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6/5/2013

Outline

From Solar Cell to Module to Array

PV Module Architecture
PV Module Components
PV Module Temperature Coefficients
Hotspot Phenomenon
Bypass and Blocking Diodes
Shadowing Effect on PV Modules and Arrays
PV Module Nameplate
PV Module Datasheet
Typical PV Modules Efficiencies
Types of PV Systems
Standalone off-grid
Grid connected on-grid

PV Mounting Structures
PV Array Tilt Angle Inclination Effect
PV Array Azimuth Orientation Effect

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From Solar Cell to Module to Array

PV Module Architecture
12 V Standard
PV Module
(Mainly used for
charging 12 V
battery banks)

IV Curve for a 12 V standard PV module

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PV Module Components

PV Module Nameplate

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PV Module Datasheet

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Pmpp (T) = Pmpp (25C) [ 1 + Pmpp (T 25C) ]

Vmpp (T) = Vmpp (25C) [ 1 + Vmpp (T 25C) ]
Impp (T) = Impp (25C) [ 1 + Impp (T 25C) ]
Voc (T) = Voc (25C) [ 1 + Voc (T 25C) ]
Isc (T) = Isc (25C) [ 1 + Isc (T 25C) ]
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Excercise
For Sharp PV Module Model No. NU-E245 (J5),
calculate :
1. Voc(+75C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
2. Voc (-5C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
3. Isc(+75C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
4. Isc(-5C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
5. Pmp (+75C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
6. Pmp (-5C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
7. Pmp (+25C, 500 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
8. mp(+25C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
9. FF(+25C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
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Hot spot phenomenon

The hot spot phenomenon happens when one cell of the panel is shaded
while the others are illuminated, and when this shaded cell is not able to
exhaust its generated power dissipation. The shaded cell behaves as a
diode polarized in reverse and generates reverse power PS. The other cells
Any solar cell has its own critical power dissipation PC that must not be
exceeded and depends on its cooling and material structures, its area, its
maximum operating temperature and ambient temperature. A shaded cell
may be destroyed when its reverse dissipation exceeds PC. This is the hot
spot.
The manufacturers usually define a breakdown voltage VC. Its value
depends on the solar cell technology (poly-silicon or mono-silicon) and the
manufacturing process. There is no risk of hot spot while PS < PC.
To eliminate the hot spot phenomenon, a dedicated circuit should bypass
the partially shaded module and eventually it should maintain the operation
of the other PV modules creating a path for their current.
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Bypass Diodes Inside Junction Box

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The bypass diode principle is to use a diode in reverse paralleling with several solar
cells. The bypass diode is blocked when all cells are illuminated, and conducts
when one or several cells are shadowed.
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PxS=2x3

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Blocking Diodes

A blocking diode prevents

current to flow reversely in
PV string (series-connected
modules).

A bypass diode prevents

hotspot effect in case of

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Types of PV
Systems
Grid-connected
on-grid

Standalone
off-grid
Without
storage

Motors
e.g. pumps

With
storage

Hybrid
Systems

DC Systems
AC Systems

directly connected
to the public grid
with wind
turbine

connected to public
grid via house grid

with diesel
generator
with public
grid backup
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PV Array

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Off-grid / Without battery storage / Direct-coupled DC system

Solar Water Heaters

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PV Array

DC/DC Power
Conditioning
Unit

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Off-grid / Without battery storage / Power-conditioned DC system

DC Submersible Water Pumping System

PV Array

DC/DC Pump Controller

DC Submersible
Pump

Variable Voltage
(Proportional to Solar Intensity)

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PV Array

DC/AC Power
Conditioning
Unit

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Off-grid / Without battery storage / Power-conditioned AC system

AC Submersible Water Pumping System

PV Array

AC Submersible
Pump

Variable Voltage & Frequency

(Proportional to Solar Intensity)

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Charge
&
Controller

PV Array

Battery

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Off-grid / With battery storage / DC system

Solar Home Systems & DC Industrial Systems

PV Array

Battery
Bank
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Charge
Controller

PV Array

DC/AC
Inverter

AC

Battery

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Off-grid / With battery storage / AC system

Solar Home Systems & AC Industrial Applications
Charge Controller
PV Array

Battery
Bank

DC/AC Inverter
With fixed voltage & frequency
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PV Array

Charge
Controller

Other
Source

Power
Conditioning
Unit

DC-Coupled

DC/AC
Inverter

AC

Battery
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Off-grid / With battery storage / Hybrid System

Hybrid Solar/Wind
PV Array
Wind Controller

Wind Turbine

DC-Coupled

Charge
Controller

Battery
Bank

DC/AC Inverter
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PV Array

PV
Inverter

Other
Source

Power
Conditioning
Unit

AC-Coupled

AC

Grid Former

Battery

DC/AC
Inverter
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Off-grid / With battery storage / Hybrid System

Hybrid Solar/Wind/Diesel
AC-Coupled

Inverters

AC Bus (3-phase)

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On-grid PV Systems
The grid is the network of cables by which electricity is
transported from power stations to houses, buildings &
other places.
A grid connected PV system is linked to this grid or
electrical network. This means that it can deliver the
electricity it produces into the electricity network and
therefore no battery or other storage is needed.

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On-grid PV Systems

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GRID

CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS
Net metering
The difference between
production-consumption
is measured

Feed-in tariff
The total production of
energy is measured

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SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL

GRID CONNECTED INVERTER
Self-commutated inverter, with
pulse width modulation and line
frequency transformer

Switches S1,S2 cooperate during one half-period - S3,S4 during next half-period

Time

Pulse width modulation

PWM
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PV Power Plant
Large PV power plants

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PV Residential On-grid PV System / Net-metering (Jordan Example)

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PV Mounting Structures
Fixed
Single axis tracking
Horizontal axis
Inclined axis
Vertical axis

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Tilt or Inclination Angle Effect

Annual Normalized Energy Yield at Different Tilt Angles in Amman - South Facing

60.0%

57.2%

63.3%

68.8%

79.0%

80.0%

74.2%

83.5%

40

87.5%

35

91.0%

30

93.9%

25

98.1%

100.0%

20

96.2%

99.7%

15

99.3%

98.6%

10

100.0%

97.1%

95.0%

100.0%

92.5%

120.0%

40.0%

20.0%

0.0%
0

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Reference: PVGIS

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60

65

70

75

80

85

90

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Azimuth or Orientation Angle Effect

Annual Normlalized Energy Yield at Different Azimuth Angles in Amman

86.8%

89.1%

88.0%

90.0%

90.3%

92.4%

South = 0
East = -90
West = 90
91.4%

93.5%

95.2%

95.0%

94.4%

96.1%

97.5%

Tilt Angle = 28
96.8%

98.2%

99.1%

98.7%

99.5%

99.9%

100.0%

99.7%

100.0%

105.0%

85.0%

80.0%

75.0%
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Reference: PVGIS

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Summer Tilt

Winter Tilt

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Reference: PVGIS

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Yield Comparison Between Fixed and Tracked PV Mounting Stuctures

127%
128%
131%
100%

123%
119%
125%
100%

123%
120%
125%
100%

123%
124%
125%
100%

125%
128%
128%
100%

100%

130%
133%
135%

135%
136%
142%
100%

100%

130%
132%
136%
100%

126%
128%
129%
100%

123%
125%
125%
100%

121%
121%
123%
100%

122%
118%
124%

120%

100%

140%

138%
139%
146%

Annual Normalized Energy Yield Comparison for Different PV Mounting Structures in Amman
160%

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Fixed 28

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

2-axis

Reference: PVGIS

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Thanks

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