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NEBOSH International General Certificate

Paper 1 Management of Health and Safety


Question and Answers
1. (a) Outline the importance of monitoring as part of a health and safety management

system (Sept 2008)


(b) Identify the
(i) active (proactive), and
(5)
(ii) reactive measures
(5)
by which an organization can monitor its health and safety performance.

(6)

(c) Explain why monitoring reports should be submitted to the chief executive or
managing director of the organization.
(4)
Answer:
a) The importance of monitoring as part of a health and safety management system is
it reinforces management's commitment to health and safety objectives; helps in
developing a positive health and safety culture; assures the compliance with the
performance standards; identifies the areas for improvement; enables in making
decisions for remedial measures for any identified deficiencies; assists in setting
the targets for the future improvement of performance; it motivates managers
and employees for better performance and continual improvement.
b) (i) Active measures include safety inspections, surveys, safety tours, audits,
sampling, health surveillance, behavioural observations, environmental monitoring,
benchmarking with other organizations.
(ii) Reactive measures include the accident and ill health statistics, reporting of
near misses and dangerous occurrences, reporting of property damage, actions
taken by the enforcement authorities, number of civil claims, analysis of
absences and lost time, analysis of costs involved in the incidents.
c) There reasons why monitoring reports should be submitted to the CEO or
Managing Director, include the ultimate responsibility to review the process, he
has authority to take appropriate actions, he authorizes the resources necessary
for implementation health and safety system, takes the disciplinary actions
against employees where necessary and motivate staff with rewards.
2. (a) Outline the key features of (March 2009)

(i)
(ii)

a health and safety inspection (4)


a health and safety audit

(4)
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(b) Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve health and safety
performance.
(12)
Answer:
3 (a) (i) A workplace inspection involves physical inspection of a workplace,
premises, plant and equipment, tools etc. It is generally carried out by
supervisors and safety advisors at regular intervals and use checklists. The
inspection looks for the unsafe acts and conditions and results in short report
of its findings with suggestions for remedial actions to be taken.
3 (a) (ii) Safety audit is a systematic and independent examination of an
organizations health and safety system, involving the use of series of
questions and document examination to collect objective evidence. Audits
aim for assessing the effectiveness and reliability of the system. Audits
suggest the corrective action to be taken. It is carried out by trained auditors.
(b)

The findings of a safety audit may be used in a number of ways to


improve health and safety performance, which include identifying strengths
and weaknesses in the management system, identifying the compliance and
non-compliance with the standards, identifying the remedial actions, enables
the benchmarking with other organizations, assist in the continual
improvement of the organization by regular audit intervals, assists in
allocation and prioritize the resources, communicate these findings to the
staff and the management, improve the health and safety performance etc.

3. Outline four proactive monitoring methods that can be used in assessing the health

and safety performance of an organization. (8)


Answer:
Proactive methods that could have been outlined include, the audits which involve
comprehensive and independently executed examinations of health and safety
management systems. Safety surveys, focusing on specific issues such as manual
handling, training programmes, fire fighting equipments etc. Safety sampling,
where specific areas of health and safety are targeted; safety tours involving
unscheduled inspections of workplace, generally check issues such as wearing PPE
and housekeeping.
4. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health

and safety. Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. (8)
Answer
The costs incur for inadequate standard of workplace Health and safety include
production loss, plant and equipment damage, cost for clean up activities; sick pay,
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recruitment and training of replacement staff; fines from the enforcement


authorities, medical compensations, high insurance premiums, poor staff morale,
high staff turnover, loss of business reputation, loss of image etc.
5. Identify possible influences on an organizations health and safety management

standards. (8)
Answer
The possible influences on an organizations health and safety management
standards include regulatory and enforcement authorities, industry based standards
of good/safe practice; shareholder demands and expectations; trade unions;
insurance companies, production demands, economic down turn; stakeholders, the
competence and experience of the workforce, influence of society, and finally
management commitment.
6. An organization is introducing a new work activity that requires a safe system of

work.
Explain:
(a) Why it is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of
work; (4)
(b) Why it is important for safe systems of work to have written procedures. (4)
Answer
(a) It is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of work
because of their knowledge of the particular working environment involved, their
ownership of the system and encourage workers to use and follow safe system of
work, it emphasize management's commitment to health and safety, once a safe
system of work is developed, it shows a clear method of communication to the
workers.
(b) The procedures may contain complex information, ensure the correct sequence
of operations are followed, to aware of the procedures, A written document will
also be required for audit purposes, it acts as an evidence in defending an
enforcement action or a civil claim. Finally, written procedures may be required a
requirement of the organizations quality assurance procedures.
7. An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and

