houses,
rallied by the iron integrity
and stoical patriotism
of
their leader Cato, and presenting
a firm front to the
innovations
with which
and
threatened,
they were
of their own
dailydefections of many
body to
the opposite
the faction to which
This was
cause.
Pompey afterwards had recourse, and which, as the
former
have deserted
partisanof Sylla,he should never
with his rival on
to contest the pre-eminence
the property of the latter ; since
groundexclusively
besides his claim upon their affections derived
Caesar,
from his relationship
to their well remembered
leader,
had won
the regardsof the Marian, or popular faction,
at the hazard of his own
by boldlyre-erecting,
the Cimbri
the trophies
which
over
personalsafety,
Syllahad ordered to be thrown down, and by bringing

the

to

while prsetor,the
reckoning,

severe

most

active

tor.
agentsin the cruelties of the ferocious dictaCicero,althoughsounded by the emissaries of
the possibility
of
Caasar,with a view to ascertaining

inducinghim
and

his

to

accede

to

alliance with

an

himself

studiously
kept aloof from
colleagues,
every party ; either led by his vanityinto a fear of
his own
in the republic,
compromising
highstanding
"

Cesar

new

pardonna a

que

1'on

tout

montre

le monde
apres

; mais

qu'on

a tout

ne

seuible que

usurpe

ne

la moderation

merite

pas

de

grandes louanges."The example is at least one which liasnot been


followed,and it \vould have been quite as easy,
very frequently
and

far

more

safe, to

of the
possessed

same

have
power.

imitated

the conduct

of

Sylla,when

176

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

by actingin

than that of the


any other character
in whatever
he was
principal
engaged*,or from an
into
insight

the

all such

binations.
com-

Metellus

and

pernicious
tendencyof
the consulate

During
Afranius,and

of

in the

earlypart of the succeeding


year, his letters indicate that he passeda considerable
part of his time at his villas near Antium, Arpinum,
in the
Pompeii,and Formiae, employed principally
in the
composition.of the historyof his consulship
and
language,

Greek

in Latin

in

After

verse.

the same
event
celebrating
sendingthe formert, with his

which
he had bestowed
his final
on
orations,
to his friend Atticus, who
had also,on
corrections,
his part,finished a work
this inexhaustible subject,
on
consular

for his

opinion,he transmitted it to Posidonius*


of Rhodes, a philosopher
whose
answer
sufficiently
member
of the complia true
mentary
proves that he was
school of criticism. In one
of his epistles,
written from
a
Rome, he endeavours to compose
difference which

had

Shakspeare,whose

amounted

bestowed

has

upon

Atticus and

mankind

seized

at

his

have

to

seems

in
intuition,

Cicero, has

characteristic feature in his

most

of

knowledge

littleless than absolute

to

he

notice

arisen between

the very limited


this
once
upon

in the
disposition,

scene

in which

the conspiracyagainstCaesar is formed.

Let

Casca.

what

But

Cassius.
Cinna
Metellus.

not

us

of Cicero ? shall
leave him

Will,

O let

purchaseus

us

have

him

him

out

out.

No, by

leave

we

no

means

; for his silver hairs

good opinion,

deeds.
our
buy men's voices to commend
It shall be said,his judgment ruled our hands,
Our youthsand wildness shall no wit appear,
And

But

all be buried in his gravity.

Brutus.

For
That

"

he will
other

name

never
men

him

not,

follow any
begin.

"

let

us

Ad

Attic, i. 20, ii. 1.

break

with

him,

thing
Julius

not

Cues.

"

Act

2, Scene

OP

LIFE

THE

In

brother Quintus*.

of the indifference of the

177

CICERO.

another,lie complains
bitterly
to
greatbody of the patricians

of the
well-being
them, no doubt with strictregard
state,and represents
their
attention to stocking
to truth,as payingfar more
their mullets to feed from
and teaching
fish-pondst,
vital

of
subjects

importanceto

the

In a
hands, than to their duties as statesmen.
third,written from AntiumJ, a place of retirement
in his temporary
to be luxuriating
in which he seems
himself up
and giving
freedom from public
anxieties,
to a state of listless enjoyment",he expresses a desire
their

Attic, i. 17.

Ad

from

arisen

into his

The

the refusal of Atticus

provinceof Asia,

letter upon

to

whole

his legate. The

as

is
subject

the

questionappears to have
Quintus Cicero,
accompany

difference in

of the beautiful
the

of

well

one
as
worthy perusal,
the epistolary
writingsof

Cicero.
compositionsin
One passage, "vidienim, vidi penitusque
which breathes
perspcxi,"
of friendship,
the very spirit
althoughit is impossibleto do justice
the
been
has
to
original,
elegantlytranslated by Mel moth.
lieve
beAmidst
the various vicissitudesof my life,I have witnessed,
Often
I have witnessed,
me
your joysand anxieties for me.

inost

finished

"

added to my
have your kind complimentsupon my success
often have your consolations in my trouble taken from iny
now,

while

excellent ad
afforded

mention

but
vice,

which

Need

much

at

for you

my
affairs in the

with my

to you

Forum

the

pursuitof
maintain

public honours, and

the

to
dignity

I mention

your

advice.

rest,with

Forum,
privateconcerns,

I have

? in

which

they have
which

been

now

raised
was

so

departureof my brother,
it is incompatiblewith my

In

my
with my

which

Need

be remiss.

? to which

concerns
my domestic
the
b
oth
after
and
before
loss,

and

toil,with

which your conversation


the state of publicaffairs? a

permitmyself to

never

can

in my

pursue, that I may


me.

'I notice

employments in

my

hitherto led

loss,not

pain. But
only for your

for those entertainments

Need

me.

in
subject

is my
absent,irreparable

are

you

pleasure
;

short,
business,with
affairs in the

that I should

with my
pleasure,
with
family,
my public,
be longerwithout
your
my

counsels,
endearing
your highlyvalued conversations."
in
nobility,
t" Ad Attic, i. 1. The extravagance of the Roman
The piscina,or fish-ponds,
is sufficiently
known.
were
this respect,

largesalt-water lakes,formed
See PlinyHist. Nat. ix. Ixxix

and stocked at immense

often
"

Ad

Attic, ii. 5.

" Ad

Attic, ii.4.

Sic enim

expense.

Ixxxii.

"

sum

ut
complcxusotiiiui,

ab

eo

178

THE

to visit

Egypt at

by

occasioned

by

his

from

his

CICERO.

self,
time, and relieve himcountry,from the disgust

future

some

absence

an

OP

LIFE

the

of
contemplation

state
existing

public affairs. Yet he quotes the languageof


of the
his shame
in the Iliad*,expressing
Hector
of

countrymen, and above all,that of


he representsas his Polydamas, if he
Cato, whom
should forsake his post at so importanta crisis ; and
"
asks :
What, in such a case, would be the opinion
with respect
to my conduct,six hundred
of historians,
of his

censure

"

years hence ?" In most

with

of

Clodius
hisepistles

is assailed

indicates that mising


uncomprobecome
no
objectof
trifling

earnestness, which

an

have

to

enemy
He

a
mentions, also, his having projected
pleted.
comwork, which he probably never
geographical

dread.

these

"With

until his return


year

694

A.

u.

his correspondence,
exceptions,
in

Rome

to

c., possesses

the

of

summer

the

littleattraction.

previous
arrangement with Pomstood for the consulship.
pey and Crassus,Caesar now
such aids,his success
With
the support of two
was
He was
littleless than certain.
accompaniedby both
effected
and his return was
to the placeof election,
his

Accordingto

without

But

trouble.

further

interest left to

the senate

at the

ensure

time

same

Between
devoted to their interests.
entirely
so
oppositein their sentiments,it
"c. *' I aui
queam,
violence
without
that I cannot
non

myselfwith

amuse

or

I count

and
fishing,

I have

Antium,
*

vi. 442.
Iliad,

would

How
And

the appointmen

CalpurniusBibulus,a patrician

of Marcus

divelli

cient
suffi-

had

trates
magiswas

not

fond of the leisure I enjoy


so
grown
1 therefore
he separatedfrom it.

at
books, of which I have a great number
my
the waves, for the season
is too tempestuous for
inclination to write."
Melmoth.
no
"

'Ai8s'o//ai
Tpwas

the

sons

Troy'sproud

of

dames

Attaint

the lustre of

Should

Hector

my

Troy

in

whose
former

Kul

TpaaSas e\Ke(nire7rAous,"c.

arms

renown'd,

garments

sweep

the

name,

baselyquitthe field of fame

Pope.

ground,

ISO

THE

ascertain

to

the

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

publicdecision with respectto his


filled by Pompey with a crowd
was

laws, the Forum


of armed retainers,
who on the appearance of Bibulus
accompanied by Lucullus and Cato, loaded them
with insult,
and after contemptuouslybreakingthe
fasces of the unpopular consul,drove both himself
and his train from
the spot. The
Agrarianbill,
which

related

the

to

division

of

certain

lands

in

then

passedwithout further opposition.


The
the
for
most
nobility,
part,dismayed
and dispirited
indications of a
by these outward
coalition which
boded no
good to themselves,were
almost entirely
deterred from
by the last stroke now
the feeble resistance they had lately
been encouraged
by Cato to maintain ; beingapparentlydeprivedof
them would prove but
all hope that the union against
transient,
by the marriageof Julia,the daughterof
time before,with
Caesar,to Pompey, who had some
sufficient cause, divorced his former wife Mucia, the
Campania, was

sister of Metellus

Celer.

adoptionof Clodius
Publius Fonteius,after

final

The

into the

layed,
longdeanother illomen
to the aristocracy.
was
Csesar,
nowthe
event of importance,
greatagentin every public
is said to have been the principal
promoter of this also,
provokedby certain reflectionsupon the character of
the times,which
had fallen from Cicero in a public
of justicewhile speakingin favour
of his
court
Caius Antonius.
racter
This noted chaformer colleague
himself in his provinceof Macedonia
conducting
of

much

as

he had

return, impeached and


and

it

odium
which

done

at

it had

family
plebeian

been

Rome,

condemned

on

his

banishment,

the general
to mitigate
endeavouring
againsthim, that Cicero made use of terms
those who
reportedthem to Ceesar represented
intended
to
as
convey a censure
upon himself*.
was

in

to

was,

Pro Domo

sua, xvi.

His part was

taken

that within

three

181

CICERO.

OF

LIFE

THE

and it is said
the instant,
upon
words
hours after the obnoxious

made
for the
were
uttered,all preparations
effected the same
adoptionof Clodius, which was
called " Arrogatio*."This
day, by the ceremony

had

been

in

consisted

summoning

into
thirtycuriae,

generalassemblyof

the citizens resident in Rome

which

their

to
divided,and submitting

were

allowed

be

ther
whepleasure,

be transferred into another

wishingto

the person
family should

the

he desired.
privilege
taken
time carefully

the

at the same
were
auspices
small
by the pontifices
; and it is recorded to the no
he assisted
of Pompey that,on this occasion,
disgrace

The

in

making

the

observations.
A terrible
necessary
thus let loose againstCicero, since

adversarywas
Clodius,the moment
of his

trammels

himself with the


tribune

as

it was
position

from

as
character,

the threats

long accustomed

he had

to which

of vengeance

the

free from

such
of his attaining
consequences
well
not difficult to conjecture,
as

known

his well

from

himself

found

patriciandescent,began to exert
his return
utmost
to secure
diligence
peopleat the approachingcomitia,

the immediate

and
a

of the

he

self
him-

openlyto giveutterance.
of apprehension
Whatever
his real feelings
might
be,Cicero pretended
perfectindifference to this serious

againsthim

demonstration

in

which

quarterfrom

dreaded.

Without

giving
himself the trouble to divert the tempest by taking
active part in publicaffairs,
to
or
an
endeavouring

everythingwas

enlist
*

The

to

party in
form

his

of the

be

defence,he

Arrogatiomay
The

Nodes

Attica:,v. 19.
of
to be adopted was
person
of minors, the transfer
case
was

then termed

ceremony
age, and

found
was

his

to have

rested

in Aulus

Gelliu*,

only used
own

master.

when
In

the
the

family to another,which
was
performedbefore
adoptio"or "adoptatio,"
was
precededby emancipationperformed in the
from

"

prsctor, and
"
usual manner,
per

the

be

seems

ses

et libram."

one

182

THE

in the

secure

and from whom

OF

to unite himself

he

with

whom

he

stillmore

closely,
to have received the strongest
if it should be required.He
being idle in the Forum, as
accused
of Flaccus,who was

seems

of assistance

assurances

CICERO.

of Pompey,
protection

endeavoured

now

LIFE

however, far from


is provedby his defence
Lselius of extortion in the province
of
by Decimus
Asia, in which he had acted as propraetor. From
this oration we learn,that he had also,in the former
part of the year, twice spokenin a priorcause, that
of Aulus Thermus, and that his client was
acquitted
was,

in consequence
of his exertions and eloquence.His
speech in behalf of Flaccus is remarkable for little
else than

with which
he attempts to
ingenuity
invalidate the testimonyof the Asiatic Greeks
by an
nately,
indiscrimiattack upon
the veracityof their race
and upon their own
branch of it in particular.
To

the

modern

readers

one

count

in

the

indictment

againstthe proprietor,charginghim with having


forbidden the exportation
of goldby the Jews of his
ferent.
provinceto the templeat Jerusalem,cannot be indifconfidence in
The orator,in his vainglorious
the stability
of his own
nation,and his pridein the
recent
conquest of Pompey, takes the opportunity,
when
of accusation,
of aptreating
upon this subject
pealing
to the event of war
as
havingdetermined the
relatiATe power
and Roman
of the Jewish
religions.
The whole system of the former he designates,
with
the usual careless contempt of his nation with

respectto

they had never


deignedto make
barbarous
and
a
observes,
superstition;
inquiries,
a

matter

with

on

grave

which

that

sarcasm,

the fact of its residence

havingbeen conqueredand enslaved,was a sufficient


proofof the degreeof favour in which it was held by
Flaccus
the immortal
Gods*.
mental
havingbeen instruat
as praetor in the seizure of the Allobroges
*

Pro

Flaccojxviii.

THE

LIFE

OP

183

CICERO.

Milvian

the

racy,
bridgeduringthe Catilinarian conspithe opportunity
of course
not suffered to
was
by way of an apoescape by Cicero of introducing,
strophe
threatened
his
usual
of
the
*,
description
horrors of the conflagration
and massacre
from which
the state had been delivered by his activity.He at
time expressed,
in no ambiguousterms, his
the same
consciousness of the tempest which
was
own
perfect
about

his head

to burst upon

part he

had

taken

in consequence
that occasion t.

on

indications of its

The

numerous
sufficiently

approachwere

to

be

obvious

than himself.
far less clear-sighted

to

of the

by

this time

an

observer

havingin
he had at first pursued,
abandoned the course
despair
the field entirely
after a feeble opposition,
to
and left,
his antagonists,
Clodius,by the interest of Caesar,
borne on the full tide of a faction now
was
completely
triumphant,to the office of which he had so longto the
ambitious,and declared,
of the uninfected part of

been

tribune

in

the

character

and

satisfact
dis-

community,
were
equally

the

comitia

consular

interests of the state,since


Gabinius
and
of Aulus
return
candidates

CalpurniusPiso,two

Lucius

dread

to the true

ended

they

The

elect.

unfavourable

Bibulus

aspiredto

ever

as

of

as

the

doned
aban-

honour.

Pompey, who had hitherto been littlebehind Cajsar


of Clodius
in obsequiousness
to the seditious partisans
and Curio,now
to repent of the false
began bitterly
step

had

he

taken,

findinghimself,instead of
led about
he had expected,

on

meetingwith the honours


he had
in triumph by the faction to whom
exhibited as
and publicly
sacrifices,
many
He

of its success.
*

Pro

had

not

ilia! quse psene seternas


Flacco,xli.
O

")"At
miserum

nox

nox

me,

ilia quam
metuo

ne

even

huic

made
a

trophy

the consolation of

urbi tenebras

"c.
attulisti,

dies consecutus, fausta huic


Pro Flacco,xli.
funesta nobis.
iste est

"

so

"

uvbi,

184

THE

LIFE

OP

the popularity
of
securing
in return

CICERO.

which

for his concessions.

he

was

ambitious

publicshow of
himself the exhibitor,
of which he was
he
gladiators,
hissed by the whole
was
assembly*. And at the
dramatic performancesof the Apollinarian
games, the
amidst an uproar
Diphiluswas compelled,
tragedian
and over
of applause,
to repeat over
again every
could be
passage which
insinuation against
him.

At

construed

an
containing

as

Cicero,on whose authority


these particulars
are
stated,adds in a subsequent
letterto Atticus : " Our friend,
tomed
unaccusonce
utterly
wherever
he moved,
to disgrace,
encountered,
"

and
by eulogies,

embarked

wretched

on

of

now
glory,
in
broken
thoroughly
a

sea

in appearance,
and
side to turn
knows
not on which
spirit,

is

"

his advance

and to retreat would


precipice,
full of dangerand uncertainty.The
good he
rendered
the wicked
his enemies,and even
are

impeded by

be
has
far

beinghis friends. Such is the tenderness of my


that I could not refrain from tears when,
disposition,
the eighth"
on
day before the calends of August,I
the
observed
him
haranguingthe peoplerespecting
and degraded
edicts of Bibulus.
How
humbled
was
from

the
such

man

who

was

once

by

to

appear

with

that very place,


the enthusiastic affection of the people,

circumstances

welcomed

accustomed

of

grandeurin

littledid
opinionsof all. How
the
he appear
not to mention
pleasedwith himself,
his auditors :
which
he excited among
displeasure
an
perhapsto Crassus,
unworthy spectacle,
grateful
but painful
else ; since he who was
to every one
now
compelledto descend from the starryheightof his
appearedto have
ambition,instead of gentlyfalling,
As for
hurled from the firmament.
been violently
myself,if Apelleshad beheld his Venus, or Protodefiled with mud, his feelgenes his famoiis Jalysus,
and

the favourable

Ad

Attic, ii. 19.

THE

ingscould

upon

OP

been

have

not

seeing one

LIFK

acute

more

whom

185

CICERO.

I had

than

mine, on

formerly lavished

glowing colours, and the most artful


*."
thus suddenlydisfigured
touches of my eloquence,
Pompey probablyowed this sudden burst of unpopularity,
Cicero's representation
(which, however, notwithstanding
to have been
of its universality,
seems
confined to the upper and middle ranks,)
principally
the

most

of the
of the real nature
suspicions
triumvirate which now
as to his
beganto be prevalent,
of the edicts of Bibulus ; who, from his retirement,
opposition
the Agrarian
had issued a protestagainst
law, which he asserted to have been passed under
and had ordered the consular
unfavourable
auspices,
comitia to take place later in the year than usual.
The result was
a
partialreaction in favour of the
neither of any greatextent
but this was
aristocracy,
of longcontinuance f
nor
his victoryover
Caesar after gaining
Cicero,did
motives
he
not, by whatever
might have been
to leave him to its
at first willing
actuated,seem
full consequences.
By virtue of a law brought
forward
by the tribune Vatinius, he had been
invested with
Gauls
the government of the two
and Illyricum
for five years, and entrusted with the
as

well

to the

the necessary contingent


as
legions,
for maintaining
peace in his province. He now, from
command

of four

*"'

assassination

the

Attic, ii. 21.

suspectedof having
ing
plotfor the purpose of raisingthe decayits
for
having
pretended objectthe
triumvirate,

at this time
"f-It was
contrived a kind of mock

credit of

Ad

of

Pompey.
as
Vettius,alreadyknown

Caesar

that

was

also

principal
agent employed in it was
informer
scale after the
a large
upon

The
ap

to he implicated
conspiracy.
persons endeavoured
the younger
were
Curio, Quintus Coapio,Brutus, and Lentulus,
of the pontiff.
son
(Ad Attic, ii.24.) Vettius,however, failed in
afterwards found
dead in
his charges,and
was
soon
substantiating
the
or poisoned,accordingto
having been either strangled,
prison,

Catilinarian

popularreports,by

The

the secret

orders of Caesar.

186
a

THE

LIFE

OP

of generosity*,
as
feeling

CICERO.

Cicero

seems

to have

lieved,
be-

from a wish
likely,
of ophimself from all future apprehensions
to secure
position
him
from so gifted
an
by reducing
antagonist,
offered to take him as
to the station of a dependant,
drawing
his lieutenant into his government,and, by thus withthe
from
him
him from the city,
to secure
of Clodius. Cicero,
resentment
however, thoughtit
best to decline the offer,
stillresting
brance
upon the rememhis interest with the
of his former services,
senatet,and, above all,the favour of Pompey. To
the latter support, indeed, he seems
to have clung
with a pertinacity
littleshort of infatuation,
although
he was
not without
as much
groundfor it,as might
asseverations of his
be comprehended in the solemn
pretendedpatron. In one of his letters written about
the
"I am
this time to Atticus, he observes :
on
and affection with Pompey.
terms of friendship
highest
-Do you really
believe this ? you may ask. I do,for
I am
persuadedof his sincerity.Clodius
thoroughly
continues his threats and denunciations,
but Pompey
that
affirms that there is no danger; he even
swears
or

rather,as

it is far

more

"

"

he will sacrifice his

liferather than

own

allow

me

to

in another epistle
injury:"and again,
+
friend
first
the
at
t o
:
same
Clodius,
designing
is genean
attempt upon the government, which
rally
consideration of
after a more
mature
detested,
and military
the resources
at its command,
strength
turned all his fury upon
has now
threatening
me,
indictment.
with open violence,
as well as a public
me
with him
Pompey, however, has pleadedmy cause
formed
he has himself inmost
as
strenuously,
representing,
the
other testimonyon
no
me, (and I have
subjectthan his own,) that he should be liable to a
if he allowed
and iniquity,
chargeof the basest perfidy
whom
he
from a man
me,
any danger to overtake

sustain any

"

"

Ad

Attic, ii. 19.

f Ibid.

Ad

Attic, ii.20.

188

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

;
urgedon Clodius to the attack he was meditating
and although
he was
induced,by the prospectof an
unpleasant
inquiryinto some partsof his late conduct
which
the pointof beinginstituted,
to with
was
on
-

draw

into the

suburbs, under

the

pretenceof

pleting
com-

his levies and

for immediately
making preparations
of
he is suspected
out for his province,
setting
havingpurposelydelayedhis departurefrom Rome,
until the result of the presentmovements
of his agent
should

time, Cicero,
Clodius,found
preparations
against

be determined.

amidst his anxious

In

sufficientleisure for the


to
epistle

his brother

government
which

of Asia

the

mean

of
production

Quintus, on
to

the extension of his

the close of another

it is difficult to say whether

firstrank

that inimitable

year, by
his claims to the

or a statesman,
a moralist,
philosopher,
Without
best and most
are
fullyconfirmed.
any
the beauty and aptflourish of rhetoric,
ness
unnecessary
habitual to his compositions
of expression
are
as

lencies
excelparagraph;but the mere
while
of languageshrink into insignificance,
the reader is continually
led on
to a higherpointof
ness
of sentiment,the soundadmiration,by the nobility
of judgment, and
the grandeur of principle
portance
No pointof imwhich
it uninterruptedly
exhibits.
of a provinceis left
in the administration
without
comment, in this brief but comprehensive
trovertible
the justand inconmanual
of government,in which
that
is fully acknowledged,
proposition
observable

power,

in every

wherever

surrendered

givenmerely in trust,and
not the

means

happinessof all.
assumed
by the Roman

of
Even

to

as

an

is
individual,
any
creasing
instrument
of in-

enjoymentof
the

one, but

right of

the

taxation

government,instead of being
claimed on
the groundof conquest,is represented
as
from
based on the safeguard
afforded by its protection
the
the capricious
tyranny which formerlydisgraced

LIFE

THE

annals

of

victorious

Asia, and
from

arms

OF

securityheld

the

this
later

its

by

out

invaders.

barbarous

more

sophistrycontained in
been preserved
to much

189

CICERO.

