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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth search
done by the researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical and conceptual
framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms for better
comprehension of the study.

Related Literature
Foreign
According to Chung Khian Wye and Yet- Mee Lim (2009) shows the result that such qualities as
stress tolerance and emotional intelligence are perceived to have been moderately developed by graduates.
Furthermore, such qualities as integrity and honest, responsibility, positive attitude toward works, and punctuality
also reported as employability skills for graduates to be employed.
With qualities such as integrity and honest, responsibility, positive attitude toward works, and punctuality
also reported as employability skills for graduates to be employed.

According to Lorraine Dacre Pool and Peter Sewell (2007) they introduce a straightforward, practical
model of employability that will allow the concept to be explained easily and that can be used as a framework for
working with students to develop their employability.
In practical model of employability that will allow the concept to be explained easily and that can be used
as a framework for working with students to develop their employability.

According to David J. Finch, Leah K. Hamilton, and Riley Baldwin (2013) they states that hiring
new graduates, employees plays the highest importance on academic reputation. In order to increase new
graduates employability, university programs and courses should focus on learning outcomes linked to the
development of soft skills. In addition, when applying for jobs, university graduates should highlight their softskills and problem solving skills.
In order to increase new graduates employability, university programs and courses should focus on
learning outcomes linked to the development of soft skills.
According to Lorraine Dacre Pool and Peter Sewell (2010) employability enterprise and entrepreneur
are high on the agendas of many higher education institutions. There is a crucial need for agreement of definitions
particular when strategies are being implemented. She suggests that currently the terminology, resulting in
confusion for higher education staff, students, and employers.
In employability enterprise and entrepreneur are high on the agendas of many higher education
institutions. There is a crucial need for agreement of definitions particular when strategies are being implemented.
According to Christelle Laetitia Garrouste and Margarida Rodrigues (2014) the degree plays a
significant role in the employability on the young graduates across countries and time. The probability of
employment, the leading field is health and welfare. In terms of type of contracts, the leading fields are social
sciences and engineering; moreover, what labor markets seem to value the most is the capacity of higher educated
workload capacity and intellectual flexibility.
In terms of type of contracts, the leading fields are social sciences and engineering; moreover, what labor
markets seem to value the most is the capacity of higher educated workload capacity and intellectual flexibility.
According to Judith Semeijin and Tinka van Vuuren (2015) they indicate that human resources
activity and employees willingness are positively related to employability strengthens this relationship, not their
willingness for training and development.

In human resources activity and employees willingness are positively related to employability
strengthens this relationship, not their willingness for training and development.
According to Nele Decuyper, Loralia Sulea et..al(2014) the authors hypothesize and demonstrate that
perceived employability relates positively to optimal functioning, but less so when workers feel insecure: highly
employable workers maybe high achievers, but withdraw from the organization when they feel insecure.
Furthermore, the authors hypothesize that more so when workers feel insecure. Highly employable workers may
care less about organizational norms. Particularly when they see reasons to violate these norms: felt job insecurity
was not significantly related to malfunctioning. Instead, the authors established a main effect of perceived
employability on both organizational and interpersonal counterproductive work behavior.
With the authors hypothesize and demonstrate that perceived employability relates positively to optimal
functioning, but less so when workers feel insecure: highly employable workers maybe high achievers, but
withdraw from the organization when they feel insecure.
According to Sophie Hennekam (2015) state that the veteran generation reported a higher self- rated
employability than baby boomer generation, found a job quicker and also preferred to retire later than baby
boomer generation. In addition, they focused on aspect that fostered their employability. The baby boomer on the
other hand stressed the importance of some barriers that hindered their employability.
Veteran generation reported a higher self- rated employability than baby boomer generation, found a job
quicker and also preferred to retire later than baby boomer generation.
According to Antonios Panagiotakopaulos (2012) it is revealed that HEIs in Greece have failed, so far,
to integrate key skills into their curriculum and as a result graduates are not equipped with a range of skills
designed to be practical value in the world of work.
HEIs in Greece have revealed that they have failed, so far, to integrate key skills into their curriculum and
as a result graduates are not equipped with a range of skills designed to be practical value in the world of work.