associated ill-health. Identify sources of information that may be available to help


reduce the risks to the workers. (8)
Answer
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Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the


number of manual handling accidents include
International agencies such as the ILO; national enforcement agencies such as the
Health and Safety Executive, EHS, Dubai Municipality guidelines; employers
organizations and Trade Unions; national and international standards such as
ISO; information from manufacturers, professional health and safety bodies such
as IOSH; and consultation with the workers.
8. (a) Outline why it is important for an organization to set health and safety targets.(2)

(b) Identify health and safety targets that an organization could set. (6)
Answer
(a) It is important for organizations to have targets, to give evidence of
management commitment, to motivating staff by providing them with
something tangible goals; targets act as evidence during audits and
performance reviews and for benchmarking against other like organizations.
(b) Identified targets such as reductions in the number of accidents and defined
incidents; an improvement in the reporting of near miss incidents or minor
accidents and an improvement in inspection and audit scores; a reduction in
actions taken by the enforcement authorities and in the number of civil claims;
a reduction in sickness absence and absenteeism; an improvement in the outcome
of benchmarking of performance against like organizations; reduced insurance
costs; number of workers trained in health and safety.
9. Outline the factors that should be considered when assessing the health and safety

competence of contractors. (8)


Answer
The factors when assessing the health and safety competence of contractors include:
the contractor's previous experience with the type of work; the quality and content
of the health and safety policy, implementation of risk assessments and method
statements, monitoring and consultation with the workforce; management of their
sub-contractors; the level of training and qualifications of staff; the contractor's
accident and enforcement history; membership of professional bodies; equipment
maintenance and statutory examination records; references etc.
10.

(a) Identify the key stages of a workplace risk assessment. (5)


(b) Outline THREE reasons for reviewing a risk assessment.(3)

Answer
(a) The key stages involved in carrying out a risk assessment are identifying the
hazards at the workplace with safety inspections, incident data, HAZOPs etc;
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identifying the persons at risk including operators, maintenance staff, cleaners,


visitors etc; evaluating the risks such as likelihood and probable severity of the
harm; assessing the adequacy of existing control measures and deciding
whether additional measures were required; recording the significant findings
and finally reviewing risk assessment and revise if necessary.
(b) The reasons for reviewing the risk assessment include changes in the
processes, work methods or materials used; the introduction of new or the
modification of existing plant; a change in legislation; changes of key personnel,
when the results of monitoring of accidents, ill-health.
11. Outline the benefits to an employer of conducting accident investigations. (9)

Answer
The benefits of conducting accident investigation such as the prevention of similar
accidents occurring in the future; facilitating compliance with legal requirements
and obligations; an improvement in the health and safety performance of the
organization; an improvement in the morale of the workforce and its attitude
towards health and safety; the prevention of business loss and the provision of
evidence in the event of enforcement action or a civil claims.
12. With respect to undertaking general risk assessments on activities within a

workplace:
(a) Outline the key stages of the risk assessment process, identifying the issues that
would need to be considered at EACH stage; (10)
(b) Explain the criteria which must be met for the assessment to be 'suitable and
sufficient'; (4)
(c) Outline the factors that the employer should take into account when selecting
individuals to assist in carrying out the required risk assessment. (6)
Answer
(a) The first stage is to consider the activities that are being undertaken at the
workplace and to identify the significant hazards involved. This would be
followed by the identification of those exposed to the hazards such as operators,
maintenance staff, cleaners and visitors and noting in particular groups who
might be especially at risk such as young or disabled workers. The next stage
would involve an evaluation of the risks arising from the identified hazards,
taking into account the likelihood and severity of the harm that could be caused,
the frequency and duration of the exposure of the employees, the measures in
existence to control the risks and the need and scope for a further reduction in
risk by the introduction of additional controls. The fourth stage involves
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recording the significant findings of the assessment in a written and retrievable


form (such as, for example, the additional preventative and protective measures
needed to control the risks), while the final stage would be concerned with a
review and revision of the assessment at regular intervals or more particularly if
there are developments in the processes or activities or changes in legislation
which indicate that the original assessment may no longer be valid.
(b) A risk assessment, to be deemed suitable and sufficient, should identify all
significant hazards and risks arising from or connected with the activity to be
carried out, identify all the persons at risk including employees, other workers
and members of the public, evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of existing
control measures and identify other protective measures that may be required,
enable priorities to be set, be appropriate to the nature of the work and be valid
over a reasonable period of time.
(c)

relevant factors which should have been outlined included the individuals'
past experience and training in hazard identification and in carrying out risk
assessments, their experience of the process or activity carried out in the
workplace and their knowledge of the plant and equipment involved, their ability
to understand and interpret regulations, standards and guidance, their
communication and reporting skills, an awareness of their own limitations and
their attitude and commitment to the task.