The

has
argument, which
times,is,indeed,easily

acknowledgedto be the
advanced
towards a
of an age considerably
sophistry
of equity,
and
due appreciation
of the greatprinciples
no
longerdaringto triflewith the considerations of
overthrown; but it must

be

rightand wrong in the brutal exultation of its


in .physical
superiority
strength. The affectionate
is reand sobriety
the epistle
for which
earnestness
markable,
itsleast interesting
not among
are
features,
the absence of all flattery
from its honest yet
nor
friendlyexhortations;since Quintus, althoughdue
praiseis bestowed upon the rest of his conduct,is
bility,
and unhesitatingly
warned
that irritafreely
against
which, although accompanied with much
which

was

in him

seems
excellent,

have

to

been

sparedin cautioning
this importantdefect,
and the
his hasty
remarks
of overcoming
as to the best means
temperament, are distinguished
by the soundest practical
exhorted
sense*.
Quintus is finally
by every
No
frequentfailing.
him on the subject
of

The

counsel

suddenly

times, whatever
ours.

as

follows

"

"

It is not

out

be the

this failing,
(andI know

now

object

my

undertaking difficult at all

fixed

habit,an
disposition,
and, more
that
This,however, is my advice,

to root

like

given is

advice is

at an
especially,
age
if you cannot
altogether

tiiatthe action of

passionis sometimes
the mind to allow of the anticipation
or
too rapidupon
prevention
hand,
of reason,)
m
ake
it beforeat
will,
least,
preparations
against
you
and
and
necessityof
daily meditate upon the propriety
when
that
the
is
at
moment
restraining
it,reflecting,
your mind
it is most
most
excited,
important to refrain from givingutterance

avoid

to

your

feelings
;a

virtue

which

being conscious of the emotion

in

appears to

not

me

question. The

property of a sober,is also,at times, that of


both one's sentiments
; but to moderate

less than

as
latter,

mere

and

never

it is the

sluggish
disposition
their

expression
when
and to hold
angry, or, what is more, to keep absolute silence,
under one's control both indignation
and disappointment,
although
it does not reach the heightof absolute wisdom, makes, at least,
no
advances towards it." Ad Quint, i. 1.
mean
"

190

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

to have
sciousness
conargument likely
weightwith his own
of
of the importance
of the duties required
to be
him, or with his regardfor his reputation,

studious in his endeavours


his administration

to render

the last year of


conspicuousfor benefits

stillmore

had
than the two which
province,
it be the object,
I beseech you,"
concludes his correspondent,
"of your most strenuous
and unremitted exertions,
since Asia maybe considered
with spectators
of the most
as a vast theatre crowded
refined judgment,and so constructed,
that whatever
is spoken there,finds an
immediate
echo at Rome,
not only to appear worthy of such a stage and such
inferior to the
an
audience,but to make both seem
of your merits.
It is my earnest prayer and
display
the example of the best
exhortation,that,following
anxious,as
poets and performers,
you will be most
conferred upon his
precededit. "Let
"

the close of your office draws on, to make


the third
like the third act of a
year of your administration,
ation.
of admirdeserving
And
this you will easilyaccomplish,
if,in
1
approbation
imagination,
me, whose single
you depict

drama

the most

"

and
perfect

best

sides,
confident you value above that of all the world be-

am

at
constantly

as

interest in
The

your

everything
you

attention

of Rome

upon

the

them

alterations of

and taking
an
side,
do
was

anxious

say."
now
earnestlyfixed
of Clodius.
tribuneship

or

openingscenes of the
this fearless
and without hesitation,
Without disguise,
four
innovator broughtforward, in rapidsuccession,
and two of
a considerable change,
acts,each involving
A

great importancein

distribution
gratuitous

of

of the ceremony
people a prohibition
at the meetingof assemblies
auspices
which

might almost

of their power
*

This

wasprovMed by

to the
the Lex

corn

ment.
governthe

to

takingthe
the people,
a

of

"

custom

the

of

be considered

the

keystone
aristocratic party* a

JElia de

"

Comitiis,which, as well

THE

LIFE

OF

limitation of the
either of
upon

one

any

of the
authority
them
to place a

without

the

191

CICERO.

ding
by forbidof ignominy

censors,

mark

concurrence

of his colleague,

to inflictthis

punishmentupon citizens who


had not been formallyaccused before them, and condemned
after a fair trial and, lastly,
the restoration
of a number
of corrupt guilds,
civic fraternities,
or
which had been abolished by the senate,for the purpose
of instituting
others in their place,
the prinwere
cipal
embraced
subjects
by these first enactments; in
of the last,
there does not apwhich, with the exception
pear
much
of very serious censure, although
deserving
doubt intended to bo introductory
to the
no
they were
or

"

blow

which

movement

was

was

to effect the ruin of Cicero.

His

next

of
the provinces
decreeing

to propose

Syria,Babylonia,and Persia,with
a

Parthian

war, which

the power of commencing


would have afforded an

extensive fieldfor peculation


and

to Gabinius;
plunder,
and Macedonia, with Achaia, Thessaly,
and Bceotia,
All things
to Piso.
beingnow ready for his ulterior
design the triumviri havingbeen alienated from the
the senate terrified into
objectof his resentment
inaction
the favour of the consuls secured by prospect
of the rich provinces
held out to them
and the
"

"

"

"

the

Lex

Fufia,Clodius,either at this time, or shortlyafterwards,


formallyrepealed. The former, brought forward by the consul
Quintus jElius Foetus,A.U.C.
currence
587, not only decreed,that the ocof an
unfavourable
if
a
omen,
magistrate,
reportedby
should be sufficient to stop the proceedingsof the assemblies, but
that the intercession,
although without the assignment of a reason,
of any magistrateof equal rank with the one
who
was
or
picsiding,
of a tribune,
should have the same
even
effect. The Lex Fufia,
of days on
A.U.C.
which
laws
618, limited the number
were
a
llowed
to be passed. Dio
previously
(xxxviii.
13,)relates that

as

Cicero had

firstresolved to oppose the acts,and for that purpose


had cng.iged
the tribune Ninius to placehis veto upon them ; but
that he was
prevented by the arcifices of Clodius,who protested
at

he had no ulterior designngainst


him in bringingthem forward.
allusion to the circumstance, however, is to be found where it
might be most expected,in the correspondenceof Cicero himself.

that
No

192

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

peopledevoted to their leaders by the laws


Clodius at length
proposedfor their benefit,
gated
promulhis famous
was
act, that whosoever
proved to
common

have

put

to death

Roman

citizen without

form

law, should be interdicted from fire and water, or,


other words, permanently banished from Italy.

of
in

Cicero

might have been supposed by


this time to be fullyarmed
againstan event which
he had longcontemplated
and latterly,
as
as
possible,
likelyto happen,the appearance of the
exceedingly
statute in question,
to have fallen upon him like
sesms
thunderbolt.
His
a
fortitude,his philosophy,his
Although

sense

forsook

of his
him

own

at

almost
dignity,
once.

Stunned

his very
by the

reason,
sense

of

borne down
and, in the
by apprehension,
calamity,
not
to
extremityof his distress,
knowing to whom
subjectto all the bitterness and
appeal,he was now
which
that individual may
be supposedto
anguish,
who
has neither courage
tune,
to defymisforexperience,
to endure
it. In his humiliation
nor
patience
No
less
far from being deserted.
he, however, was
than twenty thousand
and equestrian
of the patrician
order,headed by Publius the son of Crassus,an army
of suppliants
who might have been changedinto one
of effective defenders,
if they had been possessed
of a
resolute leader,
the garbof mourning.
at once
assumed
A vast number
and
of these assembled
in the Capitol,
resolved to send a formal deputation
from thence to
At a meetingof
appealto the senate in his favour.
that assemblyheld in the templeof Concord,the whole
order entreated Gabinius,with tears and vehement
ing
in his behalf,and on receivto interpose
supplications,
in replynothing
and
but contemptuous answers
sarcastic remarks,resolved,
the motion
on

of the tribune

of the consuls,
Ninius,and in spiteof the prohibition
their sympathy with the subject
at least to testify
of
their useless intercession,
vests.
on mourning
by putting

THE

LIFE

193

CICERO.

OF

the knightsand middle


ranks
even
among
gave indicationsthat theywe re readyto arm, and resist

Many

the

of the
passing

law

force. But

hy open

who
Cicero,
had been advised hy Cato, and Ilortensms,as well
had lately
as Atticus,\vho
joinedhim at Home, to

submit
state

all extremities rather

to

by

contest,mischievous

but

rendered

of the

than

convulse

under

stances,
circum-

any

hopelessby
entirely

legions
formingunder

Caesar in the suburbs,chose

the

the

presence
of

the command

rather

to continue

his

efforts to soften his adversaries


submissions.

In accordance
with

consul

Piso,

himself

and
by supplications
witli this plan,he condescended,

in

his

and

son-in-law,to

humbly

his behalf

to

wait

upon

him

entreat

to

the
exert

his

with

and
the
colleague
he was
people; but in this application
compelledto
submit to a mortifying
repulse.He was informed
that Gabinius,who
in the most necessitous circumstance
was
from which he could onlyhope to extricate
himself by the government of some
lucrative
of any such appoint
province,
havingno expectation
-

ment

in

from

close

the

to
obliged

senate,was

alliance

with

unite himself

Clodius ; and Piso further


to yield
part,he was obliged

added,that,for his own


in many
as
Cicero,
respectsto his partner in office,
his
had formerly
done to Antonius;
consulate,
during
that there was no need, in the presentinstance,
of the
but that every one
patronage of any individual,
and must
submit
to
ought to take care of himself,
stand or fall by his own
merits*.
*

Cicero,(InPis. vi. ) who


and who

connected

good

did not spare Piso

on

with it afterwards,
has drawn

of the consul

the lowest

had

on

this

reason

account
a

most

to

the interview,

remember

of the reminiscences

undignified
picture

occasion,
statingthat he found

him

in

of
one
had spent the previous
his feet and his head muffled up.

haunts of Rome, in which

he

with slippers
on
nightin drinking,
He also sneeringl}t
hat
for his situation,
Piso, as an excuce
relates,
informed
of
that
his
ill
health
on
account
he
him,
was
obligedto
O

194

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

The

the law of
assemblyfor determining
general
Clodius respecting
infliction of capital
the arbitrary
convened in the Flaminian
at length
was
punjshment,
The tribune,according
Circus.
fully
artto Cicero,had
summoned

to the

spot the most zealous of the


of Cicero,
under pretenceof compelling
them
partisans

givean account of their late conduct. No sooner had


rounded
they appeared,however, than the banditti who surinstructed
him, and who had been previously

to

how

to

act,first saluted them with

and then fell upon

them

with

shower

of stones

drawn

swords,severely
the rest to a preciwoundingmany, and compelling
pitate
the
flight.Hortensius,who was
among
was
nearly killed in the tumult, and
fugitives,
Vibienus,a senator,either slain upon the spot, or
carried mortally
off the ground. After this
injured
seasonable intimation of his superior
dius
Clostrength,
openedthe business of the meetingby asking
the sentiments of the consuls upon the subject
of his
Gabinius
act.
answered,that he had alwaysutterly
of putting
citizensto death without trial,
disapproved
and Piso, that he was
to every instance of
averse
who by the selection of the placeof
cruelty.Caesar,
to be present,on
meetingwas privileged
beingnext
desired to express his opinion,
stated that his views
the subjectof capital
on
punishmentwere
already
known
if
sufficiently
; that he approvedof the statute,
intended to possess a prospective
but that he was
force,
to consent to any ex post factolaw, bearingunwilling
reference to an event on which it was
now
superfluous
On
this declaration,
to legislate. receiving
which,
while it was
no
neutral,gave, in reality,
apparently
the edict,
small weightto passing
the centuries proceeded
their
and
the
Clodius
of
to
votes,
requisition
received the stamp of the popularassent. The
speedily
have
him

recourse

to

-wine

for keepinghim

and
medicinally,
bitterly
inveighsagainst
the
standing,
during
conference,in the filthy

den to 'which he had been introduced.

196

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

His friends
contrary to the will of Caesar*.
had been, in the mean
time, busy in making a second
appealto the consuls,but Piso again assured them
for him

neither

that

he

his

nor

son-in-law

Cassart

Clodius,while Gabinius
oppose
their intercession with his usual insolence.

venture

could

treated

to

end ;
at an
being now
his submission
havingbut tended to degradehim in
the eyes of others,and perhaps in his own
; and the
his remaining
only alternative to ensure
beingthat
Rome
into confusion and bloodshed ; he at
of plunging
firmness
lengthsummoned
enough to tear himself
connected with so many
from a citywhose aspect was
of which
he had been declared
pleasingrecollections,
All

the

expectationof

father

and

thing dear

to

succour

he left every-*
preserver, and where
of his temperament
one
honour,
"

applause,distinction,the
"

had

council,in

often

so

which

been

in which

arena

exercised

his

"

the

his eloquence

place of
earnestly

opinionshad been so
the crowds
over
sought and so reverentlyreceived
he had
to
whom, in the prideof genius,
delighted
his influence, his retainers,
his friends,and
exert
those who were
connected with him by yet dearer ties.
His last publicact before his departure
to ascend
was
the Capitoline
Hill,lookingdown upon his favourite
Forum, with a small image of the tutelaryGoddess
of Wisdom, which
he had
long kept in his house
with great reverence, in his arms, in order solemnlyto
it in the temple at the summit, with
consecrate
this inscription,
TO
PROTECTRESS
OF
MINERVA
THE
He then returned to his house,and after waiting
ROME.
until nightfall,
with an
left the cityin company
immense concourse
of his friends,
who intended to accom
"

"

Ad

Attic,

f Cesar had
of Piso.

x.

4.

married
lately

his secoiid

the daughter
wife.Calpurnia,

LIFE

THE

him

pany

197

CICERO.

his road toa distance of two

on

days'
journey.
lamented
by the only

good,and
approbationwas

all the

Regrettedby
whose

party

OP

worth

possessing;

under circumstances
from which
retiring,
moreover,
the least gifted
with foresight
might have augured
him
his recal at no distant period
; he carried with

into

exile every alleviation of such


which
except that firmness of spirit
which

whole, and without


could be

receives

Exile

His

"

rased

the

to

Commission

VII.

Letters

"

Clodius
Tribunes
him

at

Senate

"

ground by Clodius-"
Cicero

Cyprus
"

embarks

for

Terentia,

and

and
to

Rome

at

Milo

"

Sets

Tarentum
Atticus

to

upon
arms

on

He

"

proceedsto

in

Riots

"

Foreign

Thessaloniexcited

Cicero

by
the

and

Quintns
Body of Gladiators against

Two

all Freemen

summoning

is sent

"

the

between

Cato

Kpirus Repairs to

Attack

His

"

in the Forum

Skirmishes

"

Rome

to enter

to

Brundnsiuin
ca

of consolation

Sicilyby the Prastnr Cains Virgilius


at Vibn of the Decrees
sanctioninghis
Intelligence
his
House
Estates
at Rome
are
plundered,and

forbidden

He

the

availing.

CHAPTER
Cicero

worth

was

form

no

misfortune,

Parties

of the

Decree

"

the Interests of Cicero

to

disembarks

at
Epirusand
Tullia
His
Brundusium,
daughter
by
Favourable
and
Triumphant Progress
Receptionat
throughItaly,
the Capital.
"

He

is recalled

"

he

where

out

from

his

is met

"

SICILY,where, from the recollection of his past


he naturally
services,
expectedto find a welcome
the placewhich
and a secure
retreat,was
reception
and
Cicero firstselected as the scene of his banishment,
he protowards
which, after leavingthe capital,
ceeded
sive
on concluby slow journeys.He is supposed,
towards
the
evidence,to have quittedRome
end

month

of

earlyin April to

have

by

of

This

his

own

the

is rendered

almost

account, hindered

March

A.

reached
certain

u.

c.

696

Naryx,

an

and

ancient

by the fact,that Caosar,who,

the Heh'etii

from

making

their ap-

198

cityof

Locrians

the

in

of despair
were
feelings

That

Graecia.

Magna

ismanifest

him

yet strong upon

the

his

from

place,which
weakness, and
"

CICERO.

OP

LIFE

THE

to Atticus,written from
epistle
affords a lamentable
testimonyto
of mind :
utter prostration

his

"

Cicero sends health


when

I may
to thank
you

I wish

to Atticus.

I shall have

see

the

for

having induced

the

friend,do
presentmoment, bitterly,
my

day

this

to

me

of that resolution.

Hasten

reason

spare

life.

own

my

At

repent

immediately,I entreat

at Vibo, whither,for many


me
reasons,
you, to meet
I have determined upon journeying.If you joinme

consult together
may
upon the future steps
If you do
retreat.
to be taken with respectto my
not comply with my
request,I shall find it difficult

there,we

account

to

expect you
From

absence.
But
I confidently
for your
will not disappoint
my expectations*."
his next

Naryx

in his

citymentioned
Lucania,and

entertained for

was

to
according

his

Plutarch,at a
named
Vibiust, on

house

the

situated in

In its vicinity
he
at the farm

of

Sica,

or

he had

whom

formerlyconferred
while

Bnt

of kindness.

marks

towards

to that
according
him
by a Sicilian
assigned

account,

own

of

was

sea-coast.

short time

was

which
letter,

the

near

removal

waitingfor
he was
met
an
opportunityof embarkingfor Sicily,
then preetorof the
by a notice from Caius Virgilius,
suffer him to set
island,that he would by no means
instance of infoot in his province. This was
an
many

pointedmovement,
Kalends

of

which

to

was

April,(the26th

of

have

commenced

the 5th

March,)in

this year ; and

his

time

of the

who,

enough to
eight days'journey,reached
province
of
13th
the
with
their
for
chiefs
the
ensuing
appoint a meeting
the
Cicero
had
from
did
Rome
until
not
city.
month,
departed
quit
-De
iii. p. 185.
Bello Gall. lib. i. ; Fasti Hellenic!,
after

Ad

Attic, iii.3.

It is not

persons

might

impossibleto
have

been

reconcile the

Uvo

his hosts in succssion.

statement?.

These

LIFE

OP

which
gratitude

he had

not

had

occasions

TOE

former

on

since Virgilius
expected,
been laid under repeated

by his patronage and


obligations
He

hesitated

between

Brundusium

for

now

at

island of Malta

assistance.

the

of
p"ojects

barking
em-

to the
Greece,or retiring

while

and

199

CICERO.

meditating
upon

these

of his sentence,
plans,received the news
extension.
and its subsequent
from
Clodius,on beinginformed of his departure
in following
had not lost a moment
the city,
up the
which he conafforded by his flight,
strued
opportunity
an
as
acknowledgmentof his weakness, and
the base of his
that of his party, for framing,
on
late edict,a particular
rogationor law, which he
expectedwould permanentlyprevent the possibility
him at Rome.
of a return of his adversary
to disquiet
The decree proposedon this subjectto the people,
which he found no difficulty
in carrying,
to have
seems
been nearlyas follows :
different

"

"

Whereas
form

or

ing
Tullius Cicero has,without hearof trial,
put to death certain Roman

Marcus

and
citizens,

purpose forgedthe decree and


will and
senate ; be it with your

for that

of the
authority
that
command, Quirites,
use

of fire and

whosoever

has

recalled from

any
whatever

of

the

bour
to harpresume
death ; and that

motion, giveany vote, or


his return, shall
unless those whom

towards

publicenemy,
unjustlydeprivedof

lifebe

previously

the dead*."

This

however
edict,
the
sufficientto satisfy
clause extended
within

interdicted from
one

no

pain

on

shall make

assist in any way


be considered a

Cicero

; that

water

receive him

or

he be

four hundred

and

severe

was
arbitrary,

hatred of Clodius.
the

interdiction to

not

An

tional
addi-

all

places

Italy,and ordained
that the goodsof Cicero should be exposedto public
auction. An indiscriminate spoliation
of his property
*

miles

Pro

Domo

of

sua.

200

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.
^

this signal,
immediately commenced.
upon
it of every
set
Clodius,after stripping
thingvaluable,

was,

fire to his noble house

upon the Palatine Mount, and


which
he afterwards
of the site,
on

consecrated

part
temple

Liberty. The villas which


Cicero
had
taken so much
pain to embellish, and
where
he had collected so many
works
of
exquisite
in the same
manner
art,were
plundered
successively
and set on fire. In the appropriation
of the spoils
erected

derived

these

from

to have

to

in for the

come

of his Palatine

columns

the

sources,

consuls

two

lion's share.
house

the father-in -law of Piso*.

bestowed

were

The

The

rich furniture

appear
marble
upon
of his

country-seatat Tusculum, and even


the orchards, were
carried off,by

the very trees in


the command
of

Gabinius.

forcibly
dragged

from

His

wife

Terentia

was

the

temple of Vesta, in which


sanctuary, by order of Clodius,on
her

as

to the

The

husbandt.

had

amining
ex-

effects of her

endeavoured

even

taken

pretenceof

of the

amount

tribune

she

to

get

the person of her son, with an intention


effected
have
of puttinghim
to death, and would

of
possession

his purpose,
from

infamous

had

not

the

child

the effects of his


the
proceedings,

been

malice|.

cealed
concarefully

Amidst

consuls, now

these
further

by the grant of the provincesof which they


in expectation,
celebrated their triumph with
were
the most
indecent
revelry. The real motives by
and the true party
which they had been influenced,
to which
they belonged,
began plainlyto appear.
off his guard by the exultation
of
Piso, thrown
to Cethesuccess, openlyboasted of his relationship
gus ; and Gabinius, not to be behind his colleague,
with equal affrontery,
that he had always
asserted,
been on the most
with Catiline".
terms
friendly
elated

Pro

Dom.

t Pro Dom.

xxiv.
xxiii.

Ad
Diversos,xiv. 2.
"}"
" Pro Dom. xxiv. ; Pro Sextio,xxiv.

LIFE

THE

Cato, the only man

201

CICERO.

OF

whose

and
authority,

courage,

seemed likelyto oppose a barrier


independentspirit,
of these licentious anarchists,
to the proceedings
was
shortlyafterwards,by a refined stroke of policyon
the part of Clodius, removed
to a distance
by a
public appointment*. Ptolemy, king of Cyprus,
of money
havingformerlyrefused to advance a sum
when
he had been capturedby the
for his ransom
availed himself
his coasts,he now
near
pirates
eagerly
of the short-lived power
placedin his hands by
his influence with

multitude, to avenge himself


time,to remove
upon that monarch, and, at the same
the most stubborn
of his opponents from his path,
the

for him the office of reducingCyprus


by procuring
to a Roman
province. In an interview with Cato
self
he endeavoured
to representhimupon this subject,
as
a
conferring
great favour upon him by the
commission,for which he assured him he had received
applications.Cato, without being deceived
many
to be so, upbraided
or appearing
as to his real object,
for his past conduct,
him, with his usual severity,
and ended by positively
refusingto accept the office
cious
It is indifferent,said his audaproposedto him.
visitor ;
if it suits not with your pleasure
to
suitable with mine to compel you."
go, it is perfectly
And
of his
to one
immediately,having recourse
popular assemblies, he procured the iniquitous
to
decree,wrestingthe island from the monarch
"

"

"

Plutarch,whose

to he relied upon,

had

left Rome

accuracy

with respect

to dates

is

never

greatly

represent, in his life of Cato, that he


to fulfil his commission
at Cyprus before the dcseems

.parture of Cicero from

to

it.