According to Staffan Nilsson (2010) employability includes the ability to find employment and remain
employed. Employability includes both hard and soft skill, including formal and actual competence, interpersonal
skills, and personal characteristics. Hard formal and technical vocational skills are considered to be of declining
importance. Generally, these skills are considered less important in relation to ones individual employability
compared to different forms of skills and personal attributes.
Employability includes both hard and soft skill, including formal and actual competence, interpersonal
skills, and personal characteristics.

Locale

According to Arcelo and Sanyal, the existence of a huge number of educated unemployed can lead to
a certain amount of political instability in a country, for they being among the educated class and knowledgeable
about the privileges society can offer, feel doubly deprived. In this matter, the analysis of the unemployment
situation in the Philippines shown that the young graduates is still in the job-hunting stage.

With the existence of a huge number of educated unemployed can lead to a certain amount of political
instability in a country, for they being among the educated class and knowledgeable about the privileges society
can offer, feel doubly deprived.
According to Ces Azucene An employer has a right to select his employees and to decide when to
engage them. He has a right under the law to full freedom in employing any person free to accept
employment from him, and this, except as restricted by valid statute or valid contract, at a wage and
under conditions agreeable to them.

An employer has a right under the law to full freedom in employing any person free to accept
employment from him, and this, except as restricted by valid statute or valid contract, at a wage and
under conditions agreeable to them.

According to Cristobal M. Pagoso, it state that in view of low literacy rates in rising unemployment in
developing countries it has become imperative that greater educational opportunities should be provided for the
great proportion of adult population as well as the large number of youth outside the formal school system to help
them acquire further knowledge and skill thereby improve their livelihood and strengthen the country.

In view of low literacy rates in rising unemployment in developing countries it has become imperative
that greater educational opportunities should be provided for the great proportion of adult population as well as the
large number of youth outside the formal school system to help them acquire further knowledge and skill.

According to Custodiosa A. Sanches and Fe B. Agpao, state that the education in all levels and literacy
rates of the workers in the Philippines are among the highest in Asia, but technical, manual and managerial are
poorly developed and in short supply. There is an over- abundance of college graduates that most especially in
Manila area were in the field of education, law and other professionals exceed in demand to find employment
appropriates to his educational training.

In education of all levels and literacy rates of the workers in the Philippines are among the highest in Asia,
but technical, manual and managerial are poorly developed and in short supply.

According to Magnaye (2008) in her study on the status of Master of Business programs noted that all
graduates schools complied with the standard of the commission of higher education ( CHED) and that all
university are ready to face challenges of the global and economic forces. It is in this research, that Magnaye
strongly recommend the need to strictly hire faculty in the graduates level. There is also a need to have a
framework in the actual business practice through realistic business case in the conduct of research, field trips in the
business subjects and plants tours.

In this research, that Magnaye strongly recommend the need to strictly hire faculty in the graduates level.
There is also a need to have a framework in the actual business practice through realistic business case in the
conduct of research, field trips in the business subjects and plants tours.

Related Studies
Foreign
Dr. Rohana binti Jani, et al. Graduate Tracer Study, University of Malaya 2015.The graduate tracer
study is an effort to study the performance of graduates in the job market upon completion of their study. The main
objectives of the study include obtaining basic information on the status of graduates upon completion of study, the
employability of graduates in the job market together their job status, types of employment, monthly income and
employers information. In addition, this survey is also used to gather information on graduates perspectives of
their academic program, facilities and the impact of teaching and learning process in your institution. As a
continuous effort to improve the service quality of the University of Malaya and further enhance the national
education system in general, it is necessary that we get the support, views and valuable feedback from you.
At the University of Malaya 2015, the main objectives of the study include obtaining basic information
on the status of graduates upon completion of study, the employability of graduates in the job market together their
job status, types of employment, monthly income and employers information.