13. (a) Outline the general content of the THREE sections of a health and safety policy.

(6)
(b) Explain why the health and safety policy should be signed by the most senior
person in an organization, such as a Managing Director or Chief Executive
Officer. (2)
Answer
(a)The three sections of a policy are the 'statement of intent', which both
demonstrates management's commitment to health and safety and sets aims and
objectives for the organization, then to the 'organization' section, the purpose of
which is to allocate health and safety responsibilities within the company, to ensure
effective organization with controls, communication, competence and cooperation
etc and finally, to the 'arrangements' section which sets out in detail the systems
and procedures to implement the policy which include, arrangements of risk
assessment, provision of PPE, first aid facility, welfare facilities and emergency
procedures etc.
(c) The signature of the most senior person in the organization would demonstrate
management commitment and that the person concerned ultimately had
responsibility for health and safety in the organization.
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14. Outline reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in

the workplace. (8)


Answer
The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in
the workplace are the moral, legal and financial
The moral is to protect employees and neighbors from injuries and ill health from
workplace activities, with safe systems of work, competent workers.
The legal reasons to protect employees and others from injury and ill health by
issuing the fines and prohibitions etc.,
Financial reasons include the costs associated with accident and thier investigations,
example, production loss, damage to the equipment, costs of repairs, high insurance
premiums etc.
15. (a) Explain the difference between consulting and informing workers in health and

safety issues. (2)


(b) Outline the health and safety issues on which employers should consult their
workers. (6)
Answer
(a) Informing is a one way communication process, for example providing
information to workers on hazards, risks and control measures and Consulting is a
two way communication process in which the employer listens, and takes views of
workers.
(b) The issues to meet employees include, during preparation of risk assessments,
issuing the personal protective equipment, and provision of trainings, the
introduction of any measure at the workplace affect workers health and safety;
changes in organizational structure; the introduction of emergency procedures;
welfare issues; incentive schemes and the introduction of policies on smoking,
alcohol and substance misuse.
16. There has been deterioration in the health and safety culture of an organization.

(a) Define the term 'health and safety culture. (2)


(b) Identify the factors that could have contributed to the deterioration.(6)
Answer

(a) Safety culture is defined as the product of individuals, groups, attitudes,


perceptions, competencies and dominant patterns of behaviors that determine the
commitment to health and safety management.
(b) factors that could have been identified included: lack of leadership and
commitment; the lack of effective communication with the workers; an inadequate
level of supervision; the blame culture; time pressures with production over-riding
health and safety; the lack of monitoring systems, a failure to implement suggested
remedial action; the lack of consultation and workers involvement; a poor working
environment; a high staff turnover and a reduction in staffing levels; and external
influences such as a downturn in the economy and resources and a fear for job
security.
17. Outline, with examples, the general hierarchy that should be applied in order to

control health and safety risks in the workplace. (8)


Answer
The general hierarchy for controlling health and safety risks in the workplace
include the possibility of eliminating the risks either by designing them out,
changing the process or contracting the work out. The next step would be the
reduction of the risks by, for example, the substitution of hazardous substances
with less hazardous substances, and reducing exposure time for example by job
rotation. If this were not possible, then isolation, using enclosures, barriers or
worker segregation, engineering controls such as guarding, the provision of local
exhaust ventilation systems, the use of reduced voltage systems or residual current
devices, finally when all above controls failed, the provision of personal
protective equipment such as ear defenders or respiratory protective equipment.
18. Contractors are carrying out a major building project for an organization. Outline