Yet

it is much

more

likelythat

he

M. Cato
time after that event.
cityfor some
etiain cum
de"perasset
aliquidauctoritate sua profici
posse, tamen
discessum
iis Pisonem
voce
ipsaac dolore pugnavit,et post meum
flens meum
et rcipublirac
ut ilium hominem
verhis,
casuni, vexavit,
continued

in

the

"

et impndentissimum pcene jam provincise


perditissimum
poeniteret.
See also Fasti Hellenic!,
vol. hi. p. 184.

202

THE

whom

it

LIFE

the
and conferring
belonged,

it in its

condition

new

forthwith
obliged
Cicero

was

dusium.
and

at Tarentum.

he wrote

second

was

Brun-

Thurium,

at

in
letter,

On

strain which

of his misfortune

sense

towards

the 8th of.that


his letter from the
to Atticus,dating

confines of Lucania, in
his

task of Settling

was
upon Cato, who
his obnoxious errand.

his way
pursuing
1 Ith of Aprilhe

the

the 18th

month

to sail upon

now

On

on

CICERO.

OP

in

was

that

respectabated.

no

the reason
of
explains
view
havingquittedVibo before his proposed interwith Atticus,is equally
bute
Attri:
desponding
it not
he writes, to any inconstancy
of

his

which

showed

he

"

"

"

"

but

present miseries,that I have


my
suddenlydepartedfrom Vibo, where I had directed
purpose,

you to meet

to

I have

me.

received the sentence

of my

in which I find the alterations I


destruction,
had been led to expect,prohibiting
from appearme
ing
within four hundred
miles of Italy. Finding,
that it was
to
not allowed
to proceed
me
therefore,
out
Vibo, I immediatelydetermined
setting
upon
for Brundusium, in order to reach that placebefore
the day of passing
the law*, both that I mightavert
the destruction of my
host Sica,and because the
island of Malta
is within
the proscribed
distance.
utter

Hasten

to overtake

where

nothingbut
have

not ended

my

delaynot
At
was

But

t Ad

can

find

tion
recephitherto received

have

existence. That
been

of this

I have

refrained

chieflyowing
when

more

we

meet.

to

your

Only,

to comet."

Brundusium, as well as on his way thither,


the edict against
treated,notwithstanding

It will be remembered

between

but I shudder at the


invitations,
my regret,
my Pomponius,that I
has

doing so,

influence.

kind
is

from

he

going.

am

Great

future.

if indeed

me,

the

that

promulgationand

Attic, iii.4.

the

certain

time

passingof

alwaysintervened
law.

204

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

of the place
as
interpreted
by the hai-uspices
his speedyrestoration to his country.

was

mind, indeed,seems

own

at

the time

to

have

portending
His
been

inclined to superstitious
sufficiently
impressions
; since
he

has

recorded

in

his treatise

Divination

on

remarkable

derings
dream, which, occurring
duringhis wanpriorto his departurefrom Italy,made
sufficient impression
him
wards
to be long afterupon
He imagined,
remembered.
we
are
informed,
while
restingon his way through Lucania, in
small village
in the district of Atina, that indulging
a
his melancholythoughts in a wild and
he was
desolate region,
suddenly met by Caius
Marius with his fasces entwined with laurel,who,
the reason
of his
him, inquired
courteously
accosting
looks and melancholy
downcast
aspect; and that on
being informed of the cause, the visionaryhero
him to be
takinghim by the hand, and exhorting

his nearest lictor to lead


good courage, commanded
where
he informed
him he
him into his sepulchre,
On awaking from sleep,
would find a place
of safety.
of

he

states

that

he

communicated

his dream

to

his

althoughunable to give
to it, did not doubt
interpretation
any particular
He
that
it was
of good omen.
one
himself,
when
the senate afterwards passedtheir decree for
of
his recall in the temple called the monument
cidence,
at the coinMarius,was, for a moment, staggered
the good
at a subsequent
period,
although,
able to refer such pheof the philosopher
was
sense
nomena
friend

Sallustius,
who,

to their true

little
not

attention
deserving

appear,

unworthy

its truth

as

of

of

in
can

other

story,however
respects,may

hardlybe questioned,

who
is
psychologist
the elucidation of any theoryin
eases
have justlybeen called the dis-

notice

facts for
collecting
of what
explanation

The

source.

to

the

sleep.

Cicero received at

Dyrrachiumthe

news

that his

LIFE

THE

205

CICERO.

OF

Quintus was on his return from his province


of Asia, and
passingfrom Ephesus to Athens,
either by a direct voyage, or through the northern
had
He
by this time made
parts of Greece.
his friend Cneius
up his *nind,at the invitation of
Plancius,quaestorof Macedonia, who hastened to

brother

him

assure

find

that he would

safe

refugeunder

up his residence for a time at


this cityhe was
Towards
accordingly

to take
protection,

his

Thessalonica.
with

conducted
and reached

the

attendance

moderate

placeof

his destination

by Plancius,
the 21st of

on

his brother to meet


May. Althoughhe had appointed
him at this place,
the interview was
prevented; since
the
at this time in greathaste to make
Quintus was
best of his way to
which
had reached
him

for

and

Cicero, as

drew

nigh,seems

sightof

so

in consequence
of rumours
intended to impeach
that it was

Rome,
him,

in his

violence
alleged
time

the

to have

near

his

of

Atticus,and
where
when
to

to

one

relative in his

he remained

Dyrrachium.

to endure

the

stances
present circum-

letters to
succeeding
dated

Terentia,are

find that he

we

expectedarrival

been unable

of affliction.Many of his

government ;

from

tillthe end of

lonica,
Thessa-

November,

againleft it in

What

order to return
the state of his feelings

was

duringthe whole of this time may be conjectured


from the following
letter,which, however, is but
of several,
one
distinguished
by the same character of
thoughtand expression.
"

"

which
I

am

CICERO

have
I

almost

tormented

yours

HIS

TERENTIA.

BELOVED

received three letters from

have

Terentia,nor
than

TO

with

do my
own
find those

obliterated
the

with

your

affect

the fault which

has

me

more

children.

wretched
deem
as
yourselfI am
you
since althoughour
present calamities
to both of us,

tears.

my

deepest anguish,my

sorrows

of

Aristocritus,

Most

more
are

induced

so,

common

them

is

205

LIFE

THE

entirelymine.
the storm
by
withstood

It

OP

was

my
the commission

CICERO.

duty

to

have

avoided

offered me, or to have


in my
to
or
power,

it

by all means
have perished
nobly in the attempt. Nothing could
have been more
of misery nothmg more
productive
unworthy of my character
nothingmore disgraceful
than the course
I have actually
pursued. My sense of
therefore is fully
shame,
bymyfeelingsof
grief
equalled
while I blush to think how littleactivity
and courage
"

"

I have

shown

beloved

my

in the

cause

inestimable wife and

of my

Day
offspring.

nightyour pitiable

and

your ill state of health


before my eyes ; yet is there stilla faint glimmering
enemies
Our
of hope afforded us.
are
many

condition,your
are

and

sorrow

"

those
and

who

are

though to
to

easy matter

prevent

my

innumerable,
difficulttask,it is an

almost
a

part,lest

if every

attempt

"

But

return.

from despair
I
preserved

are

you

jealousof us
expelme was

as

longas

fail in my
abortive,the

will not

should

be

As to your anxfault may appear to rest with me.


iety
for my safety,
this,believe me, is most easily
ensured ; since even
to
my enemies might wish me
live amidst my

presentmiseries.

I will
Nevertheless,

this head.
on
your injunctions
written to thank those,to whom
you desired

carefully
obey all
have

me

having entrusted
acknowledgments,
the letters to Dexippus,and have mentioned
you as
the channel throughwhich
I have been informed of
of those
their kind offices. I am
aware
perfectly
towards us,
which
Piso is constantly
our
performing
and,indeed,
topicof conversation.
theyare the general
The Gods grant that I may one day again
enjoythe
to express

my

count
son-in-law,as well on your acthat of our
children.
as
My only hope now
the new
rests with
tribunes,and with their actions
fer
for if they sufof their office,
at the very beginning

presence

of such

the business to cool


I have

sent back

"

all is

over.

Aristocritus without

For this

reason

that
delay,

you

THE

giveme

may
and

LIFE

account

an

207

CICERO.

OF

of their earliest

proceedings

plan of conduct,althoughI ha,ve also sent Dexippusword to return immediately, and have written
brother to request him
to my
to send off frequent
It is with this view,moreover,
that I am
expresses.
at Dyrrachiumat the presentmoment, that I may
ceive
reof what
intelligence
earliest opportunity
;

going forward

at

the

is my safetyat all perilled


since this state has always
presentresidence,

in my
found
the

is

in

nor

protector. On
approach of enemies, I
me

the first intimation of


shall withdraw
into

Epirus.
In replyto

if it should
me
your offer of joining
it is my desire,
how greata
considering

"

be my

wish,

before us is sustained
part of the weightyaffairs now
If
by you, that you should stillcontinue at Rome.
you are successful it will be my part to visit you, but
if not
I need add no
From
more.
or at
your first,
I shall be able to determine
most, your second letter,
what is to be done.
in writing
Only be particular
upon every pointmost fully,althoughI ought now
decisive result than
rather to expect some
an
count
acit. Be careful of
of the steps taken towards
and believe that you are still,
as you ever
your health,
have
affections.
been, the dearest objectof my
Farewell, my Terentia,whom
imagination
my
yet
before
this
At
idea
I
as
me.
am
nerved
unrepresents
"

and

overpoweredby my tears. Once more,


Dated from Dyrrachium,Nov. "0th*.
farewell."
To Atticus,who, although
he had neglected
to join
him in, his exile,
probablyfrom the conviction that
he could serve
his cause
much
better in the capital
*

His other

condole
the

with

letters to Terentia from

her

terms
highest

on

of

the violence

Thessalonica and

exercised

towards

acknowledgementof the conduct

Dyrrachium
her, speak in

of hisson-in-law

taken
with doPiso,and are chiefly
mestic
up, besides his lamentations,
with
and advice
herto self,
affairs,
respectto an estate belonging

which

Terentia

intention
an
had,entertained

of

selling.

208
than

THE

in

loan

OF

Macedonia, had

considerable

LIFE

with

CICERO.

generouslyadvanced

of money,
the
remonstrance
on

sum

him

accompanyingthe
weakness
singular

misfortunes,he writes in a
"
letter of an earlier date :
As to the frequentand severe
reproofsin which you indulgewith respect to
what you term my infirmity
of mind, is there,let me
ask you, a single
evil,however great, which is not
lie had

under

shown

his
"

comprehendedin

Did
calamity:.?

my

honoured

condition,in

man

ever

fall

good a cause,
of
of genius,
of prudence,
endued with such resources
ostensibly
by such firm
popularfavour,and protected
safeguardsextended towards him by all the good?
what I have been
Can I forget
or
cease
"o feel what
I am
?
of what estimation
of what glory of what

from

so

so

"

"

children

"

"

what

of

"

favours

of fortune

"

of what

(and mark, I
deprived? The latter,
shape of misery,) although
request you, a new
stillesteeminghim, as I have always done, more

brother

dear

me

and
and

to

am

than

my

own

existence,I

have

shunned

purposelyavoided meeting,both to spare myself


his grief
and wretchedness,
the pain of beholding
basement
of beingexposed as a spectacleof ruin and de-

heightof
and glory. Am
I then, let me"" inquire,
prosperity
for beingthus keenlysusceptible
of my
to be blamed
distresses ? should I not rather be deemed
as
culpable
the advantages
I have enumerated,
for not retaining
(whichI might easilyhave done, had there not been
those within my own
walls who were
conspiring
my
what I have lost ?
for still surviving
as
destruction,)
to

Thus

much
me

am

my
news

who

I have

had

written

in

than
I

one

the
sorrow

from

left

me

at

the

rather console
may
ness,
kindyour wonted

that you

future,accordingto
deem me
or reproof.
worthy of upbraiding
more
brief,both because I am preventedby
from addingmore,
and because I expect
Rome

of

more

importancethan anything

OP

LIFE

THE

209

CICERO.

As

this

I
arrives,
certain intelligence
will giveyou more
respecting
my
designs. Continue to write, as fully as possible,
of nothing*."Dated at Thesthat I maybe ignorant
I have

to communicate.

soon

as

salonica the 18th of June.


continued

Cicero

While

indulgehis unmanly

to

ing
exertgriefin Macedonia, his friends at Rome were
themselves
not only with ready voices,but with

The

and

hearts

courageous

insolence and

hands, for his recal.


Clodius,dailyrising

prompt
of

arrogance

became insufferable to all but


soon
higherpitch,
the desperateband
acting immediately under his
command.
Pompey, already disgustedat his presumption,
to

was

defence

by

warned

soon

direct

attack

broughtto

The

weakness

Rome

to adorn

of Cicero

of the writers

most

is
Cassius,in particular,

dialoguehetween

so

during
who

the orator

at

his

upon

part

exile,seems

lecture upon

it,that he

of his grave
an
Philiscus,

with
similar circumstances,

in littleelse than

(Letters

was

in

Exile)dwelt

after
subject,
mind

founded
con-

subject.Dio

has gone out of


narrative an imaginary
Athenian

philosopher,

whose egregiousand overweening conceit was,


Bolingbroke,
highlydelightedwith an opportunityof contrastinghis

on

who

several pages, in which the sententious eidolon reads a


himself.
Lord
fortitude,"c. "c. worthy of Epictetus

extendingover

under

he

have

to

the

own

of his late

king,whom
triumph,and

mentioned

scandalised

and

his

his

have

in the middle

his way to introduce

the

on

of the Armenian

son
ally. Tigranes,

had

stand

to

the

that of

vanity,has, in his
and
largely,

fashion.
followrhg

with

one

whom

no

doubt,

own

duct,
con-

he

dilution of
sickly
no

"When

small
virtue

pomp,

bled
resem-

Seneca,

upon

the

has steeled the

invulnerable
on
are
on
every side,we
every side ; but Achilles
wounded
in the heel : the least part overlooked or neglected
may

expose us to receive
dominion
over

which
and

must

be

be found

we

may
resist the
may

mortal

our

blow.

souls

by

beaten,many
of proof in

Reason

cannot

lute
obtain the abso-

serves
victory. Vice has many restrongholdswhich must be forced,
without beingso in all.
trials,
many
one

severest, and yieldto the weakest attacks of


have got the better of avarice,
fortune.
We may
the most
cal
epidemidisease of the mind, and
We
yet be slaves to ambition.
may
We

have
may

souls of the fear of

purged our
venture

is much

more

to

lurk behind.

to the same

This

effect.

death,and yet

was

the

case

some

other fear

of Cicero."

There

210
was

yet detained

the house
that
was

LIFE

THE

in

CICERO.

OF

of honourable

kind

prastorFlavius,in

of the

would

largeransom
seized by the
a

custodyin
expectation

the

offered for his

be

release,

emissaries of

into the presence of


to consult with

Clodius,and brought
the tribune,who, without
ing
deigntook
Pompey upon the subject,

his promise
on
liberty
The
sum*.
stipulated
agreement was
with equal haste,
quicklyconcluded, and Tigranes,
despatched with an armed escort from the city.

upon himself
to advance
a

to

offer him

his

gaininginformation of the manner


had been disposed
his prisoner
which
of,lost no
his recovery, and havingsummoned
in attempting

in

Flavius,on

of his retainers

number
known

to

be

pursuit.
the

of whom

four

miles from
he

was

summoned
peremptorily
into
were

his

hands,

in

them

received

But

ensued,

the followers

Rome

on

having
Tigranes

refusal.
both

in which

Swords

sides,and
lives

many

of Flavius

eager

he overtook

search, and

direct

faction

off in

to surrender

immediatelyunsheathed

fierce encounter
lost.

several of the

opposed to Clodius, set

About

party

and

time

at

were

were

length

completelyrouted,and forced to flyin all directions,


leavingthe spot covered with their dead ; among
Marcus
whom
was
Papirius,a wealthy Roman
knight,and an intimate friend of Pompey. Flavius
re-entered
the city without
tendant,
himself
a
singleatand closely
followed by the"victors to the very
gates.
tempt
Pompey, deeplymortified by this instance of contowards
shown
him, which, however, he does
dared
not
to have
seem
openly to resent at the
of
time, is said to have formed a resolution at once
effort to reverse
every
Cicero,and his determination

the

making

on

that

doubt, subsequentlyquickened by
*

Dio

Cassius,xxxviii.

banishment
head
the

was,

of
no

discovery,

212

THE

LIFE

deemed

it advisable

reduced

to

OP

grosslyinsulted by

closelyblockaded in his own


of the Clodian faction,
who
considerable
this

those who

struggle.He

the mob

was

*, and

once

by a detachment
out
withnot dispersed
were
In the affraywhich
took

occasion,the

takingupon

assembled

almost

house

violence.

sides,Gabinius

been

had

to

pursue,
in
insignificancethe

several times

place on

CICERO.

chose

consuls

different

the command

himself

for the relief of

of

Pompey,

and

Piso

of
the rioters to the utmost
aidingand abetting
his power.
fortunately
Although the contest was
the two
to have foughtwith
bloodless,
partiesseem
his
Piso, especially,
hearty good-will,
maintaining

ground with
all

obstinate

broken, and

the

rendered
At

valour, until

his fasces

overwhelmingnumbers

were

of his opponents

further resistance useless.

of the consulate
of
very commencement
Lentulus
and Quintus Metellus
Spinther,

the

Cornelius

Nepost, and immediatelyafter the performanceof the


the former of these
customary rites in the Capitol,
magistratesdeclared in full senate, that he would
other questionbefore that connected
enter upon
no
with the repealof the law against
Cicero had been
disposedof. Lucius Cotta, the principalof the
senatorian order,proposedits instant abrogation,
as
forms and
passed in a manner
contraryto all existing
still of opinionthat the
customs
; but Pompey was
the

judgment of
*

Plutarch
had

resisted

ascended

an

eminence

of

number

his

in succession
that is

one

"

his

A.U.C.

name

697.

of

finger(a mark
"

friends,
the latter,
accompanied by a
the
followingquestions
put

gown,

of

Who

man?

of refined

his creatures, like

shakinghis

Poinpey."

the

of

of

of his intimate

is the licentious lord

Who

"

this,"he continues,
parts, upon

of

view

and
associates,
profligate

unworthy

his head with

within

to that

insults, Clodius, after

other
that, among
his prosecutionof some

states

Pompey

should be added

commons

answered

Rome?
is it that

coxcombry)?

chorus

Who

is it

scratches
"

Upon

instructed in their

aloud to every

question

THE

the

LIFE

nobility.The

OP

213

CICERO.

would

act

necessary
the same

have

been

ference
day, but for the interof the tribune Atilius,who
requestedthe
delayof a few hours to deliberate upon the subject.
His authority,
consideration,
however, on mature
not
was
interposed,and, after the usual interval,
the bill was
subjectedto the decision of the
finally
peopleon the 25th day of January.
covered
But if Clodius and his party had by this time disforward

brought

that

their

estimation

of

determined

not

still strong in

no

means,

As
hired

fast

was

reason

to

the

dread

the

effects of the

resolved to leave
consideration,
they were
however
lawless,untried for its prevention.
the important day approached,Clodius
formidable

band

in

of

candidate,and

borrowed

under
gladiators,

of

employing them
honour
for which
an
aedileship,
pretence

in
declining

not the less


public,they were
saries
the field to their adverto relinquish
a last and
desperateeffort. They were
numbers, in union, and in resolution,

having every

bill under

cause

the

without
and

on

he

shows

of his

at the time

was

his brother

from

which
was
on
company,
exhibited at the funeral rites of
second

the

Appius a
point of being

the
one

of his

near

tions.
rela-

for violence gave,


preparations
as
might have been expected,an immediate alarm to
in their
his opponents,who
arms
began to assume
the meeting of the
On the eveningpreceding
turn.
an
increasingly
people,matters wore
aspect,
angry
These

and

it was

manifest

evident
of which

but

too many
on

the

that another
the

records

was
instances,

at

of those internal
of the
hand.

vulsions,
con-

cityafforded
Before daybreak

morning,the tribune Fabrifollowing


of Cicero,
warmly espousedthe cause

cius,who had
with a strongguard.
took possessionof the rostra
the alert as himself,
on
Clodius,however, as much
had previously
in all the avenues
postedhis gladiators

214

LIFE

THE

CICERO.

OF

the

as
Forum, and thus havingprecluded,
he imagined,
the possibility
of the arrival of fresh
to the assistance of the enemy,
fell furiously
succours
the guards of Fahricius with his well-trained
upon
pelled
comswordsmen, and, after a determined
resistance,

leadingto

to

those

who

second

fly.

command
attacked
Sextius

survived

retreated

was

stormed

left for

party,

into

encounter

dead.

At

temple of Castor, which


Clodian
party, that he was

the
all

in

time

same

the

victorious

sides,with reekingweapons,

Quintus Cicero, who


rostra

on

the

the

by

soughton
gladiators
the

murderous

coming up under the


of the tribunes Cispiusand Sextius,was
in a similar manner,
and speedily
routed ;
himself beingso severelywounded, after he

had

for

the

company

had

presentedhimself

with

Fabricius, and

at

the

objectof their pursuitwas only able to escape their


fury by flyinginto the Comitium, where, as they
approached,he concealed himself beneath a heap of
dead bodies,
and in the glimmeringlightby which
rendered but indistinctly
the forms of the slain were
visible,
fortunately
escapeddetection.* The supposed
death of Sextius,a tribune of the people,
quently,
and, consewhom
struck
it was
to injure,
one
sacrilege
the victors with

momentary

however,

fertile in

the odium

equal on

blood

of his

one

oppositefaction
for the victim
of

obscure

was

consternation.

Clodius,

resolved upon making


expedients,
both sides,by murderingin cold
tribunes,in order to chargethe

own

with

his death.

Xumerius

birth and

The

person selected
Quinctius,an individual

little influence,
who, to

please
the surname
the multitude,had assumed
of Gracchus,
desired to
and the gladiators
consequently,
were,
ssek him out and despatchhim. But Quinctius,who
far from beingdestitute of quicknessand cunwas
ning,
on

hint of the

gainingsome
*

Pio

Sextio,x"xvi.

manner

in which

LIFE

THE

his services
lost

215

CICERO.

be rewarded

likelyto

were

time in

no

OP

adoptingthe

readiest

by

his

friends,

at hand

means

of

and hastilymuffling
his life,
himself in a
preserving
-cloak,and placinga basket, snatched
longtravelling
from a countryman, upon his head, he passedin this
disguise
through the midst of his intended assassins,
his name*.
who, on all sides,were
loudly calling
Sextius was, however, by this time discovered
to be
still alive,and,
them

if the

as

circumstance

had

conferred

full licence for

rage
renewingevery kind of outwith impunity,the rioters immediatelybegan their
work of violence afresh. Among other daringactions,
Clodius set fire with his own
hands to the temple of
the Nymphs, involving
in the conflagration
of the
of publicrecords.
He then proa number
building
ceeded

upon

to attack

the
the

the houses

of

Annius

Milo, and

but here his mad


career
prsetorCaecilius;
within
presentstopped. The garrisons
with

at

and

in

of the

for

defended

that the assailants


resolution,
lengthcompelled to draw off in confusion,

themselves
were

was

of

such

sallymade

several
upon them while retiring,
taken prisoners.

were
gladiators

of tumult,
Day closed upon this disgraceful
spectacle
the part of the public
on
singularfor the indifference,
tained
with which
it was
allowed
to be mainauthorities,
still more
wards
; and
so, for the impunity afterhad
been
enjoyed by those who
actively
in
engaged it. The slaughterwas fullyin proportion
had
with which
the parties
to the bitterness of feeling
met.