Mr. M.A. Njie NTA Tracer Study Of Technical vocational Education Graduates 2013
The NTA must urgently establish a National Quality Assurance and central policy and strategies
for TVET providers. It should also set up an implementation and monitoring system with welldefined relevant criteria for evaluating the institution son regular basis in developing policy and
strategies, the NTA must be mindful of the guidelines proposed in the functions of the

Accreditation and Quality Assurance Board (AQAB) proposed in the recently validated Tertiary
and Higher Education policy 2013 2022.

In order for the NTA to urgently establish a National Quality Assurance and central
policy and strategies for TVET providers, with well-defined relevant criteria for evaluating the
institution son regular basis in developing policy and strategies

Martin Zelenka And Radim Ryska Employability of Graduates & Higher Education
Management Systems: Abstracts of Conference Contributions 2013 The topic of transition
from higher education to the labor market is becoming an increasingly important as rapidly
growing numbers of graduates are leaving higher education in Czech Republic. In 2010 a
national survey called REFLEX 2010 was conducted. More than 8.5 thousand of electronically
completed questionnaires were collected from those who graduated in years 2005 and 2006. It
builds on similar international project REFLEX that was conducted in 2005 and 2006. It touches
many subjects such as evaluation of study, transition period, first job and professional success. It
is important to understand how school leavers value their school and education attained and how
that translates in the labor market. The focus of the paper will be to analyze the relationship
between different characteristics of education (types, fields) and professional success which will
be expressed by several objective and subjective measures. The paper will also try to answer
what competencies have graduates obtained during their higher education studies, how are they
useful in their jobs and what kind of competencies are expected in their jobs?

In 2010 a national survey called REFLEX 2010; it touches many subjects such as
evaluation of study, transition period, first job and professional success.

Benjamin Bolaane, et al. Tracer Study on the Employment Outcomes of the Vocational
Training Graduates 2010 2.3 Conceptual framework.This study uses the employability model as
the conceptual benchmark. The concept draws a line between employment and employability.
Being employed means having a job and being employable means having the qualities needed to
maintain a job and progress at the work place (de Guzman and de Castro 2008). Figure 1 shows
the schematic employability model. The model builds on that educational systems shape the
matching of people to jobs. To match people to job, they should have acquired knowledge and
skills that are required by employers.

In this study uses the employability model as the conceptual benchmark. The concept
draws a line between employment and employability.

Hermien Kotz and Ren Lenssen. This Tracer and Impact Study has been conducted in
the context of the collaboration between European Union and South Africa. The European Union
has established a number of programs that provide opportunities for international cooperation in
higher education, and the Erasmus Mundus Programmed is among them. South African higher
education institutions (HEIs), students and staff of HEIs have been eligible to participate in the
Erasmus Mundus programed since 2011. The programmed provides scholarships and mobility
grants to students and staff to study, research or teaching Europe.

South African higher education institutions (HEIs), students and staff of HEIs have been
eligible to participate in the Erasmus Mundus programed since 2011. European Union
established a number of programs that provide opportunities for international cooperation in
higher education.

Judit Lannert (FINESZ Ltd) and Stela Garaz (REF Scholarship Program) The
Academic and Professional Trajectory of REFs Law and Humanities Scholarship Program
Student-Beneficiaries 2014 The aim of this tracer study was to investigate the degree in which
the Law and Humanities Program contributed to the academic trajectory of its beneficiaries, as
well as whether the beneficiaries managed to enter the job market on positions relevant for their
studies after obtaining higher education degrees. The main reason for this exercise was to
identify how the REF Scholarship Program could be better tailored to respond to the needs of its
beneficiaries and to help them become successful in their initial career stages. The effectiveness
of the Program was measured by the satisfaction level of the LHP participants and by outcomes
such as completion of study, strengthening Roma identity and entering the labor market. The
target group of the study was composed of the former beneficiaries of the LHP program, as well
as of the current beneficiaries who have been in the Program for at least two completed academic
years.

With the investigation of the degree, the main reason for this exercise was to identify how
the REF Scholarship Program could be better tailored to respond to the needs of its beneficiaries
and to help them become successful in their initial career stages.

