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role of environmental management system in TQM


Environment
Environment is defined as 'surroundings in which an Organisation operates including air, water,
land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation. Surroundings in this context
extend from within individual households to organisations and then to the entire global system.
Keeping the environment fit for living is the duty of every citizen and Organisation, because a
clean environment enhances the 'quality of life' of all species on the earth. There is an increasing
awareness by individuals and organisations to achieve and demonstrate sound environmental
performance by controlling the impact of their activities on the environment.
Causes of environmental degradation
There are many causes that have contributed for the degradation in the environment. Some of
them are population increase, ozone depletion, global warming, air pollution, water pollution and
ecosystem disturbance.
Population increase
The World population is increasing rapidly. Current population is around 6 billion and will
increase to 12 to 15 billion by year 2100. There will be great demands on resources such as space,
water and food. There will be serious pollution problems as a result of population growth.
Ozone depletion
CFC's and other gases are responsible for attacking and reducing the thin layer of high-level of
ozone 15 km up in the troposphere. Ozone, the three atom form of oxygen is destroyed by the
CFC's and other similar chemicals which release chlorine when exposed to sun light. The chlorine
then attacks the ozone converting it into oxygen. During turbulence at this height the ozone thins
out, creating a hole which allows ultra violet light from the sun to the surface of the earth. Ultra
violet radiation has widespread effects on human health, crops, photo synthesis and ecosystems.
Global Warming
The mean temperature on the earth over the past 140 years has gone up by about 0.5 degrees
Celsius. The green house gases that contribute to the global warming are as follows:
Air Pollution
Air pollution is caused by several factors. Some of the major causes of air pollution are - smog,
emissions from vehicle exhausts, release of hydrocarbons from industries. Nitrogen dioxide,
Carbon monoxide, solvents and complex hydrocarbons cause air pollution. Many different
concerns manifest themselves as 'acid rain'. Acid rain, particularly caused by sulfur-dioxide
causes extensive damage to ecosystems. Low level ozone generation from the release of
hydrocarbons from industry and vehicles is a problem, particularly during summer when sunlight
creates a photochemical smog. Air pollution is cause for many disorders like asthma, bronchitis,
eye infections and headaches.
Water Pollution
Water pollution is caused by nitrates from agricultural operations, discharges from factories either
directly or through water treatment plants, sewage discharges, spillage of chemicals, run-off from
mining and quarrying operations and ground water contamination due to landfill sites.
Classification scheme for river and canal water is as follows:
Ecosystem Degradation
In pursuit of industrialisation, large scale destruction of geographical regions is causing massive
degradation of the ecosystem. Inadequate planning and poor management of the resources are
resulting in destruction of rain forests and upland regions. Exploitation of forests for wood (as
industrial raw material, fuel and construction material), mineral extraction and construction of
dams for irrigation and power generation are creating imbalance in the ecosystem.
Environmental concerns

Managements of Business organisations are under constant pressure from various groups like
Legislation, Customers, Markets, Insurance, Public and Media to achieve and demonstrate sound
environmental performance.
Legislation
Organisations need to adhere to the statutory and regulatory requirements applicable to the
country to be in business. There is no equal pressure in all the countries. In developed and
advanced countries, the legislation for protection of environment has become a high priority.
Environmental regulatory bodies, like the Pollution Control Board play, a significant role in the
implementation and monitoring of the legislative requirements.
Customers
Individual customers and corporate customers would like to purchase products from
manufacturers who are committed to environmental protection. Eco-Label award or certification
to ISO 14000 EMS standards provides confidence to the customers that the suppliers are
committed to environmental protection and improvement.
Market Trends
Environmental issues have influenced the consumption patterns of many products. Manufacturers
need to study the market trends to prepare the business plans. Some examples of this changing
trend are
Usage pattern of pesticides, refrigerants and solvents
Reduction in the use of solvents due to water based alternatives
Alternatives to wood being developed
Usage of sodium hexafluoride as insulating gas under threat
Insurance
Insurance companies are creating pressure on the industry to institute an EMS by providing
tailored insurance policies than general policies. Pollution liability is restricted to sudden and
accidental and no cover for gradual pollution incidents.
Sudden and accidental
-Bhopal, Chernobyl etc.,
Gradual - Disposal of toxic waste by burial
- Leakage of pipes, tanks or pits
- Discharge into streams or rivers
- Release of fumes into atmosphere
Public and Media
Public consisting of local residents, organisation's workforce, investors and insurers, customers
and environmental interest groups like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are creating
awareness on environmental issues. Wide usage of the Internet and government regulations will
lead organisations to provide information on the environmental performance.
Environmental Management Systems - Need
Organisations of all kinds are increasingly concerned to achieve and demonstrate sound
environmental performance by controlling the impact of their activities, products and services on
the environment taking into consideration their environmental policy and objectives. The
Environmental Management System of an organisation is expected to meet the following needs:
Meet the regulatory, and legislative requirements
1.Improve the control of the environmental impact
2.Provide confidence to the customers that the products and services are manufactured with the
aim of reducing the negative impact on the environment
3.Suitably accommodate changing market trends and gain competitive edge
4.Reduce the costs associated with environmental liabilities and Insurance Gain public and media
support