The

Tiber,ifCicero's

and
exaggeration,

with
blood

the
was

bodies

of the

wiped up

orator," were

the

even

assertion is not
common

slain,and

with

sponges.
such heapsof corpses

since the memorable

day
*

Pro

sewers,

rhetorical
were

in the Forum

filled
the

Never," says the


piledin our streets,
"

of the contest between

Sextio,xxxviii.

Octa-

216

LIFE

THE

vius and Cinna*.


those who

had

Yet,

OF

CICERO.

all efforts to

thus disturbed

and
unavailing,

Clodius

the

bringto justice
publicpeace were

stillsuffered to

parade
the streets with
his gladiators,
unresisted. Milo,
indeed,had the boldness to impeach him for the
attack upon
his house,but the consul Metellus,the
praetorAppius,and the tribune Atilius,forbade,by
their edicts,
either plaintiff
defendant to appear in
or
the cause.
Atilius even
the gladiators
set at liberty
whom
Milo had taken and committed
to the public
of Clodius for the asdileship
prison,while the canvass
stillwent on, and was
in no way injured
cesses.
by his late exSuch a state of things,
while there was
nate,
yet a seand a general
in
who had enjoyedthree triumphs,
Rome, may appear almost inconceivable ; yet,recent
furnish an instance stillmore
can
history
astounding,
of a mighty citygiving
nificant
up, day by day, to an insiga tithe of its population
body of men, whom
would

be

than

more

was

sufficient to annihilate without

the lives and fortunes of its inhabitants,


to
struggle,
be disposed
of without restraint or limitation.
The
tyranny of Clodius might,and in all probability

would,

have

proceeded to

still

extravagant
had there not been a man
lengths,
opposed to him,
giftedwith courage equal to his own, and ready to
with his
encounter
him, since the laws were silent,
own

more

weapons.
There happenedto be at this time
on

termed

with a body
sale,together
trained to
who were
bestiarii,

troop of gladiators

of those

slaves

the

art
perilous
of encountering
wild
beasts in the amphitheatre.
These were
missioned
purchasedby Milo, who comsecretly

friend to appear for him in the transaction,


lest he should be anticipated
outbidden
or
by
a

any
*

of the
Caedein

agentsof
vero

forte illoCiunano
Pro

his rival.

Having

acervos
tantam, tantos
corporum
Octaviano
die,
quisunquatn
atque

Sextio,xxxvi,

thus

procured

extrudes,

nisi

in foro vidit ?"

LIFE

THE
a

force

skilful in the

as

217

CICERO.

OF

of their weapons

use

the

as

Clodius,and added to it the survivors of


late gladiatorial
a
show, presentedby the gediles
Pomponius and Cosconius,he lost no time, after he
at
had armed them
to the teeth,in producingthem

band

under

in opposition
to
fitting
opportunity,

every
and

by

no

of

in

resounded
constantly
combatants,and the

now
was
skirmishes,
all parts of the city.The

Forum
of the

shrieks of the terrified crowds


the

from

to escape

had

while those who

stantly
con-

swords
clashing

the

with

lowers
fol-

obstinate,

bloodless

means

exhibited

succession

of the ex-tribune.

the

an

of commotion

scene

it at
of beholding
opportunity

on, and

safe distance looked

deavouring
en-

so
enjoyeda sight

much

they had been accustomed to


contemplateat their publicgames ; where rivers of
blood continually
flowingfor their amusement, had

that
resembling

long made

indifferent to the exhibition

them

of violent

kind

which

death,in

which

the

part

likelyto act
passedaway

weeks
the law

in favour

after the

of Cicero

by
passing,
disgraced

they were
of

victims.

Several

first tumult, by which

had

been

preventedfrom

dailyconflicts between
tinued
popularityof Clodius con-

almost

factions ; but the

the two

of any
selves
not them-

until he was
to decline,
so much
progressively
an
that,when he predislike,
objectof the general
sented
the hiss with
himself in the amphitheatre,
loud enough to startle
which
he was
received,was
in the arena, and the
the horses of the gladiators
of disapprobation
so
frequentand bitter,
expressions
that he was
at last obligedto reach his seat by a

benches,which, from that


called the "Appian way*."
wittily

secret passage beneath

the

was
circumstance,
At lengthappearedthe
*

Pro

Sextio, lix.

"

determined.

the

decree

circumstance,however,

passingof the decree


Marius, by which the return

occurringafter
of

This

conclusive

of the

is mentioned

as

of the senate, in the Monument


of Cicero was
ultimately

218

THE

OP

LIFE

CICERO.

commanding those who wished well to the


interests of the state,throughoutthe whole
of Italy,
and lend their assistance
to repairto the capital,
towards
carryingthe act for the return of Cicero.
It had been precededby two edicts of less consequence
the same
subject, the one returningthanks
upon
had afforded him a refugein his
to the cities which
officers in the
the Roman
exile, the other enjoining
provincesthrough which he might pass, to take
for ensuringhis safety. No sooner
every precaution
the decree issued,than the roads leading
to the
was
citywere
throngedwith multitudes,eager to testify
senate,

"

"

their

cheerful

obedience

state

contributed

to

to swell

successive
for many
several gatesof Rome

the

mandate.

the tide of

days,continued
from

different

Every
voters, which,

to pour

in at the

and
quarters,

the

sufficient
a majority
disposal
of opposition.At a
to overwhelm
every appearance
meetingof that assembly,held in the temple erected
four
and Virtue by Caius Marius, where
to Honour
senate

had

hundred

soon

and
were

at their

members, besides the


determined,
present,it was

seventeen

hazards,to repealthe
was
taken, while

law

of Clodius.

This

gistrates,
ma-

at all

tion
resolu-

peoplewere
engaged in
exhibited
the games
by Lentulus in the
witnessing
the senators
to which
repaired
theatre,
neighbouring
finished.
On
the business of the day was
as
as soon
received by the audience,
their entrance, they were
made
who
were
acquaintedwith the issue
speedily
the

and
continued
with
loud
deliberations,
the consul appeared
bursts of applause; and when
in a body and
in his place,the assembly, rising
towards
their hands
him, returned him
stretching
thanks for the part he had taken and so strenuously
of

their

ance,
During the remainder of the performthe subjectof which
happened to be the
uttered
of Accius, repeatedshouts
Telamon
were

maintained.

220

LIFE

THE

OF

CICERO.

takingthe auspicesshould

of

the

with upon
dispensed
factorily
satiswas
occasion,and that unless the question
settled in five days, Cicero should be considered
restored to all his former dignities.
Thanks
at the

were

had
and

time voted

same

from

come

wishes

distance

those

to

to

citizens who

second

the

authority

of the Senate.

Clodius

alone, with

his

undaunted

opposition.His

still convened, and


the

be

continued
resolution,

mock

assemblies

were

undisbanded.
gladiators
the only person
senate, althoughhe was

ventured

to utter

his

dissentient

remonstrated

voice, he,

In
who

standing,
notwith-

loudly againstthe present


the people finallymet
on

and
when
proceedings,
the 4th of August to givetheir sanction to the law
in the Campus Martius, made
a
public oration
fectual.
was
whollyinefagainstit. But his interposition
The assembly,one
of the most
imposing
witnessed
of an immense
at Rome,
ever
consisting
multitude

of all ranks

almost

bestow,

to

and

ing
ages, and in fact comprisperson*in the citywho had a vote

every

and

addressed
successively

was

other orators

of the

highestrank

by Pompey
and

influence

in favour of the decree ; and when the question


was
found
to the decision of the ballot,it was
subjected

that not

singlecentury was
generalopinionin its favour.
a

Cicero

had

continued

for

exceptedfrom

the

months

at

several

final issue of the

Dyrrachium, awaitingthe

ments
move-

impatience.His
that cityrepresent
letters written to Atticus from
him
to fluctuate between
as
hope and
continuing
which
seemed
event
despair; elated by the slightest
into the deepestdejection
to promisehis recal,and
sunk
informaat every new
delayt. On receiving
in his behalf

Post Red.

t Ad

with

feverish

in Sen. xi.

Attic, iii. 22, 23,

24, 25, 26, 27.

LIFE

THE

tion, however,

OF

his

221

CICERO.

Quintus of the
final decree of the senate
in his behalf, he was
resolved npon
not waitingfor its confirmation
by the
people,deeming it a less evil,as he has stated,to risk
his life,
than
to be
wanting to this opportunityof
Actuated
nation,
his country.
by this determirevisiting
he embarked
at Dyrrachium almost at the
hour

very

in

from

which

the

brother

edict

his

promulgated for

centuries ; and
the
after a quick and prosperous
passage, arrived on
day following(August 5) off Brundusium, where
received

return

sanction

the

of

the

he

This day he triumphantly


immediatelylanded.
records as being the anniversaryof the foundation
of the citywhich
received him, and of the
had now
dedication of the temple of Safetyat Rome, as well
the birth-dayof his daughterTullia,who
as
sented
preherself to him on his landing. Every thing,
to have been viewed by him throughthe
indeed,seems
exultation naturallyindulgedat the moment
; yet
the apothegm so often expressedby the ancient poets
that from the brightest
of human
there
source
felicity,
rises that which
must
always givea taste of bitterness
"

to the

spring, was

its illustration

without

not

"

the

on

occasion ; since the mourning weeds of his daughter,


had but a short time
who
before been
deprived of
her

husband

the

orator

of

who

would

one,

Piso,
the

certainlyhave

must

absence
have

the

of
the

been

reminded

familiar

foremost

face

in

of

hailing

his return, and


whose
unremittingexertions in his
from his country, he could now
cause, while absent

hope

never

cloud

appears
spread before

appears
to its
*

neque

repay*.

to

to have

him,

to have

in the
which

the

indulgedwith

delusions,of

exception,not

inspiring
prospect
which
he
enjoyment of

overcast

his

all the abandonment


ardent

and

sensitive

cui fructum
ille gencr
suae
incus
pietatis
neque
Pro
Sextio
licuit.
xxxi.
ferre
Romano
populo

Piso
a

this

With

"

ex

me

222

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OP

capable. On the third day from his


he was
acquainted
landing,
by Quintus of the result
of the late comitia,and soon
after leaving
the house
of his friend Lenius Flaccus,of whose hospitality
he
had partaken with
widely different from
feelings
those with which
he had soughta shelter under his
roof on
former
a
occasion,he set out on his return
the highesthonours
to Rome,
which
the magistrates
temperament

was

"

Brundusium

of

could

invent

having been
his departure.

lavished

him
previouslyto
upon
From
this pointhis progress resembled
a continued
along
pageant. As he pursuedhis journeyleisurely
the

for a short time at Naples,


Appian way, halting
Capua, Sinuessa,Minturnae,Formiae,Terracina,and
and village
at Aricia*,every town
the line
near
lastly
seemed
of his route
so
emptied of its inhabitants,
dense

and

the

were

numerous

multitudes

who

borne,"

hastened from every side to greethim.


he afterwards

Italyt;"
Wherever

observed,

to Rome

"

"

was

the shoulders

on

of

and the
he

was
probablynoexaggeration.
figure
the
approached, way was lined with spectators

of all ages and sexes.


A total cessation from
business took placein the different cities,
and public

embassies were
to compliment him on
sent from many
his restoration to his country. Festive entertainments,
and congratulato the gods,rejoicings
tions,
thanksgivings
the constant

were

he drew

near

to

Rome,

still higherhonours
*

The

first

"

It is

"

At

some

Sat. i. 5.

Hor.

distance

"

nwgria me. excepit Aricia Roma," "c.


called La
Riccia.
Respecting the Appian road

now

Via

Appia, formed
the

breadth, and
one

Rome.

him.

Egressum

place,Eustace
up

awaited

stagefrom

this

town

results of his appearance.


As
the 4th day of September,
on

of the

observes

"

The

side of tbe

of stone,
hill,in generalabout

sometimes

about

most

of vr.st

blocks

sixtyfeet

monuments
striking

priseand workmanship."
"fPost reditum in Sen.

XT.

foundations

immense

in

at

of tho

risingfrom the old


twenty-fourfeet in

elevation, are

that remain

of Roman

perhaps
enter-

LIFE

THE

OP

223

CICERO.

by the whole body of


at their head, and
the magistrates
the senate, with
he entered at
into the city,which
escorted by them
of the most
the Capene gate*. Here
imposing
a sight
itself. The steps of the two
kind presented
ing
neighbourtemples, those of Mars and the Muses, and the
whole lengthof the street as far as the eye could reach,
and house-tops,presentedone
the porticoes
as well as
from

walls, he

the

met

was

beings,who rent the air with


their shouts at the first glimpse of the processionby
which
he was
spectacle
accompanied. The same
exhibited
was
along the whole way to the Capitol;
of the
and
house
area
building,the whole
every
Forum, and the temples by which it was surrounded,
and
to excess,
resounding with the
being crowded
dense

of human

mass

occupants. Amidst
ascended
of public excitement, Cicero
of their

enthusiastic acclamations
this delirium

steps which led to the temple of JupiterOptimus


Maximus, the path of triumph trodden by a hundred

the

but

conquerors,

victory

pursued by

now

which

far

was

who

one

more

glorious,
dazzling

althoughbloodless and uncelebrated by the


of militaryparade,than any of which
insignia
hitherto

victory

the

and
his

it had

the
place of commemoration,
gratitud
ingenius and patriotismover prejudice,

been
of

joying
en-

was

devotions

"

factious

in

before
especially

violence.

the

shrines

that

of the

its

Goddess

summit,
to

whom

and
he

departurefrom Rome,
he retired to the house
appointed for his residence,
illustrious
accompanied to its threshold by the same
train, and again saluted on his way thither by the
unabated
applause of his fellow citizens.

had

commended

himself

at

performing

After

"

Ad

at his

Attic, iv. 1.

224

THE

LIFE

CICEItO.

OF

CHAPTER
of Cicero

Oration

by

raised
dius

in

Clodius

the

of

"Speech

Senate

Oration

"

the Houses

upon

VIII.

Cicero

De

"

sponsionibus"Cicero

"

Lucius

Lucceius

Oration
the

"

of Cicero

Dedication

Treatise

"

De

Second
the

Oratore"

"

and

Consulate

againstPiso
of

"

Provinces
Balbus

"

"

His

Pompeian

De

Marriage
of

'Departureof

of

Oration

"

Tullia

and

Letter of Cicero to

"

Ponipey

Letter
Theatre

Sextius

Haruspicum Rein the Capitol,

his Banishment
Caelius

impeached

Publius

the Tablets

"

ofClo-

elected .^Edile

Milo

"

defends

Oration

relatingto

respectingthe Consular
Crassipes Speeches for

Clodius

"

Cicero

"

down

tears

containing the Decree

Milo

Tumults

"

Attack

"

Rege Alexandrine"

Violence
by Clodius for illegal
Interrogation
againstVatinius
"

Return

sua"

Domo

of Cicero and
"

his

after

"Pro

to
"

and

Crassus

"

Marina

respecting

Cicero

writes

Crassus

his

for his Parthian

Expedition.
ON

the

day

after his return

his seat in the senate,which

was

to

Rome,

crowded

Cicero
to

excess

took

by

renewal
a
assembly,eagerlyanticipating
of the enjoyment they had so often experienced
from
the exhibition
of his extraordinary
of eloquence.
powers
In his openingspeech,which
was
necessarily
there could have
to a great degreecomplimentary,
been little to disappoint
his audience, if there was
nothing in it to exceed their expectations*.The
and tribunes of the people,who had
consuls,praetors,
in his recal,are severally
been instrumental
thanked
of the house collectively
by name, and the other members
; the usual incense is offered to Pompey, who
is declared in valour,glory,and the performance of
far above all who
had precededhim of
greatexploits,
whatever
is lauded
nation,while Lentulus
age or
to the heavens, since the orator, setting
no
literally
a

numerous

subsequent speech was afterwards delivered to the people,


This is the "Oratio
at an
assembly convoked
by the consuls.
in
Secunda
which
editions has been placed
some
post Reditum,"
A

before that to the senate.

LIFE

THE

225

CICERO.

OP

bounds to his

him his parent and


terms
gratitude,
guardiandeityof his being,fortunes,present

the

and
reputation,

future fame.
But while he is thus
careful to manifest his sense
of the kind offices of his
he is by no means
the other
on
friends,
forgetful,

hand, of

those to whose

exile and

the

and Piso

are

owed

exertions he had

his

of his 'property. Gabinius


spoliation
selected as the objects
of his
especially

sarcasticinvectives ; and
them
against

is

the
although

onlypreparatoryto
it is
same
subject,

the
upon
littleto be desired

the

on

hurled

censure

fiercer declamations

such

as

to leave

of bitterness.

score

The

prudenceof this kind of oratorymight fairlybe


but Cicero was
that he had
well aware
questioned,
not returned home
to layaside his armour,
to take
or
his share in the management of a republic
in the
of internal peace.
If,
enjoymentof the blessings
he had indulged
in any respectin this delusive
indeed,
have been dispelled
by
hope,it would speedily
the conduct of Clodius immediately
after his return.
The

by

senate,who

had been for

the successive commotions

some
on

months
a

hindered,

which
question

had

the attention and interest of


long engrossed
all ranks,from attending
to any other business of
assailed by the murmurs
of
were
now
importance,
the peopleon the subject
of
of a prevailing
scarcity
corn, which

had

been,in

greatmeasure, caused by
the universal rush to the capital,
in consequence
of
the late edict.* Clodius,
equallyreadyto create or
of dissatisfaction,
to foster any feeling
presuming
upon

the

which
ill-feeling

havingsent

number

began to

be

expressed,

of his emissaries to endeavour

to fan the

his

populardiscontent into a flame,armed


and placed them
under
the
gladiators
anew,

of Marcus Lollius and Marcus


two
guidance
Sergius,
of the most desperate
of his associates,
with orders to

beset the senate in the


*

Ad

templeof Concord.
Attic, iv. 1.
Q

On

their

226

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

way meetingwith the consul Metellus and his train,


these ruffians,
without hesitation,
assaulted him with a
shower

of

stones*,by

which

himself

Metellus

was

wounded, and his attendants compelledto flyfrom


the spot. Encouragedby the impunitywith which
suffered to pass, they proceeded,
this attack was
on
that the meetingof
learning
adjournedto the Capitolfor
invest that placeof assemblyas
who

Rome, however,

the

had

senate

been

its better

to
security,
The peopleof

well.

lengthconvinced that
their interests would
be ill served by these outrages,
this occasion a proper regardfor
on
displayed
the continuance
of the peace of the city,
and mustering
in vast crowds
such

at

were

attacked

the band

of Clodius with
to raise the

spiritas speedilyto compelthem

siege.Cicero,on hearingof the tumult, lost no time


in endeavouring
it. The multitudes who surto pacify
rounded
the senate-- house were
alreadyloudlycalling
for him by name, but when he appearedand proposed
that Pompey
a
as
remedy for the presentdistress,
should
for five years be invested with authority
to
the supplyof provisions,
make
respecting
regulations
the expressions
of approbation
unbounded.
The
were

The

of this hitherto fortunate leader seemed

name

very
be a

sufficient

for
security

the prosperous

in which
of any undertaking
resolution thus proposedwas
the

converted into

of
opposition
law.

he

management
concerned.

notwithstanding
after,

soon

several

was

to

of the

senators,

Fifteen

were
deputies
appointed
at the same
time, at the requestof Pompey, to assist
these Cicero
him in carrying
it into effect. Among
the first chosent, but he appears
to have only
was
*

by

Missiles of this kind


the Roman

to

seem

Cicero, at

crowds.

in a
lapidationes"
speaks of
of no unfrequcntoccurrence.
"

manner

have

been

ordinarilyresorted to
speech for Sextius,
that they were
implies

in his
least,

which

Atqui vis in foro


persaepe vidimus
quandoenim major?lapidationes
niinium

sa-pe gladios."Pro
"

"

Sextio,xxxvi.

versata
;

non

f- Ad

est?

cer'.c

ita saepe, ;""""!

Attic, iv. 1.

228

THE

perhapsnot

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

be inclined to form

its author,who

to have

seems

best of his productions;


and

high an opinionas

so

considered it almost

unless
this,

the

another instance

of the want
a

of power so common
in genius
of forming
be considered
rightestimate of its own productions,
may
the authenticity
plausible
argument against
disputedoration extant under the title Pro
sua."
Yet the trenchant power of its wit,and
a

of the
Domo
the

"

nervous

of many

of its passages, must


at
and the peroration,
admiration,
as

energy

all times command


in most

of the

rebuild

the

of Cicero,
is a striking
speeches
specimen
of majestic
The
eloquence. pontifi
ces, convinced by its
were
arguments,or overpoweredby its rhetoric,
easily
induced to decree that the consuls might proceedto
house

of the

and
scruples,
was,

the

after

without

orator

of two

sum

delays in

some

gious
any relimillions of sesterces*
the

senate, in

of the clamours of Clodius and the interposition


consequence
of Atilius Serranus,at lengthvoted for the
The loss sustained by the injuries
done to
purpose.
the villas at Tusculum
and Formiae, for which
pensation
comwas

estimated

was

thousand
and

the

at the

Cicero

seems

for the latter


to

demolition

publicexpense,
of five hundred

former,and

have

two

hundred

a remuneration
place;

considered
below

arid much
satisfactory,
J.
property destroyed

The

at the

sums
respective

sesterces t for the

thousand
fifty

which
from

also to be made

the

very far
real value of
as

of his house

upon the Palatine hill,


Clodius had, with
which

only mischief
impunity,effected in the same
perfect
quarter. The
of the
noble porticoof Catulus, built from the spoils
levelled
Cimbric war, had been also unceremoniously
with the ground,that it might not present,by the
difference of the styleof its architecture,
contrast
a
unfavourable
to the new
temple of Libertyerected in
was

not

the

16,000/.

f 4000/.

Ad

Attic,

iv. .2.

LIFE

THE

OP

This
its neighbourhood.

also to be

was

replacedat

the workmen

people.But, while

the cost of the

229

CICERO.

well as
as
employed in its re-erection,
new
buildingsclose beside it,which

upon

had

been

raised to the

roof,Clodius,who

were

the other

already

were

for

some

busyinghimself in endeavouringto excite the


made
his appearance,
populaceto a fresh disturbance,
the 3d of November, with an armed band, and, by
on
his desperate
attack,speedilycompelled the busy
time

multitude
The

him

before

their

desist from

to

labour.

unfinished

soon
walls, thus abandoned, were
reduced to a heap of ruins,but not contented with
their destruction,
Clodius next turned his attention to
the neighbouring
house of Quintus Cicero ; which was
first battered by the stones of his followers,
and soon

afterwards

without

fired

by

intermission

lightedbrands

the
upon

Cicero himself

it.

few

showered

days

wards,
after-

in the A7ia Sacra

by
the same
had perpetrated
this
furious company
who
assailed
hesitation,
and, without a moment's
outrage,
and
and threatened,by the swords
by their missiles,
with which
armed, in so serious
they were
bludgeons
in order
that he was
to take refuge,
a manner,
obliged
his life,
in the neighbouring
to save
court-yardof
Tertius Damio.
the
On the 12th day of November
rioters againmade their appearance, and commenced
a
dence
assault with sword and buckler,upon the resiregular
of

was

Milo, situated

on

met

Mount

Germalus,

which

theycontinued to invest the whole of the day,making


efforts to carry it by storm, or to set it on fire
repeated
of the burningtorches hurled againstit.
by means
On this occasion Clodius himself having taken his
into which he had
post in the house of Publius Sylla,
forcible entrance,directed from thence,in
But the issue
of his adherents.
person, the operations
effected

Armatis

oxpulsisuut

honiinibus,ante
fabri de

arta

nostia,

tertium

diem

"c.