Mohamed Youssouf and Negatu Makonnen,

The Skills, Employability and

Entrepreneurship Programme (SEEP) 2013 is a Policy Based Operation (PBO), designed as a


single tranche Sector Budget Support ADF Loan of UA 8.42 million and grant of UA 17.19
million, to protect critical employment creation expenditures in skills, employability and
entrepreneurship development sectors being threatened by protracted aid. The programmed will
be implemented in an environment characterized by political stability, macroeconomic stability,
moderate fiduciary risk and strong government commitment to poverty reduction. In alignment
with aid harmonization, the program was developed with government and in close consultation

with key DPs including the World Bank, EC, Germany, DFID, Netherlands, Belgium, France,
Sweden Switzerland and the US. Specifically, SEEP will address skills gaps, education relevance
and promote job creation through innovative entrepreneurship.

To protect critical employment creation expenditures in skills, employability and


entrepreneurship development sectors being threatened by protracted aid. ), they designed as a
single tranche Sector Budget Support ADF Loan of UA 8.42 million and grant of UA 17.19
million,

Locale

Campus et al. Employment Status of the English Graduates 2006-2008. This study aimed to present
a feedback mechanism for the department and college to come up with a more productive, competitive and
effective program for the students. This study presents the possible reasons on why they are graduates who are
unemployed and employed. The authors want to show the programs used in providing AB Journalism graduates
adequate skills to help them for professional careers, but the program must be open to changes that would
effectively lead graduates for a better employment.

In this study they present the possible reasons on why they are graduates, who are unemployed and
employed and present a feedback mechanism for the department and college to come up with a more productive,
competitive and effective program for the students.

Jarito Verona, A Tracer Study of the Employment Status of PUPQC AY 2004-2005, The study
determine the general profile and the present employment status of the respondents which are the graduates of
Polytechnic University of the Philippines academic year 2004-2005.This research tackles about the tracer study
that uses as a method in which is primarily intended to locate graduates of academic institution, past recipient of

scholarship grants, former participants and among other situation in order to collect data and update information
about this type of people. This kind of study is also tool to generate or influence decision making and planning of a
certain institution about the development of the curriculum. It is likewise regulating document efficiency and
support on the demographic profile of a certain institution that can be measure through the quality of graduates.

Graduates of academic institution, past recipient of scholarship grants, former participants and among
other situation in order to collect data and update information about this type of people, This kind of study is also
tool to generate or influence decision making and planning of a certain institution about the development of the
curriculum.

The research Tracer Study of the Graduates of Certificate in Teaching Physical Education (CPE) from
1995 to 2005 answered the profile of the CPE graduates in terms of job position and the employment in terms of
job encountered in the CPE. Majority of the CPE graduates are males. Based from the findings of the study, most
of the CPE graduates are in the permanent status of employment. They are employing in the national government
with the monthly salary of 10,000 Php to 15,000 Php a month. The topmost encountered by the CPE graduates in
that they are not given equal opportunities like those of the education graduates.

Based from the findings of the study, most of the CPE graduates are in the permanent status of
employment. In the profile of the CPE graduates in terms of job position and the employment in terms of job
encountered in the CPE. Majority of the CPE graduates are males.

According to Jam Charmaine M. Belen et al. In this study, the researchers are interested to know if the
AB Journalism graduates will find their job performance, personally development, professionalism, office
management

and

time

management

will

be

as

A Job market offers job trainings to equip employers to develop work environment.

well.
Belen

Employment Prospects for AB English Graduates of 2009 - aimed to determine the job opportunities available
for AB English Graduates of 2009, the research aims to know the qualifications require from the AB English
graduates that would give them the edge in the job market in terms of academic skills and special skills. It is also
about to assess the training needs required by the job market that awaits the AB English graduates. The findings of
the authors will reflect the idea that to the generally skills be functional in the job great demands, special skills are
required to enhance specific skills needed in work. So, graduates will enhance competitiveness and to develop
ones potential to be suitable for a particular job.

