You are on page 1of 29

6/5/2013

PV Systems Applications and Components

Eng. Firas Alawneh

Outline

From Solar Cell to Module to Array


PV Module Architecture
PV Module Components
PV Module Temperature Coefficients
Hotspot Phenomenon
Bypass and Blocking Diodes
Shadowing Effect on PV Modules and Arrays
PV Module Nameplate
PV Module Datasheet
Typical PV Modules Efficiencies
Types of PV Systems
Standalone off-grid
Grid connected on-grid

PV Mounting Structures
PV Array Tilt Angle Inclination Effect
PV Array Azimuth Orientation Effect

6/5/2013

From Solar Cell to Module to Array

PV Module Architecture
12 V Standard
PV Module
(Mainly used for
charging 12 V
battery banks)

IV Curve for a 12 V standard PV module

6/5/2013

PV Module Components

PV Module Nameplate

6/5/2013

PV Module Datasheet

6/5/2013

Typical PV Modules Efficiencies

10

6/5/2013

Pmpp (T) = Pmpp (25C) [ 1 + Pmpp (T 25C) ]


Vmpp (T) = Vmpp (25C) [ 1 + Vmpp (T 25C) ]
Impp (T) = Impp (25C) [ 1 + Impp (T 25C) ]
Voc (T) = Voc (25C) [ 1 + Voc (T 25C) ]
Isc (T) = Isc (25C) [ 1 + Isc (T 25C) ]
11

Excercise
For Sharp PV Module Model No. NU-E245 (J5),
calculate :
1. Voc(+75C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
2. Voc (-5C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
3. Isc(+75C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
4. Isc(-5C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
5. Pmp (+75C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
6. Pmp (-5C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
7. Pmp (+25C, 500 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
8. mp(+25C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
9. FF(+25C, 1000 W/m2, 1.5 AM)?
12

6/5/2013

Hot spot phenomenon


The hot spot phenomenon happens when one cell of the panel is shaded
while the others are illuminated, and when this shaded cell is not able to
exhaust its generated power dissipation. The shaded cell behaves as a
diode polarized in reverse and generates reverse power PS. The other cells
generate a current that flows through the shaded cell and the load RLoad.
Any solar cell has its own critical power dissipation PC that must not be
exceeded and depends on its cooling and material structures, its area, its
maximum operating temperature and ambient temperature. A shaded cell
may be destroyed when its reverse dissipation exceeds PC. This is the hot
spot.
The manufacturers usually define a breakdown voltage VC. Its value
depends on the solar cell technology (poly-silicon or mono-silicon) and the
manufacturing process. There is no risk of hot spot while PS < PC.
To eliminate the hot spot phenomenon, a dedicated circuit should bypass
the partially shaded module and eventually it should maintain the operation
of the other PV modules creating a path for their current.
13

14

6/5/2013

Bypass Diodes Inside Junction Box

15

The bypass diode principle is to use a diode in reverse paralleling with several solar
cells. The bypass diode is blocked when all cells are illuminated, and conducts
when one or several cells are shadowed.
16

6/5/2013

Building A PV Array (Parallel x Series)

PxS=2x3

17

Series and Parallel Connections

18

6/5/2013

Blocking Diodes

A blocking diode prevents


current to flow reversely in
PV string (series-connected
modules).

A bypass diode prevents


hotspot effect in case of
shadowing.

19

Shadowing Two Series-Connected PV Cells

20

10

6/5/2013

Shadowing Two Parallel Strings

21

Types of PV
Systems
Grid-connected
on-grid

Standalone
off-grid
Without
storage

Motors
e.g. pumps

With
storage

Hybrid
Systems

DC Systems
AC Systems

directly connected
to the public grid
with wind
turbine

connected to public
grid via house grid

with diesel
generator
with public
grid backup
22

11

6/5/2013

Off-grid / Without battery storage / Direct-coupled DC system

PV Array

DC Load

23

Off-grid / Without battery storage / Direct-coupled DC system


Solar Water Heaters

24

12

6/5/2013

Off-grid / Without battery storage / Power-conditioned DC system

PV Array

DC/DC Power
Conditioning
Unit

DC Load

25

Off-grid / Without battery storage / Power-conditioned DC system


DC Submersible Water Pumping System

PV Array

DC/DC Pump Controller

DC Submersible
Pump

Variable Voltage
(Proportional to Solar Intensity)

26

13

6/5/2013

Off-grid / Without battery storage / Power-conditioned AC system

PV Array

DC/AC Power
Conditioning
Unit

AC Load

27

Off-grid / Without battery storage / Power-conditioned AC system


AC Submersible Water Pumping System

PV Array

DC/AC Pump Controller

AC Submersible
Pump

Variable Voltage & Frequency


(Proportional to Solar Intensity)