"

Ad

Nonas

Attic, iv. 3.

Novenibres

230

THE

of the contest

LIFE

CICERO.

OF

far from

beingin

his

favour,since
Quintus Flaccus,at the head of a resolute body of
well-armed
retainers,
making at lengtha furious sally
succeeded in repulsing
them after
upon the assailants,
a

in which
slaughter,

severe

of the Clodian

members
and

was

in which

the chief

the most

party were
promoter

distinguished
left on the ground,

fray would
have met with the fate he had so often tempted,had
he not escapedthe search of the victors by a hasty
concealment.
This defeat produced a considerable
diminution of his strength,
althoughit proved no
check
his insolence.
The
senate, provoked
upon
beyond their usual power of endurance,by the late
repeatedexcesses, decreed that those who had been
guiltyof them, should be indicted under the law
and that the election of
violence,
respecting
illegal
aediles should be deferred until they had been called
upon

to

account

of the

for their conduct.

it

As

was

law in the constitution,


that no
standing
magistrate
Clodius
should be impeachedwhile actually
in office,
had been encouragedby the prospectof his speedy
for which
he was
return
to the dignity
a
candidate,
and the hope of immunity from punishment for a
in braving
the publicauthorities,
and,
year to come,
under the express prohibition
of the decree,and
even
with the
in open defiance of the senate,persisted,
aid of the consul
the comitia.
now

in

But

its turn

openly declared
under

Metellus,in
the

fortune

of his

the

ascendant.

upon

that

his endeavours

no

to hold

opponent was
Milo

aediles should

be

had

chosen,

until the consulate of Metellus


any circumstances,
redeemed
his pledge,
should expire
; and fully

placesappointedfor

by occupyingthe

different

assemblies of the

peoplewith

an

armed

the

force,and by

in his capacity
of tribune,
on
declaring
every occasion,
that the auspices
unfavourable
to the meeting.
were
For several weeks the city was
kept in an uproar

231

CICERO.

OP

LIFE

THE

and it was
parties,
the consuls
when
January following,

the contentions of the two

by

until the

not

nelius
Cor-

Marcellinus,and Lucius Marcius


had for some
days entered upon their office,
Philippus,
well known
that Clodius,whose
extravaganceprobably
induced the people
to expectsome
extraordinary
Lentulus

in the
magnificence

to his management,was

be entrusted

should

which

games

elected curuleaedile*.
length

at

of this year Cicero delivered


in the senate- house,his speechon the restoration of
the kingof Egypt to his dominions.
Ptolemy, surAt the commencement

named

Auletes,the

father of the celebrated

Cleopatra,
peated
by resubjects

havingprovoked the hatred of his


and tyranny, was
at length
acts of oppression
driven from his kingdom by a general
insurrection,
ance,
and forced to applyto the Roman
senate for assistbribe to induce

as a
offering,

in his

hold

favour,to

to interfere

them

he might
territory

all the

His
in acknowledgmentof their sovereignty.
regain
who, on a false report of his death, had
subjects,
placedhis daughterBerenice upon the thronet, on
*

at

Cicero

at the

his Tusculan

Diversos,vii.
for

few

accounts

"what

close of the year

26,)in which

of
consequence
illness
follows
for his
as

I must

inform

the sumptuary laws.

been
you
The

"

"

guilty
that I

owe

will wonder,

You

perhaps,

order.
myself this dis-

bringupon
of
it to the frugal
regulations

productsof the

of that act, our


provisions
have found
into fashion,
vegetables

Rome

He
temporary indisposition.

of,to

of the

earth

beingexceptedout
eaters, in order to bring
elegant
them
of dressing
out a method

higha taste, that nothing can be


of
immediatelyafter havingeaten freely

in

to

appears
he states that he had retired from

days,in

excesses

short

time,
epistle Gallus, (Ad

his

from

a?
villa,

I have

697, was, for

A. u.c.

so

palatable. It

more
a

was

dish of this sort, at the


seized with an
illness

Lentulus,that 1 was
tillthis day.
Thus you see that I, who
left me
which has never
have withstood all the temptationsthat the noblest lampreys and
oysterscould throw in my way, have at last been overpoweredby

inaugurationfeast

paltrybeets
probablythe

and
Lex

though it allowed

of

mallows."

"f

Melmoth.

The

law

alluded

but

to

is

Sumptuaria,passedA. u.c. 687, which,


of meat
to be served up at
certain quantity

Licinia

entertainments,leftthe
Dio

"

ad
to be supplied
vegetables

Cassius,Hist. Rom.

xxxix.

libitum,

232

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

in
of his appeal,despatched
intelligence
receiving
haste an embassy,consisting
of a hundred deputies,
entreat

to

the

listen to it ; but of
assassinated by his directions,

senate

not

these,several

were

either

on

journey,or

Rome

their
the

he

rest

to

after their arrival at

soon

contrived

to

win

to

over

his

either by bribes or by promises. Odious


interests,
inclined
as his cause
was, Pompey was, nevertheless,
to lend him his full support,in the probable
tion
expecta-

beingentrusted

of

him

in his

with

the commission

dominions,and

several

stating
of rein-

long and

in consequence, upon the


place,
subject.But the tide of publicopinionran strongly
againstthe exiled prince,partly on account of
but more
his well-known
tyrannicaldisposition,
of an oracle
from the pretended
especially
discovery
in the Sibylline
books, by the tribune Marcus Cato,
who
was
fiercely
opposed to his restoration,by

anxious debates

which

the

took

Romans

cautioned,in

were

awful

and

equipped
mysterious
against
language,
any expedition
from their cityfor the purpose of aidinga king of
in the recovery of his crown.
Cicero,who
of offending
to have been less scrupulous
appears
that of prothe voice of justice
than against
against
phecy,

Egypt

and
the

who, moreover,

command

friend

was

anxious

to

secure

to Egypt for his


expedition
the time proconsulof Cilicia,

of the

Lentulus,at

with
attempted,

the assistance of Lucullus

and

Hor-

of a middle course,
to procure the adoption
tensius,
that already
as
which, though fullyas iniquitous
would, at least,lie beyond the scope
contemplated,
of the oracular
denunciation.
He, therefore,proposed,
in his address to the senate*, that,instead
*

Brief

with
been
aie

to

an

together
frigmentsof this oration (De Rege Alexandrine),

ancient

commentary,

as

it is

of Asconins, have
supposed,

discovered by Maio, in the Ambrosian


libraryof Milan, and
be found in the latest editions of Cicero's works.
They are,

however,whollyunimportant.

THE

of

LIFE

OF

233

CICERO.

under
from the city
directly
the governor of Ciany other general,
licia should be appointedto march
into Egypt with
the troops stationed in his province,
and aid in the
reduction of the revolted kingdom to the authorityof
its former sovereign.
The faction of Pompey resisted
this proposal with
all their strength,
and Crassus
added
his voice against
douht with
no
it,advising,
an
sending
Pompey, or

the view

armed

force

beinghimself included in the commission,


that the office of restoring
trusted
Ptolemy should be ennot
to
one
general,but to three ; while
another
party under Bibulus, equallysensitive to
their own
clamoured
for the appointment
advantage,
of

as

many

invested

of

civil commissioners,in the


with

divisions among

command.
military

placeof

Owing

to

men

the

supportersin the senate,the


of disapprobation
towards
it among
the members
feeling
of that body, and the unanimous
cry against
the measure
from the more
rather
or
equitable,
the more
multitude
superstitious
without,the plan
of interference was
to be dropat length obliged
ped,
and

its

the

forced to remain for


Egyptianmonarch
time longer without
his ancestral throne ;
some
althoughhe was afterwards,to the griefand indignation
of his subjects,
tion
reinstated in it,in consideraof a bribe of ten thousand talents,
by Gabinius,
proconsulof Syria.
Clodius,elated with his recent election,
by which
he had gainedthe
very pointof vantage from which
his adversary
forced to descend,was
now
was
busy in
forward an impeachment of Milo for illegal
carrying
violence ; foundingwith measureless
his
assurance
accusation on
which he himself
the very ground upon
oughtlong before to have been condemned ;the employment of armed
gladiators
againstpeaceful
and the creating
rance
of tumults to the hindcitizens,
"

of the comitia.

fresh succession of disturb-

234

THE

ensued

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

to
which shook the city
question
its centre.
nance
Milo, though supportedby the counteless,
of Pompey, Crassus,
and Cicero,was, nevertheto the
to appear
compelled,on two occasions,
lence
him, and each time the viochargebroughtagainst
of the partisans
both of himself and his rival
ances

threatened

on

this

the most

serious

On

consequences.

the

second

lected
day appointedfor his trial,Pompey was seof the abuse of the opposite
as the especial
object
After he had delivered a speechof three hours,
mob.
duration in defence of Milo, Clodius rose
to reply,
but was
and annoyed by the invectives
so exasperated

and

vociferated against
him, that
cuttingsarcasms
instead of proceeding
with
his address,he had recourse
to his favourite

of annoyance,
cording
and, acto his usual manner,
begana series of tions
ques"
Who
is it that procures
to his retainers :
laws

to

system

destroythe peopleby

famine

that wishes to be sent to Alexandria


his

?"

"

Who

is it

to allof which

respondedby shoutingin chorus the


of
name
interrogation,
Pompey." His concluding
Whom
is it the will of the peopleto
however,
ferent
?" was
answered
in a difsend upon the expedition
followers
"

"

"

"

manner,

since,with

one

accord,the Clodians

Crassus."
reply repeatedcries of
Whatever
effect the previous
insults might have produced,
the jeathis at once
told to the quick upon
lousy
had
and
ambition
of Pompey, and
nearly
produced an open rupture between himself and his
tered,
wealthyconfederate,since he shortlyafterwards utat an assemblyof the senate held in the temple
of Apollo,hints of his intention to stand upon his
as
defence,and not to be murdered
ScipioAfricanus
had been by Carbo.
He
even
proposedto Cicero,
whether
or
not, to enter into an agreement
sincerely
with him for their mutual
a
plot
safety,
pretending
in
his life,
by Crassus,and calling
against
encouraged
returned

for

"

236

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

his whole powers of vehement


declamation
irony; and these twin harpiesof the
for
represented
in all the

republicare
of posterity,
not only
reprobation

the

minutise
disgraceful

but in the most


and

feature,which
if

they had

and studied

of their moral

ters,
charac-

finished details of outward


stillsee

we

before

us

as

form

perfectly

preservedby the skill of the


most
accomplishedartist. Yet, althoughthe orator
dwells on
of
the fopperies
and excesses
sarcastically
Gabinius, his curled hair arranged tier above tier*,
his unguents, and dissolute glances,
his
he reserves
whom
for his colleague,
happiest
powers of description
he paints
as
mimickingthe ancient worthies of the
with his profusion
of beard, his uncombed
republic
hair,his sordid toga,his solemn countenance, severe
looks, and contracted eye-brow,on which, as on
as

the

shoulders

been

of

Atlas,

thought to restt.
with
in depicting
ability
be

state

might

shown

less

colours

the several

and
duringhis exile,
miserable

and tumults
the sudden
and
recall,

Italyarose
had

who
in

scenes

which

at the moment

in Rome

of his return ;
"

in favour of his own


feeling
the exultation jind triumphwith which all
to do homage on his return to the patriot
been

of

compelled to

of weakness

and

forsake

his

infatuation.

country

dently
Indepen-

the oration for


considerations,
the best
as
long continue to be prized,

Sextius
account

year far from beingthe least


in the annals of Rome.
But were
it less
of

occurrences

remarkable

the

of the state torn

revulsion

moment

of the

he

vivid

most

occurred

of other

will

has

Nor

by anarchyand
insolent despotismof Clodius,the frays
which
accompaniedhis factious violence,

condition

faction,the

interests of the

the whole

calamistrata coma,
conAlter,unguentisaffluens,
despiciens,
Pro Sextio,viii.
sciens stuprorum, "c.
de
Nam
dicam ? quod turn liominibus non
quod ego
supercilio
"fIbid.
Bed pignusreipublicae
videbatur,"c
Bupereilium
"

"

LIFE

THE

could

237

CICERO

historical document, its intrinsic

an
as
interesting

merits

OP

fail of

never

inducingin

the

student

of satisfaction
a
literature,
feeling

ancient

at

of
its

has overtaken
so
many
escape from the fate which
the proof reasoningand eloquence,
other models
duction
of the

exalted intellect. Sextius,however,

same

find, was not wholly indehted to it for


of
his acquittal*,
since,in this cause, the pleadings
been
Cicero had
precededby a masterly defence,
we

as

preparedby

abilitiesof

skill and
long practised

the

Hortensiust.
The
or

occasion gave

same

it is

as

birth to

called,the
generally

againstVatinius.

latter,who

The

Vatinius

which

tribune

oration,
Interrogation
"

had

borne

the

people,and had
long rendered himself obnoxious to Cicero by his
devotion to the Clodian faction,had appearedas a
in the cause
of Sextius,
witness for the prosecution
and was
crossexposed to the severe
consequently
examination of the counsel for the defendant.
This,
of a long succession of questions,
in the form
to
offices of

quaestorand

"

the

had

neither

of the

the

nor
power,
probably
inclination to answer,
constitutes
the
the
mentioned
above
is
of the
oration,which

whole

pungent satire ; its leading


render ridiculous and contemptible
whom
itwas
a work
pronounced,
against

remarkable
chiefly
objectbeing to
theindividual

which,

if the

for its

character

"

givenof

Vatinius

has

not

and
by the malevolence of party spirit
animosity,appears to have been essentially
political

been

distorted

of

one
was

the

which, Cicero tells us,


; but
supererogation
deserve
to
as
performedin such a manner
We
find
applauseboth of gods and menj.
his

from
*

Ad

that
letters,

while

Quintum,ii. 4.

Valinium

arbitratu

f
nustro

Pro

cause

of Sextius

Sextio,vi.

concidimus,'dis homiuibusquo

Ad Quiutuin,ii. 4.
plauderitibus.
"

the

238

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

in progress, he also undertook


the defence of
Lucius Bestia, accused of corrupt practices
in canvassing
was

for office. This

oration

is

lost.
entirely

It

followed

by one induced by a renewed attack on


the part of Clodius,whose
towards
him
ill-feeling
not likely
to be diminished by the late storm
of
was
directed againsthimself, and
impassionedcensure
under
circumstances
of the
sufficiently
elucidatory
was

character of the times.


The

attention

of the

Rome

at
haruspices

late been

called to the serious consideration

ominous

portents,on

it

as

which

traversed

meteor, which
the
to

wolf had

cautious

usual
A

which

had

hitherto

quested
re-

struck

them

from

habits

to

the

faced

the

on

Alban

east, had

the
;

animals

of those

several

; and, in
lightning

with

north

gates of
throughits streets,contrary

the north

suddenly towards
been

of certain

opinionwas

to enter

seen

of Juno

shrine

prey.

been

to wander

city,and
the

of

The
heavens
had
been,
by the senate*.
illumined
zling
by a strangeand dazreported,

was

south.

their

had

of

mount,
turned

citizens had

the

of
vicinity

said to have
Rome, strangeand horrible noises were
been heard, resembling
the uproar
of encountering
of subterranean
armies, and the clanging
weapons

hostst.

of these
persons consulted on the causes
of the gods,
tokens
of the displeasure

The

supposed

performedand

publicgames had been negligently


to
polluted
; that placesconsecrated

the

had
religion

answered, that
service

of

; that

those

had
suppliants
to law
*

and

De

to

who

had

true

the

worn

as

fane
procharacter of

baselymurdered, contrary botli


equity; that rites of the most ancient
been

of this

cause

mentioned

considered

been

x.
Haruspicum Responsionibus,

"f-The
taken

the

in

phenomenon

the oration

placein the Picenum.

on

the

Dio
was,

Cassius,xxxix.
quake
no
doubt, the earth-

subjectas

having lately

THE

and

LIFE

mysteriouskind

OF

had

239

CICEKO.

been

celebrated
imperfectly
and desecrated,and
that the sanctityof the most
solemn oaths had been disregarded.
Saturn,
Jupiter,
declared to be the divinities
Neptune,and Tellus,were
it was
should
to whom
necessary that expiation
be made ; and they were
said to warn
the state by
these fearful tokens, againstsuch
divisions among
the nobilityand
leadingpersons of the state,as
lead to disgrace
abroad
and ruin at
must
infallibly
home.
On this vague reply,Clodius based a long
that the rebuilding
of
oration,intended to show
Cicero's house, on
ground expresslyconsecrated to
of the events alluded to
one
religious
purposes, was
of the deities ;
resentment
as having provoked the
and Cicero,on
the following
day, made his replyin
the senate-house.
After successfully
parryingboth
the assertions and insinuations of his adversary,
he
endeavoured,in his turn,to bring,not a part,but the
to bear upon
whole, of the reply of the haruspices
the Clodian
faction,and to prove them
equally
1. By a
guiltyunder each of its separate counts.
late interruption
of the Megalesiangames,
and the

introduction of persons

of servile condition

theatre at their celebration*.

By

2.

the

into the

on
occupation

the

part of Clodius of the house of Quintus Seius,


whom, after an ineffectual attempt to gain his resi*

The

Megalesiangames, in honour
Cybele, were
annuallyperformed at
and

the
on
magnificence,

Maximus.

The

4th

and

goddessesCeres

of the
Rome

with

9th of

classicalreader will remember

the

April,in

utmost

the

and
pense
ex-

Circus

the beautiful allusion

by Juvenal at the close of his eleventh satire.


all who
Previous to their celebration,
freemen were
not
were
manded
comthe spot.
to departfrom
Clodius, however, in the year
these entertainments, introof his aedileship,
while presidingover
duced

made

to

them

an

immense

in consequence,
the consul Lentulus

arose

Clodian
and
place,

mob

number

of slaves into

which

was

Marcellinus

actuallydrove
of
keptpossession

the

quelledwith

theatre.

tumult

by
great difficulty

a second
occasion,the
; but, on
all the other
spectators from the

it for themselves.

240

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

by purchase,he was said to have caused to be


by the demolition of a shrine,and
; and
poisoned
its precincts*. 3. By the
several altars within
of Theodosius,a native of Chios,while emmurder
ployed
an
on
embassy to Romet, a deed in which
of havingbeen the prinClodius had the reputation
cipal
actor ; and the assassination,
by order of Piso,
of PlatorJ, a citizen of Orestis in Macedonia, who
had been sent by his countrymen to Thessalonica,
on
a
publicmission to the proconsul; and 4. By the
dence

late violation of the rites of the Bona

Dea,

and

the

the criminal
of the judgeswho had acquitted
perjury
The danger
of that notorious sacrilege.
plainly
guilty
of dissention

demonstrated

the orator

all the disturbances

whom

After

attributable.
Clodius

ventured

Cicero's

the

the

had

individual

of

ruin, were
speech,we do not

againto

interfere with

was

plainly
find that

respectto

that
house, which, as well as
brother,is mentioned, in his letters to

Palatine

for
erecting

Quintus,

as

his

rapidlyrisingfrom

now

its ruins

Contentions
magnificence".
styleof surpassing
these two
other
however, between
subjects,
enemies

to

happened,
lately

the commonwealth

verge

this

of

which

of which

in consequence
on
tottering

now

principal
persons of the state,
to be only avoidable
by the

insolence

the

suppressionof
and

the

among

in

upon
bitter

the
wanting. Notwithstanding
of the peopleto his return, the decrees

not

were

universal assent

stillfixed up
the banishment
of Cicero were
respecting
in the Capitol. In order, therefore,to abolish this
he ascended
last remainingtestimonyof his disgrace,
with
in company
tribunes ; and
havingtorn

thither

which

on

the

obnoxious

Milo,
down
acts

were

and

several

the brazen

Id. xiv.

De

tablets

engraved,
O

of the

w;is

'

xii.
Haruspicum Respousionituis.
Id.
Ad
xxi.
"
Quiiitum,ii.3, 4.
J

THE

them
carrying
hastened
time

OF

triumph, when Clodius,having


spot with his brother Caius,at that

But

praetor,forced him
second attempt,
a

from

the

was
city,

Clodius

while

raised

in

who

he

had

the tablets

remove

disputewas afterwards
the
subject; Clodius

warm

senate

was

upon

violence
complaintsagainstthe illegal
pretended had been used, while even Cato,

had
at

absent

Avas

loud

making
which

the

design.

since Cicero
successful,

more

house.

own

his

abandon

to

to
enabled,without interruption,
to his

241

CICERO.

oft'in

the

to

LIFE

his commission
executing
fended
Cyprus, took part againstCicero, who dehis conduct
he
by the argument of which

returned

now

from

several times before availed

himself,that all the


acts procuredby the instrumentality
of his adversary
were
sequence
void, in connecessarily
duringhis tribunate,
of the illegality
of his adoption into the
plebeianorder.
His reputation
the people was,
at this
among
raised by the part he had
terly
lattime, by no means
taken
virate,
in forwardingthe views
of the triumA

the

the

drop, on a
pey, who, previous to
for the purchase of corn
had

been

to

summoned

Lucca, in

at

which

to

the

all his influence with

his

oppositionany

of

lands

the

of

had

he

act
.Agrarian

distribution

suffered

which

motion

made

in
an

considering
re-

Cassar

of

respecting
Campania was
Pom-

from

remonstrance

his

for

departure to Africa,
the prevailing
scarcity,
interview

latter

Caesar

with

engaged him

to

use

Cicero,to prevent his


farther*.

In

ing
carrydebates

the

respectingthe

assignmentof the consular provinces


for the ensuingyear, according
to the Sempronianlaw, the waveringin his policywas not less
obvious.
His speechupon the subject,
while strenu*

Caesar had

interview with

been

informed

Crassus,which

of Cicero's
took

in
opposition
Ravenna.
placeat

previous

242

LIFE

THE

CICERO.

OF

ouslyrecommendingthat Gabinius and Piso should,


from Syria and
without
home
delay,be summoned
with arguments for continuing
Macedonia, was replete
in the

Ceesar

government of the two Gauls, contrary


he had
opinionsof the party with which

to the

sided.

hitherto

dangerwhich

In

had

it he

eloquentlysets

forth the

threatened the state

at all times

the different Gallic

and the unexampled


nations,
displayof valour and conduct by which they had
the
been
latelynot only"preventedfrom crossing
barrier of the Alps, but actuallysubjected
to the
from

Roman

after

arms,

carried
and

succession

of

in the heart of their

on

campaigns,
dazzling
own

country,

fiercest among
their tribes*. The
mentioned
in terms
of the
Ceesar are

againstthe

abilities of

highestpanegyric his
the

enmity towards

former

self
him-

with

;
singulargentleness
with
sacrifice
all
to
professing, apparent generosity,
considerations of a private
nature to his regardfor
But it
interests of the commonwealth.
the general

is

any such
of
cause
first was
in the
Caesar

of the power
credit for more
than the

was

of his readers

to

influence
partial

of

in this instance
feeling.In advocating
Ceesar,he was guidedby two motives.

the
The

dignatio
Gabinius,and his inat the conduct theywere
at presentpursuing
countries entrusted
If
to their government.
recalled from either or both of the Gauls,
were
by no means
unlikelythat these would be

selected
in

"

out
unfortunately

givehim

it

treats

orator

which

his hatred

as

of Piso and

consular

provincesfor

Macedonia

case

to
beingassigned

the

of their

Cicero

as
office,

be
probability

new

and
consuls

had

still suffered

the

ensuingyear,
Syria, instead of
at the expiration

intended, would
to

continue

under

in all
the

His second reason


sway of their present oppressors.
is clearly
explainedin his letters to the pro- consul
*

De

Provinciis Consular] bus, xiii.