how this organization could reduce the risks to contractors before the start of and
during the building project. (8)
Answer
The issues reducing the risks to contractors include the initial selection of a
competent contractor ensuring they had sufficient resources and had allowed
sufficient time to enable the work to be completed safely, sharing the information
with the contractor on the particular risks in the working area example, the presence
of vehicles including fork lift trucks and the danger of falling materials; the
presence of hazardous materials such as asbestos and the location of services
such as electricity, water and gas; general site safety rules such as a smoking
policy and reference to the host employer's safety policy; requirements for
permits to work for certain work activities; accident reporting procedures;
emergency procedures; the main point of contact on the site; and the location of
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welfare facilities including first aid. Finally, ongoing cooperation and


coordination with the contractor with regular monitoring of performance.
19. Outline the initial actions that should be taken following a major injury accident at

work. (8)
Answer
The initial that should be taken following a major injury accident include isolating
services, making the area safe; providing first aid treatment and contacting the
emergency services such as ambulances; informing the next of kin; notifying the
regulatory authority; collecting initial evidence such as photographs and sketches
and the names of witnesses and setting up the accident investigation.
20. (a) Explain how accident data can be used to improve health and safety performance

within an organization. (4)


(b) Explain TWO active (proactive) monitoring methods that can be used when
assessing an organizations health and safety performance.(4)
Answer
(a) The accident data could be used to identify trends, prevent recurrence, identify
problem areas, give the opportunity for remedial actions, data could be used to
compare with others, to inform and stimulate discussion at joint consultation
meetings with the workforce and to identify the costs of accidents.
(b) Proactive methods that might have been explained included: audits involving
comprehensive and independently executed examinations of all aspects of an
organizations health and safety performance against stated objectives; inspections
carried out on a regular basis which identify existing conditions and compare them
with agreed performance objectives; safety surveys focusing on a particular
activity such as manual handling, training programmes and workers attitudes
towards safety; Safety sampling where specific areas of occupational health and
safety are targeted; Safety tours involving unscheduled workplace inspections to
check on issues such as wearing of personal protective equipment and
housekeeping;
21. (a) Identify FOUR types of emergency that would require an organization to have an

emergency procedure. (4)


(b) Explain why visitors to a workplace should be informed of its emergency
procedures.
(4)
Answers
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(a) Four emergencies which require emergency procedures include evacuation in


case of fire, for accidents, for dangerous occurrences such as a chemical spillage,
and in the event of explosions.
(b) Visitors should be informed of the emergency procedures so that they could
react appropriately in the event of an emergency, to prevent visitors obstructing
workers and putting them at risk, the moral responsibility of the organization for the
safety of visitors and the duty of care it might owe them under law.
22. Outline how induction training programmes for new workers can help to reduce the

number of accidents in the workplace. (8)


Answer:
An induction training programme may help in reducing the number of accidents in
the workplace, by making the workers aware of the hazards and risks in the
workplace; by introducing them to the safe systems of work, make them aware of
emergencies; by making them aware of any restricted areas; making them in the
correct use of tools and equipment, ensuring them aware of the use, maintenance
and arrangements for reporting deficiencies of any personal protective equipment.
Additionally, the induction training programme will alert the new workers to the
procedures for reporting hazards and incidents. Finally the training programme will
assist in helping the workers to adopt a positive attitude to health and safety.
23. (a) Define the term 'hazard'. (2)

(b) Define the term 'risk'. (2)


(c) Identify FOUR means of hazard identification that may be used in the workplace.
(4)
Answers
(a) Hazard, as per OHSAS 18001, is defined as the source or situation which has
potential to cause harm
(b) Risk is defined as the probability/likelihood that the potential would be realized
and its severity in terms of injury, damage or harm.
(c) Four means of Hazard identification include carrying out inspections,
observations and safety audits; job safety analyses and risk assessments; the study
of incident data, hazard operability studies, reference to legislation and its
accompanying guidance and manufacturers' documents such as safety data sheets;
24. (a) Identify FOUR types of health and safety information that could be displayed on a

notice board in a workplace. (4)


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(b) Identify how the effectiveness of notice boards as a method of communicating


health and safety information can be increased. (4)
Answer
(a) the types of information that could have been identified include: the health and
safety policy of the organisation; the "Information for Employees" poster; targets
set for the reduction of accidents and ill health; information showing the current
level of performance against the targets; identification of first aid arrangements and
procedures for evacuation in the event of a fire; health and safety posters specific to
current campaigns being run; information on current issues affecting health and
safety such as contract work, no go areas and diversions; and a copy of the
Employer's liability insurance certificate.
(b) The ways of increasing the effectiveness of notice boards include keeping them
in a common and prominent area of the workplace such as the staff room or
canteen; dedicating the boards to health and safety matters; display of relevant
information and kept them up to date; giving consideration to ethnic groups and
special needs people; displaying the information by the use of colour and graphics
and, where possible, allocating responsibility for the up-keep of the board to a
named member of the workforce.
25. Explain why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as a last

resort in the control of occupational health hazards. (8)


