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Contact analysis of

ary gearboxe
The contact analysis calculates for helical gear
pairs and planetary gears the normal force, the
actual path of contact under load, transmission
error, flank stress distribution,, fflash temperature,
specific sliding, power loss,, heat development,
lubrication film thickness, safety against micropi
micropitting,, wear and other characteristics during the
meshing cycle.. The simulation consid
considers the actual bearing and shaft deforma
deformation and of course
the micro geometry of each flank in contact
contact. The
deformation of the planet carrier may first be calculated in a separate FEM analysis and can then
be considered in KISSsoft by defining an additional misalignment of the planet shaft.

Planetary systems
The contact analysis for planetary systems is
improved in KISSsoft release 03/2013. Now, the
calculation takes into account the system equilibrium in all meshes. In addition,
tion, the face load factor
KH, the load distribution factor K and the static
transmission errorin
in the entire wheel set is calculated. The interaction of load distri
distribution on the
planet and tilting of the planet bearings having
clearance is resolved iteratively

Calculation of K
At planetary systems with more than
three planets
(see below a helicopter gearbox with five planets)
the calculation of the load distribution between the
planets is interesting. Here, a radial and tangential
position error of the planet bolts are taken into

The simultaneous presentation of all contacts,

either on three neighbouring teeth or a single
tooth is especially useful.
ful. This illustration improves the understanding of the behaviour of the
system and the comparison between calculation
and experimental results.

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8608 Bubikon
BubikonSwitzerland Tel: +41 55 254 20 50 info@KISSsoft.AG
info@KISSsoft.AG www.KISSsoft.AG

The load per planet is then displayed through a

meshing cycleand Kis calculated:

Alternatively deviations and inclinations of the

shafts or the planets can be pre-set in the contact
analysis manually, or the shaft files may be linked
automatically throughKISSsys. Using KISSsys the
behaviour of the entire system may be considered
with little additional effort.

Link to the shaft calculation

Shaft files can be specified also in the contact
analysis for planetary systems. In these KISSsoft
shaft calculations the orientation of the gears is
determined taking the following deformations into

Tilting of the sun, planet carrier and internal

Twist of the planet carrier as a tilting of the
planet pin
Tilt of the planet on the planet bearings
Torsion of the sun shaft and the internal gear

If the housing and bearing stiffness in the shaft

calculation is defined, these effects may be considered in the contact analysis. A shaft calculation
with multiple coaxial shafts (such as shaft of sun,
planet carrier and housing with integrated internal
gear) can be used.

Calculation of KH
The face load factor KH is taking into account the
misalignment and the flank and profile corrections
of both gears in a mesh. The calculation is performed separately for all meshes between the sun
and the planets as well as the planet and the internal gear. For increased precision of the load
distribution, the shaft deformation is iteratively
calculated until the load distribution between the
gears no longer changes. This calculation method
is according to ISO 6336-1, Appendix E. In addition, manufacturing deviations can be included in
the calculation of KH.

Sizing and optimization of profile

and flank line modifications
For the sizing of the profile and flank line modifications, two wizards are available. The wizard for
the tooth trace correction and for the tip and root
relief was redesigned and takes now into account
parallel or conical helix angle corrections. The
necessary correction is calculated for the loaded
flank and can be applied by the user as suggested.

The user can then select the optimal variant

based on the calculated transmission error, the
face load factor KH, safety againstmicropitting,
etc., see [2]. It is supported by various radarcharts, multiple results for multiple load levels can
be represented at the same time.

Additional calculations
The search algorithm for an optimized modification is available now for planetary systems too.
This algorithm iterates in a parameter range provided by the user through all possible combinations of profile and tooth modifications. Thus, a full
contact analysis is performed for each variant,
where even the load can be varied. The results for
all load and geometry combinations are listed in
various reports and can be individually imported to
the main calculation.

In addition, the software performs a Fourier analysis of the transmission error and stiffness. Also,
the acceleration of the transmission error is calculated a criterion for assessing noise.

facturer drawing, which can be stored directly as

an image file or DXF.

Graphical display of the results

The orientation of the axis is displayed graphically
and allows for a check of the applied gear misalignments in the 3D geometry graphics.

The normal load, root stress, Hertzian pressure

and safety against micropitting are shown on the
flanks of 3D models. This allows a very easy visual assessment of the contact field. Innovations
are found in KISSsoft release 03/2013 including
the graphical representation of the tooth modifications, the single tooth stiffness of the gear pair and
the contact lines on the tooth flank.

In the KISSsoft release 03/2013, thegear data

including modificationsare represented in amanu-

These new functions are available with the new

release of KISSsoft, available from April 2013. To
use this calculation, prior versions need to be

The following publications provide in-depth insight
into selected topics
[1] I. Kalliakatsos, U. Kissling, H. Dinner,
Tragbildberechnung in Planetenstzen,
Antriebstechnik (Publicationpending)
[2] J. Langhart, M. Erjavec, Building Reliable
Wind Energy Gears without Micropitting,
KISSsoft AG, 2012
[3] H. Dinner, U. Kissling, An algorithm for
robust gear modifications design, Gear
Solutions, July 2012
[4] B. Mahr, U. Kissling, Comparison between different commercial gear tooth
contact analysis software packages,

If you want to know the new highlights of our

software and are interested in further information
or a trial license, send us please an email to