Environmental Management Systems - Scope


The Environmental Management System enables an Organisation to formulate policy and
objectives taking into consideration legislative requirements and significant environmental
impacts and specifies the environmental performance criteria. The scope of the Environmental
Management System of an organisation consists of :
* Implement. Maintain and improve EMS.
* Conformance to the stated policies and objectives.
* Demonstrate conformance to the EMS through certification.
Environment Management System of an organisation shall consider the following issues:
* Improvement to the Quality of life
* Benefits to society
* Commitment to the future generations
* Minimizations of environment risk
* Prevention of pollution
* Environment care and continuous improvements
* Save resources

Environmental Management Systems - Benefits


Environmental Management System benefits the organisation as well as the society. Significant
benefits of the EMS are
* Assurance of policy implementation.
- Forces organisations to link policy to objectives and targets.
- Policy linked to operations and activities.
- Management involvement.
- Compliance with the regulatory requirements.
- Continuous environmental improvement.
- Spot and correct potential problems.
* Technology tie-ups.
- Multi-national companies (MNCs) would like to provide technology to companies which have
implemented EMS.
* Benefits to stakeholders-employees, customers, society, government and interested parties.
* Reduction in costs.
- Reduction in expenditure on raw materials.
- Savings from waste reduction or elimination.
- Decrease in costs of waste disposal.
- Reduction of insurance costs and elimination of penalties.
Key elements of Environment Management Systems:

Environmental policy Develop a statement of your plants commitment to the environment.


Use this policy as a framework for planning and action. The policy is a direct reflection of the
fundamental values of the organization.
Environmental aspects Identify environmental attributes of your products, activities and
services. Determine those that could have significant impacts on the environment.
Legal and other requirements Identify and ensure access to relevant laws and regulations, as
well as other requirements to which your plant adheres.
Objectives and targets Establish environmental goals for your plant, in line with your policy,
environmental impacts, the views of interested parties and other factors.
Environmental management program Plan actions necessary to achieve your objectives and
targets.
Structure and responsibility Establish roles and responsibilities for environmental management
and provide appropriate resources.
Training, awareness and competence Ensure that your plants employees are trained and
capable of carrying out their environmental responsibilities.
Communication Establish processes for internal and external communications on
environmental management issues.
EMS documentation Maintain information on your plants EMS and related documents.
Document control Ensure effective management of procedures and other system documents.
Operational control Identify, plan and manage your plants operations and activities in line
with your plants policy, objectives and targets.
Emergency preparedness and response Identify potential emergencies and develop procedures
for preventing and responding to them.
Monitoring and measurement Monitor key activities and track performance. Conduct periodic
assessments of compliance with legal requirements.
Nonconformance and corrective and preventive action Identify and correct problems and
prevent their recurrence.
Records Maintain and manage records of EMS performance.
EMS audit Periodically verify that your plants EMS is operating as intended.
Management review Periodically review your plants EMS with an eye to continual
improvement.

Conclusion:
Any TQM model expects that organisation is socially responsible, fulfilling the environment
management systems as per ISO 14001 any organisation demonstrate their concern for the
environment.