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25.

Responses must have at least two arguments for and two arguments
againstto receive full marks.
arguments for:transgenic plants do not survive long in wild;reduced
cost of food production / reduce amount of land used for food
production;transfer of genes occurs naturally;DNA and proteins are
digested (unlikely to cause problems);longer shelf life for certain
products;increased yield / bred for faster growth;better adaptation
to certain conditions / eliminate possible plagues;healthier food
produced because use of pesticides can be decreased eg Bt corn /
increase food quality eg albumin gene has increased sulfur amino
acid content ofalfalfa used to feed sheep;
26.a)

polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis


1
Both required for [1]

(b)

all bands on the DNA profile of E / evidence match those of


S2 / no agreement
between DNA fragments and S1;
suspect 2 / S2 was present at the crime scene;

17.
a)not sex-linked because the gene is not on a sex
chromosome/X chromosome / is on an autosome
Reject gene is located on chromosome 5.
b)dominant;person

with FAP has one mutant and one


normal allele of the gene / is heterozygous / if recessive
100 % of gametes have the mutated APC gene;Award
[0] if alleles are identified as recessive.
c)mutation

only has to occur once / only one cell needs


to have the mutation (to its normal APC gene);a tumour
develops from one cell; all/huge numbers of cells in the
body could become tumour cells;
tumour formation not suppressed if both copies of the
APC gene in a cell are mutant;
27-kato meros (i) genetic screening(ii)advantage: [1
max] prevent birth of children with FAP / fewer deaths /
less genetic disease; eliminate

mutation from the population; reduce stress /


uncertainty for parents;
disadvantage: [1 max] allows selection of embryos for
implantation (which may be unethical); leads to the
euthanizing of embryos with the mutation (which may
be unethical); expensive procedure; Reject answers
relating to abortion.
28-(a)

three copies/extra copy/trisomy of chromosome/pair 21


accept chromatid.

1Do not

(b)

occurs due to non-disjunction;(homologous)


chromosome/pairs/sister chromatids fail to separate;some
gametes have an extra chromosome;
2 max

(c)

male as sex chromosomes different size/both X and Y


chromosomes present 1To award [1], reason must be given.

(d)

gene for colour blindness is carried on X chromosome (sex


linkage);males have only one X chromosome so the allele is
always expressed /absent from Y chromosome;the allele of the
gene for colour blindness is recessive;females must be
homozygous to be colour-blind / heterozygousfemales are
carriers but not colour-blind;
2 max

b)restriction enzymes/endonucleases cut a small fragment of DNA froman

organism;same restriction enzymes used to cut DNA of plasmid / e.g. E. coli;


sticky ends are the same in both cases;fragment of DNA is inserted into the
plasmid;spliced together by ligase;to make recombinant DNA/plasmids;
recombinants can be inserted into host cell and cloned;