Answer
Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as last resort when all
hierarchy of controls have been failed. Other reasons include that PPE may not
provide adequate protection because of such factors as poor selection, poor fit,
incompatibility with other types of PPE, contamination, and misuse or non-use by
employees. In addition, PPE is likely to be uncomfortable and relies for its
effectiveness on a conscious action by the user. In certain circumstances, its use can
actually create additional risks for instance, warning sounds masked by hearing
protection.
26. Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by an employee.

(8)
Answer:
The reasons include high levels of noise, interference from personal protective
equipment and other distractions, the use of too much technical jargon, language or
11

dialect issues, ambiguity of the message, learning difficulties, lack of interest, the
instruction may be too complex or lengthy to be given verbally.
27. (a) Define the term 'negligence '. (2)

(b) Outline the THREE standard conditions that must be met for an injured employee
to prove a case of negligence against his/her employer following an accident at
work. (6)
Answer:
(a) Negligence is defined as a civil wrong (tort) involving unreasonably careless
conduct (a breach of the common law duty of care), resulting in loss, damage or
injury.
(b) The three standard conditions for an employee to prove a case of alleged
negligence against an employer include (1) a duty of care was owed by the
employer (ie that the employee was acting in the course of his/her employment);
(2) that the employer acted in breach of that duty by not doing everything that was
reasonable to prevent foreseeable harm; (3) thirdly, that the breach led directly to
the loss, damage or injury.
28. Outline ways in which the health and safety culture of an organization might be

improved. (8)
Answer:
Health and safety culture of an organization might be improved by establishing and
implementing a sound health and safety policy; by management commitment; by
consulting employees on matters affecting their health and safety; and providing
effective supervision and training, the organization should give equal priority to
health and safety as other business objectives (such as production and quality),
establishing effective means of communication with the workforce, and providing
good welfare facilities.
29. (a) State the circumstances under which an employer must establish a health and

safety committee. (2)


(b) Give SIX reasons why a health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective
in practice. (6)
Answer:
(a) An employer must establish a health and safety committee when one is requested,
in writing, by two or more trade union-appointed safety representatives.
(b) Lack of management commitment; no terms of reference for the committee; no
agenda and/or minutes of the meetings being produced; an uneven balance
between management and employee representatives; poor chairmanship; no access
12

to the decision-making processes; infrequent meetings; inappropriate topics for


discussion; and no access to health and 'safety expertise.
30. Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of persons who

are required to work on their own away from the workplace. (8)
Answer:
The factors that would determine the actual level of risk at the work location
include such issues as the type of work to be done and its attendant hazards and
risks', the, equipment to be used, the work environment and the control measures in
place. The particular factors in relation to those working alone at a distant location
could then have been identified. The' competence and suitability of the persons
involved, the methods of communication with the home base, and emergency and
first aid procedures would all be relevant in this respect.
31. Outline the specific factors that should be considered when assessing the risks to

employees working on night shifts. (8)


Answers
The factors to be considered include lighting, heating, welfare and first-aid provision,
and emergency arrangements; provision of communications, the effects of fatigue and
the increased likelihood of human error; the number of hours worked and the period
allowed for recovery between shifts; genera well-being when normal routines are
disrupted; the level of supervision provided and access to specialist advice if
required; and the possible increased risk of violent assault on the way to and from
work.
32. (a) Explain the meaning of the term 'competent person? (2)

(b) Outline the organizational factors that may cause a person to work unsafely even
though they are competent.(6)
Answer:
(a) The competent person is defined as a person who possess knowledge based on
appropriate qualifications and training, the skills, experience and personal qualities
to apply the knowledge in a given situation.
(b) The organizational factors include management or peer group pressure, a poor
safety culture in the organization, a lack of resources' or equipment, a lack of
clarity in roles and responsibilities, inadequate supervision and poor working
conditions and inadequate communications.
33. (a) Explain the meaning of the term 'risk'. (2)
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(b) Identify SIX hazards that might be considered when assessing the risk to the
health and safely of a mufti-storey car park attendant.
Answer:
(a) The risk is the product of the probability or likelihood of the occurrence and the
severity of the occurrence of an unwanted event;
(b) the hazards facing a person employed as an attendant in a multi-storey car park
include,
1. fumes and/or dust;
2. impact or crushing by moving vehicles;
3. fire (particularly in relation to fuel);
4. extremes of ambient temperature;
5. the possibility of being subjected to violence;
6. noise from, for instance, car alarms;
7. slips, trips or falls (exacerbated perhaps by oil and stairs);
8. biological hazards from the presence of vermin, human waste and
hypodermic needles;
9. ergonomic hazards caused by the need to stoop or twist in what might be a
restricted workspace.
34. (a) Explain the purpose of the 'statement of intent section of a health and safety