244

THE

LIFE

CICERO.

OP

devoted to philosophy
you of a lesson which, although
I have
from
acquiredless by study
my childhood,
I hope you
than by painful
but which
experience,
will learn in

milder

school than

that of

adversity
;

our
honour, we should
namely,that, in consulting
lose sight
neither entirely
interests *, nor
of our
own
at the sacrifice
wholly devote ourselves to the latter,

of honour."
the

From

from others of
as well
as
letter,
about the same
date,it is ascertained that at this
periodhe was engagedin formingan alliance between
his daughter
Tullia and Furius Crassipes
t, a Roman
of high birth and considerable property,as well as
by the nuptialfestivitiesof his friend Atticus,who
had recently
celebrated his marriage
with Pilia. The
happinessof Cicero received no accession from his
took
new
familyconnexion,since a coldness soon
placebetween Crassipesand Tullia,which ended in
a

divorce. Other

formal

been

-same

wanting to

such

kind

as

vexations

embitter

his

not to be

were

do not
peace

seem

to have

vexations

"

of

from crossing
precluded

his

his domestic hearth.


or from
threshold,
darkening
To these he frequently
in guarded
pressions
exalludes,
although
of the discords,
; but itis evident that the causes
which
afterwards
separatedhim from his own wife,
fast increasing
in number, and constantly
now
were
*

Ad

Di versos,

i. 7.

translation of the very

Melmoth,

passage.
a

oration

for

"interests" is

word

delicate and

in his notes

to

has justly
epistle,
expressed

of the

the very concessions of which


his letter to Lentulus : " Harum
ego sententiarum

foremost

auclor

the

he

to advocate

et

complainsin
princeps et

fui."

"f Tullia
and

best

salutis in this

term
significant

the

perhapsthe

disingenuousnessof Cicero, who, in his


Balbus, layspublicclaim to the honour of being the

censure

severe

The

the fourth day of April,


on
Crassipes
in celebration
of
entertainment,termed the
sponsalia,"
was

affianced to

"

the event given on the sixth of the same


month.
Tulliam nostram
literas,
Crassipedi
prid.Non.
satam."

(Ad Quintum, ii.5.) Advin.


prsebui." Ad Quintum, ii.6.
"

"

"

Dederam

ad te

April,esse desponId. Apr. sponsalia


Crassipedi

LIFE

THE

245

CICERO.

influence
depressing

a more
exerting
and spirits.

It

OF

upon

his peace

easy to affix the exact date to


for Coelius and Balbus, althoughboth

is not

orations

his
are

undoubtedlyto be referred to the consulate of Phinative of


a
lippusand Marcellinus. Balbus was
in Spain,upon whom
Gades
Potnpey,in return for
his services duringthe war
againstSertorius,had
of the city. His rightto the
conferred the freedom
honour was, however, impugned by one of his fellow
referred to the
and the cause
was
ultimately
citizens,
the talent
praetor. Considering
arrayedon the side of the defendant,
authority

tribunal of
and

Roman

there is nothing
to excite wonder

in the determination

questionin his favour,since Pompey, Crassus,


Cicero appeared in succession in his behalf.
oration of the last yet remains to testify
against
of its flattery
towards
the
author, by the excess

of the
and
The
its

idol

whom

on

geniuswas

much

so

wasted.

The

of the

incense

of his noble

speechof Pompey

is eulogised

all which
he had yet heard in
surpassing
and a thorough
profundity,
dignity,
elegance,
acumen,
Over
with the laws and precedents
*.
acquaintance
as

which
adulation,moreover,
there
the introductory
pollutes
passages of this oration,
in it,the doctrine of which
there is
is a fatal position

and above

but

the

too much

fulsome

reason

to believe

Pompey

been

to have

both
but which
sufficiently
ready to acknowledge,
himself
and
his panegyristlived to repent the
assumption,that what had been done by so great
and
and renowned
a
character, must
necessarily
It was
such assertions as these
be lawful.
inevitably
that familiarised to the ears
of the Roman
people,
the despotic
longbefore its arrival,
power which was
hasteningwith rapidstrides towards them, although
under a form littlesuspected,
and stillless dreaded.
"

Pro

L. Cornelio

Balbo,i.

246

THE

In the

same

CICEKO.

OF

defence of Marcus

perhapsless
the

LIFE

to blame

time

in

Coelius, while there is

there
pointof principle,

to admire

more

is at

in consideration of the

rhetorical excellences of the oration.

a Roman
Coelius,
of
knightof habits which, even by the representation
his advocate,seem
to have been sufficiently
dissolute,
accused by Atratinus,
citizen whose
father he
was
a
had formerlyimpeachedof crimes of the most atrocious
character. He was asserted to have procuredthe
murder
of Dion, one of the late ambassadors
sent to
Rome
from Alexandria,and to have borrowed
from
he was
with whom
at
Clodia,the sister of the sedile,
the time living
in guilty
of money
a sum
intercourse,
for the purpose of hiring
the assassins.
Of this loan,
when
it was
redemanded,he was said to have refused
the payment, and to have added
quencies
to his other delinthe enormityof an
attempt to poisonthe
lender by the instrumentality
In
of her own
servants.
which were
these charges,
chiefly
by Clodia,
instigated
from some
of disgust
cause
givenby her paramour,
there was
character of personalmalevolence
ous
obvia
enoughto render the whole improbablein the eyes
of impartial
The opportunity
of increasing
and
judges.
this impression
would
been
not have
strengthening
than Cicero,
and
by a much less acute pleader
neglected

he has availed himself of it to the full.

time,under
the

the avowed

influence of

wish

the

same

to spare

sistent
might be conhe indulges
with the interests of his client,
his hostility
to her familyand name
by a withering
of summoning
of her vices. His expedient
exposure
the shade of the blind old censor
Appius Claudius,
of his once
to upbraidthe unworthy daughter
glorious

character

of

Clodia,as

much

At

as

house,and cite in her ears the virtues of her female


ancestry,is a master-stroke of fanciful satire. Of
he attempts
in which
the other parts of the speech,
to throw

glossover

the dissolute habits of the

ac-

LIFE

THE

cused,the

advocate

to be commended

more

These

passages will
of the extent
to

standingevidence

247

CICERO.

is much

the moralist.

than

OP

long furnish
which

nour
ho-

dishonour, temperance and excess, were


confounded, altered,or substituted for each other at
will in Roman
society,
by a rule of conduct,which was
well as restriction in
as
subjectto any amplification
and considered cither bindingor not,as
its definitions;
the philosophic
prideof abstinence,or the Epicurean
sentiment
of indulgence,
predominated in the minds
and

of its

Ccelius

acquittedby the
sentence
of his judgesof the chargesbrought
general
of
probably in consequence
againsthim, not more
the exertions of his defenders t than of the imprudence
his ruin,had
of his enemies,who, in attempting
overlooked the common
dangerof provingtoo much.
If it were
which
necessary to produce a document
throw
extent than any in existence would
to a greater
weakness
of Cicero, the
lightupon the besetting
celebrated letter to Lucceius ^, referable to this stage
of his history,
might be selected for the purpose. Of
*.
expositors

was

his eagerness to enlist the services of


celebration

for the
been
*

of his

But

alreadyseen.
Dr.

Middleton's
treats

the

and
gaieties

and

humour,

lias left to

in

gularly
tlie oration for Ccelius is sinupon
of the biographer: "In
this
partiality
"

the

character

licentiousness of

that makes

us."

The

instances have
consulate,
his epistle
to the historian

criticism

by the

marked

speech Cicero

of talent

men

it

one

of
gallantries

and

youth

of the

is
vivacity

at

with

most

such

Clodia,and

vivacityof wit
which he
entertaining

least of

most

questionable

character.

f Marcus
in the

Crassus,as

well

as

Cicero,was

engaged as

advocate

cause.

In the chronological
Diversos,v. 12.
arrangement of
is placedbetween
the fifth and sixth letters of
Sch'utz,this epistle
the fourth book
of the correspondence of Cicero
with Atticus,

Ad

"

date ascertained

(Ad
"c.

by

the mention

"
Attic, iv. 6'.)

made

of it

EpistolamLucceio

by
nunc

the writer
qtiarn

self:
him-

misi,"

248
in

his
question,

all

morbid

OF

CICERO.

appetitefor
hurries

moderation, and

him

transcends

fame

into

degreeof

which

almost unparalleled,
may be proclaimed
which, if incontrovertible evidence of it

meanness,

and
did not

dible.
be pronounced increcertainly
first part of it,and it is unnecessary
to

exist, would
The

quote the whole in


truth,is as follows
"

LIFE

THE

MARCUS

CICERO

CEIUS,

corroboration
:

of this

disgraceful

"

HEALTH

WISHES
SON

THE

OF

TO

LUCIUS

LUC-

QUINTUS.

I have

intended to converse
witli you
frequently
the subjectof this letter,
but a certain almost
on
rustic modesty has hitherto restrained me
from proposing
in person
I can, with
less scruple,
what
"

this distance ; for a letter spares the confusion


blush. I will own
then that I am
inflamed

request at
of
with

an

than

once

a
incredible,
yet, as I believe,by no means
desire of beingrendered celebrated and illustrious
culpable
and althoughyou have more
by your writings,

givenme

of your
will excuse

me
intending
that honour, yet I hope you
tience
my impaI had always,
of seeing
that design
executed.
of your perindeed, conceived a high expectation
formances
in this kind ; but the specimenI have
of them, is so far superior
to all I had
seen
lately
in my imagination,
that it has fired me
with
figured
the most ardent desire of beingimmediatelydistinin your glorious
annals.
It is my ambition,
of
confess,not only to live for ever in the praises
assurance

fuished

future ages, but to have the


of seeing
myselfstand

records of my
the

presentsatisfaction

approvedin
friend. I
ingenious

time,that

wise
like-

the authoritative
am

sensible,
already

thoughtsare
of your
deeplyengagedin the prosecution
original
pleted
design. But, as I perceiveyou have almost comat

same

your

account

your

of the

Italic and Marian

civil

249

CICERO.

OP

LIFE

THE

forbear

proposed to carry on the


I cannot
in a regularseries,
of our history
recommending it to your consideration,

whether

it would

and

wars,

remainder

remember

you

be best

to

into the
Catiline's conspiracy

historians will

certain several of the Greek


you in this latter method.
of
a narrative of the siege

Polybiusdid
so

many

As

to

Thus, Callisthenes
Troy, as both Timams

justify
wrote

and

Pyrrhicand Xumantine
wars, in
piecesfrom their largerhistories.

of the

detached
the

of your
It is
distinct work.

texture
general

it into

cast

or
performance,

the relation of

weave

honour

that will arise to

me,

it will be

scheme
the same, I must
own,
upon whichever
determine
to proceed; but I shall receive
may

much
you

of my wishes,if,
gratification
advance to that
instead of waitingtill you regularly
periodof our annals,you should enter upon it by this
method
of anticipation.
Besides,by keepingyour mind
and character,
attentive to one
scene
principal
you
much
the
I am
will treat your subject,
so
persuaded,
it with higher
in detail,
well as embellish
as
more
I must
acknowledgeit is not extremely
graces.
modest thus to impose a task upon you which your
and
occupationsmay well justify
you in refusing;
much

so

to add

then

earlier

the

further

actions with

my

request,that

honour

honour

applause,an

your

would

you

which,

perhaps after all,you may not think they greatly


deserve.
has once
gressed
transa
man
However, when
the bounds
it is in vain to recede,
of decency,
and his wisest way is to push on boldlyin the same
confident
venture

then

to
yourself
*

etiam
quam

The

to

course

the

to
earnestly

still

atque etiam rogo,


fortasse sends, et

de
que illam,

entreat

the strict laws

originalis

qua

of

ut

suavissime

et
eo

not

you

*, but
history

forcible :

more

in

of his purpose.

end

ornes

ea

"
"

I will

to confine
to

Itaque

vehementius

givea
te

plane
etiam

legeshistoriaenegligas
; gratiam-

quodam

in

ea si
prooemioscripsisti,

250

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

greaterlatitude to
think

may

you
that you

than possibly
your encomiums
you
actions can
claim.
I remember, indeed,

my
declare in

are

of your very
inflexible to all the

as

one

prefaces,
elegant
pleasof affection

Xenophon representsHercules to have been to


those of pleasure.Let
me
hope, nevertheless,if
should too strongly
recommend
friendship
my actions
her generous
to your approbation,
you will not reject
but givesomewhat
to affection than
more
partiality,
truth can justlydemand.
rigorous
If I should prevailupon you to fall in with my
I persuademyproposal,
you will find the subject,
self,
and your eloquence.
not unworthy of your genius
entire period,from
The
the rise of Catiline's conspiracy
from banishment,will furnish,
return
to my
I should imagine,
volume.
It will supply
a moderate
as

"

you

likewise

with

occasion

noble

of

displaying

by layingopen the source


your judgment on politics,
of these civil disorders,
and pointing
out their proper
for apremedies,as well as by givingyour reason
proving
or

condemningthe treacheryor perfidious-

laid their ungenerous


for my
snares
destruction.
I will add, too, that this periodof my
which
life will furnish you with numberless
incidents,
ness

of those who

cannot

but

draw

the

reader's attention

in

very

nothingis more
amusingto
the mind
than to contemplate
the various vicissitudes
of fortune : and
far,it is true,
though they were
in experience,
from beingacceptable
they cannot fail
much
entertainment
in description,
of giving
as
me
satisfaction in reflecting,
at
there is an
inexpressible
manner
agreeable

me

tibi vehenientius

; as

commendabit,

ne

aspernere."In

his fervour

without
he beseeches the historian,
disguise,
again
supplication,
ornamental
elaborate and
more
and
again, to employ a much
his
than
conscience
own
might suggest
panegyric,
upon his consulate
him
the ordinary
behind
this
and
occasion
leave
on
that it deserved,
i. e., sobriety
and truth.
laws of history,

of

252

THE

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

stantial benefit to themselves from his daily


increasing
influence in the state.
At the councils of the
triumvirate
the

which
Gauls

two

ensued, it
should

be

determined

was

secured

to

that

Caesar

for

five years longer,


and that Pompey and
Crassus
should enjoythe consulate for the year following
;
after which

the

government

of

Spain,for

of five years, was


to be entrusted
and that of Syria,with the power

to

the

the

space

former,

of

conductinga
war
Parthia,to the latter. Upon this agreeagainst
ment,
the
confederates
and
Crassus
separated
;
Pompey returning to prosecute their ambitious
designsat Rome, while Cassar proceededto make
his preparations
memorable
for a campaign more
"

than

any

which

he has recorded

in the

eyes

of

an

biting
Englishreader, inasmuch as it terminated by exhithe eagles
for the first time,
of his legions,
to the

Britain,and
which

defenders

of the

his adventurous
troops
convincing
the very existence
of an island,
position

had

been

to that time

considered

matter

of very considerable doubt*.


The resolution of the triumvirs to obtain the
of their

for two
after

the

of

coast

of

of the actual
of

wild

of the

gaze

usual

not

until

taken

of

and
passed,

was

appearance

of Lucius

candidate ;

who, with

was

holdingthe comitia had


promptedby the
greatmeasure

time
in

body

own

sulate
con-

Domitius

Ahenobarbus

as

singularboldness,did

not

of being
his confident expectation
attempt to disguise
elected to the office,
the use he intended to make
or
of his first steps
of it ; openly givingout that one
after his return

Caesar.
of the

would

be to rescind the recent acts of

So

great,however,
triumvirate,that he

was
was

the

generaldread

suftered

stand

to the powers
by wljpm the
opposition
regulated,
machinery of the government was

alone in his
whole

to

Plutarch in Cses. ;

Jul.
Suetonius,

xxv.

LIFE

THE

not

singleindividual

253

CICERO.

presentinghimself

as

his

over,
Cato, moreexerted the whole of his authorityagainst
him,
forbiddingthe comitia, brought
by frequently

fellow
and

OF

candidate.

The

tribune

Marcus

the year to a close without


any election whatever
publicofficers. An interregnumtherefore ensued

months, as a
Pompey, who had
some

of
for

of which, Crassus and


consequence
selves
thembefore neglected
to profess

oppositionto Domitius within


enabled
to stand
the time prescribed
by law, were
and were
he was
for the honour to which
aspiring,
with
little difficulty
returned*.
Porcius
Cato, at
the same
time,appearedas candidate for the prsetorlayed
deship; but after the election had been frequently
repulsed,
by the new consuls,was ultimately
candidates

in

"

beingelected in his stead.


terred
deThe
stoical patriot
however, by no means
was,
his censure
all occasions
from
on
exercising
the
upon the policyof the triumvirate ; and when
motion
the extension of the. period of
respecting
Caesar's government in Gaul, and the assignmentof
before the
came
Spain and Syria to his colleagues,
mitted
comsenate, opposed it so warmly, that he was
to prisonby the tribune Caius Treboniust.
Piso, the proconsulof Macedonia, had, in the

the

infamous

Vatinius

Gabinius,received his recal,


and was
however
to obey the
obliged,
reluctantly,
He reached Rome
summons.
shortlyafter,but was
conscious of the opinionprevalentwith respect
so
to his misconduct
in his province,
that on reaching
the gates of the city,he commanded
his lictors to
the laurel from their fasces,and retired to
remove
his house with as small a retinue,and in as unostentatious
a
as
manner
possible,
attemptingby this
to avoid attracting
the notice of the populace.
means

meantime,

as

well

as

Dio

Cassius,xxxix.

Liv.

Epit.cv.

; Fasti

iii.1 88.
Hellenici,

254

THE

been

It had

of the

use

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

if he had

well for him

continued to make

publicity.But
precautions
against

same

days afterwards he was incautious enough,in his


from
vexation
at being removed
a
government in
which he had promisedhimself a longlicence for plunder,
assertions against
in a series of splenetic
to indulge
ed
Cicero,in which he chargedhim with havingeffect-

few

his
The

recall from

envious

his accusation

reply to

and
was

malicious
one

motives.

the severest

of

againstcorruptionand guilt
he had proby the geniusof the terrible antagonist
voked.
been
Cicero had
probably long lyingin
which
wait
for this opportunity,
nothing but the
most
completeinfatuation on the part of Piso could
stores of
have afforded him, and opened the whole
detestation to strengthen
and embitter
his hoarded
His speechis not
the occasion.
his eloquenceon
whom
the deliberate and stern reproofof one
length
of personalresentment, while
of time has disarmed
it has left unimpaired his conviction of the guilt
If
of the objectof his censure.
and worthlessness
Piso had only the day before driven the orator into
banishment, fired his house, and insulted his family,
he could not have been assailed by the objectof his
burst of energetic
with a more
startling
persecution
than that elicited by his remarks
; which
indignation
invectives

hurled

ever

resembles,in

fierceness* and

the

vehemence,

sudden

perfectvocabularyof Latin abuse might be procured from


he is termed
the oration againstPiso. Among other appellations,
Epicure noster ex hara proimportuna bellua, furcifer,coenum,
*

"

ducte
but

ex

non

the

schola

(ourfriend Epicurus here,not

sty,)carnifex,immanissimum

ac

from

foedissimum

the school

monstrum,

furia,pestiset
provinciaeimperator,vorago reipublicse,
scelus,tenebrae, sordes,lutum, "c. "c.
labes, bustum
reipublicse,

vulturius
The
most

pseudo-philosophic
aspect of
You
vividly,
depictured:
"

the

by the

orator,

smoky

"

busts

by the

madness

of your

the

ex-consul

have

is

coarsely,yet

crept into honours,"

of men,

ancestors, which

and
you

claims
ex-

recommended

resemble

in

LIFE

THE

OP

255

CICERO.

Alpine torrent,in a
moment
or
bearingbefore
surmounting,
prostrating,
pede
it every obstacle which
might be expected to imThe speaker
the rush of its excited waters.
does not omit the opportunityof descanting
upon the
in comparisonwith the
of his own
consulship
glories
and

outbreak

former
most

descent

of

an

administration

He
of his enemy.
pictureof the misery of the
frightful

draws

provinces

by Piso and his recent colleague


;
in
succession
fore
beconcludes,after bringing rapid

presidedover
and

noble cities and


the eyes of his auditors the once
the subjectof his denunciations
districts upon which

suffered to exercise his cruelties and

had been

tions
extor-

blaze of impassioned
a
pleasure,amidst
the
words, prompted by his
rhetoric,in which
at

crowd

to
seem
glowingimagination,
too fast for expression*.

had

been

from

the

retirement
delightful

had
neighbourhood
Here

he

had

assumed

its most

coast

beautiful

near

in its

aspect.

up to the
devoted to a
brief interval of leisure,

latelybeen

of
indulgence

of his villa

the seductive

when

season

almost

to this hostile encounter,

summoned

Cicero

Puteoli,at

him

upon

givinghimself

And
produced before the
again, ''When
nothingbut colour."
you
assembly, and asked your opinionrespectingmy consulship,
elevated
with
one
eyebrow
authorityas you are,
reply,respectable
"

to

your

that you

forehead,and the
were

never

equal severity.

other

friend to

Saltatrix

brought to

cruelty!"

of the mildest

some
*

The

bestowed
appellations
beauty,power, and dignityof

be
scarcely

transferred

into any

other

with

helluo,

concinnus

tonsa, gurges,

chin,

level with your


Gabinius is treated
a

"

are

him.
upon
the final paragraph could

language.

"

Nunquam

ego

illud extremum,

quod posset
sanguinem expetivituum
nunquam
et
e
t
suppliciumlegis judicii sed
esse
iraprobis probiscommune,
abjectum,contemptum, despectum a ceteris a leipsodesperatunt
"

"

"

circumspectantem omnia
pertimescentem diffidenlem tuis rebus
et relictum"

"

sine
omucs,

ulla

"

"

quicquid increpuisset
sine

voce

"

sine libertate

horrentem, treinentem, adulantem


In Pisonem, xli.
Vidi,""c.

specie consular!

videre te volui.

"

"

256

THE

studious

LIFE

examination

OF

CICERO.

libraryof Faustus the


of Sylla;one
and supposedto
of the best in Italy,
son
have been chiefly
acquiredby his father,duringthe
of his spoliations
course
pursued in Greece,after his
I
sanguinaryasssault and capture of Athens.
would
rather,"he writes to Atticus at this time,
of the

"

the little seat which


occupy
you have
than the curule
your bust of Aristotle,
"

and
highestmagistrates,

fixed

under

chair of

our

friendlywalk
with you, than with him whom
I am
now
obliged
He
to make
associate*."
probably alluded to
my
Pompey, with whom, duringa short residence of
the

his villa

latter at

have

enjoy my

exchanged visits.

little knew
other

his

Cumee, he appears to
the writer,if sincere,
To
him, as to every

near

But

heart.

own

infected with

statesman

the

of

fever

tion,
ambi-

retirement, however
accompanied with the
ing
time affordof literature,
unless at the same
delights
for contemplating
recent triumphs
opportunity
fresh means
to attract the popu
or
meditating
upon
lar gaze, was, as his exile might have taughthimself^
and
has taught every inquirerinto his character,
Soon
after his
wretchedness.
a state of unqualified
return to Rome, and within a few days of the delivery
witness of the
of the oration againstPiso, he was
a
exhibited
magnificentgames
by Pompey at the
an

dedication of his theatre.

yet

exhibited

the most
reared
had

city,this
imposing.

in that

costlyand

for the

been

mere

contain at least
*

"wliich Tertullian

calls

abundant

yet remain.