In the research aims to know the qualifications require from the AB English graduates that would give
them the advantage in the job market in terms of academic skills and special skills.

Madriaga and Lucila, Job Opportunities for Broadcasting Students, discusses that job expectations of the 2nd and 3rd year
AB Broadcasting students were almost inclined in the media industry and practice their field of expertise.
This will give an overview to the kind of job that will fit to AB Journalism graduates. Raquesa D. Macaraub, Employment
Motivation of Selected Media Practitioners in Legazpi City the study showed that respondents were motivated to work due
to good relationships with their officemates. Media practitioners are the lowest paid workers and are exploited; some are not
receiving regular salary only allowance or talent fee; and are required to solicit advertisement for their salary.
As perceived in the study, some of the respondents claimed that they are satisfied with the work they are
motivated with their officemates. Also, the monthly income they receive and the kind of workplace reaches their satisfaction. It
is pertinent to the present study since graduates will experience the types of satisfactory on motivation at work and providing
good quality of relationship between co-workers.

In Legazpi City, the study showed that respondents were motivated to work due to good relationships with their
officemates students were almost inclined in the media industry and practice their field of expertise.

Alcovendas and Espares, A Tracer Study of AB English Honor Graduates from1987- 2009
the study discusses that AB English honor graduates are gainfully employed have sufficient annual income, have a
tendency of staying long in the company, have moderate satisfaction in their present job, indicating a lack
of sense of fulfillment in their capabilities, and a feeling of insufficiency in the returns they get for their
hard work. The statement of Alcovendas and Espares is relevant to the present study because employability is not
limited only to those who are being well-train and it is always open to all even to those handicapped. The
researchers find out that when it comes to level of job satisfaction, honor graduates are found to be satisfied
with their current job. With these, the graduates will improve learning and communication through
experiences. Furthermore, graduate students expose to real, actual and practical situations such as seminars,
workshops and conferences are strategies that may better prepare them for future employment. Employers
believed that applicants who have undergone job training are assumed to be more knowledgeable and production.

In the present study because employability is not limited only to those who are being well-train and it is
always open to all even to those handicapped. AB English honor graduates, gainfully employed have sufficient
annual income they have a tendency of staying long in the company,
According to Dominguez and Romero, Employment Status of AB English Graduates of Bicol
University AB English graduates are highly employable on both private and government sectors depending on
the students interest. Also, they are competent enough in connection to the job for there are respondents who had
a problem with their co-workers in terms of their differences in terms of principles and ideas which
are expected in an agency.

Depending on the students interest, AB English graduates are highly employable on both private and
government sectors.

Nelita M. Lalican, Tracer Survey of Agriculture Graduates where the College of Agriculture
of University of the Philippines Los Baos traced its graduates, their aim also is to assess its curriculum
and discuss the relevance of its productivity with the present condition. In the findings of the study found out that,
employers prefer specialists rather than generalists and the employers find the graduates effective, efficient and
cooperative. They also find the graduates knowledgeable, dependable and resourceful however, many employers
describe UPLB graduates as academically inclined, having a know it-all attitude although with assertive
personality.

At the University of the Philippines Los Baos graduates were traced, their aim also is to assess its
curriculum and discuss the relevance of its productivity with the present condition.

Sevillia Suarez Felicen, Rhea Corina B. Mejia graduates Employability: A Tracer Study
for Bachelor of Science in Tourism (BST, 2006-2010) tourism graduates have grown rapidly while continuously
facing stiff competition. In this light, the study was conducted to determine the employability of Tourism graduates
for the years 2006-2010. Specifically, it described the data and employment status of the graduates, assessed the
work related values to employment and determined the school related factors affecting graduates employability.
The study used descriptive research with total sample respondents of 136. Based on the study, 85.29% of the
Tourism graduates are gainfully employed but most of them are locally employed in the rank and file position. The
respondents believed that their degree is relevant to their job and that communication and human relations skills
are necessary for their employment. The work related values affecting the employment are professional integrity,
obedience and hard work. Almost all school related factors are very relevant to the employability of graduates. The
study recommends that the college should have a periodic review of the curriculum and continue its passion of
providing quality education. It should continually update the course syllabi to upgrade the quality of education and

training for students. Future researches should be done including other variables that may be deemed significant to
improve tracing of graduates.
In the employability of Tourism graduates for the years 2006-2010, they described the data and
employment status of the graduates, assessed the work related values to employment and determined the school
related factors affecting graduates employability.