28

14

6/5/2013

Off-grid / With battery storage / DC system

Charge
&
Load
Controller

PV Array

DC Load

Battery

29

Off-grid / With battery storage / DC system


Solar Home Systems & DC Industrial Systems

PV Array

Charge & Load Controller

DC Load

Battery
Bank
30

15

6/5/2013

Off-grid / With battery storage / AC system

Charge
Controller

PV Array

DC/AC
Inverter

AC
Load

Battery

31

Off-grid / With battery storage / AC system


Solar Home Systems & AC Industrial Applications
Charge Controller
PV Array

AC Load

Battery
Bank

DC/AC Inverter
With fixed voltage & frequency
32

16

6/5/2013

Off-grid / With battery storage / Hybrid System

PV Array

Charge
Controller

Other
Source

Power
Conditioning
Unit

DC-Coupled

DC/AC
Inverter

AC
Load

Battery
33

Off-grid / With battery storage / Hybrid System


Hybrid Solar/Wind
PV Array
Wind Controller

Wind Turbine

DC-Coupled

AC Load

Charge
Controller

Battery
Bank

DC/AC Inverter
34

17

6/5/2013

Off-grid / With battery storage / Hybrid System

PV Array

PV
Inverter

Other
Source

Power
Conditioning
Unit

AC-Coupled

AC
Load

Grid Former

Battery

DC/AC
Inverter
35

Off-grid / With battery storage / Hybrid System


Hybrid Solar/Wind/Diesel
AC-Coupled

Inverters

AC Bus (3-phase)

36

18

6/5/2013

On-grid PV Systems
The grid is the network of cables by which electricity is
transported from power stations to houses, buildings &
other places.
A grid connected PV system is linked to this grid or
electrical network. This means that it can deliver the
electricity it produces into the electricity network and
therefore no battery or other storage is needed.

37

On-grid PV Systems

38

19

6/5/2013

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GRID


CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS
Net metering
The difference between
production-consumption
is measured

Feed-in tariff
The total production of
energy is measured

39

SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL


GRID CONNECTED INVERTER
Self-commutated inverter, with
pulse width modulation and line
frequency transformer

Switches S1,S2 cooperate during one half-period - S3,S4 during next half-period

Time

Pulse width modulation


PWM
40

20

6/5/2013

PV Power Plant
Large PV power plants

41

Large on-grid PV power plants

42

21

6/5/2013

Large Scale PV Systems

43

PV Residential On-grid PV System / Net-metering (Jordan Example)

44

22

6/5/2013

PV Mounting Structures
Fixed
Adjustable tilt (season by season)
Single axis tracking
Horizontal axis
Inclined axis
Vertical axis

Two or Dual Axis Tracking

45

Tilt or Inclination Angle Effect


Annual Normalized Energy Yield at Different Tilt Angles in Amman - South Facing

60.0%

57.2%

63.3%

68.8%

79.0%

80.0%

74.2%

83.5%

40

87.5%

35

91.0%

30

93.9%

25

98.1%

100.0%

20

96.2%

99.7%

15

99.3%

98.6%

10

100.0%

97.1%

95.0%

100.0%

92.5%

120.0%

40.0%

20.0%

0.0%
0

45

50

Reference: PVGIS

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

46

23

6/5/2013

Azimuth or Orientation Angle Effect


Annual Normlalized Energy Yield at Different Azimuth Angles in Amman

86.8%

89.1%

88.0%

90.0%

90.3%

92.4%

South = 0
East = -90
West = 90
91.4%

93.5%

95.2%

95.0%

94.4%

96.1%

97.5%

Tilt Angle = 28
96.8%

98.2%

99.1%

98.7%

99.5%

99.9%

100.0%

99.7%

100.0%

105.0%

85.0%

80.0%

75.0%
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Reference: PVGIS

47

Fixed PV Mounting Structures

48

24

6/5/2013

Adjustable Tilt Angle

Summer Tilt

Annual Optimum Tilt (Latitude)

Winter Tilt

49

Effect of Tilt Angle on Monthly Averages of


Daily Solar Radiation sums

Reference: PVGIS

50

25

6/5/2013

Horizontal Single Axis Tracking

51

Vertical Single Axis Tracking

52

26

6/5/2013

Inclined Single Axis Tracking

53

Dual Axis Tracking

54

27

6/5/2013

Yield Comparison Between Fixed and Tracked PV Mounting Stuctures

127%
128%
131%
100%

123%
119%
125%
100%

123%
120%
125%
100%

123%
124%
125%
100%

125%
128%
128%
100%

100%

130%
133%
135%

135%
136%
142%
100%

100%

130%
132%
136%
100%

126%
128%
129%
100%

123%
125%
125%
100%

121%
121%
123%
100%

122%
118%
124%

120%

100%

140%

138%
139%
146%

Annual Normalized Energy Yield Comparison for Different PV Mounting Structures in Amman
160%

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Fixed 28

May

Jun

1-axis Ver Tilt 50

Jul

Aug

Sep

1-axis Inc. Tilt 29

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

2-axis

Reference: PVGIS

55

Building integrated photovoltaic systems BIPVs

56

28

6/5/2013

Building Integrated PV (BIPV)

57

Thanks

58

29