"

an

erections.

entertainments
That

recently
hewn
stone, and spacious
fortythousand spectators'^.

Attic, iv. 10.

Ad

-|-Plin. Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 247.


reason,

appears to have been


Hitherto all buildings

exhibition of dramatic

temporary
finished,
however, was of

enough to

all the entertainments

Of

arx

"

few

of this structure,
vestiges

turpitudiuum,"and

probablywith

THE

LIFE

257

CICERO.

OF

the scandal

of the

expenditureof
the enormous
sums
requiredfor its completionupon
the stupendous
of amusement,
the simple purposes
dedicated as a temple to Venus
edifice was
Victrix,
whose
shrine,of elaborate workmanship,surmounted
In order to avoid

the whole, so that the marble

benches

on

which

the

seated,appeared,from below, like


spectatorswere
to the sanctuary of the goddess. A
steps leading
erected close beside it, that the
senate-house
was
of the greatcouncil of the state mightbe able
members
to

repairat

business to the
and

from

once

the transaction of

enjoymentof

more

serious

the

gether
topublicspectacles,
with a basilica for the administration
of justice,
vourable
for the protection
of the peoplein unfaporticoes

weather.

An

innumerable

host of statues,
according
of the time,were
ployed
em-

to the

custom
prevailing
in ornamenting
and the refined
these buildings,
consulted in their
judgmentof Atticus was respectfully
distribution. In a letter to Marcus Marius,Cicero gives
a

full account

of the nature

exhibited

of the shows

the consecration of the whole

"

Our

at

ments,"
late entertain-

he

writes, " althoughof the most


costly
would
hardly have suited your taste,if I
description,
own.
For, in
may judgeof it by the character of my
the firstplace,those performers,
who
oughtlong ago
to have bid farewell to the stagefor the sake of their
have been,merely by way
of compliment,
own
credit,
old favourite ^Esopus
Your
broughtforward anew.

acquittedhimself in such a manner,


to granthim his
were
perfectly
willing
service.

the

'

If

all

men

dismissal from

oath, and on
his
knowinglyI deceive,'

the commencement

words,
utterlyfailed.

comingto
voice

At

that

of his

Why should I mention the


such
other spectacles
have
?
as
They were
you
the attraction
long been acquaintedwith, without even
which
those produced at far less expense
of their extrausuallypossess. The contemplation

258

LIFE

THE

enough

was

vagance

extravagancewhich,

OP

CICERO.

destroy all enjoyment

to

"

I have

doubt, you

no

not

are

For what amusement


could the
sorry to have missed.
six hundred
mules introduced in the " Clytemnestra,"
the three thousand

or

warriors

in the

Trojan horse,or,
and
both
of infantry
be supposedto convey?

in

short,the varietyof arms


in any kind of combat
cavalry,
I allow, of attracting
the wonder
of the
means,
multitude,but which, to you, must have been totally
destitute of interest.
If,indeed, you have all this
"

time

ings
to the readyourselfto listening
devoting
of Protogenes,
onlythat you have not
supposing
employed him on my orations,you have assuredly
and more
received no inconsiderable degreeof pleasure,
been

us.
For, I presume, you do not
any among
regret the loss either of the Oscan or Grecian plays,

than

since you
in our
own

may,

at

anytime,seethe

senate*,and

the Greeks

former

thoroughly

so

you

performed

detest,that you will not even visit your country-seat


Neither can
I for a moment
by the Grecian road.
think that you lament your absence from the contests
those of our
of the athlete, since you despiseeven
knowledges
gladiators
Pompey himself ac; and, indeed, even
that he has wasted

his oil and

both

his labour.
mention

hunts, which lasted for


five days,and were, I must
allow,magnificent
enough.
be imparted to a polished
Yet, what
delightcan
mind, when a feeble mortal is torn to piecesby an
"

I have

xipon the former

animal

of

transfixed
these

must

was

"were

with

A
an

have

looker

the

or
strength,

enormous

noble

spear of its pursuer ?


worth
they are
beholding,

the

sightswere

you

yet to

often witnessed.

on,

was

unable

I,for

to discover

my

is

Even

if

such

as

part,who

any

bitingsarcasm
againstthe aristocratic order.
for the scurrilous
famous
ancient peopleof Italy,

character of their farces.

beast

novelty
The
and

Osci
tious
licen-

260

LIFE

THE

reduced

OF

lowest

CICERO.

of

condition

discouragement.
No single
from my
advantagedo I anticipate
of my enemies,
even
present labours,and the protection,
I am
to undertake
at the requestof
now
obliged
those to whom
I am
under obligations*."
The last
hint,which may be considered as the voice of expiring
a voice which
independence,
fully
expresseditselfmore
in some
cates
of his subsequent
manifestlyindiepistles,
the extent to which
Cicero was
now
entangled
the
trammels
of
the
triumvirate.
His
time, for
by
now

to the

months

to have been
afterwards,does not seem
much
occupiedby publicbusiness. It is certain that
devoted to his celebrated
a
great portionof it was
"
work
finished before the
De Oratore,"which
was
some

close of the

Of this beautiful

yeart.

to have been

commenced

beneath

dialogue,
posed
supthe spreading

planesof TusculumJ, between Crassus,Antonius,


and others,who had constituted,
in
Cotta,Sulpicius,
the

a
brightconstellation
preceding
generation,

talent in the Roman


to allow

of

forum, the

analysis.It

formal

state,that it appears

to

the

orators
distinguished

emanate, and

to

sentiments

stylesof

not

matter

of

is too various
be

may

sufficient

in every respectworthy of
it is supposed
from whpm

less so

of the

greatmaster

it

On

reallyembodies.
pleadingpursued by the

the

whose

different

ablest orators

at

forensic wit and

quity,
subtletyof antiof legal
rather upon the generalprinciples
or
which
and rhetoric,
are
peculiarto no
reasoning
it must
limited to any place,
nor
always be
period,
the Roman

considered
At
*

order

as

treatise of inestimable

Ad

Diversos,vii. 1.
fondness
The

leaves selected

of

earth

to increase
as

the Romans

about

its roots

Fasti

the

crown
appropriate

was

Hellenici,iii.189.

majestictree is well
frequentlymoistened,in

for this
was

its growth,with the most

cityand people.

value.

of his villas this elaborate essay

whichever

J The
known.

bar,the

generous

wines, and

of the fabled Genius

its

of their

THE

LIFE

composed, Cicero
time
capitalsome
manifest

had

261

CICERO.

returned

thence

from

the year had


He
words.

before

his

from

OF

own

the

to

is

expired,as
had

thus

an

opportunityof being reconciled to Crassus, with


whom
he had latterly
been on indifferent terms, before
the triumvir

had

yet

from

set out

for his vince


probroughtabout

Rome

Syria. The reconciliation was


of Crassus,whom,
of Publius,the son
by means
with one of the noblest armies ever
ranged beneath
the standard of the republic,his avaricious
parent
the pointof leading
to a speedyand unsparing
on
was
destruction on
the distant wastes
of Mesopotamia;
and it is a circumstance
not unworthy of record,that
of

Cicero,who had so often defended the


in the forum, and stemmed
same
causes
togetherthe
in
tide of debate in the senate-house,
supped together
the gardensof Crassipes,
the son-in-law
of the latter,
the banks
situated upon
of the Tiber,immediately
Crassus

and

before the

calamitous

departureof the devoted generalupon


so that the orator describes
expedition,

havingalmost

as

his

from

set out

hostilities againstthe
afterwards
immediately

Parthians

*.

mence
com-

Cicero
reached

had

leavingRome,

to

him

Novembert, and
in the enjoyment of its tranquil
while
retirement,
of Crassus were
the cityunder the
legions
leaving
hisTusculan

villa on

hearth

own

his

the 15th

circumstances
of Plutarch.
it
aggressive,
*

Crassus,ut quasi

poene

ineis Laribus

ceenavit
condixisset,

mentioned
As

in

in the

the Parthian

looked

was

of

testata

upon

was

apud

me,

pressive
im-

purely

unfavourable

with

esset

nostra

provinciam est profectus. Nam


in mei

the

rative
graphicnar-

war

populo Romano

was

gratia,

cum

niilii

hortis.
generiCrassipedis
"

Di versos, i. 9.

Ad

"fHe
the
Milo

seems, however, to have


14th of December, in order
and

volumuB

before
againrevisited the metropolis
to

be

present

Fausta, the daughter of Sylla:


iiuuiu
esse
:
quid dico, volumus?

lonis nuptise,"
"c.

"

Ad

Attic, iv. 13.

"

at

the

Romse
vero

marriage
a.

of

d. Calend.

cogimur.

Mi*

262
eyes
with
a

THE

by

the

LIFE

and

solelywith
The

tribune

disgusted

were

which

covetousness

prompted

in the sixtieth year of his age, to commence


and uncertain
of great difficulty
contest

now

success,

CICEKO.

who
majorityof the public,

the ambition

man,

OF

view

to

generaldiscontent

Ateius, who

his

found

threatened

the occasion to

to

ment.
aggrandise-

own
a

voice in the

his
interpose

preventCrassus

gative
ne-

from

leaving
the city,
and the departing
in order
leader was
obliged,
to avoid a serious tumult, to requestPompey to escort
on

him

to

But

he did not

which
of

had

short

even

solemn
erected

Crassus

was

with

by

to

and

this

escape an
reader does not

modern
awful

character.

to
obliged

forward

the walls

means

small altar

his train stood


and

distance without

near

the

of Rome.

interruption,

appear void
Ateius,it is related,

gate throughwhich
the approach of
on

pass, and
in the midst

of the

street,

as tribune,to prohim, by his authority


ceed.
But on
his interposition
only treated
finding
if possessed
silent contempt, he is said, as

forbade

malignantgenius,to have taken his


station by his altar,
and 'after havingkindled a censer
voked,
from its flame and sprinkled
incense upon it,
to have inwith horrible imprecations,
certain mysterious
it was
unlawful
to propublicly
gods whoso names
nounce,
and to have deliberately
devoted Crassus and
his whole army to destruction.
The procession
was
then allowed to proceed,
but there is no doubt that the
justperformed sank deeplyinto
appalling
ceremony
the minds of the troops,and possibly
into that of their
commander, and contributed in some
degreeto their
The recollection of Flamidiscomfiture.
subsequent
nius,who, in former times, had left the cityinauto command
at the fatal battle of Thrasyspiciously
case.
Crassus,
might easily
mene,
appear a parallel
however, pursuedhis way to Brundusium
; while,on
the news
of the approaching
tempest, Ctesiphonand

by

some

Seleucia
towards

LIFE

poured

forth

their

of the

Euphrates,preparedto

the banks

OF

263

THE

CICERO.

tremendous

archers
take

their invaders
fearful vengeance
soon
as
on
as
they
should appear, and to inflict upon
the eldest of the
ambitious

of mankind

the peace
the violent end

which

ficed
sacriremorselessly
their private
interests,

had

who
fraternity

so

to

not

of them

one

destined

was

to escape.

CHAPTER
Consulate

Cicero

"

Rabirius

the Britannic

Triumph

of

Calvinus

and

Clodius

Pontinus

Messala

New

Acts

Defence

"

Clodian
He

"

is

"

Creation

"

Canvass

"

Appius Claudius
fends
Rcpublica" De"

Plancius,Gabinius,and
(,'uintusCicero, respecting
Disturbances

"

at

Rome

"

Interreges Consulate of
Milo, Scipio,Hypsaeus,and

of
of

in

"

"

Rome

at

retires
"

of

Milo

"

Cicero

of

Prosecutions

His

"

in

his

againstthe

Dialogue
Legibus"
of
a
nd
sets
out
Proconsulship Cilicia,
''

his

composes

appointedto the

sole Consul

Oration

"

Marseilles

to

Cicero

declared

Pompey

"

Impeachment
Milo

Faction

Caesar

De

Oration
the Debts
of
on
consequence
is slain by the Followers
of the latter at Bovillre

Insurrection

"

and
"

for

Trebatius and

to

Tumults

"

Orations

"

Expedition of

Clodius

"

commences

Letters

"

Ahenobarbus
his Treatise

and Scuurus

Vatinius

Milo

Domitius

of Lucius

Pulcher

IX.

De

for his Province.

IN the

earlypart of

Ahenobarbus
which
the

followed

that

last-mentioned

the

consulate

of

Lucius

mitius
Do-

Appius Claudius Pulcher,*


of Pompey and Crassus,and while
generalwas
yet in Italy,some
and

attempts appear to have been


effect his recall,
which
were

made
rendered

in the senate
ineffectual

to

by
the misplaced
in
zeal of his friends. Cicero,at least,
is yet extant, speaks
which
to him
a letter addressed
of havingdefended
him to the utmost
of his ability,
both againstthe consuls for the year and several individual
of consular rank, in a late debate respecting
*

A.

u.

c.

700.

264

LIFE

THE

his command.

The

of
expressions

requeststhat

letter is replete
with the warmest

interest in his welfare

it may

the writer

and

lightof

not be considered in the

but
ordinaryepistle,

an

CICERO.

OP

as

formal

treatyof

strict

He
also speaks in the
lastingalliance
he reprehighestterms of Publius Crassus,whom
sents
as
havingfrom his childhood reverenced and
all the
regardedhim as a second parent. From
incidental notices in history
of this highlyaccomplished
and noble- spiritedyouth, whose
unhappy
*

and

death

Plutarch

it does not

has described in his most


that

appear

fell in consequence
his father,Rome
had

the

among

who

of the
to

able manner,
thousands
many

and
folly

lament

infatuation of
citizen

any

more

the regretof his countrymen.


deserving
Nearly at the same time was probablywritten the
of Cicero to Julius Cassart,at that time in
epistle
into
for his second expedition
Gaul, and preparing
Britain,
recommendinghis friend Trebatiusjto his
notice. The
departurefrom Italyof his brother
Quintus, who had acceptedthe office of legateunder
the same
commander, took placesoon afterwards,and
followed by the retirement of Cicero for a short
was
Cumae
and Pompeii, where,
time to his villas near
he devoted himself to the
duringthis interval of leisure,
treatise De Republica","
of his elegant
composition
"

which

towards

part of

the year.

The

"

J The

docte

his

considerable eminence

" Commenced
intended

Fasti
near

to

consist

publishedsome
c.

the

work,

at

second

book.

the Roman

Trebatius

great

in which

lbid-

liehas

Horace, to whom

of

for

was

addressed
a

person

of

bar.

May (10th),and
of June
(1st).The work, which was originally
written in six books,
of nine, was
subsequently
of May, A. u. c. 703,
before the month
time

soon

before the Kalends

B.

designof

Trebate"

satire of

the second

and

devoted

was

Diversos,v. 8.

Ad

his attention

after

vi.

of

the Ides

of

appears by the letter of Ccelins. (Ad Diversos,viii.1 ;


Hellenici,iii. 191.) That it was begun at the marine villa

51

as

Cuniw, may

be inferred from the letterto

14.)
Quintus, (Lib.ii.

LIFE

THE

265

CICERO.

OP

characters,ScipioAfricanus, Tubero, Laelius,


as
drawn, during a
Mummius, "c., are represented
conversation in the gardensof the former respecting
the atmospheric
phenomenon of two suns which had
been
lately witnessed, to a discussion respecting
the best form
of a national government, was
to

the

exhibit

the

excellence

of

the

constitution

Roman

in its best estate, as


well as to represent its first
the stepsby which it had advanced
to maturity,
origin,

circumstances,after having been


rose
longtried by which, it finally
triumphant,and
With
all its
by the dangerousordeal.
perfected
and

the

merits

eventful

it is much

worded

to be

that
regretted

this

beautifully

treatise is far from

throwingthat lightupon
earlyhistoryof Rome, which might have been

the

expected
to

seems

talents

the

of

have

credence
givenimplicit

legends,current in his own


later time,respecting
the infancy
of
and

incredible

Cicero

its author.

from

to

and

at

the

mon
com-

much

the Roman

state ;

would, until very


it is nevertheless true,that by
appeared,
the

as

assertion

have
recently,
the more
of
and
accurate
philosophic
investigations
modern
times,the most youthfulstudent of history,
removed
by the space of nearly twenty centuries
ilia quae dixeram, "c.
I had
treatise of which
the political

Scribebam

"

made

but

to

cast

to be
"we

and

me,

If it turns

to

lament

to

turn

my

bestowed.

attention

If not, I have
forms

moment
to

part of the

for
something else,

not

sixth books, a few insignificant


fragmentsof which alone,if we
the Somnium
embedded, like portions of
are
Scipionis,
rocks

in

recent

more

Augustin,"c.
almost

Owing

the whole

considerable

upon

weighty,to
out according
a

treatise
in my
nature."
Of this famous
and
entire loss of the fourth, fifth,
the almost

unemployed is

have

at this

sea, which

it into the

prospect before

will be well

trouble

design,my

my

employed

mention,

speakthe truth,and comprehensivework.


to

then

was

strata, in
to

of the

remains

of

and instruction
curiosity

the works

the researches
the
first,
the
of

of

except

primary

Lactantius,Nonius}
Angelo Maio, however,
of

greater part of the second,and

third book

are

succeeding
ages.

yet preservedfor the

266
from

the time

of

knowledgeof
of

LIFE

THE

could

CICEBO.

Cicero,possesses

the true nature

than

Rome,

OF

the

of the

greatestof

acquire,while

were

in their zenith.

need

to be

The

her

her

reader

extensive

more

earlyconstitution
phers
sages and philosoand

power

renown

will,perhaps,
hardly

and
highlyimaginative
of the most
of Scipio,"
one
philosophic Dream
noble fragmentsof antiquity,
and not excelled by any
tions
composithingeven in the flowingand magnificent
ing
of Plato,formed originally
part of the concludbook of Cicero's Republic.

reminded,that

the

"

In the

midst

recalled to
pursuitshe was
the metropolis,
where he spent a great part of the
engagedin a varietyof causes, which, if of
summer,
sufficient for
no
greatimportancein themselves,were
time

some

to

Among

these

between

the

of such,

the

occupy

whole

findmentioned

we

of
corporation

Interamna,who

had

attention.

in his letters a

Reate

widened

his

of
and

the

dispute
peopleof
Lake

the outlet of the

greatdetriment of their
the drainage
to the plainof
by increasing
neighbours,
At Reate,which
he calls an Italian Tempe,
Rosia.
this cause
was
pleadedbefore the consul Appius and
in sufficient time
ten commissioners,and determined
before the
to be again at Rome
to allow the orator
conclusion of the Apollinarian
; on
ing
appeargames
received with
that he was
at which, he states
multitude.
His
loud
applause by the assembled
defence of Messius, one
of the lieutenants of Caesar,
who
had been recalled from
Gaul
to take his trial,
followed by that of Drusus,
succeeded, and was
Yatiniust,and ^Emilius Scaurus; the first accused
termed
under
the law against
what was
prevaricaVelinus

into the

Nar,

to the

Celebrated

f Drusus
appears

from

beginning of

on

and

the 5th of
Vatinius

July.

were

defended

ad Quint, ii.16, towards

Ep.
August.

on

the

the end

of

same

day,

July or

as

in the

268

LIFE

THE

OF

CICERO.

called

dailyto displayitself more


openly, especially
the
that
master
of
by
confederacy,
spirit
who
havinglong ago found out his most vulnerable
continued with singular
self
to avail himpoint,
dexterity
of it. His vanitywas
firstflattered by the extraordinary
honours

and

by Caesar
afterwards
munications
by comin the most
ful
respect-

attentions bestowed

his brother

Quintus, and
couched
to himself,
and friendly
I imagine,"
he writes to
terms.
Atticus about this time, by letters from my brother
in Britain.
I am
Quintus,that he is now
extremely
There is,however, one
uneasy tillI hear from him.
clear
point at least which I have gained. From
and repeated
I learn I am
the most
on
intimations,
on

"

"

affectionate and
The

*, and is a

gratitudeof
befriended

Plancius
the

a
friend,

Cicero

towards

him

in

and
protection
safe and

of distress.

It

and
obligation,

was

he

was

While

in the memorable
at

Thessalonica,

of this generous
placeof retreat,with

which

could

of his

misfortune,or

which

now

merly
for-

countenance

honourable

despondencyby

overcast.

season

had

who

one

quaestorof Macedonia
his exile,he had found

every act of kindness


him under the pressure
the

appears to have followed


highlycreditable record of

was

period of
under

with Caesar."

terms

defence of Plancius

that of Scaurus
the

amicable

in

tend

his troubled
his power

to

soothe
enliven

was
spirit

to return

the

wanting to the opportunity.


beingelected to the office of
not

Plancius,after
accused by Marcus
Juventius Laterensis,
was
aedile,
unsuccessful
an
candidate,of undue influence and
tions
briberyduringhis canvass, and of formingassociahis election by the
for the purpose
of carrying
of the
unfair means,
same
contraryto the enactments
Licinian law.
By the exertions of Cicero,however,
serious
the accusation,
which
of the most
was
one
*

Ad

Quintum, iii. 1.

CICERO.

269

ineffectual. The

speech delivered

THE

rendered

kind, was
on

the

only to

LIFE

OP

yet remains, and does honour


talents of the advocate, but
to

occasion

not

the

the

sentiments

of the

It had

man.

delivered

having been

the further merit

after recent

conduct

on

of
the

with
Plancius,not altogether
correspondent
his former
friendship.Yet, in the recollection of
conferred upon him in his exile
Cicero,the obligations
of

part

alone

siderations
place. All other coneither reallyor ostensibly
were
neglected
conduct of the defence,in which it is not impossible

seem

in his

to

that his

have

found

and the fear of allowing


self-distrust,
of estrangementto operateto the
any late causes
had a considerable
share
disadvantageof his client,
in producing
the exceedingzeal for the interests and
honour
which
is conspicuous
of his client,
through
the

whole

favour

own

oration.

of his old

His
enemy

subsequentpleadingsin
Gabinius, cannot

be

sidered
con-

That
worthy of commendation.
equally
unjustand rapaciousoppressor, on the instant of
his provinceof Syria,was
his return
from
fiercely
assailed by a host of prosecutors,who
were
eagerly
of his arrival at Rome
to
watching the moment
him.
series of legalprocesses against
commence
a
He
had
entered
the
no
sooner
city, therefore,
which he did with all imaginable
privacy,although
as

he

manding
shortlybefore boasted his intention of dea
triumph from the senate, than he was
for offences
impeachedon three several grounds: first,
againstthe majestyof the state,or, in other terms,
for hightreason,in daring,
with the assistance of the
troops entrusted to his command, to re-establish
Ptolemy king of Egypt in his dominions,contrary
and the publicdegreeagainst
to all religion
it,and
for quitting,
for that purpose, the provinceunder his
thus exposedto the inroads
government, which was
and dangerousenemies ; secondly,
for
of numerous
had

270

THE

LIFE

OF

CICERO.

plunder and

committed
spoliation
by him in Syria
and elsewhere ; and, thirdly,
for the common
offence
of briberyand corruption,
a chargewhich
now
seems

to have

constituted

of almost

part

every

indictment.

his trial upon the first of these counts, in which he


Cicero appeared against
him as a witness
acquitted,

At
was

his appearance to
For an
advocate.

on

"

strenuous

contradiction
other evidence

sufficient to

was

pey

than his

in

to the

answer

third,as

of
explanation
The

markable
reno

interference of Pom-

him

render

seek

need

conduct, we

own.

such

his

the defender

of the

very criminal
hurled
every

whose character he had formerly


against
gination
epithetof abhorrence which his imacould supply; respecting
whose
to
liability

his

in its most

powerful shape,no doubt


have
existed ; and of whom
he speaks in
unmeasured
disgustand contempt, even at

censure,

seems

to

terms

of

the very moment


his rescue
and
have

while he appears to have been meditating


from the laws which he had so shamelessly

violated.
repeatedly

sometimes

Gabinius

as

On

of Cicero
eulogists

The

in behalf of
urged his appearance
and forgiving
position.
disproof of his placable
the testimonyof his correspondence,
it

much
more
safelybe received as a fresh instance
may
Nor
of his servile submission
to the rulingpowers.
does he himself
this

to have

his conduct

part of

his admirers.
no

seem

"

There

been

in the
is

no

lightas
republic no

and

candid

same

"

justiceno dignityin
"

inclined to consider

any of
avowal ; and

of

some

senate

"

us," is

his hensive
comprethe
as
humiliating

confession

is,the practical
commentary upon it would
hardlyjustify
us, so far as Cicero is concerned,in an
ing.
attempt either to contradict it or to limit its mean-

judgesbefore whom
tried was
Gabinius was
greaterthan that of his new
advocate, and with whatever
eloquencethe oration
which
has since perished,
in his defence,
might have
Yet

the

of
integrity

the

LIFE

THE

it
replete,

been

stubborn

evidence

The

cause

last

271

CICERO.