References:

Chung Khain and Yet- Mee (February, 2009)


The different perceptions between: Employers and Undergraduates on the importance of Employability Skills

Lorraine Dacre Pool and Peter Sewell (April, 2007)


The Key to Employability: Developing a practical Model of Graduates Employability

David J. Finch, Leah K. Hamilton, Riley Baldwin (March, 2013)


An exploratory Study of Factors affecting undergraduate employability

Lorraine Darce Pool, Peter Sewell (January, 2010)


Employability, Enterprise and entrepreneurship in Higher Education

Christelle Laetitia Garrouste, Margarida Rodrigues (April, 2014)


Employability of Young Graduates in Europe

Judith Semeijin, Tinka van Vuuren (June, 2015)


Enhancing perceived employability: An Interactionist Perspective on responsibilities of Organizations and
employees

Nele De Cuyper, Corilia Sulea..et.al (April, 2014)


Perceived Employability and Performance: Moderation by felt Job Insecurity

Sophie Hennekam (June, 2015)


Employability of older workers in the Netherlands: Antecedents and consequences

Antonios Panagiotakopoulos (Febraury, 2012)


Employability skills development in Greek higher education institutions (HEIs): Implications for Policy Makers

Adriano A. Arcelo and Bikas C. Sanyal, Employment and Career Opportunities after Graduation,
Unesco (2005), p.123

Ces Azucena, The Philippine Labor Code (with comments and cases),Kalayaan Press Marketing Ent., Inc.2006.
Chapter I under Basic Policy, P. 10

Cristobal M. Pagoso, Labor economics, p. 82

Custodiosa A. Sanches and Fe B. Agpao, Contemporary Social Problems and Issues fifth edition 2007 New
Galaxy Lithographic Arts and Printing Press, p.196

Ces Azucena, The Philippine Labor Code (with comments and cases),Kalayaan Press Marketing Ent., Inc.,2005 ,
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Only Contracting in a Cabo Economy,


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Nia Jane N. Campus, Myra Glor B. Nuyda and Christina Irish V. Icaranom, EmploymentStatus of the English
Graduates 2006-2008, BU Legazpi City, March 2011.

Elaine B. Bea, Stephanie Crisanda V. Daep, Jirvanni C. Fungo, Alexa Mae M. Lorilla, Jesus C.
Miraflor Jr., Christine G. Muni an Mona Liza N. Ordoez, Employers Review on AB English
Graduates of Bicol University College of Arts and Letters SY 2006-2009, BU Legazpi City,March 2012.

Jam Charmaine M. Belen, Preciosa Mariss C. Quiamno and Mary June M. Sabucor,Employment Prospects for
AB English Graduates of 2009, BU Legazpi City, MARCH 2010.

Ruth M. Madriaga and Lenjoy N. Lucila, Job Opportunities for Broadcasting Students, BU Legazpi City, March
2012.

Raquesa D. Macaraub, Employment Motivation of Selected Media Practitioners in Legazpi City, bu Legazpi City,
March 2012.

Rizelle C. Alcovendas and Ma. Christine Joy B. Espares, A Tracer Study of AB English Honor Graduates from
1987-2009, BU Legazpi City, March 2013

Aldrin Jay A. Dominguez and Jayson A. Romero, Employment Status of AB English Graduates of
Bicol University, BU Legazpi City, March 2009

Sevillia Suarez Felicen, Rhea Corina B. Mejiagraduates Employability: A Tracer Study for Bachelor of Science
in Tourism (BST, 2006-2010)
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