policy (2).
(b) Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be
reviewed.(6)
Answer:
(a) The 'statement of intent' section of a health and safety policy is designed to
demonstrate management commitment to health and safety in terms of aims and
objectives, example, commitment to improve trainings.
(b) The circumstances to review the policy include significant changes in the
organization; after the introduction of new or changed processes or work methods;
following changes in key personnel; following changes in legislation; where risk
assessments, monitoring exercises or investigations show that the policy is no
longer effective or relevant; and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since
the previous review to suggest that another one is due.
35. Identify EIGHT sources of information that might usefully be consulted when

developing a safe system of work. (8)


Answer:
The eight sources of information include statutory instruments, approved codes of
practice and guidance such as HSE, manufacturers' information, European and other
14

official standards, industry or trade literature, results of risk assessments, accident


statistics and health/medical surveillance records, the employees involved, and
enforcement agencies and other experts.
36. (a) Explain, giving an example in EACH case, the circumstances under which a

health and safety inspector may serve:


(i)
an improvement notice (3)
(ii) a prohibition notice. (3)
(b) State the effect on EACH type of enforcement notice of appealing against it. (2)
Answer (a)
(i)
To serve an improvement notice, an inspector must be of the opinion that
there is a breach of relevant statutory provisions, or that there has been a
breach that is likely to be continued or repeated. A relevant example would be
the absence of manual handling assessments.
(ii) For a prohibition notice to be served, an inspector must be of the opinion that
there is, or is likely to be, a risk of serious personal injury. A relevant
example would be a dangerous machine that lacks the necessary safeguards.
(b) the effect of an appeal against an improvement notice is to suspend the notice
until the appeal is held, whereas a prohibition notice continues in force during this
time.
37. An organization has introduced a new work process for which a risk assessment is

required under regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work


Regulations 1999.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Outline the steps that should be used in carrying out the risk assessment.
Identifying the issues that would need to be considered at EACH stage. (8)
Explain the criteria that must be met for the assessment to be deemed
'suitable and sufficient'.(4)
Identify the various circumstances that might require a review of the risk
assessment.(8)

Answer:
(i)

The steps used in carrying out the risk assessment include identifying the
hazards involved and determining the possible consequences; identifying the
number and types of person exposed; evaluating the associated risk by assessing
the likelihood and severity of harm that could be caused; evaluating the
adequacy, of existing controls and the need for additional measures to secure
compliance with legislation and other standards; and recording the results of the
assessment, and finally monitoring and review.
15

(ii)

The criteria to be met to ensure the suitability and sufficiency of an


assessment include the comprehensive identification of significant hazards and
risks, the identification and prioritization of measures needed to reduce the risk
to an acceptable level, and ensuring that the assessment remains valid and for a
reasonable period of time.

(iii)

Typical circumstances to review the risk assessment include: a change to the


process, work method or substances in use; the introduction of new or modified
plant; the availability of new information on hazards and risks; accidents or
incidents of ill-health; the results of monitoring and/or auditing; a change in the
requirements of legislation; action taken or advice given by an enforcement
authority or insurance company; and a change in personnel, in particular the
involvement of young persons, new or expectant mothers or disabled persons.