OF

insufficient to

was

of the facts
in which

the

counteract

urged againsthim.

Cicero

engagedduring

was

that of
this year of almost unremitting
exertion,was
Gains Rabirius Posthumus; a member
of the equestrian
order, accused under the Julian law against
extortion

Caius

againstthe

Memmius, as
republic. Rabirius

considerable

sums

by

well

as

of treason

supposed to
received the sums
have
advanced
by Ptolemy to
Gabinius for the services of the proconsul
in effecting
counselled the
his restoration,
and to have strenuously
employment of the Roman
troopson that expedition.
It was, at least,
well known
that he had resided in
Alexandria
as the agent of the king in the collection
he
of his taxes, and that,duringhis stay in the city,
had assumed
the Egyptian habit.
The defence was
grounded,first,
upon the assumption that the Julian
law
did not extend
to the equestrian
order; and,
secondly,on the fact of Rabirius havingadvanced
of

expenses

was

the
defraying

towards

of money

Ptolemy at Rome, which,

rendered

it

was

sented,
repre-

his residence at Alexandria

necessary
for the recovery of the debt.
In pursuingthis line
of argument, Cicero
was
exposed to the heaviest
censures

of

the

openly accused him


of Pompey, and at
own

conscience.

credit for

who
prosecution,
by the direction
actingentirely

counsel
of

for

variance

His

with
to

answer

towards
generosity

acted in the most

the

the

dictates of his

charge,taking

the

those

who

had

once

spiritof oppositiontowards
that he felt no
him, and asserting
compunctionin
actingupon the maxim, that enmities should be
mortal
is much
and friendships
more
indissoluble,
than
for
remarkable
for point and
speciousness
*.
sincerity
His letters,
written duringthe brief opportunities
*

bitter

Pro Rabirio

Posthumo,

xii.

272

LIFE

THE

"which

CICERO.

OF

presentedthemselves

his friends amidst

the labour

for

with
corresponding

and

excitement

rily
necessa-

portant
imupon the management of so many
ences
refercauses, contain frequentand interesting
well as
to Caesar's second invasion of Britain,
as
To Caius
to his presentrelations with that leader.

attendant

he writes

Trehatius
the

in

tempestuous chargeof

their novel method

which

manner

that

British warriors

the

which
fighting,

of

shows,
had

been

and

duly

since the termination of the first


at Rome
reported
able
subjectsof considercampaign in the island,were
had friends engaged
to those who
apprehension
in the expedition. Take care
*," he suggestshalf
jocosely, that, with those habits of caution of
"

"

which

yours,

matters, you

you have learned to exercise in other


do not fall into an ambush
of the enemies'
since

charioteers ; and
from

the

your

mind

begun to quote
constantlyin

let this passage be


That he possesses wisdom

"

is not

was

remains

before

you,
to

to littlepurpose,

his brother

To
t

lightful
de-

"How

"

Britain
epistle
respecting

I feared

althoughit appears
hope, rather than
had

afterwards

soon

late

your

feared the ocean,

for himelf."

wise

he writes

Quintus

who

have

Medea,

who

yet

me

the
I

am

to

hostile coast.
out

prospectof
Trebatius,

apprehension." To

been left behind

in Gaul

on

What

despising,

far from
hold

! I

of
sailing

the

invadingarmament, he addresses himself in a


stance
styleof polishedand playfulsatire on the circumserves,
he obhave
perused your epistle,"
j. "I

the

"from
considered
*

Ad

Ad
"f-

Diversos,vii. 7.
It
Quint, ii. 16.

Schiitz has been

J
"
seems

understand, that
thoroughlawyer by our friend
which,

followed

are
you
Caesar ".

seen, that the chronologyof


in the references to these epistles.
will

be

Ad
"

Diversos,vii. 10.
and therefore left behind ;"
Ergo, no soldier,
"

to be the pointof the allusion.

such,at

least

LIFE

THE

You

have

yourselfon being
congratulate
country where your knowledge appears
to

reason

quarteredin a
something considerable.
Britain

over

into

you

would,

in

in the

law

jestingstrain in
confess myself rather
else dares to

one

envious

for such

hope

in vain

yourself.To

which

to

passed
island,

you
immense

looked

than

by Caesar

summoned

had

all that

the
must

But

have
assuredly,

most

learned

more

one

273

CICERO.

OP

have

for
tinue
con-

begun : I
luntarily
being vo-

of your

audience,while

an

mark

of favour

no

; not

any prideon his part,but from the multiplicity


in the whole
of his engagements. Yet
of your
ter
letmentioned
have
nothing of your private
you
from

which

concerns,

less interest to

are,

protestto

than

friends Mucius

not

in

you,

possess

with

common

and

your
careful in taining
main-

to be

Manilius,
blazinghearth, the more

you, a subjectof no
I very much
fear

own.
my
winter- quarters sufficiently
chilly,

me

will find your


therefore
advise

you
and

do

as
especially
you
militarywardrobe*,

very extensive
have
hear that you
a

at present work
althoughwe
without
the help of additional
enough to keep you warm
have greatly
would
clothing.The intelligence

alarmed

for your safety,did I not know


cautious
in warfare, than
more

me

much

were

pleadings.This much,
fond

fact,that
shown
and

you
inclination to

no
as

as

of

from

swimming,

real battle of

could

never

is somewhat

you have
the ocean,

charioteers,

contrive

of mounted

the

to cheat

f."
gladiators

different.

Trcbatius

was

Amiens.
quartered Samarobriva, the modern
the original"andabatse."
the brutal
By way of exciting
of the Roman
known
mobs, the gladiators
by this name

at this time

merriment

translation

of

deduce

perilyourself
upon

exhibition
single

Melmoth's

fin

we

least,I

are

little to witness

whereas, at Rome,
you

at

that you
in your

are

said to have

and

blindfold.

at

engagedin

mortal

combat

mounted

on

horseback,

274

THE

LIFE

followingletter

CICERO.

OF

Qujjrtus*,he
I now
of your epistles,
to the subject
states :
come
I received several while at Arpinum, since
of which
delivered to me
in one
less than three were
no
day,
all of them, as it seems, despatchedby you
at the
You
mention
the exceedingattachment
time.
same
vate
of Caesar to myself. Continue
to cultisedulously
his friendship.I, for my
part, shall exercise
myselfin every possible
way to advance his interests.
that you are dailyrising
in his
As to your assertion,
with a joy which
favour, I receive the intelligence
will be equal in duration to my own
existence.
cerning
Conthe operations
in Britain,I am,
it seems, to
understand
that there is nothingto dread, nor
thing
anyafford
of
Your
to
a
subject congratulation.
fourth
letter,dated from that island,the ninth of
delivered to me
the thirteenth
of
on
August, was
September. There was littleof noveltyin it besides
the mention
of Erigone,upon which,
of your tragedy
if I receive it from
Appius, I will shortlylet you
know
opinion. I have no doubt that I shall be
my
much
nication,
by it. While folding
gratified
up this commuI have received fresh despatches
written on
the twenty-secondof August, that is,within twenty
days after their date. Unhappy subject of trouble
What
that I am
!
ing
griefhave I felt from the endearin proportionto
letter of Cassar ! But precisely
I received from the delightful
the pleasurewhich
was
sorrow
count
acon
expressionsof his friendship,
my
In

to

his brother

"

"

of his misfortune."

The

allusion in this sentence


death of Julia,the wife of

probablyto the recent


Pompey and daughterof Caesar,in child-bed ;
event
equallycalamitous to her husband, her

was

and

her

most
qiiestion

country, and

to

which

probablyreferred.
*

Ad

Quintum, iii.1.

the

an

rent,
paletter in

276
a

THE

of
particle
single

LIFE

OP

CICERO.

silver in the

nor
island*,

any hope
and of these you
of slaves,

booty,unless in the way


will not expect, I presume,
any skilled in letters or
writes :
I received on the
music." He subsequently
twenty-fourth of Octobert,letters from Ca3sar,and
my
brother Quintus, dated the twenty-sixth
of September.
British war
is finished,since hostages
The
have been givenby the natives,and the payment of
of money
commanded
a sum
; but nothinghas been
then on
acquiredin the shape of booty. They were
the pointof embarkingtheir men."
This is the last mention made of the operations
of the
Romans
in Britain by Cicero;and, although
ly
repeatedknown, the remarks of
quoted,and very generally
Dr. Middleton
upon the contemptuous character of his
quent
generalobservations upon the country, are so eloand forcible,
for their
to leave no
as
excuse
of

"

"

omission.

the railleries of this kind

From

"

barbarityand miseryof

island,one

our

on

the

help

cannot

the surprising
fate and revolutions of
on
reflecting
the mistress of the
Rome, once
kingdoms. How
lies
now
world, the seat of arts,empire,and glory,
words

would

have been

not

accustomed
by a generallike Caesar,
applied

underto any litjlit


stupendousscale,
been
secured
for
thus
the recepan
impregnable
taking,and
posthaving
tion
basis
for
the
wellas
of supplies,
as
a strong
operations, subjugation
to

fortificationsupon

of the island would

of

truth

"

that the

works
under
*

We

"

access

Middleton's

in suspense

are

to

most

be considered

Dr.

Roman.

the island is

as

of

matter

translation

about

appears

the British

waves

nearer

war

been

since

is conveyed in

Similar information
"
"

priorletter

I hear that there is neither

to

Trebatiu0.

goldnor silver

as
in Britain ; if this is the case, I would advise you, as soon
back
and
hasten
us."
chariots
The
their
of
to
to seize one

of Britain
productions
"

Britannia

Ftrt

victorisc.'' Vita
"

buried

of the British Channel.

(Ad Diversoa,vii. 7) :

"

the

; it is certain,
"c.
As to the
fortified,"
strongly

themselves,they have, probably,long


the

in the eyes

course

were

better understood

aurum

et

argentum,

et

possible,
mineral

in the time of Tacitus

alia ruetalla

Agric.xii.
iii.190.
f Fasti Hellenic),

pretium

THE

LIFE

277

CICERO.

OF

and poverty, enslaved


sloth,ignorance,
by
the most
cruel, as well as most
contemptibleof
and religious
imposture;while
tyrants, superstition,
this remote
tempt
country, ancientlythe jestand conthe happy
of the polite
Romans, is become
in all
seat of .liberty,
plenty,and letters,
flourishing
of civil life : yet running
the arts and refinements
which
itself had run
Rome
course
perhapsthe same
before it, from
virtuous industry to wealth, from
wealth to luxury,from luxury to an
impatienceof
and corruptionof morals ; till,
by a total
discipline
and loss of virtue,being grown
ripefor
degeneracy
it falls a prey, at last,to some
hardy
destruction,
losingevery
oppressor, and, with the loss of liberty,
again into
thingelse that is valuable,sinks gradually
littlereason
its original
barbarism."
Yet, there seems
of any
to indulge
an
apprehensionof the occurrence
such contingency
the writer of this justlyadmired
as
to have contemplated. The peculiar
passage seems
for the past decline and presentdestitution of
reasons
to be obvious to the
numerous
Rome., are sufficiently
If no
observer.
a
most
empire can
superficial
ion,
second time rise to the same
lordlyheightof domindestined againto sink so low ;
is assuredly
none
and to augur a similar fate to nations which
are
daily
thoroughlyleavened by a vitality,
becoming more
sunk

in

"

which

that

haughty power,

even

when

calledto

act

world, could neither


that
while, moreover,
;
acknowledgenor appreciate
be established
darkness
by which alone despotismcan
is every
or perpetuated
day rolled back to a
ligious
by the increase of intellectual and regreaterdistance,
the

part

of

tutoress

of

the
"

would
light,

be to

to negative
principles
assign

they neither claim nor possess. It is


only when one part of the earth,and that not the
is far advanced
in civilisation and
most
powerful,
before the rest, that its luxury becomes
wealth
a

force which

278

LIFE

THE

itself.

dangerousto
hand

that

struck

the

It is

torch

to the earth

OF

CICERO.

only when

of refinement

and

held

by

single

is liable to

be

The tendency
extinguished.

societyis now
permanently to advance, not to
to raise the decayed states of
retrograde
; rather
to a condition far preferable
to that of their
antiquity
boasted greatness,
than to add others to the list
once
of the fallen ; and if the existence of a republic
of
of

in the
themselves
nations,considering
enlightened
of pledges
and conscious
for each other's safety,
light
that an injurydone to one
induce the
must
infallibly
detriment
of all the rest,was
a phenomenon unknown

world, it is one which may


hispresentitself before the tory

to the earlier ages of the


be expectedto
certainly

of many
records of the
A

is to
generations

more

be added

to

the

past.

scriptio
by Cicero*,and a dein verse, by hisbrother,
of the principal
events
British expeditiont,
both of which
tioned
menare
in his correspondence,
and seem
to have
been

poem

of the

of Caesar

in honour

finished at about

would
have been
period,
invaluable treasures if they had been preservedto
modern
The latter,
amidst
the dangers and
times.
fatiguesof the service in which he was
engaged,
not

seems

devoted

to

the

have

same

lost

which

moment

could

be

studies ; since he is recorded


tions,
probablytranslahavingCompleted four tragedies,

as

to his favourite

in sixteen

of
trulymarvellous facility
composition. Cicero seems, on his part, to have
been
led to similar pursuits,
by the vain hope of
and present
the sense
of lost independence
dispelling
subjection,
by ardentlydevotinghimself to studies
trusive
wholly unconnected with publicaffairs ; but the ob-

daysj;

appear to have been banished


continue to
and his epistles
of letters,

does
feeling

by

the

lament
"

Ad

charm
the

not

subservience

Quint, ii. 1 6.

f Ad

to his

powerfulfriends

Quint, iii.1.

"

Ad

or

Quint, iii.6.

LIFE

THE

masters,by
was

at least

He

also

which

his

OF

it
self-esteem,
wounded

much

as

alludes

to

279

CICERO.

his

as

resolution

is to be

he

had

feared,
patriotism.
formed

of

under Pompey in
the commission
of legate
accepting
ciently
suffiSpain,latelyoffered to him, in which he was
in earnest
to fix the day of his departure
from

The

Rome.

who

interference

Caesar, however,

of

ests
to detach him from the interendeavouring
of his rival by means
of his brother Quintus,
had
the effect of inducinghim
decline the
to
appointment.
In the exercise of that easy credulity
by which
he was
made
a
dupe by the artifices of powerful
was

flatterers almost
exclaims
the

to

latest hour

the

this occasion

on

of his

Atticus

to

"

"

life,he
Observe

with
endearingfriendship
Caesar ; for I am
to boast of having predelighted
served
least
amidst
the
wreck
at
one
plank
general
of my
Ye Gods ! what especial
marks
fortunes.
of
honour
and
dignity,what favour does he bestow
Quintus. If I were myselfcommander-inupon our

closeness of my

most

chief,I could do no more.


allows him
by his letters,
his

informed

am

the full power


of selecting
for his legion*.Is it poswinter-quarters
sible

own

that you
Whom, let me
his better
was

without

lovingsuch
faction
opposite

refrain from

can

ask, of

find like himt


Rome

Ca?sar,as

?"

the

Cicero

While

judgmentto

the

scene

of

was

will you
thus surrendering

the dictates of his


which

occurrences

man

vanity,

were

not

of
leadingthe minds
to the contemplationof absolute
men
authority
in
the hands
of a
lodged
singleindividual,as
a remedy for the intestine disorders
by which the
*

their

influence

Compare Csesar

Morinos

ducendam

De

Bello Gall.

C. Fabio

Ciceroni.

t Ad Attic, iv. 18.

in

v.

24,

legatodedit

"

unam

; alteram

in
(legionem)
in Ncrvios

Q.

280

LIFE

THE

OP

CICERO.

and
peace of the cityhad been for years interrupted,
seemed
there now
tion.
to which
no
prospectof a terminaInstances

of the most

were
corruption
flagitious

dailybrought to light.The
for the consulship, Memmius,
"

and

Messala,

furious

vied

four

new

candidates

Domitius, Scaurus,

with each other

in open

and

travagant
ex-

bribery. The spiritof party rose to a


pitch; and the tribunes of the people,after

the comitia from


hindering
taking placeup to the
their office,
left it with
time of relinquishing
the
election of the magistrates
yet undecided. Duringthe
the citywas
witness to a novel scene
of
interregnum,
in the form of a triumphal
contention,
entry disputed
Cains
had
at the sword's-point.
Pontinus, who
reduced
the
the
Allobroges to submission,was

who, for the first time since the foundation


of Rome, had
to fighthis way
to the Capitolon
such an occasion,and to minglethe horrors of actual
with
the pomp
warfare
of its mimic
pageantry.
officer

patientlywaitingfor five years in the suburbs


in expectation
of a triumph, which
refused him
was
by the senate,he was enabled at lengthto establish
title to the honour, by virtue of a law from the
a
people. The result was an attempt on the part of
the opposite
faction to impede him by.force of arms,
and its repulse
herents
by the resolution of the armed adhe was
accompanied.
by whom
Amidst
such commotions, a dictatorship
quently
frewas
mentioned, and pronounced to be the only
the state from destruction.
of saving
means
Pompey
was
pointedout by the party who had raised the cry
After

as

the fittest person

to be elected to

to Cicero, expressedno
according

the

office,and,

to
unwillingness
than
six months
longer,the
accept it. For more
continued
of the chief magistrates
to be
return
tribunes actingwith the same
postponed, the new
firmness or obstinacy
as their predecessors
; with the
"

THE

LIFE

OP

281

CICERO.

of
designof ultimately forcingtlic dictatorship
which

Pompey

the people,a measure


upon
than once
formally proposed.

they

During the
whole of this periodof confusion,
the usual expedient
from the patrician
was
body a
adopted,of creating
fresh
interrex
every five days, that there might
the
under whose
be some
.auspices
publicauthority
comitia
might be held, if suffered to proceed. By
more

"

"

the advice

of the late tribune

lengthdeemed
disturbances
Marcus

to put
fitting
;

Ciieius

and

Cato, it

Marcus
a

the

stop to

wTas

existing

Calvinus

Domitius

at

and

suls,
Messala,after beingelected contheir
allowed peaceably to enter upon
were
office. Their magistracy
for
was
long remembered
the intelligence
which
arrived, not long after its

Valerius

commencement,

inflicted upon

the

reputationof Rome, in the disastrous


Crassus
and his army
tenant
l"ySurena, the lieu-

arid

power
of

rout

of the terrible blow

of

Orodes, king

loss of the unfortunate

Besides

Parthia.

the

in this ill-advised

commander

fell by the
Publius, who
hand
of his armour-bearer, to avoid the captivity
which threatened
had
to
him, the commonwealth
lament that of thirty
thousand of itsbest troops,either
killed or taken prisoners*,
and the ignominious
flight
and
expedition,

of

as

many

son

who

more

arrows

which

longcontinued

in scattered

back

thian
horror of the Parinsurmountable

t.

such

since
extent

had fallen upon the Roman


disgrace
legions
the days of Cannae
and Thrasymene ; but the
of the calamity
not to be measured by the
was

number

of

those who
*

Ides

iii. 192.

had

fallen in the

Plutarch,

"fCrassus is supposed to
month
of June, in the year
the

driven

were

the Euphrates,
with
upon*

bodies
No

his

of

have
A.

u.

or
field,

the

in Crass.
been
c.

(the 9th), accordingto

defeated

701,
Ovid.

B.C.

time in the

some

53,

See

on

Fasti

the fifth of

Hellenic!,

282

THE

degreeto

LIFE

which

the

OP

CICERO.

conquered

the

of

prowess

in the estimation
necessary consequence,
of surroundingnations.
By the death of Cras-

fell,as

of
members
the surviving
rupture between
had been partly
the triumvirate,the way to which
preparedby the decease of Julia the wife of Poinpey,
sus

was

rendered

certain. Each

henceforth

from

saw

but

The
rival in his advance to absolute power.
single
policyof Crassus, which might be considered as
of
members
that of the more
wealthy and pacific
the community, had no longera representative
or an
advocate of sufficient weightto impose a check upon
the fierce spirits
who
espousedthe interests
severally
and
of two leaders,
reputation
nearlyequalin military
and with the removal
of the last
actual strength;
of the
restraint which prevented
the secret jealousies
lities,
from
out into actual hostiopposite
parties
bursting
to tempt
occasions were
not slow in occurring
ed
violence into furious and unlimittheir longsuppressed
action.
One of the less importantconsequences of
a

the defeat of the Romans

in Parthia

was

the admission

in which
a
auguralpriesthood,
had occurred by the fall of Publius Crassus.
vacancy
He was
opposedin his canvass
by the tribune Cains
seen
were
Hirrus, but the efforts of his competitor
nation
and on the nomifrom the beginning
to be hopeless,
of Pompey and Hortensius, backed
by the
he was
universal approbation
of the whole college*,
of Cicero

elected to

into the

an

honour

eminent
the most
of
considered one

reserved,for the most part,for


the aristocracy
alone,and
among
of
the most
importantdignities

the state.
If the consular

elections which

ended

in the return

Collegeof Augurs consisted of fifteen members, who held


of a priesthood
for life,unalienahle by any crime or
the dignity
chosen by the people.
The augurs were
at this time
misconduct.
*

The

It was,

however,

by

two

necessary

persons

that each

candidate

belongingto
already

the

should

body.

be

nated
nomi-

284

THE

OF

LIFE

CICERO.

of which
tainment,the magnificence

placehim

far above

he

hoped would

all his rivals in the favour

fellow-citizens. He

had, however,

of his

formidable

petitor
com-

in

Hypsaeus,who havingonce served Pompey


in the capacityof quaestor,and at all times devoted
himself
backed
to his interests,
was
by the full
influence of that popularleader. The year having
terminated
the possibility
without
of holding the
comitia without
the expedient
of creating
interruption,
was
againproposed,but was unable
interreges
be

to

effected,in
which

whom

on

took
Milo

althoughhe
duringsome

of the

consequence

place upon

had

conferred
to have

appears

many
absent

been

putes
dis-

subject. Cicero,

the
so

furious

obligations,
from

Rome

devotinghimself to
and deriving
his principal
literature,
enjoymentsfrom
of his
the retirement of his villas and the society
an
cerned
unconyouthfulson and nephew,was by no means
of the

part

<