38. (a) Outline the key features of:

(i)
(ii)

a health and safety inspection; (4)


a health and safety audit.(4)

(b) Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve health and safety
performance(12)
Answer:
(a) (i) A workplace inspection involves the straightforward physical inspection of a
workplace, and/or the activities or equipment within it. It is carried out by
supervisors and/or safety representatives at regular intervals and checklists are often
used. The inspection looks for unsafe acts and conditions and results in a short
report of its findings suggesting remedial action that should be taken.
(ii) A safety audit, on the other hand, is a systematic critical examination of an
organizations health and safety management system, involving a structured process
including the use of a series of questions and the examination of documentation, to
collect independent information with the aim of assessing the effectiveness and
reliability of the system and suggesting corrective action when this is thought to be
necessary. It is carried out by trained auditors, who may be internal or external to
the organization.
(b)The findings of a safety audit may be used in a number of ways to improve health
and safety performance such as: identifying strengths and weaknesses in the
management system; identifying compliance and non-compliance, enabling
comparison and bench marking with other similar organisations; assisting with the
allocation of resources; communicating its findings to management and staff and
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finally, by means of subsequent audits at regular intervals, assisting in the continual


improvement of the management system.
39. Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system. (8)

Answer:
The key elements of the health and safety management system are beginning with
policy which should be a clear statement of intent, setting the main health and
safety aims and objectives of the company and the commitment of management,
followed by organisation for health and safety which should ensure the allocation
of responsibility to appropriate members of staff, with the emphasis on achieving
competency, control, communication and consultation. The next stage would be
planning and implementing that should involve carrying out risk assessments, the
setting of standards and targets and the introduction of appropriate control measures
to achieve them. That done, proactive and reactive monitoring systems would
need to be introduced to provide data on the achievement or non achievement of the
objectives and targets set. Finally a review and audit should be carried out to
check whether what was planned was actually taking place, to consider options for
improvement and to set new targets where necessary.
40.

Outline why it is important that all persons are aware of their roles and
responsibilities for health and safety in an organization. (8)

Answer:
Making all persons in an organization aware of their roles for health and safety will
assist in defining their individual responsibilities and will indicate the commitment
and leadership of senior management. A clear delegation of duties will assist in
sharing out the health and safety workload, will help to set up clear lines of
reporting and communication, will assist in defining individual competencies and
training needs particularly for specific roles such as first aid and fire. Finally,
making individuals aware of their own roles and responsibilities can increase their
motivation and help to improve morale throughout the organization.
41. Two organizations share the same workplace. Outline how they could co-operate to

achieve good health and safety standards. (8)


Answer:
In order to achieve good health and safety standards in the workplace, the two
organizations could: hold regular meetings, share information and risk assessments
and avoid carrying out incompatible processes; prepare and agree joint site rules for
the workplace for example for assembly points and smoking areas; set up joint
procedures for the management of visitors and contractors; agree on procedures for
the management of traffic and the movement of vehicles; carry out joint inspections
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and monitoring of the workplace; draw up joint emergency procedures; agree a


policy for the management of waste and obtain advice on health and safety matters
from a shared consultant.
42. Give the reasons why hazards to the health of workers may not be identified during a

workplace inspection. (8)


Answer:
There are a number of reasons why hazards to the health of workers may not be
identified during a workplace inspection such as: the nature of the hazard may not
be well understood as for example with those arising from contact with biological
agents; a lack of measuring equipment such as for noise; the fact that effects may be
chronic rather than immediate; the hazard not being visible as with certain gases or
that arising from radiation; over familiarity as, for example, from exposure to
sunlight; the individual susceptibility of certain workers; a particular task which
was not in progress and the workers not available during the inspection; the
unwillingness of individuals to admit there are problems with their health; the fact
that health is given a low priority in the organization; the person carrying out the
inspection concentrating on the more immediate and often safety hazards; and
ultimately the lack of competency of the inspector.
43. (a) Give the meaning of the term 'permit-to-work'.(2)

(b) Identify THREE types of work that may require a permit-to-work, AND give the
reasons why in EACH case.(6)
Answer:
(a) A permit-to-work is a formal and controlled document designed to protect
personnel working in hazardous areas or carrying out high risk activities.
(b) The types of work where a permit-to-work system might be required such as work
in confined spaces where there is a danger of being overcome by fumes or gases
or by a shortage of oxygen; work on live or high voltage electrical equipment
where there would be a danger of electrocution; hot work involving welding or
cutting operations, where the risk of sparks may ignite nearby flammable
materials; maintenance work on dangerous process plant or production machinery
where it may not be possible to keep the normal standards of protection in place
and work at heights.
44. (a) Identify TWO main purposes of first-aid treatment.(2)

(b) Outline the factors to be considered when carrying out a risk assessment of firstaid requirements in a workplace.(6)
Answer:
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(a) The two main functions of first-aid treatment are, firstly, the minimization of the
consequences of injury until medical help is obtained and secondly, the
treatment of minor injuries that do not need medical attention.
(b) The factors to be considered include the number of trained first-aid personnel
and first-aid facilities in relation to, for example, the size of the organization; the
distribution and composition of the workforce including the special needs of
employees such as trainees, young workers and the disabled; the types of hazard
and level of risk present; the past history of accidents and their type, location
and consequences; the proximity of the workplace to emergency medical
services; the special needs of travelling, remote or lone workers; the need to
train the first aid personnel in special procedures; and the ability to provide
continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other absence.
45. Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of

(a) employers;(4)
(b) workers. (4)
Answer
(a) The main health and safety responsibilities of an employer are to provide and
maintain safe plant and equipment, to carry out risk assessments and to
introduce safe systems of work; to ensure the safe use, storage, handling and
transport of articles and substances; to provide and maintain a safe workplace,
including access and egress; to provide a safe working environment with
adequate welfare facilities, and to provide information, instruction, training and
supervision for employees, to prepare and revise a health and safety policy; to
cooperate with and consult with employees; to secure competent health and
safety advice and to cooperate with other employers at the workplace.
(b) As for workers, their responsibilities include taking reasonable care of
themselves and their fellow workers and to refrain from misusing equipment
provided for their health and safety; cooperating with their employer; reporting
accidents and dangerous situations to their employer or other nominated member
of management; to comply with site rules and to refrain from taking alcohol or
drugs during and immediately before working hours.
46. Identify EIGHT health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance

delivery driver (8)


Answer:
Health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance delivery driver
include: the duration of the journey and the hours of driving; route selection and the
different road conditions; the weather and other environmental factors; inadequate
vehicle maintenance and the possibility of breakdown; the manual and/or
mechanical handling of the goods being carried and other hazards associated with
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them such as exposure to chemicals; physical hazards such as exposure to noise and
vibration; lone working with a possible absence of communication and supervision;
the lack of emergency procedures including the provision of first aid; security
hazards including the possibility of violence and psychological hazards such as
stress.
47. Identify reasons why workers may fail to comply with safety procedures at work. (8)

Answer:
There are many reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures
at work, which include inadequate resources whether of tools, equipment or
employees; ill-considered procedures; a perceived lack of commitment to health
and safety by management and emphasis on other priorities such as production; the
lack of adequate information and training and a perceived lack of consultation; a
poor safety culture within the organization; fatigue, illness and stress; lack of
concentration because of boredom and repetitive work tasks; poor working
conditions; mental and/or physical capabilities not taken into account; inadequate
supervision and a failure to enforce compliance with the procedures; peer group
pressure; a failure to recognize risks and ultimately a willful disregard of the safety
procedures.
48. (a) Outline why an organization should have a system for the internal reporting of

accidents.(4)
(b) Identify the reasons why workers might not report accidents at work.(4)
Answer:
(a) There are a number of reasons why an organization should have a system for the
internal reporting of accidents. These include the compilation of accident
statistics and the identification of trends; to satisfy legal requirements; so that an
investigation may be carried out to prevent a recurrence or to identify
weaknesses in the safety management system; for use in civil claims or to satisfy
insurance requirements; to help in the identification and reduction of loss; and to
inform the review of risk assessments
(b) The reasons for not reporting accidents at workplace include employee being
unaware of reporting procedures; peer pressure and a reluctance to take time off
from the job in hand; job insecurity, possible blame by management; to avoid
receiving first-aid or medical treatment for whatever reason; over-complicated
reporting procedures, and lack of obvious management response to earlier
reported accidents.
49. Give reasons why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health

and safety information in the workplace. (8)


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Answer:
The reasons to communicate variety of information in the workplace include,
people respond differently to different situations, the need to overcome language
barriers and the inability of some workers to read; the need to motivate, stimulate
interest and gain involvement and feedback; the acceptance that different types of
information require different methods of communication for example emergency
signs; that the policy of the organization may require certain information to be in a
specified format; and that on occasions evidence that the message was given may
need to be kept.
50. Outline the immediate & long term actions that should be taken following a serious

accident at work?
Answer:
The immediate action include treat person if safe to do so, ring for an ambulance &
send to hospital, inform dependants, make area safe & cordon off ensuring scene is
not disturbed, notify enforcement authority, speak to any eye witnesses and take
photographs, statements and measurements.
The long term actions include, investigate the accident, identify the immediate and
root causes, recommendations, report the causes to the management, draw the
action plan for implementation, verify the effectiveness of the implementation,
communicate the causes to all employees etc.

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